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Postpartum Depression: The ole of Nurses
Nursing oles and Postpartum Depression
Postpartum Depression: The Preventive and Interventional oles of Nurses
Postpartum depression is widely recognized as a significant health threat to the mother and the rest of the family, and thus to society, but the biggest threat is to the lifetime health prospects of the newborn infant. Given the health significance of postpartum depression, recent research about the risk factors for this condition, and recommendations for interventions, were examined. While a direct causal link between depression and child neglect does not appear to exist, or be statistically strong, there is a significant indirect causal link. The essential connection seems to be difficulty bonding and bonding is essential to the process of maternal-infant attachment. There also appears to be an inverse relationship between the strength of the attachment and the risk of postpartum depression, such that both mother and child benefit…
Choi, Hyungin, Yamashita, Tatsuhisa, Wada, Yoshihisa, Narumoto, Jin, Nanri, Hiromi, Fujimori, Akihito et al. (2010). Factors associated with postpartum depression and abusive behavior in mothers with infants. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 64, 120-127.
Courey, Tamra J., Martsolf, Donna, Draucker, Claire B., and Strickland, Karen B. (2008). Hildegard Peplau's theory and the healthcare encounters of survivors of sexual violence. Journal of the American Psychiatric Nurses Association, 14(2), 136-143.
Grassley, Jane S. (2010). Adolescent mothers' breastfeeding social support needs. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, & Neonatal Nursing, 39, 713-722.
Humphries, Joan M. And McDonald, Carol. (2012). Unveiling new dimensions: A hermeneutic exploration of perinatal mood disorder and infant feeding. Issues in Mental Health Nursing, 33, 377-386.
Postpartum depression is a serious problem among women. Once thought of as a relatively minor phase within the postpartum cycle, it is now known that it can seriously impair the individual woman's ability to function under the stress of new parenthood and can seriously erode the family, at a point of foundational transition. Over the last twenty years doctors and the general public have demonstrated greater knowledge of the problem of postpartum depression through awareness and of coarse research.
According to the British Columbia eproductive Mental Health Program the prevalence of postpartum depression is relatively high but has risk factors associated with age, social support level and prior history of either previous postpartum depression or other forms of clinical depression.
The most vulnerable time for a woman to develop onset of mood disorders is during the postpartum period. Approximately 12- 16% of women experience depression during the postpartum period. Adolescent…
(1995). Depression A Multimedia Sourcebook. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Dickstein, S., Seifer, R., Hayden, L.C., Schiller, M., Keitner, G., Miller, I., Matzko, M., Sameroff, A.J., Rasmussen, S., & Magee, K.D. (1998). Levels of Family Assessment: II. Impact of Maternal Psychopathology on Family Functioning. Journal of Family Psychology, 12(1), 23-40.
Goldstein, L.H., Diener, M.L., & Mangelsdorf, S.C. (1996). Maternal Characteristics and Social Support Across the Transition to Motherhood: Associations with Maternal Behavior. Journal of Family Psychology, 10(1), 60-71.
Howell, E. & Bayes, M. (Eds.). (1981). Women and Mental Health. New York: Basic Books.
If that is indeed the case, again her societal position afforded her this opportunity although it was in no way an intervention. She voiced some concern through tears in the quiet of the night. However, Scott points out that this submissive positioning exemplified in the story only served to support the diminished position of women during the time. Ecological adaptation equates to diminished female capacity for Scott and any reader who chooses to look past the flowery verbiage regarding the Yellow Wallpaper.
Postpartum depression is regarding by experts in the field as an environmental factor that is influential with the mother, child, and mother child dyad. When postpartum depression reaches a chronic state, less than ideal patterns of mother-infant interactions can develop. esultantly, secure attachment is delayed or hindered entirely, which serves to negatively effect social, emotional, cognitive, and neurological development. Empirical findings and the very nature of child…
Besser, A., Priel, B., & Wiznitzer, A. Childbearing depressive symptomology in high risk pregnancies the roles of working models and social support. Personal Relationships 9 (2002): 395-413.
Cox, J., Holden, J., & Sagovsky, R. detection of postnatal depression: development of the 10 item Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. British Journal of Psychotherapy, 150, (1987): 782-786.
Goodman, S. Depression in mothers. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 3, (2007): 107-135.
Kinnaman, G., & Jacobs, R. Seeing in the dark. Michigan: Baker Publishing Group, 2006.
, 2009, 239). When women begin to feel depressed, they often do not go find help or understand that this is an event that is more common than one would think. They tend to isolate their depression, which accelerates it even more. Advanced nurse practitioners and other nursing and clinical staff can help better provide for women by being accepting of their depression, rather than questioning it. Nursing staff can help ease some of the stress by not condemning the depressive feelings or symptoms, which typically make it worse. ather, nursing staff can help the women identify with others who have undergone similar depressive states, thus helping them understand they are not alone and reducing the pressure to put on a facade, which only increases mental stress and accelerates the condition overall.
Unfortunately, there are gaps in the literature in regards to the potential risk factors of PPD, leading to…
Maeve, M. Katherine. Postpartum depression theory. Chapter 34.
Oppo, a., Mauri, M., Ramacciotti, V., Camilleri, S., Banti, C., Rambellie, M.S., Montagnani, S., Cortopassi, a. Bettini, S., Ricciardulli, S. Montaresi, P., Rucci, Beck, C.T., Cassano, G.B. (2009). Risk factors for postpartum depression: The role of the Postpartum Depression Predictors Inventory-Revised (PDPI-R). Archive of Women's Mental Health, 12(2009), 239-249.
It takes time, reading baby-care books, talks with the pediatrician, support groups with other mothers, and experience to know how to care for a child. And the maternally bonding feelings sometimes take weeks or months to develop.
Perfect aby. The fantasy that your baby will be beautiful in every way, sleep through the night, and never cry is exactly that -- a fantasy. And the thoughts that all your friends new babies are perfect and yours isn't is also a fantasy. In 99 cases out of 100 that won't happen. ut these thoughts can contribute to PPD.
Perfect Mother. eing the perfect mom will never happen -- either for you or your friends whom you perceive as perfect. You think you are not living up to the ideally perfect mother because you have trouble sometimes balancing the baby, other children, housework, a job, a spouse, and a myriad of other…
ACOG. (2009, January). Postpartum depression. Retrieved February 27, 2010, from the American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG): http://www.acog.org /publications/patient_education/bp091.cfm familydoctor.org staff. (2008, February). Postpartum depression and the baby blues. Retrieved February 28, 2010, from familydoctor.org: http://familydoctor.org/online/famdocen/home/women/pregnancy/ppd/general/379.html
Lane, B. (2007, January 21). Causes of postpartum depression. Retrieved February 28, 2010, from suite101.com: http://pregnancychildbirth.suite101.com/article.cfm/causes_of_postpartum_depression
Leopold, K., & Zoschnick, L. (n.d.). Postpartum depression. Retrieved March 1, 2010, from obgyn.net: http://www.obgyn.net/femalepatient/femalepatient.asp?page=leopold
Mayo Clinic Staff. (2009). Postpartum Depression. Retrieved February 27, 2010, from Mayoclinic.com: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/postpartum-depression/DS00546
Postpartum depression or postnatal depression is a term that describes the occurrence of moderate to severe depression in a woman after she has given birth (although sometimes men are given this diagnosis when severe depression occurs after the birth of a child). This depression may occur soon after delivery and may linger up to a year or longer. In the majority of recognized cases the depression occurs within the first three months following the delivery of the child. The DSM-IV does not recognize postpartum depression as a distinct disorder. People who receive a diagnosis of postpartum depression must first meet the standard diagnostic criteria for a major depressive episode and then they must satisfy the additional specifier criteria for the postpartum onset (American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2000). This criterion states that the onset of the major depressive episode must occur within four weeks after delivery.
Postpartum depression then should be…
American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manualof mental disorders (4th Ed.-test revision). Washington D.C.: author.
Cohen, J. (1997). The earth is round (p < .05). The American Psychologist, 49 (12), 997-1003.
Daston, L. (2005). Scientific error and the ethos of belief. Social Research, 72 (1), 1-28.
Hageman, W.J., & Arrindell, W.A. (1999). Establishing clinically significant change: Increment of precision and the distinction between individual and group level of analysis. Behavior Research and Therapy, 37, 1169-1193.
