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Poverty in America
With the growing divide between the rich and the poor in a generally wealthy nation, it becomes interesting to know just what exactly entails poverty within the United States of America. For some, poverty runs along the lines of unsustainability, one in which an individual or groups thereof are incapable of providing necessities that sustain life. This is an absolute extreme of poverty. However, Duncan Lindsey and John Iceland further purport this definition of poverty, indicating that those who live in poverty might be much more than just the "ultimately poor." In their cases, there is an inequality that takes effect, which is the major cause of relative poverty in the United States.
In Iceland's case, poverty is "economic, or income, deprivation resulting in one's inability to sustain oneself." For the most part, this is true. However, there is a distinct division between "absolute poverty" and "relative…
Iceland, John. Poverty in America: a Handbook. Berkeley: University of California, 2006. Print.
Lindsey, Duncan. Child Poverty and Inequality: Securing a Better Future for America's Children. Oxford: Oxford UP, 2009. Print.
Poverty in America
Working Outline of Poverty in America
Poverty remains a difficult social problem. The distribution of the poor is stratified along ethnic and gender lines. The main suffers of poverty however, are children for whom poverty results in severe future outcomes. The difficult persists because attempts to reduce poverty are stymied by organizational and political issues. The organizational approach to poverty reduction is limited because of bureaucratic and structural impediments. Poverty is an intractable social problem.
Poverty remains an intractable problem
The need to reduce poverty is a major concern for organizations and governments
Poverty has multiple forms across America
The definition of poverty is linked to multiple indicators
Absolute poverty is based on a specific dollar value
Relative poverty is linked to some relative threshold value
Within America there are multiple categories of poor persons
Individuals who live in abject poverty
Mabughi, N., & Selim, T. (2006). Poverty as social deprivation: A survey. Review of Social
Economy, 64(2), 186-192.
Weaver, C., & Park, S. (2007). The role of the World Bank in poverty alleviation and human development in the twenty-first century: An introduction. Global Governance, 13(4),
This is significant, because it is illustrating how these levels and the performance of the economy are directly linked. As, this will lead to: a number of social problems and reduced economic activity. At which point, this will have a dramatic impact on: the underlying amounts of prosperity and the standard of living in many communities. (Nilsen)
How this is impacting the United States?
The impact that this is having on the U.S., is that can lead to a number of long-term issues down the road. Most notably: it is causing a wide variety of cities to experience economic blight and the nation is slowly losing its competiveness. The way that this has been contributing to economic ruin is by: adding to losses of manufacturing and service jobs in a number of cities. As, this is causing a reduction in: the opportunities for many regions. Once this occurs, it means…
Gabe, Thomas. Poverty in the United States. CRS, Washington DC, 2008. Print.
Mishel, Lawrence. The State of the Working in America. ILR Press, Ithaca, 2009. Print.
Nilsen, Skgurd. "Poverty in America." GAO, 2009. Web 23 Jun. 2011< http://www.gao.gov/new.items/d07344.pdf >
Williams, Joseph. "Poverty and Crime." Christian Association, 2007. Web. 23 Jun. 2011.
The literature search and selection was essentially based on the central questions noted above. The selection of causality was a central theme in this search; and this term was also related to concomitant aspects of the subject; such as the perception of poverty, methodological consideration in the measurement of poverty rates, important social and cultural factors etc. An effort way also made to include theoretical as well as more practical studies, reports and assessments of the problem. However, the literature search also attempted to provide for alternative views and theories that might shed light on the central thesis of the study; so that the literature reviews and citations in this study would be as discursive and extensive as possible.
4.1. General views and overviews general study that provides some useful background to the issue of poverty in an historical context is a History of Sociology in Britain: Science, Literature, and…
Bradshaw T.K. (2006) Theories of Poverty and Anti-Poverty Programs in Community Development. Retrieved 16 October, 2007, at http://188.8.131.52/search?q=cache:zrn5ye2QmU8J:www.rprconline.org/WorkingPapers/WP06-05.pdf+theories+of+poverty&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=1&gl=uk
Caughy, M.O., & O'Campo, P.J. (2006). Neighborhood Poverty, Social Capital and the Cognitive Development of African-American Preschoolers. American Journal of Community Psychology, 37(1-2), 141+. Retrieved October 18, 2007, from Questia database:
Poverty and Public Policy
Charles Blow discusses in hits NYT op-ed column the issue of child poverty. He notes up front that his belief is that poverty can never really be ended, highlighting that the man has a realistic outlook on the issue. There are many different causes of poverty, not the least of which is that poverty is, ultimately, relative. What we call poverty today in America would be considered wealthy in half the other countries in the world. His point, however, is that even if you accept that there will always be some poverty, there is a societal obligation to keep the poverty rate as low as possible. He argues in particular against children living in poverty.
