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Learning is cooperative and there is much to gain by sharing it with classmates. Special needs students had the right to merge with normal students in a regular classroom, according to advocates of inclusion (McCarthy 1994). Technology could make that happen, the advocates contended. Special services and resources could be integrated into the regular classroom and allow the ideal learning environment to develop for both types of students. Computer technology could realize the dream of alternative visual, aural and interactive modes of learning. The advocates said it would require serious and distinct collaboration between special education teachers and regular teachers. Regular teachers who would participate would also need some special training (McCarthy).
The Webster Elementary School in St. Augustine, Florida incorporated an inclusion program for the use of special needs students (McCarthy 1994). Its team teachers preferred software, which did not rely too much on texts. Many of its students,…
Kim, S. (2003). Research Paradigms in Organizational Learning and Performance: Competing Modes of Inquiry. 18 pages. Vol 21 # 1. Information Technology, Learning and Performance Journal: Organizational Systems Research Association
McCarthy, R. (1994). Computer Technology Helps in Integration of Special Needs Students in Regular Classes. Instructor: Scholastic, Inc.
Occupational Outlook (2002). Technology in Special Education. 2 pages. Occupational Outlook Quarterly: U.S. Government Printing Office
Roach, R. (2002). Assistive Technology Comes into Focus. 3 pages. Black Issues in Higher Education: Cox, Matthew & Associates
Logical positivism (also known as logical empiricism) was a philosophical movement that began in Vienna, Austria during the 1920s, coming to public attention in 1929 with the publication of a manifesto called Wissenschaftliche Weltauffassung. Der Wiener Kreis (The Scientific World-Conception. The Vienna Circle) (Richardson & Uebel 13). The manifesto was dedicated to Moritz Schlick, a leading figure of logical positivism and the ostensible leader of the Vienna Circle, and was signed by Rudolf Carnap, Otto Neurath, Hans Hahn and Herbert Feigl (13). "Vienna Circle" was decided on as a name because Neurath thought that it evoked nice associations with the Vienna woods and the Viennese waltz (13). This publication is important when looking at the history of logical positivism because it was with this manifesto that the "public phase" of the Vienna Circle began, branching out to other countries in Europe as well as to the English-speaking world (14).
Friedman, Michael. Reconsidering Logical Positivism. Cambridge University Press. 1999. Print.
Murzi, Mauro. "Logical Positivism." The New Encyclopedia of Unbelief. Tom Flynn Edition.
Prometheus Books. 2007. Web. http://www.murzim.net/Articles/Positivism.pdf
Richardson, Alan & Uebel, Thomas. The Cambridge Companion to Logical Empiricism
This showed me that law-protection of people from harm- was exclusive from the moral obligations of the society-such as working to improve the community. Basically, I eventually came to associate the Separability Thesis based on my observation; essentially, the legality and morality of the island were independent of one another.
Ultimately, the member of my expedition who spoke the language of Pango-Pango was able to have a conversation with one of the natives who was clearly working hard and seemed to be a reliable source of information. What was learned from that conversation was that the third facet of positivism, the Discretion Thesis, shaped the legal system of the island, primitive as it was. In other words, the elder who served as sovereign had, in time, developed a set of laws because of difficult legal decisions which made new laws necessary. This is quite similar to our system of laws,…
Legal Positivism and Australian Law
Nature and rule of law have generated more passionate debates in legal circles than anything else and the reason lies in the fact that law directly affects the lives of citizens of a country. National laws govern the lives of human beings and it is thus important to debate such things as their nature, their validity and applicability, their relevance to the case etc. Citizens of a country feel they are entitled to full explanation of why a certain law has been formulated and they also feel included to discuss its merits and demerits. Law has thus often been a subject of close scrutiny and this has given rise to numerous social, legal and philosophical debates. Many question the applicability and relevance of a certain law, while other are more concerned about its long and short-term effects. However there have been some important jurists and…
Katz, Avery Wiener, Positivism and the separation of law and economics. Michigan Law Review; 6/1/1996;
Robert P. George, The Autonomy of Law: Essays on Legal Positivism. Clarendon Press. Place of Publication: Oxford. Publication Year: 1999.
Kathy Bowrey, Senior Lecturer, School of Law, University of New South Wales, The Outer Limits Of Copyright Law - Where Law Meets Philosophy and Culture, Law and Critique, (2001) Vol 12:1, pp1-24.
The political and philosophical origins of Australia's constitutional system, Australian Public Law, Last updated: 27 February, 2003, Retrieved online 1st April 2004:
HLA Hart and Modern Legal Positivism
H.L.A. Hart is one of the important names in the history of legal theories. In our class reading, Hart talked about past strict positivists and changed legal positivist theory for modern thinking and experience. Hart also talked about Austin and Bentham, who were two important figures in Utilitarianism. Hart agreed with some of their thought but disagreed with other aspects of their thought. Because of his examination, and sometimes disagreement and changes, of Positivism and Utilitarianism, H.L.A. Hart is famous for a new way of thinking about both schools of thought.
The Key Concept from the Text and an Example
The key concept from the text is a more modern way of looking at law and morality because Hart is a legal positivist but he is a modern legal positivist. Hart believes that the "point of intersection between law and morals or that what…
Social Science_Module 4
In general, positivism is an approach to a number of disciplines, social science among them. It holds that the best approach to the study and analysis (and therefore uncovering truth about humans) is a very empirical and scientific approach. For the positivist, the only true way to uncover the human condition is experience and positive verification. The positivist tends to believe that the only truths are those that are quantifiable (e.g. measurable) and have a basis in the five major points of the scientific method (hypothesis, question, research, analysis, conclusion). Social reality, then, is the measurable way humans work and interact with each other and the universe that is the same across all sciences with a goal of explaining and predicting by logical rules. The knowledge gained is testable -- research is proved not by philosophical arguments (as in many of the Green and enaissance metaphysicians), but…
Engel, R. And Schutt, R. (2009). The Practice of Research in Social Work. Thousand Oaks,
Floersch, J. (2008). "The Critical Realist Critique of the Positivist and the Interpretivist,"
Mandel School of Applied Social Science. Cited in:
Thus, my goal is more in line with the goal of constructivist research, which aims to understand results in the term of the society, and understands that the results can be interpreted in many ways.
Furthermore, constructivism best fits the way that I view the world. As an educator, I have come to understand that social biases and beliefs deeply influence how others see the world. In addition, I have come across many who believe truth is absolutely the opposite of my understanding of truth. Thus, I am aware of the fact that many interpretations of results and truth can exist. In addition, I believe it is of the utmost importance to understand and acknowledge social bias and construction in the educational world, as the social rules have often resulted in many being denied access to education.
Thus, the decision to adopt a constructivist paradigm as the model in which…
Clark, Lynn Schofield. "Constructivist Methods in the Symbolism, Media and the Lifecourse and the Symbolism, Meaning and the New Media @ Home Projects." University of Colorado at Boulder. nd. 21 January 2009. http://www.colorado.edu/journalism/mcm/qmr-const-theory.htm
Jacobson, Wayne. "Defining the Quality of Practitioner Research." Adult Education
Quarterly. 48.3 (1998): 125-138.
Trochim, William M.K. "Positivism & Post-Positivism." Research Methods Knowledge
ostpositivism vs. ostmodernism
There are laws or theories that govern the world, and these need to be tested or verified and refined so that we can understand the world. Thus, in the scientific method, the accepted approach to research by post-postivists, an individual begins with a theory, collects data that either supports or refutes the theory, and then makes necessary revisions before additional tests are conducted (Creswell, 2003, pg. 7).
