170+ documents containing “positivism”.
Learning is cooperative and there is much to gain by sharing it with classmates. Special needs students had the right to merge with normal students in a regular classroom, according to advocates of inclusion (McCarthy 1994). Technology could make that happen, the advocates contended. Special services and resources could be integrated into the regular classroom and allow the ideal learning environment to develop for both types of students. Computer technology could realize the dream of alternative visual, aural and interactive modes of learning. The advocates said it would require serious and distinct collaboration between special education teachers and regular teachers. Regular teachers who would participate would also need some special training (McCarthy).
The Webster Elementary School in St. Augustine, Florida incorporated an inclusion program for the use of special needs students (McCarthy 1994). Its team teachers preferred software, which did not rely too much on texts. Many of its students, whose….
Kim, S. (2003). Research Paradigms in Organizational Learning and Performance: Competing Modes of Inquiry. 18 pages. Vol 21 # 1. Information Technology, Learning and Performance Journal: Organizational Systems Research Association
McCarthy, R. (1994). Computer Technology Helps in Integration of Special Needs Students in Regular Classes. Instructor: Scholastic, Inc.
Occupational Outlook (2002). Technology in Special Education. 2 pages. Occupational Outlook Quarterly: U.S. Government Printing Office
Roach, R. (2002). Assistive Technology Comes into Focus. 3 pages. Black Issues in Higher Education: Cox, Matthew & Associates
Logical positivism (also known as logical empiricism) was a philosophical movement that began in Vienna, Austria during the 1920s, coming to public attention in 1929 with the publication of a manifesto called Wissenschaftliche Weltauffassung. Der Wiener Kreis (The Scientific World-Conception. The Vienna Circle) (Richardson & Uebel 13). The manifesto was dedicated to Moritz Schlick, a leading figure of logical positivism and the ostensible leader of the Vienna Circle, and was signed by Rudolf Carnap, Otto Neurath, Hans Hahn and Herbert Feigl (13). "Vienna Circle" was decided on as a name because Neurath thought that it evoked nice associations with the Vienna woods and the Viennese waltz (13). This publication is important when looking at the history of logical positivism because it was with this manifesto that the "public phase" of the Vienna Circle began, branching out to other countries in Europe as well as to the English-speaking world (14).
Friedman, Michael. Reconsidering Logical Positivism. Cambridge University Press. 1999. Print.
Murzi, Mauro. "Logical Positivism." The New Encyclopedia of Unbelief. Tom Flynn Edition.
Prometheus Books. 2007. Web. http://www.murzim.net/Articles/Positivism.pdf
Richardson, Alan & Uebel, Thomas. The Cambridge Companion to Logical Empiricism
This showed me that law-protection of people from harm- was exclusive from the moral obligations of the society-such as working to improve the community. Basically, I eventually came to associate the Separability Thesis based on my observation; essentially, the legality and morality of the island were independent of one another.
Ultimately, the member of my expedition who spoke the language of Pango-Pango was able to have a conversation with one of the natives who was clearly working hard and seemed to be a reliable source of information. What was learned from that conversation was that the third facet of positivism, the Discretion Thesis, shaped the legal system of the island, primitive as it was. In other words, the elder who served as sovereign had, in time, developed a set of laws because of difficult legal decisions which made new laws necessary. This is quite similar to our system of laws,….
Legal Positivism and Australian Law
Nature and rule of law have generated more passionate debates in legal circles than anything else and the reason lies in the fact that law directly affects the lives of citizens of a country. National laws govern the lives of human beings and it is thus important to debate such things as their nature, their validity and applicability, their relevance to the case etc. Citizens of a country feel they are entitled to full explanation of why a certain law has been formulated and they also feel included to discuss its merits and demerits. Law has thus often been a subject of close scrutiny and this has given rise to numerous social, legal and philosophical debates. Many question the applicability and relevance of a certain law, while other are more concerned about its long and short-term effects. However there have been some important jurists and legal….
Katz, Avery Wiener, Positivism and the separation of law and economics. Michigan Law Review; 6/1/1996;
Robert P. George, The Autonomy of Law: Essays on Legal Positivism. Clarendon Press. Place of Publication: Oxford. Publication Year: 1999.
Kathy Bowrey, Senior Lecturer, School of Law, University of New South Wales, The Outer Limits Of Copyright Law - Where Law Meets Philosophy and Culture, Law and Critique, (2001) Vol 12:1, pp1-24.