This is where public policy comes into play. The United States, simply put, performs poorly on the issues of overall poverty and child poverty, and that is the direct result of…
Blow, C. (2015). Reducing our obscene level of child poverty. New York Times. Retrieved March 22, 2015 from http://www.nytimes.com /2015/01/28/opinion/charles-blow-reducing-our-obscene-level-of-child-poverty.html
Borjas, G. (2011). Poverty and program participation among immigrant children. The Future of Children. Vol. 21 (1) 247-266.
Hall, D. & Cooper. D. (2012). How raising the federal minimum wage would help working families and give the economy a boost. Economic Policy Institute. Retrieved March 22, 2015 from http://www.jobsnowcoalition.org/reports/2012/federal-minimum-wage-9-80-boost_epi2012-08.pdf
Poverty and Inequality Among Children
Studies show that child poverty has been increasing at an alarming rate in the last decade. In 1994, 15.3 million children, or 21.8% of all Americans, were poor (Lichter 1997) and that, although children constituted only 26.7% of the population, 40.1% of all poor persons in the U.S. were children (U.S. ureau of Census 1996 as qtd in Lichter). These rising poverty rates are used by government agencies in determining the criteria for eligibility in social insurance programs and public assistance interventions developed by these government agencies. And, according to these criteria, the economic well-being of American children is on a downtrend, which indicates that tomorrow's adults will be less economically adjusted than adults today and that the future of today's children is materially and psycho-emotionally less promising (Lichter).
In his study, Lichter (1997) pointed to the rapid changes in the most fundamental institutions --…
1. Achs, Gregory and Megan Gallagher. Income Inequality Among America's Children. Urban Institute, 2000. http://www.urban.org/url.cfm?ID=309307
2. Lichter, Daniel T. Poverty and Inequality Among Children. Annual Reviews, vol 23, 1997. http://links.jstor.org/sici=0360-0572%281997%2923%3C121%APAIAC%E2.0.C )%3B2-L
3. Smeeding, Timothy M, et al. U.S. Poor are Among World's Poorest, Luxembourg Income Study. New York Times, Aug 4, 1995. http://pangaea.org/street_children/nameri/poor.htm
4. Van Hook, Jennifer. Poverty Grows Among Children of Immigrants in U.S., Center for Family and Demographic Research. Migration Policy Institute, 2003. http://www.migrationinformation.com/USfocus/display.cfm?ID=188
Poverty in the U.S.
Proponents of the "structural" view believe that the most reasons of poverty has innate linkages with economy and its interconnecting institutional practices, which have been bias towards certain segments of the people on the basis of gender, class or race. Work practices most institutions are inclined to maintain numerous hindrances to various segments of the people. Unemployment, median income and calculation of income inequality are considered as structural economic aspects. The impact of unemployment and escalation in median income are written-evidences and their link to poverty is obvious (Jordan, 2004).
As per 2003 statistics, 12.8% persons other than old age people and 17.6% children of the families with incomes lived below the poverty line. In 2003, the poverty rates of men and women were 11.7% and 13.9%, respectively; more probably women were poorer than men. This tiny difference is due to men and women living…
Bernstein, J. (2007, April 27). Is Education the Cure for Poverty? Retrieved from The American Prospect: http://prospect.org/article/education-cure-poverty
Golonka, S., & Hoffman, L. (2008). State Strategies to Reduce Child and Family Poverty. NGA Center for Best Practices.
Hoynes, H., Page, M., & Stevens, A. H. (2006). Poverty in America: Trends and Explanations. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 47-68.
ISFW. (2012, February 23). Poverty eradication and the role for social workers. Retrieved from isfw.org: http://ifsw.org/policies/poverty-eradication-and-the-role-for-social-workers/
Matthew Desmond addresses the intersection between race, class, and gender in Evicted. The case studies Desmond uses take place in Wisconsin, which serves effectively as a microcosm for the United States. While the overarching issues Desmond discusses can be one of the book’s main draws, it is the details in each of the stories that compels readers to take action or learn more about issues like institutionalized poverty, institutionalized racism, the perpetuation of the housing crisis, and systematic economic exploitation. The people Desmond profiles lack the power to stimulate change, and yet through collective action and self-empowerment it becomes possible to foresee policy change or at least normative changes in addressing the needs of the poor.