The issue that is most often associated with the diagnosis of PPD is the time frame, however Records notes that there are major discrepancies between the maternity and psychiatric literature making a 2-12-month diagnosis difficult (Records pp). The subjects in Records's study described how their past abuse experiences affected their thoughts and view of their labor, delivery, and postpartum experiences (Records pp). Records revealed that "all of the subjects felt that the combined recall of trauma events and the labor and delivery experience provided the foundation for the PPD...perceived negative labor and delivery experience as the basis for their PPD" (Records pp).
In the May 01, 2002 issue of OB GYN News, Erik L. Goldman cites Dr. Diana Dell's press briefing sponsored by the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. According to Dell, women are under tremendous pressure to "make perfect babies and to be perfect mothers and perfect wives...and…
Cohen, Lee. "Treating postpartum depression." OB GYN News. February 02, 2002.
Retrieved October 29, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site.
Epperson, C. Neill. "Postpartum Major Depression: Detection and Treatment."
American Family Physician. April 15, 1999. Retrieved October 29, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site.
Postpartum Depression Screening
Evaluation Plan for Postpartum Depression Screening Initiative
Evaluation Plan for Postpartum Depression Screening Initiative
Although a number of screening and treatment programs for postpartum depression have been implemented, many of these programs have not been studied to determine efficacy (reviewed by Yawn et al., 2012b). This lack of evidence has prevented a number of agencies and organizations from issuing recommendations, including the American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology and the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force.
The Institute of Medicine's (2001) report, titled "Crossing the Quality Chasm: A New Health System for the 21st Century," proposed six aims to improve health care in America. These aims were providing safe, effective, patient-centered, timely, efficient, and equitable care. One of the rules outlined to help achieve these aims was to ensure that patients received care based on the best scientific evidence available. In keeping with this goal of…
Gilbody, Simon, Richards, David, Brealey, Stephen, and Hewitt, Catherine. (2007). Screening for depression in medical settings with the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ): A diagnostic meta-analysis. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 22(11), 1596-1602.
Gilbody, Simon, Sheldon, Trevor, and House, Allan. (2008). Screening and case-finding instruments for depression: A meta-analysis. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 178(8), 997-1003.
Institute of Medicine. (2001). Crossing the quality chasm: A new health system for the 21st century. IOM.edu. Retrieved 20 Sep. 2012 from http://www.iom.edu/~/media/Files/Report%20Files/2001/Crossing-the-Quality-Chasm/Quality%20Chasm%202001%20%20report%20brief.pdf.
Kozhimannil, Katy Backes, Adams, Alyce S., Soumerai, Alisa B. Busch, and Huskamp, Haiden A. (2011). New Jersey's efforts to improve postpartum depression care did not change treatment patterns for women on Medicaid. Health Affairs, 30(2), 293-301.
After controlling for initial depressive symptoms during pregnancy, optimism was associated with fewer depressive symptoms at three weeks postpartum" (Grote & Bledsoe, 2007). They found this in other areas of women's lives, as well, such as reaching menopause and other stressful events that can often lead to the development of depression. Thus, if a family member or loved one suspects a new mother may develop postpartum depression, they could give her support, understanding, and help her to become more optimistic in her outlook to help ward off or deal with the disorder. Support from family members is also an important element of care after the baby is born, and the lack of it can help lead to depression.
In conclusion, postpartum depression is a common disorder, and it can hit just about any new mother. In some cases, the symptoms disappear by themselves, but in severe cases, the woman should…
Abrams, L.S., & Curran, L. (2007). Not just a middle-class affliction: Crafting a social work research agenda on postpartum depression. Health and Social Work, 32(4), 289+.
Editors. (2008). Depression during and after pregnancy. Retrieved 8 Dec. 2008 from the Women's Health.gov Web site:
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Postpartum Depression
Becoming a new mother can be a very overwhelming experience for some women and the symptoms of postpartum depression that follow birth can confuse and deject them. It is important that women receive the therapeutic help they need in these situations. This paper will discuss the symptoms and causes of postpartum depression, how a counselor can develop strategies to work with clients experiencing postpartum depression, how a counselor can build rapport, barriers to care, and psychological interventions the counselor can use to treat the client.
Symptoms and Causes
Symptoms of postpartum depression for new mothers include a range of signs that can go from mild to extreme. On the mild end of the scale one may experience mood swings, anxiety, sadness, irritability, feelings of being overwhelmed, crying, inability to concentrate, loss of appetite and trouble sleeping (Mayo Clinic, 2020). These symptoms can last…
Coping Skills: Postpartum Depression
One of the most useful coping strategies for individuals suffering from depression is to take active steps to reduce the stressors responsible for triggering the depression in the first place (Orzechowska, Zajaczkowska, Talarowska, & Galecki 2013). For patients diagnosed with postpartum depression, this may include reducing the sleep deprivation and constant demands of caring for a newborn. Ensuring that the patient has support from her partner, relatives, and if possible from a hired nurse can reduce some of the factors which may exacerbate her negative mood. Another coping skill is that of reframing. Many women feel guilty that they do not have wholly positive feelings about their newborn and have ambivalent feelings about mothering in general. "Positive reinterpretation and growth (growing as a person as a result of the experience, seeing events in a positive light)" can encourage the woman to see her desire to maintain…
Fitelson, E., Kim, S. Baker, A., & Leight, L. (2011). Treatment of postpartum depression:
clinical, psychological and pharmacological options. International Journal of Women's Health, 3: 1 -- 14. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3039003/
Leandro, P. & Castillo, M. (2010). Coping with stress and its relationship with personality dimensions, anxiety, and depression. Procedia, 5: 1562-1573. Retrieved from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1877042810017003
Orzechowska, A. Zajaczkowska, M., Talarowska, M. & Galecki, P. (2013). Depression and ways of coping with stress: A preliminary study. Medical Science Monitor, 19: 1050 -- 1056. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3852369/
birth of a child is often a time of anxiety for both parents and a source of physical, emotional, and mental strain for the soon to be mother. Within a short amount of time however, family members usually become accustomed to new sleeping schedules, different routines, and even occasional moments of mild depression or mood swings. Their lives quickly return to normal, and their emotions become stable, which allows them to experience the joy of having a newborn child.
For nearly ten percent of new mothers and over thirty percent of all mothers, however, the feelings of mild depression and periods of mood swings do not disappear (Verkerk, 2005). This lingering sense of depression and anguish is known as postpartum depression, and is an extremely misunderstood, misdiagnosed mental illness that plagues thousands of women each year. Untreated, postpartum depression can become a nightmare for the women who experience it, and…
Ainsworth, P. (2000). Understanding depression. Jackson, MS: University Press of Mississippi.
British Columbia Reproductive Mental Health Program. (2000). Psychosis. Reproductive Mental Health. Retrieved from BCRMHP. Web site: http://www.bcrmh.com/disorders/psychosis.htm.
Canadian Mental Health Association. (2004). Postpartum depression. Reach Out. Retrieved from the Canadian Mental Health Association. Web site: http://www.cmha.ca/bins/content_page.asp?cid=3-86-87-88 .
Meinrad, P., & Reicherts, M. Depressed people coping with aversive situations. In P. Meinrad (Ed.), Stress, coping, and health: A situation-behavior approach (pp. 103-105). Seattle, WA: Hogrefe and Huber.
Long before the term postpartum depression became part of the vernacular, Charlotte Perkins Gilman deftly and sensitively describes the complex condition in her short story “The Yellow Wallpaper.” The story describes the prevailing attitudes towards women and their narrowly defined roles in society. White, upper middle class women like the narrator of “The Yellow Wallpaper” could not easily express discontent with their position as wife and mother. The narrator’s husband—a physician—believes there is “nothing the matter” with his wife except “temporary nervous depression” and “a slight hysterical tendency,” (Gilman 648). Noting her brother is also a physician, the narrator exclaims, “But what is one to do,” when one is just a woman, and therefore a subordinate whose total financial and social dependency on their male counterparts precludes their self-determination (Gilman 649). To address her “hysteria,” the narrator’s husband and brother confine her to a pleasant enough country home, but restrict…
So, although the reverse of these characteristic is not indicative of depression, their expression within the context of grief suggests the lack of clinical depression.
ith the fundamentals of depression outlined, it is reasonable to wonder why such symptoms and behaviors manifest themselves in certain people and why they do not in others. Many different researchers coming from many different scientific backgrounds -- from psychology to biochemistry -- have investigated the fundamentals of depression, and each have constructed models as to what its underlying causes are. Each of these investigations has attempted to explain the causes and symptoms of depression and has offered treatment possibilities.