The political and philosophical origins of Australia's constitutional system, Australian Public Law, Last updated: 27 February, 2003, Retrieved online 1st April 2004:
HLA Hart and Modern Legal Positivism
H.L.A. Hart is one of the important names in the history of legal theories. In our class reading, Hart talked about past strict positivists and changed legal positivist theory for modern thinking and experience. Hart also talked about Austin and Bentham, who were two important figures in Utilitarianism. Hart agreed with some of their thought but disagreed with other aspects of their thought. Because of his examination, and sometimes disagreement and changes, of Positivism and Utilitarianism, H.L.A. Hart is famous for a new way of thinking about both schools of thought.
The Key Concept from the Text and an Example
The key concept from the text is a more modern way of looking at law and morality because Hart is a legal positivist but he is a modern legal positivist. Hart believes that the "point of intersection between law and morals or that what is and what….
Social Science_Module 4
In general, positivism is an approach to a number of disciplines, social science among them. It holds that the best approach to the study and analysis (and therefore uncovering truth about humans) is a very empirical and scientific approach. For the positivist, the only true way to uncover the human condition is experience and positive verification. The positivist tends to believe that the only truths are those that are quantifiable (e.g. measurable) and have a basis in the five major points of the scientific method (hypothesis, question, research, analysis, conclusion). Social reality, then, is the measurable way humans work and interact with each other and the universe that is the same across all sciences with a goal of explaining and predicting by logical rules. The knowledge gained is testable -- research is proved not by philosophical arguments (as in many of the Green and enaissance metaphysicians), but by….
Thus, my goal is more in line with the goal of constructivist research, which aims to understand results in the term of the society, and understands that the results can be interpreted in many ways.
Furthermore, constructivism best fits the way that I view the world. As an educator, I have come to understand that social biases and beliefs deeply influence how others see the world. In addition, I have come across many who believe truth is absolutely the opposite of my understanding of truth. Thus, I am aware of the fact that many interpretations of results and truth can exist. In addition, I believe it is of the utmost importance to understand and acknowledge social bias and construction in the educational world, as the social rules have often resulted in many being denied access to education.
Thus, the decision to adopt a constructivist paradigm as the model in which to….
Clark, Lynn Schofield. "Constructivist Methods in the Symbolism, Media and the Lifecourse and the Symbolism, Meaning and the New Media @ Home Projects." University of Colorado at Boulder. nd. 21 January 2009. http://www.colorado.edu/journalism/mcm/qmr-const-theory.htm
Jacobson, Wayne. "Defining the Quality of Practitioner Research." Adult Education
Quarterly. 48.3 (1998): 125-138.
Trochim, William M.K. "Positivism & Post-Positivism." Research Methods Knowledge
ostpositivism vs. ostmodernism
There are laws or theories that govern the world, and these need to be tested or verified and refined so that we can understand the world. Thus, in the scientific method, the accepted approach to research by post-postivists, an individual begins with a theory, collects data that either supports or refutes the theory, and then makes necessary revisions before additional tests are conducted (Creswell, 2003, pg. 7).
Creswell (2003, pg. 6) writes that the post-positivist assumptions have governed claims about what warrants knowledge. Referred to as the "scientific method" or as "doing research," post-positivism is known as quantitative research, positivist/post-positivist research and empirical science. ost-positivism refers to the thinking after positivism, challenging the traditional notion of the absolute truth of knowledge (hillips & Burbules, 2000) and recognizing that we cannot be "positive" about our claims of knowledge when studying the behavior and actions of humans. ost-positivism reflects a deterministic….
Post-positivism rejects the positivistic tenets. Post-positivists view truth as ultimately unknowable because it cannot be claimed that there is any absolutely authoritative foundation on which to base scientific knowledge (Phillips, 1987). Knowledge claims are modest and viewed as warranted assertions in that they represent established regularities or probabilities about human phenomena rather than universal laws that govern behavior (Greene, 1990)
Philips (1990) suggests that, while the idea of objectivity remains a regulatory ideal that underpins all inquiry, the importance of values and subjectivity in science is recognized. Critical multiplists recognize that all research is social
How can I expand or advance the conversation by new insight or perspective?I agree with the idea that the ability to replicate a study is critical in being able to trust its conclusions. This is much more difficult in qualitative research, given that such a small, highly specific population is being observed by the researcher. But even quantitative studies face a so-called replication crisis. When research papers are published, they describe their methodologyWhen another research team tries to conduct a study based on the original to see if they find the same result, thats an attempted replication (Piper, 2014, par.4). But one attempt to replicate studies from the popular scientific journals Nature and Science led to the conclusion that only 13 of the 21 results looked at could actually be replicated by outsiders, casting the findings in doubt as generalizable to outside of the specific study population (Piper, 2014). For….