As the title suggests, Evicted focuses on the causes and ramifications of both legal and quasi-legal evictions that take place with alarming frequency. By conducting field research separately in predominantly white and predominantly black…
" (Barron et. al. 1994) third sociological explanation of individualist precepts is found in social learning theory:
Social learning theory tells us that people adopt others (particularly influential persons) as models for their own behavior. Widespread corruption and lawbreaking by society's leaders may therefore have a profound disinhibiting effect on the rest of the population. According to this thesis, the prevalence of crime and corruption leads to further crime and corruption. Thus, crime is, according to such an explanation, not merely related to antecedent conditions, such as poverty and general disadvantage, but can gather its own momentum. (Gabor, 1990)
Evaluate 2 of the sociological explanations:
The concept that all one needs to stop poverty is "rational self-interest and self-maximizing behavior" is ignorant of the real world at best and cruel beyond words at worst.
Social learning theory, it seems on reflection, would excuse almost any behavior on the grounds that…
The Gap in America's Distribution of ealth and the Socioeconomic Consequences
The United States often characterizes itself in the context of political rhetoric and public displays of patriotrism as the wealthiest and greatest nation in the world. Unfortunately, the wide variance of living standards represented in this plurality suggests that this is an experience reserved only for those with the means. Quite to the point, the poverty that a substantial percentage of Americans live with everyday indicates that this apparent enormity of wealth is not accessible to all. Indeed, the discussion here centers on the understanding that 50% of all of America's vast wealth is possessed by no more than 1% of Americans. This means that the wealthiest individuals in America on their own control more wealth than entire communities and regions. And as the discussion hereafter will show, this is a trend with serious and negative consequences…
Cutter, W.B. IV; Federman, M.; Garner, T.I. Kiely, J. & Levine, D et al. (1996). What Does It
Mean to Be Poor in America? Monthly Labor Review, 119.
Galbraith, J.K. (1998). The Affluent Society. 40th Anniversary Edition. Mariner Books.
Rodrik, D. (2000). Growth and Poverty Reduction: What are the Real Questions? Finance & Development.
The paper looked at other possible explanations, such as teacher experience, but found little correlation (Mitchell, 2001).
In the weakest schools, 81% of the students qualified for free or reduced-price lunches. In the schools rated highest, only 3 1/2% of students qualified for such programs. In addition, school ratings dropped in direct proportion to the rise in number of students receiving subsidized lunches. The paper used subsidized lunches as one indication of the economic status of the students' families (Mitchell, 2001). Overall, among schools where 75% or more of the students were part of the subsidized lunch program, only four schools were rated "average." All others scored "low," or "unsatisfactory," and none were considered to be doing a better-than-average job of educating students (Mitchell, 2001). These schools also had largely minority student populations: about 20% were black, 68% were Hispanic, while 1% were Asian and 8% white, thus tying both…
Bush, Rod. 2003. "The Civil Rights Movement and the continuing struggle for the redemption of America." Social Justice, Mar. 22.
Furdell, Phyllis. 1993. "Survey finds solutions to addressing poverty in local economic development initiatives." Nation's Cities Weekly, Sept. 13.
Mitchell, Nancy. 2001. "30 'Worst' Schools Named." Denver Rocky Mountain News, Sept. 14.
Petrie, Laurie. 1997. "Infant Death Rate Soars in Poor Areas." The Cincinnati Post, Oct. 28.
Organizations such as habitat for humanity have proven that home ownership is possible for the very poor. The prevention strategy will call for the implementation of a housing plan that is modeled after habitat for humanity.
In addition, the strategy will also address education, healthcare, and economic opportunities. As it relates to education teachers should have the proper credential and pay should be appropriate and consistent with experience. There should be a proper amount of textbooks. There should be no more than 20 students per teacher and computers and internet access should be available at all schools. Certain standards should be in place as it relates to the condition of school buildings and any building that does not meet these standards must be renovated to meet these standards. These standards would be inclusive of working fire alarms, secure entrances and exits, proper lighting, clean floors, clean and operational restrooms, no…
Green, R. And M. White. 1997. Measuring the Benefits of Homeowning: Effects on Children. Journal of Urban Economics 41: 441-461.