Creswell (2003, pg. 6) writes that the post-positivist assumptions have governed claims about what warrants knowledge. Referred to as the "scientific method" or as "doing research," post-positivism is known as quantitative research, positivist/post-positivist research and empirical science. ost-positivism refers to the thinking after positivism, challenging the traditional notion of the absolute truth of knowledge (hillips & Burbules, 2000) and recognizing that we cannot be "positive" about our claims of knowledge when studying the behavior and actions of humans. ost-positivism…
Post-positivism rejects the positivistic tenets. Post-positivists view truth as ultimately unknowable because it cannot be claimed that there is any absolutely authoritative foundation on which to base scientific knowledge (Phillips, 1987). Knowledge claims are modest and viewed as warranted assertions in that they represent established regularities or probabilities about human phenomena rather than universal laws that govern behavior (Greene, 1990)
Philips (1990) suggests that, while the idea of objectivity remains a regulatory ideal that underpins all inquiry, the importance of values and subjectivity in science is recognized. Critical multiplists recognize that all research is social
Features of Positivist Criminology
Positivist criminology uses scientific research (primarily quantitative, laboratory, empirical experiment) to investigate the causes of crime and deviant behavior. Positivist criminology posits that the roots of deviancy are located in the physical, genetic, psychological or biological makeup of the individual and the individual, consequently, is not held accountable (or is faintly held accountable) for his deeds. Use of instruments, statistics, classification, and similar scientific instruments are used in this branch of study.
Positivist criminology is the opposite of classical criminology which sees the criminal as responsible for his actions and able to reform would he so wish. The school is closely identified with the behaviorist way of thinking, which ignores mentalism (i.e. beliefs, values, and meanings) and sees individuals as tied to external dictates of action (as, for instance, that one's environment impels one to act in a certain way; free-will is omitted from the equation).…
Coleman C & Norris C (2000) Introducing criminology, Cullomption: Wilan
Jones, T. (207) Theoretical criminology. Sage: USA
Williams KS (2008) Criminology. Oxford: UK
Newburn, T. (2008) Criminology. Willan: Cullomption.
Behaviorism and Positivism
Behaviorism basically believes in the laws of the observable. It is based on rational, scientific, factual data. "The behaviorist school of thought maintains that behaviors as such can be described scientifically without recourse either to internal physiological events or to hypothetical constructs such as the mind" (Wikipedia, 2010). Positivism believes in scientific method is the best way to explain human events and physical events. Behaviorism and positivism is working together mainly because the behaviorist believes that positivists' analysis of science is correct. "Positivism is based on pro-observation in comparison with other means of justifying scientific claims, and emphasizes verification" (Persson, 2010). Behaviorism and positivism are very similar because they both believe in science and observable, verifiable data.
In the early 1900's psychology was not based on pure science. It was known as a study of the mind, and there were not a lot of documented ways of…
Persson, J. (2010). Misconceptions of positivism and five unnecessary science theoretic mistakes they bring in their train. International Journal of Nursing Studies. 47 (5) 651-661
Smith, L. (1986). Behaviorism and logical positivism. . Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Wikipedia (2010). Behaviorism. Retrieved on December 14, 2010 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Behaviorism
Baronet's second assumption was that a low level of family support and a high level of relationship would also be associated with low feelings of satisfaction (the epistemological assumptions on the part of the caregiver). Results, however, showed that family support played no part neither in determining feelings of satisfaction nor in providing subjective burden resultant from caregiving activates.
Science as a discipline incorporates eight characteristics. hese are: empirical (i.e. evidence-based, hard facts); systematic (i.e. related to or consisting of a system); theoretical (i.e. related to or consisting of a theory); provisional (i.e. temporary until replaced by another theory that makes more sense); public (i.e. he findings of science are not restricted to any specific sector, but are available to the public sector as a whole); objective (i.e. attempting to be corroborated by reality rather than biased and subjective); self-reflective (i.e. aiming to step back and criticize itself); and open-ended…
The empirical and the objective characteristics are obvious in her attempts to connect qualitative emotional factors (i.e. subjective feelings of satisfaction) to 'hard' conditions, and to pronounce association only after scientific association was gauged. The systematic (and similarly theoretical) principle can be demonstrated by Baronet's use of theoretical measures. Each of these measures has, in turn, been formulated on empirical principles, but they consist of particular theories -- or systems -- that posit a means to assessing and gauging certain situations.
Baronet, a.M. (2003). The impact of family relations on caregivers' positive and negative appraisal of their caretaking activities. Family Relations, 52, 137-141
Gustav adbruch believed that positivistic theory renders both jurists and the normal person defenseless against our laws and legal system. He felt that no matter how arbitrary, cruel or criminal certain laws were, our legal process would make its ordinary citizens totally subservient to them. Morals would not alter precedence. This work will try to understand the works of H.L.A. Hart and some of his ideas that he held in response to Mr. adbruch's philosophies. It is important to try to understand if H.L.A. Hart actually provided adequate responses to the criticisms made of adbruch's philosophical ties. These questions, however, can only be asked, answered and understood if the reader first gets a full grasp of the underlying philosophies. What is positivism and how does it apply to the average person on the street. When discussed, is positivism the same as legal positivism? This report will try to address these…
Alexy, Robert. "Famous scholars from Kiel: Gustav Radbruch." Retrieved on November 3, 2009, from http://www.uni-kiel.de/ps/cgi-bin/fo-bio.php?nid=radbruch&lang=e
Hart, H.L.A., The Concept of Law. Second Edition (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1994)
Hart, H.L.A., "American Jurisprudence through English Eyes: The Nightmare and the Noble Dream." reprinted in Hart, H.L.A., Essays in Jurisprudence and Philosophy (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1983), 123-144.
Hart, H.L.A., "Book Review of The Morality of Law" 78 Harvard Law Review 1281 (1965)
Defining Post positivism:
definitional exercise in identity politics, in expanding cultural and semiotic discourse, and reinterpreting the continuing the literary effort of the 20th and 21st century to deconstruct human life and society
Postmodernism, the literary buzzword of the past century, is often considered to be a 'liberal' form of hermeneutics, in the sense that rather than attempting to define what makes the canon great, it attempts to expand the notion of what is a literary canon, what is great literature in general. However, many liberal political activists have accused the deconstructionit movement and the postmodern aesthetic for its tendency towards reductionism and relativism. In other words, by stressing that everything, including identity, is a construction, there is little ground for feminist and Marxist critics to stand on, politically, speaking, to make a material critique of oppressive structures within a society. If all definitions are contextually based, how…
Moya, Paula. Learning from Experience: Minority Identities, Multicultural Struggles. University of California Press, 2002.
Postmodernism and Post-Positivism
Challenges and Strengths
Post-positivism vs. postmodernism
Two of the dominant paradigms within the modern epistemological discourse are that of post-positivism and postmodernism. They are often used relatively loosely and postmodernism in particular is deployed in a very flexible manner, to denote a form of art based upon pastiche and humor with a kind of ironic, self-referential quality. The difficulty of defining postmodernism is due to the fact that the philosophy denies the idea of modern 'progress' or the ability to arrive at a secure definition of reality. Instead, "postmodernists deny both the possibility and the desirability of an integral postmodernist philosophy," and postmodern philosophers often seem to share little other than a sense of opposition to modernism (Nekrasas 2011). The idea that there are no truths, only subjective beliefs, might seem antithetical to the sciences, including the health sciences, and there are some postmodernists who deny the…
Hutton, Erica. (2009). An examination of post-positivism. Erica Hutton, PhDc.
Retrieved May 6, 2011 at http://www.ericahutton.blogspot.com/2009/03/examination-of-postpositivism.html
Nekrasas, Evaldas. (2011). Positivism, post-positivism, and postmodernism.
Retrieved May 6, 2011 at http://www.crvp.org/book/Series04/IVA-26/chapter_viii.htm
There are, of course, a number of theoretical approaches to social science -- and a number of sub-theories that construct a larger, more detailed template that helps us critique the differences between critical social science, and the positivist and interpretive views. eally, as noted, there are a number of means to an end. There are some fundamental questions that social scientists must answer that have been seminal questions for millennium -- namely; from where does knowledge arise -- how do we "know" what we know. We can be as basic as going back to Plato's ideas of forms being individual -- my red is not your red, etc. But really, what is the major question with which we must deal? It is, of course, using critical thinking to uncover more information so that we may act upon it in a professional manner.