ReferencesBryman, A. (2016). Social research methods (5th ed.). Oxford University Press.Houghton, T. (2016, September, 26). Does positivism really ‘work’ in the social sciences?E-IR. https://www.e-ir.info/2011/09/26/does-positivism-really-%E2%80%98work%E2%80%99-in-the-social-sciences/
Judicial Dissent in the Voice of John AustinTitle VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 is a federal law that prohibits discrimination in employment on the basis of race, color, religion, sex, or national origin. The Act applies to all employers with 15 or more employees, and it covers a wide range of employment practices, including hiring, firing, promotion, and compensation. Title VII also prohibits employers from retaliating against employees who complain about discrimination. If an employee believes that he or she has been the victim of discrimination, he or she can file a charge with the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC). The EEOC will then investigate the claim and, if it finds evidence of discrimination, it may take legal action against the employer.Thus, it must be agreed by all that Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 prohibits discrimination in employment on the basis of race,….
Features of Positivist Criminology
Positivist criminology uses scientific research (primarily quantitative, laboratory, empirical experiment) to investigate the causes of crime and deviant behavior. Positivist criminology posits that the roots of deviancy are located in the physical, genetic, psychological or biological makeup of the individual and the individual, consequently, is not held accountable (or is faintly held accountable) for his deeds. Use of instruments, statistics, classification, and similar scientific instruments are used in this branch of study.
Positivist criminology is the opposite of classical criminology which sees the criminal as responsible for his actions and able to reform would he so wish. The school is closely identified with the behaviorist way of thinking, which ignores mentalism (i.e. beliefs, values, and meanings) and sees individuals as tied to external dictates of action (as, for instance, that one's environment impels one to act in a certain way; free-will is omitted from the equation).
Behaviorism and Positivism
Behaviorism basically believes in the laws of the observable. It is based on rational, scientific, factual data. "The behaviorist school of thought maintains that behaviors as such can be described scientifically without recourse either to internal physiological events or to hypothetical constructs such as the mind" (Wikipedia, 2010). Positivism believes in scientific method is the best way to explain human events and physical events. Behaviorism and positivism is working together mainly because the behaviorist believes that positivists' analysis of science is correct. "Positivism is based on pro-observation in comparison with other means of justifying scientific claims, and emphasizes verification" (Persson, 2010). Behaviorism and positivism are very similar because they both believe in science and observable, verifiable data.
In the early 1900's psychology was not based on pure science. It was known as a study of the mind, and there were not a lot of documented ways of researching and….
Persson, J. (2010). Misconceptions of positivism and five unnecessary science theoretic mistakes they bring in their train. International Journal of Nursing Studies. 47 (5) 651-661
Smith, L. (1986). Behaviorism and logical positivism. . Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Wikipedia (2010). Behaviorism. Retrieved on December 14, 2010 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Behaviorism
Baronet's second assumption was that a low level of family support and a high level of relationship would also be associated with low feelings of satisfaction (the epistemological assumptions on the part of the caregiver). Results, however, showed that family support played no part neither in determining feelings of satisfaction nor in providing subjective burden resultant from caregiving activates.
Science as a discipline incorporates eight characteristics. hese are: empirical (i.e. evidence-based, hard facts); systematic (i.e. related to or consisting of a system); theoretical (i.e. related to or consisting of a theory); provisional (i.e. temporary until replaced by another theory that makes more sense); public (i.e. he findings of science are not restricted to any specific sector, but are available to the public sector as a whole); objective (i.e. attempting to be corroborated by reality rather than biased and subjective); self-reflective (i.e. aiming to step back and criticize itself); and open-ended….
The empirical and the objective characteristics are obvious in her attempts to connect qualitative emotional factors (i.e. subjective feelings of satisfaction) to 'hard' conditions, and to pronounce association only after scientific association was gauged. The systematic (and similarly theoretical) principle can be demonstrated by Baronet's use of theoretical measures. Each of these measures has, in turn, been formulated on empirical principles, but they consist of particular theories -- or systems -- that posit a means to assessing and gauging certain situations.