Haurin D.R. Haurin J., Parcel T.L. (2002) Does Homeownership Affect Child Outcomes?. Real Estate Economics. 30 (4): 635.
Rohe, W., G. McCarthy and S. Van Zandt. 2000. The Social Benefits and Costs of Homeownership: A Critical Assessment of the Research. Working paper No. 00-01. Research Institute for Housing America: Washington, DC.
AMEICA'S HEALTHCAE EFOM
Your Chosen Title
The overhauling of America's Health Care Systems has been a highly debated topic because it affects the quality of life, of virtually all residents living in America. A large portion of America's budget is spent on the healthcare system, however many Americans live day-to-day without healthcare coverage or medical insurance. It is surprising to know that although Americas has one of the strongest economies in the world, it lacks in this area. This resonates in the minds of many troubled Americans, who find themselves in serious economic problems due to their inability to provide healthcare coverage for themselves and their family.
Members of government and of the political arena understand that a demand exists, this demands is one that calls for healthcare coverage for all in America. In March 2010 congress responded to this demanded passed what is known as The Patient Protection and…
Health Care Reform Bill Summary: A Look At What's in the Bill - Political Hotsheet - CBS News. (n.d.). Breaking News Headlines: Business, Entertainment & World News - CBS News. Retrieved July 25, 2011, from http://www.cbsnews.com/8301-503544_162-20000846-503544.html
Sultz, H.A. (2010). Health care USA: understanding its organization and delivery By Harry A. Sultz, Kristina M. Young. Sudbury Mass.: Jones and Barlett Learning.
Staff of The Washington Post. (2010). Landmark: the inside story of America's new health care law and what it means for us all. New York: Public Affairs.
The typical American diet is one high in sugars and processed foods. Accordingly, The United States has earned the unfortunate nickname of "Fast-food Nation." The initiation of the rapid growth in fast-food consumption rates in America is likely a result of this country's lack of a widely embraced and highly diverse national cuisine. The United States as a country is truly a melting pot for cultures, religions, ethnicities and beliefs. This vast assortment has certainly carried over into the world of food. That is, most Americans have easy access to a large array of different cuisines on a daily basis and this chronic presence of other cultural food choices has virtually destroyed any possibility of creating a truly American cuisine. Therefore, American citizens along with the rest of the world have transfixed fast-food into this national category. Without question, on the global stage, McDonald's and urger King are…
Allison, C. (2010, May). Barbecue Master. Retrieved October 18, 2011, from http://barbequemaster.blogspot.com/2010/05/chopped-pork-bbq-sandwich-with-sam-dog.html
Baker, E.A., Schootman, M., Barnidge, E., & Kelly, C. (2006, July). The Role of Race and Poverty in Access to Foods That Enable Individuals to Adhere to Dietary Guidelines. Preventing Chronic Disease: Public Health Research Practice and Policy, 3 (3).
Bedell, J. (2008). Food, Fitness, Obesity and Diabetes in the Bronx. Retrieved October 17, 2011, from New York City Department of Health: www.phanyc.org/files/food-fitness-obesity-in-bronx-bedell.ppt
Block, J.P., Scribner, R.A., & DeSalvo, K.B. (2004). Fast Food Race/Ethnicity, and Income: A Geographic Analysis. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 27 (3).
America- Democracy or Plutocracy?
The United States of America is often hailed as the first and greatest modern democracy in the world. Most Americans believe that the United States is the example the rest of the world should emulate, and that it offers its citizens the power to make decisions through its free and fair elections. Yet at the same time, others say that the United States of America has ceased to be a democracy and instead become a plutocracy. A plutocracy is a state that is ruled by the wealthiest people, rather than by free and fair elections in which all citizens have an equal voice. Recent political developments have caused fear from those who believe the United States is moving toward plutocracy, but at the same time, other equally important developments have shown that it remains, at least for the time being, a democracy.
Although the United States…
"The Court's Blow to Democracy." Editorial. The New York Times. January 21, 2010. Web. April 26, 2011.
"Health Care Reform." The New York Times. . March 4, 2011. Web. April 27, 2011.
Rolnik, Guy. "Warren Buffet: The U.S. is moving toward plutocracy." TheMarker.com. March 4, 2011. Web. April 27, 2011.
Tremblay, Rodrigue. "The United States of Corporate America: From Democracy to Plutocracy." Global Research Canada. January 22, 2010. Web. April 26, 2011.