Critical thinking is primarily a way…
Brown, M. And S. Keeley. (2009). Asking the Right Questions: A Guide to Critical
Thinking. 9th ed. New York: Prentice Hall.
Gilcken, M. (2010). Social Work in the 21st Century. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Positivist Theory of Crime, Lombroso
Criminal ehavior Treatment Program and Positivist Theory
The objective of this study is to examine the positivist theory of crime posited by Lombroso and to develop a crime prevention or treatment program.
Cesare Lombroso is held to be the founder of modern criminology and to have introduced the positivist movement in the latter part of the nineteenth century, which has made a more scientific approach to criminology available. Empirical scientific research in understanding criminality was first introduced by the positivist approach. According to Farr (nd) positivism is based in logic and is "the philosophy that combined epistemological phenomenalism with 'scientism' that is, with the belief in the desirability of scientific and technological progress." (Farr, nd, p.2)
Three Types of Positivism
Positivism as it relates to criminology can be divided into three types including: (1) biological; (2) psychological; and (3) Social. (Farr, nd, p.2) Positivist methods…
Deviance and Social Control (nd) McGraw-Hill. Retrieved from: http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/dl/free/0070918082/83003/Chapter7.pdf
Gowan, T. Whetstone, S. Making the criminal addict: Subjectivity and social control in a strong-arm rehab. Punishment and Society. January 2012. Vol 14 No 1. Retrieved from: http://pun.sagepub.com/content/14/1/69.abstract
Farr, Z. (nd) Critically assess the impact of positivist approaches to understanding crime. Retrieved from: http://www.essex.ac.uk/sociology/documents/pdf/ug_journal/vol8/2012sc242_Zoefarr.pdf
authors write, "History as academic historians write it today would be almost unrecognizable to scholars working even fifty years ago, let alone in a past that is a century, two centuries - or twenty centuries - old" (Howell and Prevenier 119). The American Heritage Dictionary defines history as "a narrative of events; a chronological record of events, or the branch of knowledge that records and analyzes past events" (A.H.D. palm). How, then, can one align the definition of history with a statement such as the one cited above?
One way would be to understand that the methods used by historians, to events of the past, are as different as the historians themselves.
Howell and Prevenier explain that this interpretational framework may include Historicism, a process attributed to Leopold von Ranke, or Positivism, as defined by August Comte. A different approach to history is found in the teleological view "expounded by…
American Heritage SII palm dictionary used for definition of History. 2003 model.
Comte - Positivism. Fordham. Modern History Sourcebook: August Comte (1798-1857): A General View of Positivism. http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/comte-positivism.html .
Howell, Martha and Walter Prevenier. From Reliable Sources: An Introduction to Historical Methods. New York: Cornell University Press.
Take as an example McDonald's venture to extend its business operations in countries within the Asian region. Through globalization, the company has learned to adapt to the culture of the country it invests in. Examples of such adjustments are the introduction of rice in most of the meal offerings of McDonald's in the Philippines, inclusion of spicy foods in McDonald's menus in India, and the establishment of large McDonald's buildings in China in order to accommodate the large number of consumers that patronize the fast food chain. These are examples of companies' conscious effort to recognize globalization and its principles.
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Manage identification planning
This chapter discusses the management and planning of change process within the clinical setting. Change management plan is very critical to the success of any healthcare unit. Change may be threatening to organizations, however, successful implementation of changes is very crucial for the success of an health organization. Failing to make a change move could lead to the consistence of medical errors among the medical staff and this may damage the reputation of the organization. Typically, medical errors are among the serious issues that many medical institutions are facing, and these are among the setbacks to the implementation of quality healthcare delivery. (Mills, 2008). Identification of the critical issues that may hamper the quality healthcare delivery is very important to address the number of preventable medical errors. With analysis of the current system, several areas need to be changed before the hospital could become a vibrant organization.…
Abrahamson, E. Change without Pain: How Managers Can Overcome Initiative
Overload, OrganizationalChaos, and Employee Burnout (Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 2004).
American Nurses Association (ANA). (2001). Code of Ethics for Nurses with Interpretive Statements. Washington, D.C.: American Nurses Publishing.
American Society of Health-System Pharmacists (2011). ASHP Guidelines on Preventing Medication Errors in Hospitals, Medication Misadventures -- Guideline
This type of evolutionary thinking will challenge the initial creationist act as well. Many creationist currents, including the Christian one, believe that human life was also created through divine intervention, so any kind of such approach where life actually evolved to form the human being along the way takes away the special characteristics of human kind, as perceived by Christianity, for example. So, evolutionism virtually challenges the entire theological belief on the history of Earth and its inhabitants.
4. Logical positivism is based on general skepticism towards mythology, theology or metaphysics and on the idea that all true facts can and have to be verified in order to become veridical. In this sense, besides empiricism and materialism, verificationism is also one of the pillars on which logical positivism is based.
For a fact, proposition or idea to be cognitively meaningful, it has to be able to follow a particular path…
Moral and Legal Questions of Stem Cell Research
Stem cell research is an experimental, and research-based study as to methods of repairing the human body. y introducing stem cells into a damaged, or degenerating area of the body, the medical profession hopes to prompt the body to regrow healthy tissue, and repair the damage. Degenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's disease, or macular degeneration of a patient's eye retina are conditions in which the healthy tissues cease to function properly. There is no overt damage. There is not a disease which has physically destroyed the affected body part. ut for varying reasons, such as old age, wear and tear, or reasons medical science does not yet understand, the affected body part simply ceases to function properly. Stem cells are the type of cells, which are more numerous in, but not limited to, human embryos. They are the building blocks of the…
Answers to your questions about Stem Cells. 2001. ViaCord. Retrieved 15 Dec 2002. http://www.viacord.com/Preservation/Preservation.asp?section=1&s=sourceOfStemCells 2001>
Bush, George W. "The Bush Decision on Stem-Cell Research" National Review Online.
2002 Retrieved 15 Dec 2002. http://www.nationalreview.com/document/document081001.shtml
Critical Legal Studies." Legal Information Institute, Cornell Law School. 2000. Retrieved 10 Dec 2002. http://www.law.cornell.edu/critical/theory.html
Ludwig Wittgenstein is particularly interesting because in Philosophical Investigations (PI) he repudiated all of his earlier work in logical positivism and the Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus (TLP), along with much of what was traditionally thought of as philosophy, and took a radically new track in the last twenty years of his life. Young Wittgenstein was more certain that he had solved all major philosophical problems, while the older Wittgenstein had completely lost all such certainties. There were even hints in his earlier work of this later, more explicit existential despair, pessimism and even cynicism about the limits of philosophy, which certainly became more profound over the years. He was no longer able to view the world as consisting of facts that were logical representations of objects that really existed or at least had the potential to exist. Thoughts and ideas formed pictures that were models of reality, while everything outside of…
Biletzi, A. (2003). (Over)interpreting Wittgenstein. Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Leung, S.K. (2002). Language and Meaning in Human Perspective. Janus Publishing.
Ryle, G. (1949). The Concept of Mind. University of Chicago Press.
Wittgenstein, L. Philosophical Investigations, 4th Edition (1953, 2009). P.M.S. Hacker and Joachim Schulte (eds.). Oxford University Press.