The psychological models of depression have focused their attention on failed early attachment, inability to obtain desired rewards, impaired social relations, and distorted thinking." This approach to depression has yielded some valuable information regarding the disorder; yet, much of the results make it unclear as…
Ainsworth, Patricia M.D. Understanding Depression. Jackson: University of Mississippi Press, 2000.
American Medical Association. Essential Guide to Depression. New York: Pocket Books, 1998.
Cherlin, Andrew J. "Going to Extremes: Family Structure, Children's Well-Being, and Social Science." Demography, Vol. 36, Nov. 1999. Pages 421-28.
Copeland, Mary Ellen M.S., M.A. The Depression Workbook: Second Edition. Oakland: New Harbinger Publications, 2001.
(Mason, ice & ecords, 2005, p.52)
The literature dealing with postnatal depression has sought over many years to understand the phenomena of postnatal depression and to find causal links to external and internal environments that could cause it in certain women. In Grote and Bledsoe the goal of the work was to study the influence of optimism and stress in the life and mind of the new mother and determine if there was a link between the negative and/or positive the led to or helped avoid postnatal depression. The results of this research correlated internal optimism with a reduced risk of postnatal depression but also found causal links between postnatal depression and life stresses. Though internal optimism was able to counter these effects it is clear that the lack of social support that can be linked with life stress still increased the incidence of depression in some women. (Grote &…
Clemmens, D.A. (2002). Adolescent Mother's Depression after the Birth of Their Babies: Weathering the Storm. Adolescence, 37(147), 551.
Conway, K.S., & Kennedy, L.D. (2004). Maternal Depression and the Production of Infant Health. Southern Economic Journal, 71(2), 260.
1995). Depression a Multimedia Sourcebook. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Frye, a.A., & Garber, J. (2005). The Relations among Maternal Depression, Maternal Criticism and Adolescents' Externalizing and Internalizing Symptoms. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 33(1), 1.
I said that I also thought that the doctor may want to do some blood tests just to make sure that everything was running smoothly in her body.
Kathy seemed to be restless as she was moving her hands and feet quite a bit -- another sign that is quite common in postnatal depressive patients. I also noted that there seemed to be some kind of anxiety in Kathy and the anxiety seemed to really be present when we talked specifically about the baby. She seemed hopeless as well in that she repeatedly stated that she feels that she can't do anything right. Anxiety over not knowing exactly how to do things as a first time mother are quite common (Dalton & Holton 2001, p. 45), however, Kathy's anxiety seems to be much more than just that. She reported that her focus had been quite scattered (not being able to…
Aiken, C. 2000. Surviving postnatal depression: At home, no one hears you scream. (1st
edition). Jessica Kingsley Publishers.
Dalton, K. & Holton, W. 2001. Depression after childbirth: How to recognize, treat, and prevent postnatal depression. (4th edition). New York: Oxford University Press.
Kleiman, K. 1994. This isn't what I expected: Overcoming postpartum depression. (1st
Stressful Factors and Coping Styles of Women With Babies 0-3 Months Old
This is a report on a descriptive study that was conducted among women who had babies between the 0-3 months age in order to understand the way they deal with the varied stresses that they go through during that postpartum period. It describes the problems that these mothers encounter due to baby care, self-care and social life, these three being the main sources of their stress. The article highlights the varied statistics of the women who were affected by the different causes as well as the different interventions that have been taken by different countries in ensuring that women at that stage of life can cope with the physiological as well as the emotional changes that they undergo after birth.
There are as many as 80% of women who suffer postpartum depression, otherwise referred to as "baby blues."…
Deniz C. & Ayaz S., (2013). Factors causing stress in women with babies
0-3 months old and their coping styles. Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing. Pp588. John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Baby Care Center, (2015). Postpartum Depression and Anxiety. Retrieved October 1, 2015 from http://www.babycenter.com/0_postpartum-depression-and-anxiety_227.bc
Silence and Withdrawal - where the man "punishes" the woman for her "behavior" by becoming silent and withdrawn.
Lack of Emotional Connection - where the woman reaches out for support and empathy, and the man withholds it (Chang 73-81).
It is easy to see how these conditions of verbal and mental abuse could lead to feelings of low self-esteem and depression in women. Author Chang quotes a woman stuck in a mentally abusive relationship as saying, "He complained I never communicated with him, but whenever I tried to communicate with him, he would always tell me why I was wrong to think that way. And so it finally reached a point of why bother. You know, I got tired of listening to him criticize me'" (37-year-old nurse) (Chang 73). Studies indicate that abuse in a relationship, no matter what type of abuse, can lead to long-term depression, especially when the…
Ainsworth, Patricia. Understanding Depression. Jackson, MS: University Press of Mississippi, 2000.
Chang, Valerie Nash. I Just Lost Myself. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 1996.
D'Mello, Dale a. "1 Epidemiology of Late-Life Depression." Depression in Later Life: A Multidisciplinary Psychiatric Approach. Ed. James M. Ellison and Sumer Verma. New York: Marcel Dekker, 2003. 1-26.
Editors. "Depression: What Every Woman Should Know." National Institute for Mental Health. 2007. 30 Nov. 2007. http://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/publications/depression-what-every-woman-should-know/summary.shtml
The sample is related only to the point where they share the same baseline categories previously mentioned.
The sampling technique used in this research was selected sampling due to the specfic needs of the participants.
The BMI groups variables were analyzed using ANOVA for continuous variables and chi-square analyses for categorical variables.
Results or Findings
The BMI group demonstrated that 39% of participants were normal weight, 31% were overweight and 40% were obese. On other comparisons, Tukey HSD post-test analyses showed that obese participants had more stress, depression and conflict, and less self-esteem and social support than normal weight and overweight women and Conclusions
Results from this study showed that BMI significantly related to STI incidence and sexual risk. Overweight women were at increased risk for STI incidence compared to normal weight women and obese women. However, being obese was protective for STIs, with obese…
Depression is a state of sadness and gloom where one feels dull and overwhelmed by the challenges of life. People tend to say that they are "depressed' any time they feel very unhappy. More likely than not, it could just be a mere response to fatigue, sad thoughts or events. This improper use of this term causes confusion between an ordinary mood swing and a medical condition. While it is normal for all human beings to experience dejection every now and then, a few people may experience unipolar depression. Ordinary dejection is rarely serious enough to significantly affect a person's day to day activities and does not persist for long. Mood downcasts can even have some benefits. Time spent contemplating can help an individual explore their inner self, values and way of life. They often come out of it feeling stronger, resolved and with a greater sense of clarity.
Comer, R. (2013). Abnormal Psychology (8th ed.). New York: Worth Publishers.
Bolton, P., Bass, J., Neugebauer, R., Verdeli, H., Clougherty, K. F., Wickramaratne, P.,. ..& Weissman, M. (2003). Group interpersonal psychotherapy for depression in rural Uganda: a randomized controlled trial. Jama, 289(23), 3117-3124. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12813117
Dombrovski, A. Y., Lenze, E. J., Dew, M. A., Mulsant, B. H., Pollock, B. G., Houck, P. R., & Reynolds, C. F. (2007). Maintenance Treatment for Old-Age Depression Preserves Health-Related Quality of Life: A Randomized, Controlled Trial of Paroxetine and Interpersonal Psychotherapy. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 55(9), 1325-1332. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17767673
Elder, B. L., &Mosack, V. (2011). Genetics of depression: an overview of the current science. Issues in mental health nursing, 32(4), 192-202. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21355753
Experimental Method Design Project
Impact of different types of support systems on postpartum depression in women
he research question under study is the degree to which support structures can affect the severity of the symptoms of postpartum depression. Other questions that may be considered include whether certain support structures are more valuable than others, such as the father of the child vs. family members and friends, or formal, professional supportive structures such as through a hospital or school.
he first difficulty of studying women with postpartum depression is finding women who can be the object of study. Not all women suffer from postpartum depression, so a generalized study of pregnant women is not sufficient. he most appropriate methodology would be to study women currently identified as suffering from postpartum depression. Subjects could be contacted through physicians and also through soliciting volunteers through advertisements on parenting-themed websites. hey could also…
The women in the study will be subjected to a 'follow up' series of interviews within six months, after the initial series of interviews. This will allow the research to be contextualized in terms of the women's recovery or trajectory of the illness, to assess the impact of support after identification and treatment in the long-term.