Unfortunately many aspects of modern American society threaten individual liberties. For example, the disparity between the rich and the poor in American society impacts the level of freedom enjoyed by certain segments of the population. The "freedom" to pay workers a pittance in order to increase profits in a large corporation is therefore not really a "freedom" at all. Therefore, it is up to the government and to the people who support it to ensure that the rights and freedoms of all persons are preserved. Similarly, when religious institutions hope to influence public policy, they inadvertently infringe on the rights and freedoms of the American people. Even if well-meaning, religious institutions cannot bind people in a free society to do what they do or believe what they believe. Morals are a reflection of common sense and education, not of specific religious values. Therefore, the government cannot bend its legislation to…
In years before, America was a collection of Chinese, Germans, Italians, Scots, Croats, etc., all craving freedom. Today, even the simple concept of an English-speaking nation is fading off the continent. In the past, immigrants were taught in English in the public schools. In America today, children are taught in German, Italian, Polish, and 108 other languages and dialects. Most of these schools are funded by 139 million federal dollars. "The linguist's egalitarian attitude toward dialect has evolved into the multicultural notion that dialect as a cultural feature is part of one's identity as a member of that culture."
Due to their ethnic or cultural heterogeneity, multiethnic societies in general are more fragile and have a higher risk of conflicts. In the worst case such conflicts can cause the breakdown of these societies. Recent examples of this were the violent breakdown of Yugoslavia and the peaceful separation of Czechoslovakia. Forced…
Cruz, Barbara C. Multiethnic Teens and Cultural Identity: A Hot Issue. Berkeley Heights, NJ: Enslow Publishers, 2001.
Dawisha, Adeed. Arab Nationalism in the Twentieth Century: From Triumph to Despair. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2002.
Francis, Samuel. "The Other Face of Multiculturalism." Chronicles. April 1998.
Huggins, Nathan I. Revelations: American History, American Myths. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.
A further stereotype about Asians that cannot be ignored is that regarding the sexuality of the Asian female. "Asian Pacific women have generally been perceived by Hollywood with a mixture of fascination, fear, and contempt....If we are 'good' we are childlike, submissive, silent, and eager for sex or else we are tragic victim types. And if we are not silent, suffering doormats, we are demonized dragon ladies -- cunning, deceitful, sexual provocateurs." (Hagedorn) the pornography industry is highly populated with Asian women fulfilling the male desire for sexual stereotypes. Japanese school girls in short skirts with lollipops and repressed sexual needs are a popular fetish. The subservient Geisha wife in kimonos, pale make-up, and most importantly donning a subservient, unthreatening, submissive sexual attitude is another. Look again and one is certain to find the "dragon lady" as mentioned above: the over-sexed, wild, uninhibited Asian girl looking to please as many…
Hagedorn, Jessica. "Asian Women in Film: No Joy, No Luck."
Mura, David. "Fargo and the Asian-American Male."
Shah, Sonia. "Race and Representation: Asian-Americans." 1999.
Gilliam, Frank. "The Local Television News Media's Picture of Children - 2001." Study on Race, Ethnicity and the News. October 2001.
Smith, Goldsmith Blakely observe ' burden poverty falls heavily women children disproportionately African-Americans Latinos/Hispanics' (pg.
The issue of poverty in the United States is not merely an issue of economic shortcomings of the system or a lack of coordination at the level of the state in terms of ensuring a proper social welfare protect system. Poverty in America, such as in any other democratic and complex state, depends on a multitude of factors that mix and provide an important shortcoming that in turn affects the lives of millions of people throughout the world and in the U.S. alike.
The combination of factors is varied and depending on the way in which these factors combine, they affect certain parts of the society. In the case of the United States there is a clear recognition of the fact that women, children, African-Americans and Latinos / Hispanics are more prone and vulnerable to…
Goldsmith, William W. And Edward J. Blakely. Separate Societies: Poverty and Inequality in U.S. Cities. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2010.
Smith, Anne Marie. Welfare Reform and Sexual Regulation. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2007.
Instead, they only see the material things that they feel that they need. They are trained by society to want these materials objects, and they generally do not even understand why they feel this way. They only know that this is the way things are 'supposed to be.' While others who are not as materialistic try to tell them differently, and live with fewer possessions and more time, those who are working to make money to buy things continue in their vicious circle. It perpetuates itself by being passed on to their children, who also see only the material benefits of making a lot of money so that they can have the best homes, the most expensive cars, and all of the latest technological gadgetry that money can buy.