Existentialism is a philosophical movement that views human existence as having characteristics, such as anxiety, dread, freedom, awareness of death, and consciousness of existing, that are primary and that cannot be reduced to or explained by a natural-scientific approach or any approach that attempts to detach itself." For existentialism, human beings can be understood only from the inside and it emphasizes action, freedom, and decision as fundamental to human existence and is fundamentally opposed to the rationalist tradition and to positivism (Wikipedia). The Stranger reflects existentialism that our world is a universe that has no place for us, in which our life makes no sense. In the novel, Meursault is portrayed as aloof, detached and unemotional. He does not think about events and the possible consequences. He also fails to express any emotion in his relationship with his friends. Meursault's complete indifference to society and human relationships causes him to…
The popular media's negative coverage of the insanity defense in contested cases when a defendant claims not to have the rational capacity to commit a crime or has a diminished capacity to conceptualize a criminal intent has caused the public to dismiss forensic psychiatry as providing rationalizations or excuses for bad behavior, rather than possessing a real scientific method. The use of the insanity defense is clearly subject to sociological and societal factors, such as the statistically greater willingness to believe a man who kills his child is competent vs. A woman. However, the authors contend that this ignores the many cases where the defense and the prosecution both agree that the criminal in question was not competent and was operating upon a different schema of 'reality' that affected his or her ability to judge circumstances in the same fashion as a sane person. (It might be argued, in the…
These research methods adopt different instruments depending on the suitability of the event.
In the following situations, decide whether you would use a personal interview, telephone survey, or self-administered questionnaire. Give your reasons.
In the first scenario, it would be appropriate to use self-administered questions to reveal the underlying issues concerning the research questions. This is because the target population is large. The experiment seeks to uncover extra information to supplement the research question. This makes it crucial to adopt the use of self-administered questionnaires during the study. The second scenario would require application of personal interview or self-administered questionnaires. This is because the geographical coverage of the study is appropriate for any of the two options or research methods. The third scenario would allow the company to maximize the benefits of telephone survey in seeking to unveil the reasons behind the research questions. This is because the geographical arrangement…
Cooper, D.R., & Schindler, P.S. (2011). Business research methods. New York: McGraw-Hill/Irwin.
Hinchey, P.H. (2008). Action research primer. New York: Peter Lang.
Kothari, C.R. (2005). Research methodology: Methods & techniques. New Delhi: New Age
International (P) Ltd.
Ethical Theory & Moral Practice
Debates about theory and practice are ancient. Each generation considers the dynamics that surround issues about the interdependency of theory and praxis to be uniquely challenging. Complexity is a variable closely linked with knowledge. As science has added layer upon layer of knowledge, decision-making dilemmas have been confounded by new and staggering concomitant factors. In concert, theoretical frameworks for social science disciplines have been adapted to accept newly identified moral imperatives and ethical considerations.
This paper offers a discussion about the nexus of epistemology, ethics / morality, and praxis. An examination of the historical development of the paradigm and the assumptions of post-positivism is presented as an introductory foundation for the discussion. Next, is a discussion about ethical theory, followed by an exploration of the increasing division between philosophical frameworks and evolving modern science. Particular note is made of the theory-practice gap in healthcare, which…
Beauchamp, T.L. (2007). Does Ethical Theory Have a Future in Bioethics? The Journal of Law, Medicine, and Ethics. 32(2): 209-217.
"Ethical Theory and Moral Practice: How do they relate?" (2008). Conference 2008. Retrieved online: http://www.bezinningscentrum.nl/links / special_links5/special_links5_conference.shtml
Fieser, J. (2009). Ethics. Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved online: http://www.iep.utm.edu/ethics/#H3
Gastmans, C. (1998). Nursing Considered as Moral Practice: A Philosophical-Ethical Interpretation of Nursing. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 8(1): 43-69.
Human Rights, eyond Intervention
The true civilization is where every man gives to every other every right he claims for himself.
There is a modern debate that is ongoing between different views of human rights and law in contemporary society. Essentially the debate has two fundamentally opposing points-of-view. On the one side are those who view certain human rights as intrinsic to the meaning of being human and inalienable for all humanity, regardless of any external social, political or legal influences. This is generally referred to as natural human rights. On the other hand there is a general and opposing viewpoint that human rights are not essential or intrinsic, but rather socially and legally created and determined. To complicate the debate there are various stances and points-of-view that include elements of both these arguments.
Central to this debate is another more subtle debate that underlies the different views…
Adler M. On Inalienable Rights. The Mortimer J. Adler Archive
Devine, Carol, and Carol Rae Hansen. Human Rights: The Essential Reference. Phoenix, AZ: Oryx Press, 1999.
Grant R. The Social Contract and Human Rights.
The modern 21st century has posed new challenges for the organizations to survive and grow (Smith et al. 2010). As they are operated and managed by human beings, the challenges are ultimately faced by the individuals who are responsible for making decisions and implementing them (Nieuwenhuizen, Weiss and Rossouw, 2009). As challenges are multifaceted, and human lives are divided into various aspects, it is difficult to excel in every field. The gap between desired and actual state of mind leads to stress and has a high impact on employee performance and productivity.
The concept of supervision is not new in business settings. It may be rooted right in the main essence of organizational structure from where delegation of authority and chain of command were introduced. In lieu of human psychology to stay conscious when being observed and monitored, it is more likely that they are not in normal…
Postmodern Bereavement Theory
Bereavement is a universal observable fact as every human being experiences the loss of a loved one at some point in his/her life. However, every individual experiences it in a unique way. It is, without a doubt, an undeniable truth that to be human is to grieve. The passing away of a loved one can be difficult, irresistible and dreadful for any normal individual. When people are faced with such overwhelming situations, a majority of them especially the older adults get into the habit of enduring their loss with time. On the other hand, to forget and live without a loved one is not as easy for some individuals. It becomes difficult for these people to cope up with the grief-stricken situations as they experience a grief of greater concentration or time (Hansson & Stroebe, 2007). There are a number of theorists who have put forwarded their…
Bartholomew, K., & Horowitz, L.M. (1991). Attachment styles among young adults: A test o f a four-category model. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 61(2), 226-244. Retrieved from http://www.sfu.ca/psyc/faculty/bartholomew/attachmentpub_files/bh1991.pdf
Bonanno, G.A., Keltner, D., Holen, A., & Horowitz, M.J. (1995). When avoiding unpleasant emotions might not be such a bad thing: Verbal-autonomic response dissociation and midlife conjugal bereavement. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,
Dent, A. (2005). Supporting the Bereaved: Theory and Practice. Counselling at Work, 22-23. Retrieved May 28, 2012 from http://www.bacpworkplace.org.uk/journal_pdf/acw_autumn05_ann.pdf
Counseling Master Questionnaire
A counseling session with an individual may qualify research as, putting together of information and understandings, followed by determination of validity of the conclusions and activities central on the shared knowledge (McLeod, 2003 p.4). A working definition of research is; an organized course of decisive investigation resulting to legitimate suggestions and conclusions, which are conveyed to other interested people. Based on this definition, there are several concepts that need evaluation. Critical inquiry is the drive whereby human beings are curious to know, learn and offer solutions to problems. As a process, research includes steps or stages, which further relies on observation, reflection and experimentation.
In the case of systematic, this means that research takes place within a theoretical system, and research includes application of principles aiming at achieving valid information. esults of research are propositions meaning that, after a research, there is a…
McLeod. J. (2003). Doing counseling research (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Crotty, M. (2005). The foundations of social research: Meaning and perspectives in the research process. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Houser. R. (2009). Counseling and educational research: Evaluation and application. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
ethics aligned in a constructive way to gather, investigate and consecutively analyze the data of a precise subject. Methodology illustrates the method of the researcher, which the researcher intends to utilize in completion of the study. The methodology can be distinguished in two distinct ways:
It helps in detailing the techniques to conduct the research properly.
It assists in analyzing and consecutively justifying the choice of methods used for the critique.
This chapter is divided into 8 sections
esearch type and Timeline
Data collection methods
According to Cohen et al. (2007) the sub-dividing of the methodology chapter renders an uncomplicated examination, which helps the researcher in understanding the complex methods in an easy practical layout. Even Saunders et al. (2012) mentions the research study is enhanced with divisional headings, which helps in providing an explanatory abstract of overall conduction of research study.
Bouma, G.D. (2010). The research process. 4th Ed. Melbourne: Oxford University Press.
Cohen, L. Manion, L. And Morrison, K. (2007). Research Methods in Education. Routledge Falmer. London.