Borgatti, Steve. (n.d). Introduction to grounded research. Retrieved July 23, 2011 at http://www.analytictech.com/mb870/introtoGT.htm
Maternal Mental Health in Pregnancy and Child Behavior. This is designed to provide better insights about how parental postpartum depression (PPD) is impacting the mother and the child. The findings are determined based upon looking at different cultures and the frequency of them. It is at this point, when there is a focus on previous research and any kind of gaps in existing theories. (Lukose, 2011)
In the future, these conclusions can improve everyone's understanding of how this is impacting both the patent and child during the pregnancy process. Then, after they are born is when these factors are taken into consideration to see how this is influencing their development. Over the course of time, this will enable healthcare professionals to understand the impact PPD on the parents and their children. (Lukose, 2011)
Provide a summation of the research conducted and the research findings
The research looked at the effects…
Lukose, A. (2011). Maternal Mental Health. Indian Journal of Psychiatry, 53 (4), 351 -- 361.
Breast pumping techniques.
Introduction to Internet and print resources for new mothers.
Introduction to social networking and support groups for new mothers in her area.
Teaching Strategies Used and ationale
The teacher and learner will have a high degree of privacy in the hospital room during the teaching project. Therefore, lessons on breastfeeding will be comfortable and cause little embarrassment for the learner. Having privacy will help the learner feel relaxed and willing to breastfeed in front of the teacher. Also, the private setting will help the learner express her emotions.
Having determined that the learner prefers to observe and then act, the teaching strategies used for the project will include demonstrations and imitation. The learner's positive attitude directly suggests her high level of motivation to learn. Also, her cultural background and tendency to be compliant with hospital standards and procedures imply that the learner is likely to be highly…
American Academy of Family Physicians (2008). Breastfeeding: How to pump and store your breast milk. Retrieved July 14, 2008 at http://familydoctor.org/online/famdocen/home/women/pregnancy/birth/828.html
American College of Healthcare Executives (nd). Using adult lifelong learning concepts. Retrieved July 14, 2008 at http://www.ache.org/pgfd/lifelong.cfm
Baby Center Medical Advisory Board (2006). Postpartum exercise: Is your body ready? BabyCenter.com. Retrieved July 14, 2008 at http://www.babycenter.com/0_postpartum-exercise-is-your-body-ready_196.bc
Beger, D. & Cook, S.A. (1998). Postpartum teaching priorities: the viewpoints of nurses and mothers. Journal of Obstetric and Gynecological Neonatal Nursing. Mar-Apr;27(2):161-8. Retrieved July 14, 2008 at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9549701
The authors state, "underlying mechanism through which exposure to childhood abuse is associated with increased risk of panic cannot be determined based on these data alone" (p. 888). They offer several possible explanations. Exposure to abuse as a child may result in an extreme and realistic fear of threat to survival. This may be how panic disorder starts. Later, it may persist, or recur spontaneously, even without abusive conditions. In the face of a real life threat, panic is not pathological, but in childhood panic may make the child more vulnerable to panic later. Exposure to abuse may lead to biochemical changes that increase the risk of a disorder. Because the study was based on interviews with 18 to 21-year-olds, who were asked to recall past experiences, the findings could be contaminated by recall bias in which young people with mental instability might be more likely to report abuse in…
Bandelow, B., Sojka, F. et al. (2006). Panic disorder during pregnancy and postpartum period. European Psychiatry, 21, 495-500.
Biederman, J., Petty, C., Faraone, S.V. et al. (2006). Effects of parental anxiety disorders in children at high risk for panic disorder: A controlled study. Journal of Affective Disorders, 94, 191-197.
Goodwin, R.D., Fergusson, D.M. And Horwood, L.J. (2004). Childhood abuse and familial violence and the risk of panic attacks and panic disorder in young adulthood. Psychological Medicine, 35, 881-890.
Warren, S.L., Racu, C., Gregg, V. And Simmens, S.J. (2006). Maternal panic disorder: Infant prematurity and low birth weight. Anxiety Disorders, 20, 342-352.
Bipolar psychiatric disorder (BD) -- which is characterized by "…cycles of depression and mania" -- is a "euphoric, high-energy state" that can produce remarkable bursts of creativity or, on the other hand, can produce erratic behavioral events that are risky and provocative (Gardner, 2011). About 2.4% of the world's population has been diagnosed with bipolar disorder (at one time or another in their lifetime) but the rate in the United States (4.4% of the population) is the highest of any nation (Gardner, p. 1). The lowest rate on record is in India, 0.1%. This paper reviews various aspects and ramifications of the effects of bipolar disorder through nine peer-reviewed research articles.
Bipolar disorder and cigarette smoking
In the journal Bipolar Disorders the authors point out that adults suffering from bipolar disorder are "…two to three times more likely" have begun a serious smoking habit, which is a "devastating addiction" and…
Calkin, Cynthia, and Alda, Martin. (2012). Beyond the Guidelines for Bipolar Disorder: Practical
Issues in Long-Term Treatment with Lithium. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 57(7), 437-
Gardner, Amanda. (2011). U.S. has highest bipolar rate in 11-nation study. CNN Health.
Retrieved March 27, 2013, from http://www.cnn.com .
hen their state of denial lifts, they are often wracked with remorse for what they've done.
The final circumstance that Resnick lists is uncommon but not unheard of among mothers who kill their children: spousal revenge. Though this is rare among women, one recent case that highlights it is the case of an Ontario mother, Elaine Campione, who drowned her two daughters in the bathtub, allegedly to keep her ex-husband from getting custody and to inflict intense suffering upon him. She even made a video only minutes after the murders, asking her ex-husband if he was "happy now" (CTV News 2010).
ith all of these circumstances potentially leading parents, especially mothers, to murder their children, legal prosecution and defense of these cases can be difficult -- at times, heart-wrenching. In the cases of mothers who have killed their children, the great majority of the defenses center around pleas of insanity.…
Child Abuse Prevention Network. http://child-abuse.com/ . Accessed 1 February 2011.
Jones, a. (2009) Women Who Kill. New York: The Feminist Press of the City College of New York.
Meyer, C., Oberman, M. And White, K. (2001). Mothers Who Kill Their Children. New York: NYU Press.
National Council for the Prosecution of Child Abuse. http://www.ndaa.org/ncpca_home.html . Accessed 1 February 2011.
Armstrong's findings additionally relate that due to previous research and the influence of perinatal loss on postpartum depression on partnered relationships. Armstrong states that differences in continued psychological stress between mothers and fathers after a subsequent birth is another area requiring further evaluation. Specifically stated is that it is necessary to evaluate "...the strength of partnered relationships during future childbearing experiences is important to identify any potential influence of the loss on couple, as well as family, outcomes. Understanding possible gender differences may help neonatal nurses and other healthcare providers to recognize couples at risk for discord." (2007)
Neonatal nurses are those who work closely with infants and parents and in the best position to make identification of depression and to pose questions about the individuals symptoms including:
3) energy or fatigue levels;
4) ability to concentrate; and 5) as well the neonatal nurse is in…
Gold, K.J., Dalton, V.K. And Schwenk, T.L. (2007) Hospital Care for Parents After Perinatal Death. Obstetrics and Gynecology Vol. 109. No. 5 May 2007.
Hughes, P., Turton, P., Hopper, E. And Evans, CDH (2002) Assessment of Guidelines for Good Practice in Psychosocial Care of Mothers After Stillbirth: A Cohort Study. The Lancet 2002;360:114-18.
Alexander, K.V. (2001) the One Thing You Can Never Take Away": Perinatal Bereavement Photographs. The American Journal of Maternal/Child Nursing Vol. 26(3) May/June 2001. 2001 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.
608). Hence, Spears is seen as transcending from teen pop star to "vamp." Some of her fans refer to her as "slore" (the combined words "slut" and "whore") because of her move from teen cuteness to adult soft core pornography.
Although it is possible, it doesn't seem likely that Spears suffers from schizophrenia. In his book, Dr. David Barlow lists the diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia, and while Spears has shown "grossly disorganized…" behavior, to our knowledge she does not have disorganized speech, delusions or hallucinations. There is nothing in the literature about Spears that indicates she has had autistic issues or psychotic lapses, but again, schizophrenia is a remote possibility (Barlow, et al., 2008).
hat interventions may be appropriate for Spears, given the widespread believe among those close to her and professionals that she has psychological problems?
Does Spears suffer from a bipolar condition? According to Medline Plus (part of…
American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2009). Postpartum Blues. Retrieved Dec. 16, 2009, from http://www.acog.org .