For many of these people, they do not realize until it is too late that there is much more to life…
Bibliography de Graff, John. (2003). Take Back Your Time: Fighting Overwork and Time Poverty in America. Berrett-Koehler Publishers.
Poverty among Afro Americans
America has always been at the top in the counting of developed countries all over the world. In the past 50 years, the rate of poverty has somehow declined but one can say that it is only for a specified circle of society (Carrillo, 2012). The poverty rate fluctuated around 22.4% to 15.11% in the past 50 years (Iceland, 2012). Although the ratio has decreased but it's a considerable rate for country like USA. Here the question which is under consideration is the poverty rate of those Africans who have been living there for a very long time but they are the most under privileged community of this society as depicted by the researches and reports every year.
The report of Income, Poverty and Health Insurance Coverage stated that 27.4% of Africans are living even below poverty line (Iceland, 2012). Afro-Americans also named as…
Carrillo, K.J. (2012). African-American History Day by Day. Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO.
Ellis, C.M., & Carlson, J. (2012). Cross Cultural Awareness and Social Justice in Counseling. Newyork: Taylor & Francis.
Iceland, J. (2012). Poverty in America . Berkeley: University of California Press.
Polednak, A.P. (1997). Segregation, Poverty, and Mortality in Urban African-Americans. New York: Oxford University Press.
Cure" for Poverty?
With most unskilled labor jobs in America paying no more that six or seven dollars an hour, there will never be an end to poverty. In all actuality, it doesn't matter is someone researches the subject for ten years, goes to college for ten more years to receive degrees in psychology, sociology, marketing and business, the simple truth to the matter is that there will never be an end to poverty. In the book, "We the Poor People: Work, Poverty, and Welfare,"
Joel F. Handler explains that in the every changing world where rent, food, gas and groceries are constantly on the rise, and wages are relatively remaining the same, the possibility of ending poverty is, straight and to the point, nil. (Joel F. Handler "We the Poor People: Work, Poverty, and Welfare," 143)
One of the reason it is so hard for a family to remain…
Joel F. Handler (October 1997)We the Poor People: Work, Poverty, and Welfare, 143
Andrew Solomon, (June 2001), "The Noonday Demon," 187
Rebecca Blank, (February, 1997), "It Takes a Nation: A New Agenda for Fighting Poverty," Princeton University Press, 54
Kate Kahan and Leandra Lipson, (July 2000), WEEL Journal, "Working for Equality and Economic Liberation" Self Published. 14
As a result, millions of Americans remain unable to bear the heavy financial toll of medical expenses. Indeed, the problem of a lack of insurance for many is related to the problem of the cost of healthcare. So confirms the article by Consumer Reports (CR) (2008), which finds that "health-insurance premiums have grown faster than inflation or workers' earnings over the past decade, in parallel with the equally rapid rise in overall health costs. Industry spending on administrative and marketing costs, plus profits, consumes 12% of private-insurance premiums." (CR, 1) This reiterates the case that the undue imposition of costs by the healthcare industry -- a reflection of a free-market industry with little to no regulatory oversight -- has negatively impacted the accessibility and quality of healthcare for many of the poorest users.
Moreover, these users are most vulnerable to the long-term economic damages provoked by unexpected healthcare costs. So…
Bureau of Labor Education (BLE). (2001). The U.S. Health Care System: Best in the World, or Just the Most Expensive? The University of Maine.
Childress, M. (2010). Poverty is on the Upswing, but Metric is Out of Date. The Washington Independent.
Cockerham, W.C. (2004). Medical Sociology and Sociological Theory. The Backwell Companion to Medical Sociology.
Consumer Reports (CR). (2008). High Health Care Costs. Consumer Reports Health.org.
These case studies make the student's situations more clear to the reader, and can help them identify similar situations in their own classrooms, when they occur. For example, she includes many techniques teachers can use to help students that might be in chaos, from "metaphor stories" (Payne, 2005, pg. 111) to how to provide the right emotional resources to students who are unfamiliar with them (Payne, 2005, pg. 86). The author also includes checklists and other items so the teachers interact with the text and bring home more information as a result. Terms are clearly defined, and the information is extremely significant
The author has clearly done a lot of research and study into poverty and how it manifests in the classroom. The author presents the information clearly and with examples that just about anyone can understand which can help the reader with identifying similar problems in their own classrooms.…
Payne, R.K. (2005). A framework for understanding poverty. 5th Edition. Highlands, TX: aha! Process, Inc.