Oppenheim, A.N. (2000). Questionnaire Design, Interviewing and Attitude Measurement. London: Pinter Publishers Ltd.
Saunders, M., Lewis, P. And Thornhill, A (2012). Research methods for business students. 3rd Ed. London: Prentice Hall.
Perhaps the most fundamental tenet of my nursing philosophy is the administration of care in an intrinsically empathetic manner which benefits the patient. I unequivocally believe in patient-centered care and that nurses who are able to maintain this component of their practice as their primary goal are able to produce the greatest efficacy in administering to patients. Moreover, with all of the concerns of the contemporary healthcare market, including various facets of financial and technological concern, the shortage of various practitioners, and innovations in precision medicine, it is easy to forget that the most vital component of the health care industry is the patients themselves. Quite simply, patients have the most to gain and lose from the health care system. Therefore, I readily believe that keeping those patients as the center of the care delivered by me and others within my profession is the best way we can…
Andrist, C., Nicholas, P. and Wolf, K. (2006). The Evolution of the Environment Paradigm in Nursing. A history of nursing ideas (pp. 97- 108). Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett.
Bourdeau, M. Auguste Comte. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. https://plato.stanford.edu/archives/win2015/entries/comte/
McEvoy, L., Duffy, A. (2008). Holistic practice -- a concept analysis. Nurse Education in Practice. 8, 412-419.
Zborowsky, T. (2014). The legacy of Florence Nightingale's environmental theory: nursing research focusing on the impact of healthcare environments. Health Environments Research & Design Journal. 7(4), 19-34.
At times, even though the research may be complicated by varying definitions of homelessness, researchers are establishing methods for estimating the size of the homeless population, which includes people who have nowhere to go; at risk of losing housing through eviction or institutional discharge (Drury, 2008).
Case Study Methodology
In the case study methodology, a form of qualitative descriptive research, according to M. Dereshiwsky (1999) in "Electronic Textbook - Let Us Count the Ways: Strategies for Doing Qualitative esearch," the researcher using the case study methodology does not focus on discovering a universal, generalizable truth, nor do the researcher generally search for cause-effect relationships. Instead, the researcher emphasizes the exploring and describing process. As the researcher examines one individual or small participant pool, he/she then draws conclusions only about that one particular participant or group; only in the designated, specific context Case Studies 2008).
In considering or defining the case…
Andrade, A.D. (2009). Interpretive research aiming at theory building: Adopting and adapting the case study design. The Qualitative Report. Nova Southeastern
Inc. Retrieved May 26, 2009 from HighBeam Research:
Arellano, M.A. (2005). Translation and ethnography: The anthropological challenge of intercultural understanding. Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, 11(1), 165. Retrieved May 26, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5009119378
ationality: Predictive Theories are Better or Not?
Carl Gustav Hempel is a leader of the logical positivist movement. Logical positivism, also known as logical empiricism or logical neopostivism, rose as a movement in Hempel's home of Germany in the early to mid 20th century. Logical positivism's primary concern lies in the critical analysis of scientific knowledge and natural sciences with definite meaning. Logical positivism and thus Hempel argue for the exploration and clarification of amorphous or ambiguous concepts to make them the exact antithesis -- precise and exactly articulated. Karl Popper, a self-titled "critical rationalist" is a philosophical exemplar of thinkers who directly influence science and technical matters. Popper's theories combine matters of philosophy, the social realm, politics, and science comprehensively and succinctly. Thus, the paper addresses the question of the topic with this context in mind: is it rational to give more credence to theories that predict or…
Flynn, Tom (ed). (2007) The New Encyclopedia of Disbelief. Prometheus Books, Amherst, NY.
Thornton, S. (2009) Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Stanford University Metaphysics Lab. Available from
In the previous section, Estabrooks raised the question of the ability of the EP framework to provide the "best evidence" in nursing practice and the danger of excluding nurses in decision-making tasks as a result of EP prevalence and dominance.
Rolfe, while he analyzed the empirical foundations of EP, also looked at it from a practical perspective, or how EP is applied in the current practice of nursing. Identifying the problem of EP as the question of its "technical rationality," Rolfe uncovered an important issue that best describes also Estabrooks' contentions in her article: the "theory-practice" gap in nursing practice.
In thoroughly discussing this phenomenon in nursing, Rolfe illustrated how theory-practice gap occurs in the practice scenario (39):
First, that nurses rarely read research reports; second, that when they do read them, they rarely understand them; and third, even when they do read and understand research reports, they are reluctant…
Avis, M. (Oct 2006). "Evidence for practice, epistemology, and critical reflection." Nursing Philosophy, Vol. 7, Issue 4.
Estabrooks, C. (1998). "Will evidence-based nursing practice make practice perfect?" Canadian Journal of Nursing Research, Vol. 30, No. 1.
McCormack, B. (2006). "Evidence-based practice and the potential for transformation." Journal of Research in Nursing, Vol. 11, No. 2.
Rolfe, G. (Jan 2006). "Nursing praxis and the science of the unique." Nursing Science, Vol. 19, No. 1.
social science research are qualitative and quantitative research methods. Qualitative research is believed to operate from a subjective, constructionist view of reality, whereas quantitative research operates from an objective, positivist viewpoint of the world. There has been quite a bit of debate over the merits of each of these approaches, often with one paradigm belittling the assumptions of the other. The current literature review explores the philosophical foundations of each paradigm, compares their practical differences, and discusses the strengths and weakness of both approaches as they relate to research in the social sciences and to human resources research. The rationale for mixed-methods research, where the two paradigms are combined, is also discussed.
In recent years there has been substantial interest concerning the role of specific paradigms and philosophical assumptions with regards to doing research. There has been a growing concern regarding the adequacy of research methods in social sciences and…
Anderson, V. (2004) Research methods in human resource management. London, UK: Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development.
Blalock, M. (1984). Basic dilemmas in the social sciences. New York: Sage/
Burrell, G. & Morgan G. (1979). Sociological paradigms and organization analysis. London, UK: Heinemann.
Bryman, A. (2006). Integrating quantitative and qualitative research: How is it done? Qualitative Research, 6, 97-113.
Part of the process for determining which behaviors or actions are identified as internationally criminal pertains to the magnitude of the crime in question. The sort of crimes that are typically prosecuted as internationally criminal are those that involve crimes against humanity. For instance, mass murders and political killings often fit into this category. Additional crimes that are frequently identified as internationally criminal include crimes associated with wars. Another part of the process for determining the actions that are identified as internationally criminal includes the perpetrators of those crimes. Oftentimes, these people hold high social and political ranking in the countries in which these crimes occur. As such, they are not likely to get prosecuted in their own country unless the political climate changes or as a means of helping them to avoid an international trial.
There are some instances in which the behaviors of individuals tried within…
Marketing Canon: Approaches Based on Principles for Influencing Decision Making in Firms
Operating in several geographical locations, quite a number of firms have many product lines, which many marketing scholars believe are ever confronted by myriad dilemmas. o facilitate consistent decision-making processes, it is vital for the firms to come up with overall but common marketing strategies while at the same time, it is very essential for firms to permit their employees the ease to make their specific circumstances suit marketing decisions. However, allowing such flexible measures always leads to challenges in making marketing decisions because everyone, including managers often project dissimilar mental pictures and models of marketing.
Existing literature suggest two approaches for formulating a common means to making decisions that provides different levels of flexibility. he first approach is that firms could depend on mechanical approaches that influence decisions made by stipulating standard modes of operations (Homburg and…
The bias as referred to by Saunders et al. (2012)make an impact on reliability by: the general disposition and behavioral attributes of the researcher while in the fieldwork may cause different reactions; care has been taken to assimilate questions in way so as to not be suggestive in its approach. The utmost integrity can only be achieved by means of faith of the interviewee in the researcher that has been followed in this work religiously.