Baronet, a.M. (2003). The impact of family relations on caregivers' positive and negative appraisal of their caretaking activities. Family Relations, 52, 137-141
Gustav adbruch believed that positivistic theory renders both jurists and the normal person defenseless against our laws and legal system. He felt that no matter how arbitrary, cruel or criminal certain laws were, our legal process would make its ordinary citizens totally subservient to them. Morals would not alter precedence. This work will try to understand the works of H.L.A. Hart and some of his ideas that he held in response to Mr. adbruch's philosophies. It is important to try to understand if H.L.A. Hart actually provided adequate responses to the criticisms made of adbruch's philosophical ties. These questions, however, can only be asked, answered and understood if the reader first gets a full grasp of the underlying philosophies. What is positivism and how does it apply to the average person on the street. When discussed, is positivism the same as legal positivism? This report will try to address….
Alexy, Robert. "Famous scholars from Kiel: Gustav Radbruch." Retrieved on November 3, 2009, from http://www.uni-kiel.de/ps/cgi-bin/fo-bio.php?nid=radbruch&lang=e
Hart, H.L.A., The Concept of Law. Second Edition (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1994)
Hart, H.L.A., "American Jurisprudence through English Eyes: The Nightmare and the Noble Dream." reprinted in Hart, H.L.A., Essays in Jurisprudence and Philosophy (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1983), 123-144.
Hart, H.L.A., "Book Review of The Morality of Law" 78 Harvard Law Review 1281 (1965)
Defining Post positivism:
definitional exercise in identity politics, in expanding cultural and semiotic discourse, and reinterpreting the continuing the literary effort of the 20th and 21st century to deconstruct human life and society
Postmodernism, the literary buzzword of the past century, is often considered to be a 'liberal' form of hermeneutics, in the sense that rather than attempting to define what makes the canon great, it attempts to expand the notion of what is a literary canon, what is great literature in general. However, many liberal political activists have accused the deconstructionit movement and the postmodern aesthetic for its tendency towards reductionism and relativism. In other words, by stressing that everything, including identity, is a construction, there is little ground for feminist and Marxist critics to stand on, politically, speaking, to make a material critique of oppressive structures within a society. If all definitions are contextually based, how are political….
Learning is cooperative and there is much to gain by sharing it with classmates. Special needs students had the right to merge with normal students in a regular classroom,…Read Full Paper ❯
Black Studies - Philosophy
Logical positivism (also known as logical empiricism) was a philosophical movement that began in Vienna, Austria during the 1920s, coming to public attention in 1929 with the publication of…Read Full Paper ❯
Business - Law
This showed me that law-protection of people from harm- was exclusive from the moral obligations of the society-such as working to improve the community. Basically, I eventually came…Read Full Paper ❯
Business - Law
Legal Positivism and Australian Law Nature and rule of law have generated more passionate debates in legal circles than anything else and the reason lies in the fact that law…Read Full Paper ❯
Business - Law
HLA Hart and Modern Legal Positivism H.L.A. Hart is one of the important names in the history of legal theories. In our class reading, Hart talked about past strict positivists…Read Full Paper ❯
Social Science_Module 4 In general, positivism is an approach to a number of disciplines, social science among them. It holds that the best approach to the study and analysis (and…Read Full Paper ❯
Thus, my goal is more in line with the goal of constructivist research, which aims to understand results in the term of the society, and understands that the…Read Full Paper ❯
Black Studies - Philosophy
ostpositivism vs. ostmodernism ostpositivism There are laws or theories that govern the world, and these need to be tested or verified and refined so that we can understand the world. Thus,…Read Full Paper ❯
Sociology - Research
How can I expand or advance the conversation by new insight or perspective?I agree with the idea that the ability to replicate a study is critical in being able…Read Full Paper ❯
Judicial Dissent in the Voice of John AustinTitle VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 is a federal law that prohibits discrimination in employment on the basis of…Read Full Paper ❯
Features of Positivist Criminology Positivist criminology uses scientific research (primarily quantitative, laboratory, empirical experiment) to investigate the causes of crime and deviant behavior. Positivist criminology posits that the roots…Read Full Paper ❯
Behaviorism and Positivism Behaviorism basically believes in the laws of the observable. It is based on rational, scientific, factual data. "The behaviorist school of thought maintains that behaviors as such…Read Full Paper ❯
Baronet's second assumption was that a low level of family support and a high level of relationship would also be associated with low feelings of satisfaction (the epistemological…Read Full Paper ❯
Business - Law
Gustav adbruch believed that positivistic theory renders both jurists and the normal person defenseless against our laws and legal system. He felt that no matter how arbitrary, cruel…Read Full Paper ❯
Sports - Women
Post positivism Defining Post positivism: definitional exercise in identity politics, in expanding cultural and semiotic discourse, and reinterpreting the continuing the literary effort of the 20th and 21st century to…Read Full Paper ❯