Barlow, David H. (2008). Abnormal Psychology: An Integrative Approach. Florence, KY:
Celizic, Mike. (2008). Spears Suffering from "Bipolar Disorder." MSNBC. Retrieved Dec. 16,
The data collection methods were grounded in scientific theory and enabled collection of accurate information based on the results of the questionnaire's provided to patients participating in the study.
This study deals with a very private and thus ethical issue. The researchers took great care to ensure that high standards of moral and ethical virtue were maintained for purposes of this project. The authors point out that they acquired approval prior to initiating the study. In addition, intensive training was required prior to commencement of the study.
The author would have done well to detail in greater detail the exact methods that were adopted to ensure the privacy and anonymity of each of the mothers participating in the study.
Presentation of Data/Conclusions
The presentation of the final data and conclusions could be improved upon. The author would have benefited by comparing each of the result segments with…
Horowits, J.H., & Bell, M. et. al. (2001)."Promoting responsiveness between mothers with depressive symptoms and their infants." Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 33 (4), 323-329
nursing because a solution to it directly impacts the level of quality care that staff can provide to patients.
The research is quantitative.
The underlying purpose of the study is to test whether providing information from assessments about patient-caregiver hospice dyads to interdisciplinary teams is effective in improving hospice outcomes. The purpose does correspond to an EBP focus -- namely, therapy/treatment.
Greater awareness leads to a greater ability to provide care.
This study could have been undertaken as a qualitative study by conducting interviews with caregivers and/or patients to assess personal reactions to the issue at hand.
Example 2: Qualitative Research
The research problem is very relevant to the actual practice of nursing because it regards how patients deal with suffering, self-blame, guilt, etc., all of which nurses will encounter when treating them.
The research is qualitative.
The underlying purpose of the study is to provide description of a situation.…
Maternal Risk Entity
Is there anything more important to a family -- and to the community of interest around that family -- than the safe and healthy delivery of the brand new baby and its mother? Modern medicine has provided technologies and training to alleviate many of the risks vis-a-vis mother and infant, however there is never going to be a situation absolutely free of potential risks surrounding pregnancy, childbirth, and the post-pregnancy period. Hence, nurses and physicians and other healthcare professionals must stay informed and be fully prepared to come up with solutions when risky situations occur. This paper presents the peer-reviewed literature on several maternal risks and there possible remedies.
Infants' Risks in Late Preterm Births
In the peer-reviewed journal Birth, the authors point out that the preterm birth rate has risen from 10.6 births in 1990 to 12.8% in 2006 -- a twenty percent increase (Kirby, et…
Hooker, L., Ward, B., and Verrinder, G. (2012). Domestic violence screening in maternal and child health nursing practice: A scoping review. Contemporary Nurse, 42(3), 198-215.
Kirby, R.S., and Wingate, M.S. (2010). Late Preterm Birth and Neonatal Outcome: Is 37 Weeks'
Gestation a Threshold Level or a Road Market on the Highway of Perinatal Risk? Birth, 37(2)
In 2001, Andrea Kennedy Yates drowned her five children one at a time in her bathtub (Moisse, 2012). The first criminal trial lasted a total of only three weeks. Yates was convicted of capital murder, but was not given the death penalty. Instead, Yates was given life in prison with a chance for parole in 2041. However, in 2005, Yates' initial conviction was overturned in a Texas appellate court. A new trial was ordered, based primarily on the fact that a witness for the prosecution lied under oath. During the initial trial of Yates, the prosecution called Park Dietz to attempt to establish premeditation. Dietz "falsely told jurors that Yates had watched an episode of "Law and Order" in which a mother had drowned her children in their bathtub…but no episode had ever aired," ("How Andrea Yates Lives, and Lives With Herself, a Decade Later," n.d.). In 2006,…
"Andrea Yates, who killed her five children, will ask for pass to attend church," (2012). NBC News. Retrieved online: http://usnews.nbcnews.com/_news/2012/03/28/10910591-andrea-yates-who-killed-her-five-children-will-ask-for-pass-to-attend-church-lite
"How Andrea Yates Lives, and Lives With Herself, a Decade Later," (2012). The Atlantic. Retrieved online: How Andrea Yates Lives, and Lives With Herself, a Decade Laterhttp://www.theatlantic.com/national/archive/2012/03/how-andrea-yates-lives-and-lives-with-herself-a-decade-later/254302/
Moisee, K. (2012). Andrea Yates Could Be Released From Psychiatric Hospital to Attend Church. ABC News. March 28, 2012. Retrieved online: http://abcnews.go.com/Health/MindMoodNews/andrea-yates-released-psychiatric-hospital-attend-church/story?id=16021269#.UKgRkePreII
Montaldo, C. (n.d.). Profile of Andrea Yates. About.com. Retrieved online: http://crime.about.com/od/current/p/andreayates.htm
Maternity Nursing, Labor & Delivery / Newborn
Labor and Delivery Terms
Para: Para refers to the number of live births a woman has had (it might be a stillbirth, or twins, or even triplets) past the 20-week gestation period (Zimmerman, p. 116).
Gravida: this refers to the number of times a woman has been pregnant, whether she actually gave birth, had an abortion or a stillbirth (Zimmerman, p. 116).
Amniotic Sac: this is a membrane around which the fetus is surrounded. It is a strong series of membranes that is visible after 7 weeks of gestation. (Jurkovic, et al., 2011).
Cervical Effacement: this phrase refers to the measurement of the expansion of the cervix as the baby gets closer to being born. hen the cervix is 50% effaced, it is halfway to being ready for the baby to be born (Jurkovic, et al., 2011).
Cervical dilation: Slowly but surely the…
Encyclopedia Britannica. (2010). Childbirth. Retrieved August 17, 2011, from http://www.britannica.com/bps/search?query=childbirth .
Heller, Michelle E., and Veach, Lynette M. (2008). Clinical Medical Assisting: A Professional,
Field Smart Approach to the Workplace. Florence, KY: Cengage Learning.
Jailkhani, R., Patil, VS., Laxman, HB, Shivashankara, AR, Kulkarni, SP, and Ravindra, MS.
A slightly broader study was deployed for the quantitative study entitled "Multiple gestations: side effects of antepartum bed rest." This study found that high-risk pregnancies and bed rest significantly increased the stressors upon the women. It measured this by using the Antepartum Stressors Hospital Inventory, and depressive symptoms were measured by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). The weekly rate of maternal weight gain during hospitalization was also significantly less than recent recommendations for multiple gestation weight gain and women on bed rest reported a high number of depressive symptoms than those patients not on bed rest. CES-D scores for depressive symptoms were high as were postpartum symptoms for women in the study.
This study also recommended that it is critical for hospitals to attempt to alleviate antepartum stress, but it focused on the physical risks posed by maternal weight loss, as well as psychological stress, stress, depression,…
Maloni, J.A & S.P. Margevicius, & E.G. Damato. (2006, Oct). "Multiple gestation: side effects of antepartum bed rest. Biological Research Nursing. 8(2):115-28. Retrieved 22 Sept 2007 at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?Db=pubmed&Cmd=ShowDetailView&TermToSearch=17003251&ordinalpos=1&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_RVAbstractPlus
Richter, M.S.C. Parkes, & J. Chaw-Kant. (2007, Jul-Aug). "Listening to voices of hospitalized high-risk antepartum patients." Journal of Obstetrics Gynecological Neonatal Nursing. 36(4):313-8. Retrieved 22 Sept 2007 at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?Db=pubmed&Cmd=ShowDetailView&TermToSearch=17594405&ordinalpos=1&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_RVDocSum
The popular media's negative coverage of the insanity defense in contested cases when a defendant claims not to have the rational capacity to commit a crime or has a diminished capacity to conceptualize a criminal intent has caused the public to dismiss forensic psychiatry as providing rationalizations or excuses for bad behavior, rather than possessing a real scientific method. The use of the insanity defense is clearly subject to sociological and societal factors, such as the statistically greater willingness to believe a man who kills his child is competent vs. A woman. However, the authors contend that this ignores the many cases where the defense and the prosecution both agree that the criminal in question was not competent and was operating upon a different schema of 'reality' that affected his or her ability to judge circumstances in the same fashion as a sane person. (It might be argued, in the…
Pain can be managed without the use of pharmaceutical interventions. Breathing techniques, massage, meditation, yoga, and other exercises can help with pain management and so can hypnosis. I learned that mothers also experience heartburn periodically, so they need to eat smaller, more frequent meals or ask their doctors for appropriate medical interventions.