The role played by the respondent is as crucial as that of the interviewer. He must not be, in any way be prejudiced, about the researcher or the work (Saunders et al., 2012). The possibility of respondents not giving unbiased view and opinion to questions and queries cannot be ruled out even if the researcher takes all the measures to win wholehearted support. That is specially so because of the fact that the questionnaire may contain sensitive and personal questions to which one may refrain from giving honest answers, despite the fact that the researcher will make efforts to build trust prior to giving questionnaire, and it is but natural that the subjects will be aware about the delicate nature of certain questions and may decide not to reveal and answer certain questions.
On the other hand validity can be classified as the precision and accuracy of a variable's fits in a concept. Issues related to validity are generally heightened in survey designs as they assess subject's values and beliefs (Bouma, 2010). Considering, the aims and results of this research study, Yin (2013) offers that it is practicable to simplify case studies to hypothetical propositions. However, this should not extend to include populations and the aims of any study ought to be to relate and
Both of these perspectives are, from Hart's perspective, too extreme: he wants a legal theory which would be free from moral evaluations or moral commitments (unlike Finnis' approach), while remaining a descriptive theory of the practice rather than a participation in it (unlike Dworkin's approach). Hart was trying to keep a difficult middle position (Hacker, 1977-page 31). He argued that a legal theory should be constructed around the perspective of someone who accepted the legal system, but the theory itself (or, to put the matter differently, the theorist herself) need not, and should not, endorse the system (as one which is generally just or which creates binding moral obligations). In other words, the theory simultaneously:
(1) attempts to take into account the participant's perspective; and (2) manages to choose among possible participants' perspectives without having to make moral judgments; while
(3) keeping sufficient distance from the participants' perspective to allow…
Austin, John, The Province of Jurisprudence Determined (H L.A. Hart ed., London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1955).
Austin, Regina, "Sapphire Bound! (Minority Feminist Scholarship)" (1989) Wisconsin Law Review 539.
Baird, Douglas; Gertner, Robert and Picker, Randal, Game Theory and the Law (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1994).
Baker, Gordon, "Defeasibility and Meaning" in Law, Morality, and Society (P M.S. Hacker and J. Raz eds., Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1977), pp. 26-57.
These suppositions allow the researcher to view the world from a certain perspective while ignoring other perspectives. The researcher in this study assumes that his subjects are logical human beings who have a rationale point-of-view. Their thinking is valid and reasonable and their approach is more or less along the lines of scientific thinking. In addition, we assume that commonsense thinking and scientific thinking are more or less identical in nature. With these assumptions in mind, we take a post-positivism philosophical foundation; as in line with Trochim (2000) post-positivism is the outright denial of positivism (which argues that the laws of the nature are perfunctory and therefore deductive reasoning can be the only suitable approach to comprehend nature) and presupposes that day-to-day human and scientific reasoning are more or less the same and in order to understand reality, researchers have to use not only deductive but also inductive reasoning (Trochim,…
Bailer UF, Frank GK, Henry SE et al. (2005). Altered brain serotonin 5-HT1A receptor binding after recovery from anorexia nervosa measured by positron emission tomography. Archives of General Psychiatry, 62, 1032-1041.
Bloks H, Hoek HW, Callewaert I et al. (2004). Stability of personality traits in patients who received intensive treatment for a severe eating disorder. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 192, 129-138.
Bulik CM, Klump KL, Thornton L. et al. (2004). Alcohol use disorder comorbidity in eating disorders: a multicenter study. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 65, 1000-1006.
Byrne, B. (2000) Relationships between Anxiety, Fear Self-Esteem, and Coping Strategies in Adolescence. Adolescence. 35. 137.
NPSAS was the only study in 1996 that encompassed the people who enrolled in the for-profit institutions which is why not even the very basic criteria of the for-profit sector and its educational setup has been well-recognized (reneman, Pusser and Turner 2000; Chung, 2006).
The confirmation that the students who had some sort of shortcoming whether in the financial sector, minority aspect or admittance-timeline factor were the ones who mainly enrolled in the for-profit educational institution was made by Apling and Aleman in a study they conducted in 1990, and Lee and Merisotis in a study they conducted in the same year which were also then matched by Phipps et al. (2000) and JL Associates (2004).
Grubb was the only researcher who, in the year 1993, explored and assessed the influence and affect of the concept of the industrial market proceeds in relation to the non-profit institutions and education. He…
Altheide, D.L., & Johnson, J.M. (1994). Criteria for assessing interpretive validity in qualitative research. In N.K. Denzin & Y.S. Lincoln (Eds.), Handbook of qualitative research (pp. 485-99). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Apling, R. & Aleman, S. (1990). Proprietary schools: a description of institutions and students. (Report No, 90-428EPW). Washington, DC.: Library of Congress, Congressional Research Service.
Apling, R. (1993). Proprietary schools and their students. Journal of Higher Education 64:4, pp. 379-416.
Barone, T.E. (1992). Beyond theory and method: A case of critical storytelling. Theory into Practice, 31(2), 142-146.
Communication and Perception Processes
Communication models simplify the descriptions of complex communication interactions
Transmission- a linear one-way process in which a sender transmits a message to a receiver
Participants- senders and receivers of messages
Messages- the verbal and non-verbal content being shared
Encoding- turning thoughts into communication
Decoding- turning communication into thoughts
Channels- sensory routes through which messages travel
Barriers / Noise
Environmental noise- physical noise
Semantic noise- noise in encoding process
Interaction- participants alternate positions as senders and receivers of messages
Participants- senders and receivers of messages
Messages- the verbal and non-verbal content being shared
Encoding- turning thoughts into communication
Decoding- turning communication into thoughts
Channels- sensory routes through which messages travel
Feedback- messages sent in response to other messages
Physical context- environmental factors
Psychological context- mental and emotional factors
Transaction- a process in which communicators generate social realities within social, relational, and cultural contexts.
Carey, J. (Unk). "A cultural approach to communication." Communication as culture.
Retrieved April 11, 2014 from Northern Illinois University website: http://www3.niu.edu/acad/gunkel/coms465/carey.html
"Communication and Perception Processes." (Unk.) In, A primer on communication studies, pp.
1-21. Retrieved April 11, 2014 from Lardbucket website: http://2012books.lardbucket.org/books/a-primer-on-communication-studies/s01-02-the-communication-process.html
The nature of science
A number of scientists have the feeling that philosophical inquiries are well outdated. They purportedly can handle matters in a better way than their social constructivists counterparts. Philosophers and physicists are very different from each other, especially taking into account what some renown physicist recently commented on philosophy. Stephen Hawking for instance is on a campaign to tarnish philosophers. He might not be so convincing in whatever points he puts across, but he is winning the heart of the public by his jokes on philosophers. Jokes have for a long time been known to really move the masses. His most recent book, The Grand Design, co authored by Leonard Mlodinow, starts by scrutinizing the nature of reality, the beginning of all things and the purpose of God. He then claims these to be matters of philosophy, which is in itself dead. Philosophy, according to him, is…
This, he says, is a big challenge considering the fact that all team members along with the top management come from different cultural backgrounds.
Polley and ibbens (1998) in their pioneering research assert that team wellness has got to be tackled in order to create high performance teams. The challenges that need to be over come have been thoroughly researched. The most commonly found problems are: lack of commitment and consideration from top management; probability of sharing enhanced productivity; creation and sustenance of trust (Polley and ibbens, 1998); and skills to deal with conflicts; both within tasks and amongst people (Amason et al., 1995).
Polley and ibbens (1998) assert that emergence of these problems can be either (1) persistent; and/or (2) immediate and/or intense. Extending the team wellness concept, Beech and Crane (1999) outlined a five dimensional strategy to overcome the problems most event managers might face when creating high…
Adair, J.E. And Thomas, N. (2004). The Concise Adair on Teambuilding and Motivation. Thorogood. London.
Amason, A.C., Thompson, K.R., Hochwarter, W.A. And Harrison, A.W. (1995). Conflict: an important dimension in successful management teams. Organizational Dynamics, Vol. 24 No. 2, pp. 20-35.
Argyris, C. (1976). Increasing leadership effectiveness. New York: Wiley.
Avolio, B.J., & Bass, B.M. (1995). Individual consideration viewed at multiple levels of analysis: A multi-level framework for examining the diffusion of transformational leadership. Leadership Quarterly, 6 (2), 199±218.
In his novels he focused on characters, motivations, and reactions to the forces around his characters. He realistically examined Spanish politics, economy, religion, and family through the eyes of the middle class, addressing the cruelty of human beings against each another in his novels Miau and Misericordia. Galdos was called the conscience of Spain for his realistic observations of society with all its ills. (Columbia 2005) His plays were less successful than his novels.
In 1907 he became deputy of the Republican Party in Madrid. He went blind in 1912, but overcoming this tragedy, he continued to dictate his books until his death. Other works translated into English are Tristana (tr. 1961) and Compassion (tr. 1962) Outside Spain his Novelas Espanolas Contemporaneas are the most popular. Perez Galdos was elected to the "Real Academia Espanola" Real Academia Espanola (Royal Spanish Academy) in 1897. A statue of him was raised in…
The Academy of American Poets" Poets.org. 1997-2007. http://www.poets.org/poet.php/prmPID/348 .
Cole, Toby, (ed.). "Garc'a Lorca" in Playwrights on Playwrighting, 1961.
Hills, Elijah Clarence and Morley, S. Griswold, Modern Spanish Lyrics, New York: H. Holt, 1913.
Jehle, Fred F. Anthology of Spanish Poetry: A Collection of Spanish Poems, 1999. http://users.ipfw.edu/jehle/poetry.htm.
posteriori, justification is a phenomenon to which a great number of philosophical directions can be applied. After defining the issue of justification, foundationalism and phenomenalism will be expounded for their strengths and weaknesses in terms of a posteriori justification.
A Posteriori Justification
The phrase "a posteriori" refers to propositions that are knowable on the basis of experience. Experience is thus used to justify the knowledge of the proposition. Experience therefore forms the basis of knowledge, which makes this kind of justification empirical. The knowledge can be proven by the experiences beforehand. This past experience then forms the basis of a posteriori justification, and for thinking that propositions of this kind are true. Things that can be proven by the experiences of oneself can be classified as a posteriori. The research done by natural sciences for example are experiences upon which to base justification.
In terms of a posteriori justification,…
To citically investigate the cuent state of intenational business elationship development liteatue.
2. To exploe the chaacteistics that detemines sustainable intenational business elationships within the Libyan business context-fom the Libyan point-of-view.
3. To pesent a model based on the findings fom the two objectives above. This model will seve two main functions: (I). It will help fill in gaps in the cuent liteatue elating to the development and maintenance of business elationships with Libya. (II). It will be of pactical value to foeign businesses wishing to develop elationships with Libyan companies.
1.4.3 Reseach Questions
Fou eseach questions ae fomulated as a means of pusuing the above objectives, these being:
What ae the key vaiables that influence Libyan companies when they intenationalise, and why ae these vaiables so impotant fo Libyan oganisations?
What ae the majo steps/stages that Libyans go though when establishing business elationships?
How can foeign oganisations establish/maintain sustainable…
references and details.
- Retrievability or loopback: can be low.
- Biased selectivity, if collection is incomplete.
- Reporting bias: reflects bias of the author.
- Access: may be deliberately blocked.
Lombroso aimed to be a true adherent of the positivist theory in constructing his criminologist theory. The way that he used positivism however shows how empiricism -- or true science as it is otherwise known -- can be misused and can lead to erroneousness results.
Positivism is the orientation that attempts to follow empirical or sensory experience only and eschew metaphysical or spiritualist renderings. The irony of this was, at least in Lombroso's case, that his rendering of positivism when combined with criminology took him straight into metaphysics.
(This wasn't the only case where Lombroso's scientific manipulations led him into the mystical realm. Later on, he wrote books on spirits and seances claiming these to have empirical base too).
Cesare Lombroso (1835 -1909) saw crime as being an inherited or genetic feature that could be recognizable by experts according to certain physiognomy, or physical defects, that characterized someone as being…
Bland, KR CESARE LOMBROSO Florida State University - School of Criminology
KR Bland… - criminology
Gould, Stephen J. (rev. ed. 1996) The Mismeasure of Man W.W. Norton, USA
Jones, D.A. (1986). History of Criminology: a philosophical perspective. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
air traffic has continued to increase and it now constitutes a considerable proportion of the travelling public. The amount of long-hour flights has increased significantly. Based on the International Civil Aviation authority, air traffic can be anticipated to double amid till 2020. Airline travel, especially over longer distances, makes air travelers vulnerable to numerous facets that will impact their health and well-being. Particularly, the speed with which influenza spreads and mutates, via transportation routes, is the reason why the influenza pandemic is considered to be a huge threat to the human population. Pandemic is a term, which is used for a virus or microbe when it spreads over a large area, in severe cases even the whole world and large number of people start getting affecting by it (CDC, 2009).
In the past 300 years, there have been ten significant influenza pandemics outbreaks that have taken place in this world.…
Airports Council International (2009) Airport preparedness guidelines for outbreaks of communicable disease. Available at: http://www.airports.org/aci/aci/file/ACI_Priorities/Health/Airport%20preparedness%20guidelines.pdf (Accessed: 28 November 2011)
Bouma, G.D. (2002) The research process. 4th edn. Melbourne: Oxford University Press.
Brigantic, R., Delp, W., Gadgil A., Kulesz, J., Lee, R., Malone, J.D. (2009) U.S. airport entry screening in response to pandemic influenza: Modeling and analysis. Available at: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B7578-4W2M6SG1&_user=10843&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_sort=d&view=c&_acct=C000000150&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10843&md5=44685b11dd53d74a8ef85a4f03e185f2 (Accessed: 28 November 2011)
Bush, George W. (2003a). Homeland security presidential directive -- 5: Management of domestic incidents. Available at: http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2003/02/20030228-9.html (Accessed: 28 November 2011)
This study analyzes outsourcing trends in the next decade. The study assesses this by focusing on the past and current trends, problems and issues in outsourcing via semi-structured interviews. Major trends and processes will be revealed and assessed for their relevancy, depth and breadth.
Companies belonging to most industries are very much considered to be the units that are vertically integrated, or so-called usual industrial firms (Stigler, 1951), where activities in all links in value chain have been internally conducted. For example, gasoline of its own is delivered by 7-Eleven and it is also used to make ice and candy, also it had cows for producing milk which it previously used to sell (Gottfredson et al., 2005). At present, it is not delivering gasoline and ice or candy is not being made by it neither does it posses any cows. Contrarily, IBM used to make the computers containing their…
Adams, R.J., 2002. Retail pro-tability and sweatshops: a global dilemma. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services 9, 147-153.
Alexander, C., 1964. Notes on the Synthesis of Form. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.
Alexander, M., Young, D., 1996b. Outsourcing: where is the value? Long-Range Planning 29 (5), 728-730.
Ashkenas, R., Ulrich, D., Jick, T., Kerr, S., 1995. The Boundaryless Organization. Breaking the Chains of Organizational Structure. Jossey-Bass Publishers, San Francisco.
Origins of Behaviorism
Behaviorism, Its Historical origins, principles and contribution to the broader field of psychology
Darwin (1809-1882) is the main scientist credited with evolutionary theory, and he was highly influential. In 1859/1985 he published The Origin of Species. This text proposed that evolution is inevitable and mechanical. He discussed the organism-environment adaptation, a precursor to the stimulus- response of behaviourism. He felt that his studies on plants and animals could be translated into human study. The human could be observed through anatomy and behaviour. This idea set the tone for behaviourism, "Animal behaviour became of interest to psychology as a result of evolutionary theory" (Mackenzie, 1977).