Even those who are on their second or third births benefitted from the refresher course in labor and delivery, learning techniques of breathing and massage. Both the Lamaze and Bradley methods are helpful, although the latter provides a framework within which mothers concerned about their baby's exposure to chemicals and toxins can enjoy a natural childbirth. Another salient point that I learned from the participation was related to the signs of labor, which manifest differently for different patients. The key is to be aware of which signs are normal, and which may indicate a problem that requires immediate…
Methods of Killing
The methods of committing neonaticide, infanticide, and filicide are as diverse as the women who commit the tragic crime. According to ouge-Maillart, Jousset, Gaudin, Bouju, and Penneau (2005), strangulation, head trauma, drowning, and suffocation were the four most frequent methods of filicide. However, in these researchers' study, some mothers used what they deem to be 'more active' methods. Five children died after being struck by their mothers' fists. Two women in the study used a firearm to shoot their children. Two died after being hit with a heavy object, by their mother -- one a monkey wrench the other a stone. One woman slit her 13-year-old's throat. In one case, a 3-year-old boy died by defenestration -- being thrown out of the window. Lastly, a 10-month-old died of starvation and dehydration, after being deprived of food and water for 10 days.
Krischer, Stone, Sevecke, and Steinmeyer's (2007)…
Atwood, T. (Feb 2008). Comment: National Council for Adoption's response to the Texas Safe Haven Study. Child Maltreatment, 13(1). pp. 96-97.
Craig, M. (Feb 2004). Perinatal risk factors for neonaticide and infant homicide. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, 97. pp. 57-61.
Friedman, S., Horwitz, S., & Resnick, P. (2005) Child murder by mothers. American Journal of Psychiatry, 162. pp. 1578-1587.
Kauppi, A. Kumpulainen, K. Vanamo, T. Merikanto, J and Karkola K. (2008)Maternal depression and filicide. Archives of Women's Mental Health, 11. pp. 201-206.
Such a limited gathering of data suggests that perhaps a different outcome may have occurred had a truly careful and representative collection and analysis of data actually been performed.
Other significant limitations to this study exist. In fact, the sample of women and children was generally comprised of low risk and only primiparous mothers. Accordingly, the findings as generally stated may not accurate with regard to high risk and/or multiparous populations. Additionally, the sample itself was underpowered to actually detect the nuances between the different treatment groups. Admittedly, the research undertook to examine several different types of therapies and treatment amongst several different sets of women; and, a fastidious review of subtle differences between treatment groups was not completed. Furthermore, of the indicators that revealed a positive outcome, these indicators were based upon data from mothers which was subjective in nature as it was solely based upon the mothers' assessment…
Her physician husband, John, and those like him do "not believe" that she is "sick" or even, in her view, capable of understanding her sickness, so "what," she asks, "can one do?" (Hume).
How can one view this passage without seeing a total lack of communication in a marriage? The narrator even goes so far as to say, "It is so hard to talk to John about my case, because he is so wise, and because he loves me so" (Perkins Gilman). From a purely logical standpoint, John's wisdom and the fact that he loves her so would seem to naturally suggest that he would be the most receptive person to listen to the narrator's discussions, but other things that the narrator says reveal John's patronizing attitude towards her. Instead of caring for her, John absolutely ignores the narrator's suggestions about what she thinks may help heal her. Dismissing her…
Golden, Catherine. "The Writing of 'The Yellow Wallpaper': A Double Palimpsest." Studies in American Fiction. 17.2 (Autumn 1989): 193-201. Rpt. In Twentieth-Century Literary Criticism. Vol. 201. Detroit: Gale, Literature Resource Center.
Deneau, Daniel P. "Chopin's The Story of an Hour." The Explicator. (Vol. 61). .4 (Summer 2003): p210. Literature Resource Center.
Managing madness in Gilman's "The yellow wall-paper"
Hume, Beverly A.
Yonndio thirties" Tillie Olsen. Introduction Linda ray Pratt. Full citation heading- author, title, place publication, publisher, date, number pages. 1- The reviewer gives a clear concise summary content book
Olsen, Tillie. Yonnondio from the thirties. Bison, 2004.
Yonnondio from the thirties details the struggles of a Colorado-based mining family during the first half of the 20th century. Jim Holbrook is an alcoholic who abuses his wife Anna. They have many children, including the main protagonist of the novel, Mazie. Eventually the family moves to South Dakota where they establish a farm and briefly enjoy prosperity. However, the family still remains mired in debt, and when Anna becomes pregnant again, her marriage to Jim begins to even more rapidly dissolve. The family is forced to move to the city of Omaha. Conditions are far worse in an urban environment because of the poor health of the air, water, and closeness of…
Coiner, Constance. "Tillie Olsen." From Better Red: The Writing and Resistance of Tillie Olsen
and Meridel Le Sueur. New York: Oxford UP, 1995. http://www.english.illinois.edu/maps/poets/m_r/olsen/life.htm
Olsen, Tillie. Yonnondio from the thirties. Bison, 2004
"I cry at nothing, and cry most of the time… I lie here on this great immovable bed -- it is nailed down, I believe -- and follow that pattern about by the hour. It is as good as gymnastics, I assure you. I start, we'll say, at the bottom, down in the corner over there where it has not been touched, and I determine for the thousandth time that I will follow that pointless pattern to some sort of a conclusion." She does not think of her child, and only occasionally of her husband. The wallpaper and the imaginary woman command her focus. Forced into a pointless existence, and denied the mobility and the intellectual excitement that make life meaningful, the woman's mind turns to other intellectual and imaginary pursuits, Gilman suggests.
Eventually, rather than describing herself as looking at the pattern of the wallpaper, Gilman's heroine disassociates and…
Bak, John S. "Escaping the jaundiced eye: Foucauldian Panopticism in Charlotte Perkins
Gilman's 'The Yellow Wallpaper.'" Studies in Short Fiction. Winter 1994.
Accessed from Find Articles October 6, 2010 at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2455/is_n1_v31/ai_15356232/?tag=content;col1
Gilman, Charlotte Perkins. "The Yellow Wallpaper." Full e-text available from the University
The short-term effects of only one year.
hat this researcher also found enlightening was that the population of those working in the psychological field can accept many 'syndrome' type findings, but when it comes to a syndrome espoused by those who believe women who have abortions are affected by a post-abortion depression syndrome, those same psychological experts show scorn and disdain for such espousals.
One study agrees, stating that; "since the 1960's mental health professionals...have recognized disorders such as postpartum depression....can have a negative psychological impact on both mother and child these same constituencies have almost universally rejected the existence of Post Abortion Syndrome because of the lack of supporting scientific evidence or strong political support. (Psychology pg 117).
Other studies show that women no longer feel that abortion is anything more than an everyday procedure.
One study; "presents evidence that abortion is not likely to be followed by severe…
Adler, N., David, H., Major, B., Roth, S., Russo, N., Wyatt. G. "Psychological Factors in Abortion" American Psychologist 47.10 (1992) 1194-1204.
Kero, A., Hogberg, U., Lalas, A. "Well Being and Growth: Long-term Effects of Legal Abortion." Social Science and Medicine 58.12 (2004): 2559-2569.
Psychological Effects of Abortion and Motherhood." Psychology of Women Quarterly 30.1 (2006): 117
Maternity Leave: Why it Matters, Why We Need More
The United States lags behind its counterparts in the wealthy, developed world on many measures, not least of which is how it treats new moms. In the United States, only twelve percent of women have access to paid maternity leave of any length (Froese 1). The six weeks of paid maternity leave I receive from my company might be better than most Americans get, but it is still not at all enough and can lead to serious health problems for both mom and baby, as well as to more generalized societal ills. Research also reveals that current maternity leave programs in the United States reflect gross inequalities along the intersections between race, class, and gender, exacerbating income disparities (May 1). The United States should therefore adopt a more sensible, rights-based maternity leave policy, modeled after the successful programs already in place…
omen and Gender Studies
Of all the technologies and cultural phenomena human beings have created, language, and particularly writing, is arguably the most powerful, because it is the means by which all human experience is expressed and ordered. As such, controlling who is allowed to write, and in a modern context, be published, is one of the most effective means of controlling society. This fact was painfully clear to women writers throughout history because women were frequently prohibited from receiving the same education as men, and as the struggle for gender equality began to read a critical mass near the end of the nineteenth century, control over women's access to education and writing became a central theme in a number of authors' works, whether they considered themselves feminists or not. In particular, Charlotte Perkins Gilman's 1892 story The Yellow allpaper features this theme prominently, and Virginia oolf's extended essay A…
Bak, John S. "Escaping the Jaundiced Eye: Foucauldian Panopticism in Charlotte Perkins
Gilmans "the Yellow Wallpaper." Studies in Short Fiction 31.1 (1994): 39-.
Carstens, Lisa. "Unbecoming Women: Sex Reversal in the Scientific Discourse on Female
Deviance in Britain, 1880-1920." Journal of the History of Sexuality 20.1 (2011):
Characteristics did Jenny have as a child that are common in individuals who develop hoarding disorder?
Hoarding usually involves having difficulty getting rid of items and also issues on the maintenance of control over belongings. This behavior affects school and social functioning and appeared to Jenny when she was aged eight (Sorensen, 2011). Jenny also experienced problems at school as the teacher often sent notes stating that her desk is messy and she appeared to be absent minded in class. By the time she was in second grade, she had started being left behind in some subjects.
Literature points out that hoarding has been higher among children having ADHD than in children who are relatively healthy (Sorensen, 2011). In the case of Jenny, she was diagnosed with ADHD by a neuropsychologist. Dr. Davis said that she had neurodevelopment disorder that ensured it was hard for her to sustain her attention…
American Psychiatric Association. (2014). Hoarding Disorder. Retrieved 26 February 2015, from
Frost, R., Tolin, D., & Maltby, N. (2010).Insight-Related Challenges in the Treatment of Hoarding. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 17(4), 404-413. doi:10.1016/j.cbpra.2009.07.004
Pogosian, L. (2010). Treatment of Compulsive Hoarding: A Case Study. The Einstein Journal of Biology and Medicine, 8-11. Retrieved from http://www.einstein.yu.edu/uploadedfiles/ejbm/page8_page11.pdf
Sorensen, R.J. (2011). Hoarding Disorder (Compulsive Hoarding): A Comprehensive Literature Review and Professional Training to Prepare Clinicians to Treat Problematic Hoarding. Retrieved from
Medical Misunderstandings and Gender:
“The Yellow Wallpaper” by Charlotte Perkins Gilman
“The Yellow Wallpaper” by Charlotte Perkins Gilman is a brief psychological study of a woman slowly going mad over the course of an imposed rest cure, prescribed by her physician-husband. The story illustrates the extent to which limited knowledge of the female psyche and a refusal to treat women as intelligent, independent beings ironically produces the types of behaviors the psychological treatment of the era was supposed to prevent. Both women and men are guilty of limiting women’s voices when women attempt to escape the conventional confines of motherhood and domesticity. Although the main character’s love of reading and writing is a constant and sustaining force in her life, she is denied it when it is assumed her illness is due to her refusal to conform to conventional roles.
As noted by history professor Hilary Marland, “The Yellow Wallpaper”…
Certain ethnicities were seen to have relatively high levels of participation, while women from North Africa and those from lower socioeconomic backgrounds were much more likely to refrain from taking part in such prenatal diagnostics than were Dutch women. This study could go a long way towards bridging cultural divides when it comes to healthcare, though the authors do not delve deep enough into making recommendations in this regard.
Harper, C.; Henderson, J.; Schalet, A. & Becker, D. (2010). "Abstinence and Teenagers: Prevention Counseling Practices of Health Care Providers Serving High-Risk Patients in the United States." Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health 42(2), pp. 125.
The effects and types of counseling delivered to teenage girls identified as a "high risk" by clinicians was observed in this study, with the conclusion that few clinicians view abstinence-only recommendations as effective at reducing risk for pregnancy and other concerns. Presenting information regarding contraceptives,…
In a long-term and large population study, researchers found that maternal deaths for reasons only indirectly related to the pregnancy were on the rise in the Netherlands. More expectant mothers were observed to suffer from fatal cardiovascular and other problems. The fact that women are getting pregnant at older ages, both due to lifestyles that tend to postpone child rearing and through new fertility treatments, are thought to be responsible for this. It is interesting how such objectivity can and indeed must be retained when dealing with such a politically and personally sensitive issue.
Wynn, L.; Foster, A. & Trussell, J. (2010). "Would you say you had unprotected sex if ... Sexual health language in emails to a reproductive health website." Culture, health & sexuality 12(5), pp. 499.
For this study, over a thousand emails sent to an emergency contraceptive website in the United States were analyzed for the type of language used to describe sexual acts, safe sex methods, and other aspects of the emails' authors' experiences leading up to their emailing. The terms "sex" and "unprotected sex" varied widely in their specific meanings for the different authors, and this corresponded to varying degrees of risk concern as well. The authors spend a great deal of time theorizing about how language shapes thought, but they did not provide a great deal of discernible concrete information in this report, making it somewhat difficult to follow and suspect.
InterestInterview Coding & Reaction
There is little doubt that the experience, events and quality of care that surround expecting and new mothers is extremely important (Berrien, Olledorff & Menard, 2015). The reduction or mitigation of things like excessive pain before and after birth, any sort of disconnect between patient and providers in terms of communication and an explanation of what is and shall be going on and so forth are all important (Taavoni, Abdolahian, Neisani & Hamid, 2016). This research deigns to cover a number of things. First, it is asked of the interviewee what went well, what did not, what perhaps could or should be compared and contrasted between this or prior birthing experiences (and one did exist in the case of this research), what could have been done better, what was done well, whether proper and full options were made available and so on.
The setting and meeting…
Women tend not to disclose their partner's violent behavior out of fear of retaliation, embarrassment or economic dependence on the abusing partner. Pregnant women, in particular, require comprehensive healthcare and special services. Postpartum violence is a serious issue as it not only affects the mother but also poses serious danger for the life of the child. Policy makers should focus not only on providing funds for prenatal and post natal medical care but also ensure that domestic violence services and other support services are integrated with the healthcare services. A collaborative approach involving a collocation of interdisciplinary services is critical for providing optimal care for victims of intimate partner abuse. Nurses, as primary caregivers in the emergency department are ideally placed not only to provide medical care but also to co ordinate and to lead multidisciplinary interventions that are in place to address domestic violence against women.
1) The Clark County, ' Fast Facts on Domestic Violence', retrieved Apr 13th 2010, from, http://www.clarkprosecutor.org/html/domviol/facts.htm
2) Brian J. Biroscak. MA, MS, BS, Patricia K. Smith MS, BS & Helen Rosnowski MSN, BSN RN et.al (2006), 'Intimate Partner Violence against Women: Findings from one State's ED Surveillance System', Journal of Emergency Nursing, 32-12: 6
3) Christine Rubertsson, PhD, Ingegerd Hildingsson PhD & Ingela Radestad PhD, (2010), 'Disclosure and Police reporting of Intimate Partner Violence Postpartum: A pilot Study', Midwifery, 26 e1-e5
4) Rebecca J. Macy, PhD, Sandra L. Martin PhD & Lawrence L. Cupper PhD et.al (2007), ' Partner Violence among women Before, During and After Pregnancy: Multiple Opportunities for intervention', Women's Health Issues 17: 290-299
Research the McNaughton rule. What was McNaughton and how did the McNaughton Rule come into being?
The name McNaughton came from the son of A Glasgow wood turner who was deluded that there was conspiracy against him when the catholic priests sent spies to harass him. It is from these encounters that the McNaughton Principle came into being. The rule in based on understanding what is right and wrong. It is a test of the two concepts, i.e. "knowing right and wrong by oneself in the course of their actions" (Asokan, 2007). The idea of uncontrollable impulses was not considered an important item. This rule was the standard test that was used by the jury after listening to a medical report. Thus, there was a presumption of sanity unless the defence proved otherwise. The US and the UK adopted the McNaughton Rule and still use it to handle cases to…
Out of about 40 million slaves that were transported from African to the United States, only 15 million of them could survive, however they ended up in pure hell. It was expected of the African-Americans to meet the demands of two ideas, both of which met the needs of the rich white Americans. Thus, where slaves had a disguise to serve their masters and please them, they were just not being honest to themselves in the least bit, and they were living according to the wishes of their masters to escape the beating or to avoid being scrutinized any further. Having said that, just because they had no choice but to live up to the two ideals, it did not mean that there were not any rightfully revengeful and rebellious slaves that went against the books and refused to accept being a cookie cutter cut-out. It is assumed that the…
Bensimon, Moshe, Dorit Amir and Yuval Wolf. "Drumming through trauma: Music therapy with post-traumatic soldiers." The Arts in Psychotherapy, 35. 1 (2008): 34 -- 48. Print.