Children were studied as earlier versions of the adult species. Darwin expanded Haeckel's recapitulation theory and in 1877 he published A Biographical Sketch of an Infant. This was 294 pages of observations on children. Francis Galton (1822-1911) was Darwin's cousin; he continued the…
Aach, J.D. (1987). Behaviourism and normativity: The prospect of a Skinnerian psychologism (Watson, Husserl, Carnap, Skinner). Retrieved from ProQuest Digital Dissertations. (AAT 8624046)
Mackenzie, B.D. (1977). Behaviourism and the limits of scientific method. Atlantic Highlands, NJ: Humanities Press.
Robinson, D.N. (1995). An intellectual history of psychology (3rd Ed.). Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press.
Smith, L.D. (1986). Behaviourism and logical positivism; A reassessment of the alliance. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Harvard college's "oncomouse," which is a mouse that has been genetically engineered to make it more susceptible to cancer, and thus of more use in research, could be patented under Canadian patent law. The Patent Examiner refused to grant the patent, stating that higher life forms were not inventions under the applicable law because they were not compositions of matter. The majority opinion upheld the Patent Examiner's decision. Justice Binnie dissented to the majority's opinion. Justice Bastarache wrote the majority opinion.
The majority opinion, authored by Justice Bastarache represents the court's actual decision. Majority opinions represent the decision of the court. In some cases, there is no actual majority opinion because of partial dissents and concurrences, but that is not applicable in this case. The majority felt that Parliament did not intend for every conceivable subject matter to be patentable, and points to the fact that Parliament wrote an exhaustive…
International Criminal Justice Philosophies
International criminal justice is a relatively new field in the criminal justice system since it deals with issues that go beyond the local or national level. This field of criminal justice examines several crimes and criminal justice responses from an international or global perspective. As a result of incorporating a global perspective in examining criminal justice issues and responses, this field is multidisciplinary in nature and relatively complex. In essence, the international criminal justice field can be described as a discipline that examines crimes and criminal justice responses to these issues from a global perspective (Kiriakova & Gross, 2005). Additionally, international criminal justice field focuses on how the international community and states react to atrocious international crimes like war crimes, human rights abuses, crimes against humanity, and genocide.
There are several aspects included in the field of international criminal justice including international crimes, transnational crimes, conventional…
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Weber, R. (2004). Editor's Comments: The Rhetoric of Positivism Versus Interpretivism: a Personal View. Management Information Systems Quarterly, 28(1), pp. iii -- xii
My learning in the field of qualitative research
1. In terms of qualitative methodology and the problems of scientism/positivism, what does it mean to recognize the limits of exactitude and certainty, but still to have respect for empirical work? Where do you presently locate yourself paradigmatically and methodologically in terms of your own investments in producing knowledge?
As a research strategy, positivism can be an approach that is based on the ontological principle and the concept that reality and truth are usually free and independent of the individual and observer. A large number of critics and philosophers who are concerned with the idea and concept of investigation and research agree with this statement. The definition of truth as an independent, objective and autonomous existence of positivism can be seen in various works. A positivist researcher believes that the world adjusts to the unchanging and perpetual rules and laws of circumstances…
Due to the forces of globalization and modernization, the role of culture within the purchase decision is becoming less and less intense, but the role of the society is increasing. At this level, the decision to purchase is greatly influenced by the reference group, or the organization or team with which the individual identifies or to which he wishes to belong. In order to gain the acceptance of the respective group or to feel himself as integrated within the group, the individual will purchase those items which allow him to meet the expectations and goals of the reference group (Borrow and Bosiljevac, 2008).
2.4. The decision making unit (DMU)
The concept of the decision making unit is explained by ay Wright's (2004) Business to business marketing: a step-by-step guide, in which the author reveals the mechanisms behind the decision making process. The decision making unit is understood as the series…
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Louis, P.J., 2002, Telecom management crash course: managing and selling Teleocm services and products, McGraw-Hill Professional, ISBN 0071386203
Solidarity created via black feminist discourse is empowering. The acknowledgment of a collective black female identity can lead African-American women to value rather than shun their identities and to embrace the fullness of their culture. Psychological empowerment is a precursor to economic and political empowerment. Empowerment ultimately does not depend on conformity to the predominant social institutions. Another reason why it is important to sustain black feminist thought is that this alternative discourse is the only means by which the voices of the oppressed may be heard. In the same way that empowerment means not having to participate in or condone white male institutions, black feminist ideology defines its own methodological tools. Those tools cannot rely on scholastic sources or the scientific method. A European-masculinist academic institution imposes positivism on all discourse. This shuts down valid voices offering personal opinion, immediate experience, narrative, and other means by which black women…
In that sense, he was a victim of his time period. He may have felt very differently if he were alive today, because science, technology, and even the study of metaphysics have advanced a great deal. Hempel was a scientist, but he was a bit of a philosopher, as well (Sarkar & Pfeifer, 2006).
That is a large part of the reason why his opinions on the issue seem odd. Philosophers are often willing to consider the possibilities and implications of something more being 'out there' and available to them and the rest of the world, but Hempel appeared to have no interest in that. y insisting that the parts made up the whole, and that the whole could be simply broken back down into those parts, Hempel cheated himself out of a lot of other ideas and issues that he could have considered and studied. He was a man…
Sarkar, Sahotra & Pfeifer, Jessica. (2006). The Philosophy of Science: An Encyclopedia. New York: Routledge.
A d) the theoretical approach to legal reasoning that casts the most helpful light on judicial reasoning in determining whether or not evidence derived from torture should be admissible is legal positivism, as developed by H.L.A. Hart. Hart's approach to legal positivism focused strongly on the relationship between the law and morality. One would be hard pressed to describe an area where the relationship between moral behavior and the law is more at issue than in a question involving torture. The question is especially salient when a country may not have any influence over interrogation procedures, such as when the United Kingdom is relying upon interrogations performed in other countries. However, Hart's rule of recognition articulates the point-of-view that social norms should not always be legal norms. There is no question that the prohibition against torture is a widespread social norm, as reflected by the common law, informal international law,…
Thee ae those that believe that qualitative eseach is the best fom of eseach, wheeas othes insist that only quantitative methods ae appopiate in a eseach envionment (CSU, 2004). Still othes ague that both appoaches ae useful and appopiate though one is often moe indicated than the othe depending on the exact phenomena being examined and the natue o intent of the eseach being conducted (Potte, 1996; Lee & Poynton, 2000).
Fed Kelinge once exclaimed that "thee is no such thing as qualitative data, eveything is eithe one o zeo," howeve his claim is counteed by anothe eseache, Campbell, who asseted that "all eseach ultimately has a qualitative gounding" (CSU, 2004).
Given the geat debate that exists, eseaches often find it difficult to detemine which stategy is best and which is most likely to be accepted by pees when pesenting a eseach pogam. Most eseaches would aggess howeve that qualitative…
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Foundation and Focus The foundation for the Classical Theory to crime focused less on the criminal and targeted more on securing a rational, fair system for controlling and putting punishments in order. Little concern was given to causes of criminal behaviors. Significant words/definitions related to this theory include:
Classicism - The Enlightenment view of crime that stresses free will and rationality and the corresponding rationality of the justice system....
Free will - According to the classical school, people possess reason. This means that they can calculate the course of action that is in their self-interest. This in turn gives them a degree of freedom....
Just deserts - A justification for punishment which insists that offenders should be punished only as severely as they deserve. It was a reaction against the unfair excesses of rehabilitation and the 'get tough' drive from conservatives during the 1970s." (Carrabine, Iganski, Lee, Plummer &…
Carrabine, E., Iganski, P., Lee, M., Plummer, K., & South, N. (2004). Criminology: Sociological Introduction. New York: Routledge.
Crime and punishment. (2006). In Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved July 14, 2006, from Encyclopedia Britannica Premium Service:
Cybercrime - High Tech crime." (2006). JISC Legal Information Service. Retrieved 15 July 2006 at http://www.jisclegal.ac.uk/cybercrime/cybercrime.htm.