Cohn, Lawrence. Nothing but the blues. New York: Abbeville Press, 1993. Print.
Floyd, Samuel a. The power of Black music. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995. Print.
Gussow, Adam. Seems like murder here. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2002. Print.
In addition, the Marines have a much smaller force than the army.
On the other hand, the army cannot be as selective as the marines because it needs to maintain a much higher number of troops. The article explains that the army "needs 80,000 new soldiers this year and must find them in a populace that is in many ways less willing and less able to serve than earlier generations were (Mockenhaupt, 2007, pg.86)." The article explains that teenagers and young adults are overweight and less fit than any previous generation. In addition, this generation of young Americans eats more unhealthy foods, watches more television, and engages in less physical activity than previous generations. The article further asserts that this generation is "more individualistic and less inclined to join the military. And with the unemployment rate hovering near historic lows, they have other choices (Mockenhaupt, 2007, pg.86)."
Overall it is…
Anderson, P.M., & Butcher, K.F. (2006). Childhood Obesity: Trends and Potential Causes. The Future of Children, 16(1), 19+.
Body Mass Index. http://www.nhlbisupport.com/bmi/
Belkin D. (February 20, 2006) Struggling for recruits, Army relaxes its rules: Fitness, education, age criteria change. The Boston Globe Retrieved March 16, 2008 from; http://www.boston.com/news/nation/articles/2006/02/20/struggling_for_recruits_army_relaxes_its_rules/?page=1
Daniels, S.R. (2006). The Consequences of Childhood Overweight and Obesity. The Future of Children, 16(1), 47+.
Likewise, the study would not include unmarried couples, single-parent homes, or couples without children. With 50 to 60 participants couples gathered and fulfilling the necessary qualifications for division into the two categories, those with a Special Needs child will be identified as the SN group whereas those with a non-Special Needs child will be identified as the SNS group.
Statistical analysis will rely on the use of a t-test, an appropriate mode of assessing comparative inventory scores and their meaning in the case of this particular study design. According to Trochim (2006), "the t-test assesses whether the means of two groups are statistically different from each other. This analysis is appropriate whenever you want to compare the means of two groups, and especially appropriate as the analysis for the posttest-only two-group randomized experimental design." (Trochim, p. 1)
Ultimately, the inventory responses and the statistical analysis conducted through the aforementioned…
Baskin, T.W., Rhody, M., Schoolmeesters, S., & Ellingson, C. (2011). Supporting special needs adoptive couples: assessing an interventio to enhance forgiveness, increase marital satisfaction, and prevent depression. The Counseling Psychologist, 39, 933-955.
Belsky, J., & Rovine, M. (1990). Patterns of marital change across the transition to parenthood: pregnancy to three years postpartum. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 52, 5-19.
Corman, H., & Kaestner, R. (1992). The effects of child health on marital status and family structure. Demography, 29, 389-408.
Daire, a.P.; Munyon, M.D.; Carlson, R.G.; Kimemia, M. & Mitcham, M. (2011). Examining Distress of Parents of Children With and Without Special Needs. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 33(2), 177-188.
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For many the ability of a client to participate in pleading insanity is controversial. Many contend that this ability shows that the person is rational and should be punished accordingly. While others argue that, the ability of a person to know that they are insane does not make them sane. In either case, the insanity plea remains as a controversial subject.
Within the realm of psychology, the issue of insanity has always been a topic of interest. Psychologists have long asserted that there are various mental conditions that render individuals insane. These conditions include schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and even certain forms of depression. Psychologists contend that these conditions can make an individual unable to rationalize.
A book entitled Court-Ordered Insanity: Interpretive Practice and Involuntary Commitment explains that many cases involve the hospitalization or commitment of the client. In these cases, the book explains that the client mental…
Bonnie, R.J., Poythress, N.G., Hoge, S.K., Monahan, J., & Eisenberg, M. (1996). Decision-Making in Criminal Defense: An Empirical Study of Insanity Pleas and the Impact of Doubted Client Competence. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 87(1), 48-62.. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000317272
Ellias, R. (1995). Should Courts Instruct Juries as to the Consequences to a Defendant of a "Not Guilty by Reason of Insanity" Verdict?. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 85(4), 1062-1083. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=77002953
Fass, M.E. (1999). A Forensic Psychology Exercise: Role Playing and the Insanity Defense. Teaching of Psychology, 26(3), 201-203. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=34684718
One mid-range nursing philosophy is that of Barbara esnick, with her "Middle ange Theory of Self-Efficacy." This theory states that 'self-efficacy expectations and outcome expectations are not only influenced by behavior, but also by verbal encouragement, physiological sensations and exposure to role models or self-modeling" (Nurses.info, 2014).
esnick is an Associate Professor at the University of Maryland School of Nursing. She is also a geriatric nurse practitioner at oland Park Place. Her research is focused on motivation, particularly with older adults. She has written papers on motivation for older adults to recover from disabling events, for example, noting that where motivation is high recovery is more likely to be successful, and life prolonged. She found support for her theory in this study (esnick, 1998), for example, lending credence to her prior work on finding ways to enhance the likelihood of recovery in all populations, but particularly in older and…
Nurses.info. (2014). Barbara Resnick. Nurses.info. Retrieved March 21, 2014 from http://www.nurses.info/nursing_theory_midrange_theories_barbara_resnick.htm
Resnick, B. (1998). Efficacy beliefs in geriatric rehabilitation. Journal of Gerontological Nursing. Vol. 24 (7) 34-44
Resnick, B. & Jenkins, L. (2000) Testing the reliability and validity of the self-efficacy for exercise scale. Nursing Research. Vol. 49 (3) 154-159.
Weber, B., Roberts, B., Resnick, M., Deimling, G., Zauszniewski, J., Musil, C. & Yarandi, H. (2004). The effect of dyadic intervention on self-efficacy, social support, and depression for men with prostate cancer. Psycho-oncology. Vol. 13 (2004) 47-60.
TSH Thyroid Stimulating Hormone
The condition, Hashimoto's Thyroiditis, is named after Hakaru Hashimoto, a Japanese scientist, who uncovered the disease in the year 1912. Amino, DeGroot, and Akamizu (2013) write that Hashimoto explained the conditions of four types of individuals having a chronic thyroid disorder, that he labeled as "struma lymphomatosa." These individuals' thyroid glands had diffused lymphocytic infiltration, parenchymal atrophy, fibrosis, and eosinophilic acinar-cell change. Pathological as well as clinical researches of Hashimoto Thyroiditis have been conducted frequently since Hashimoto first described the affliction.
Hashimoto's Thyroiditis, is an autoimmune syndrome wherein a person's immune system attacks body tissues, organs and cells. Persons suffering from this affliction have a thyroid malfunction, a condition known as hypothyroidism, wherein the thyroid gland ceases to secrete sufficient hormones to meet the needs of the body. This gland, situated at the anterior part of the…
Kresser, C. (2010, June 28). The Most Important Thing You May Not Know About Hypothyroidism. Retrieved February 2, 2016, from Chris Kresser; Let's Take Back Your Health: www.chriskresser.com
National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. (2013, February 25). Hashimoto's Disease. Retrieved February 2, 2016, from National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases: www.niddk.nih.gov
The American Thyroid Asspciation Taskforce. (2011). Guidelines of the American Thyroid
Association for the Diagnosis and Management of Thyroid Disease During Pregnancy and Postpartum. Thyroid, 1081-1125. Retrieved from www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
Female genital mutilation should be stopped
Female Genital Mutilation or FGM can be explained as a procedure that is performed or inflicted on women and girls in some developing countries (Klein et al., 2018). FGM entails the altering or cutting of female genitalia. There are many known consequences of inflicting FGM on women including viral and bacterial infections, psychological problems, and obstetrical complications. The FGM topic has been taken up by activists in areas where the practice is rampant. The FGM topic has fundamental societal importance, cultural, significance, and ramifications. In this informative piece, the implications and consequences of FGM are discussed. There have been many efforts put in place to eradicate the FGM vice although certain societal and cultural dynamics have allowed FGM to be deeply rooted in some regions. It is important for more interventions to be instituted in the communities where FGM is practiced as a ritual…