Heritage scholars obert ector and ea Hederman found that only a little more than one quarter worked for 2,000 hours or more. They suggested that poverty in America was less of a material deprivation and more of emotional and spiritual loss, the awareness or knowledge of one's dependence on state and federal bureaucrats and a loss of self-esteem resulting from the knowledge of self-insufficiency. The working poor, on the other hand, are capable of facing their future with optimism and confidence, no matter how little they earned. It was the control they had over their lives, which translated into their contribution to the economy (Kersey).
An opposing view was suggested, wherein an increase in the minimum wage would benefit low-income workers, in general, and those below the official poverty line, in particular (Economy Policy Institute 2006). If and when the proposed minimum wage increase was approved, the wages of approximately…
1. Economy Policy Institute.2006. Minimum Wage Facts at a Glance. http://www.epinet.org/content.cfm/issueguides_minwage_minwagefacts
2. Kersey, Paul. 2004. The Economic Effects of the Minimum Wage. The Heritage Foundation. http://www.heritage.org/research/labor/tst042904a,cfm?tenderforprint=1
3. Morris, David. 2004. The American Voice 2004. The American Voice. http://www.americanoice2004.org/minimumwage/index.html
4. Office for Social Justice St. Paul and Minneapolis. 2006. Facts about Poverty. 101 Economic Facts that Every American Should Know. http://www.osjspm.org/101_poverty.htm
Surely, many are afraid of their jobs, but others simply endure the process. One hundred years ago, working conditions were appalling and workers formed unions to air their grievances and build new labor laws that treated workers fairly. Today, workers simply accept their fate instead of fighting for reform. It makes the reader wonder what the difference is, and why today's workers are "content" with the system.
All of this work and stress directly relates to American issues in recreation and leisure. Americans are taking fewer vacations. Movie theater attendance is down; more people are watching films in the comfort of their own homes. Fast food is what is on much of the nation's dinner plate, and busy families rush from school to athletic practice to bed just about every day of the week. Where is the fun in recreation and leisure when it becomes a "job" too? Americans are…
De Graaf, J. (ed.). (2003). Take back your time: Fighting overwork and time poverty in America. San Francisco. Berrett- Koehler Publishers.
Bell, Carolyn Shaw. (1995). hat is Poverty? The American Journal of Economics and Sociology, 54(2) 161-173.
Shaw takes the position that the very definition of "poverty level" -- defined in 1965 by Mollie Orshanksy, an economist with the Social Security department -- was originally used "as the percentage of income necessary to buy a nutritious diet" (Bell, 1995, p. 1). Bell goes on later in the article to refer to Orshanksy as "a brilliant economist" whose work set the stage for the government's system of determining the poverty level There were two alternative methods of measuring the poverty level following Orshanksy's attempt -- one was very flexible and variable, asking people to give what they think was the poverty income level juxtaposed with "official statistics" and the second was comparing poverty levels to "current median income" (Bell, p. 1).
hy have a poverty level category in the U.S. Department of…
Works Cited (in addition to the seven assigned references)
New York City Department of Homeless Services. (2011). PATH has a New Location.
Retrieved May 12, 2011, from http://www.nyc.gov .
New York City Mayor's Office. (2011). News from the Blue Room / Mayor Bloomberg,
Deputy Mayor Gibbs and Homeless Services Commissioner Diamond Open the City's
I have been in a store where everything was kind of cheap and I was really curious to see how the clerks were going to treat me. I was ready to leave this store almost as soon as I walked in the door. I thought the two guys working there were very rude to me and the other people in their store and made us feel like we were in their way. I went there as if I wanted to buy a blouse and I could notice that no one was paying attention to me. This made me feel angry and I went to the clerk and asked about that blouse. I could notice that the store was very dirty, the windows were very dirty too and the clerk didn't look that well either.
A tried going there a few times but even if I always find something great to…
1. Callahan, D.(2004) the Cheating Culture: Why More Americans Are Doing Wrong to Get Ahead, Harvest Books, 2. Rector, Robert E. And Johnson, Kirk a.,(2004) Understanding Poverty in America, Heritage Foundation
3. Marx, K.(1932) Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts of 1844, Progress Publishers, Moscow
4. Boudon, (1989) R.A Critical Dictionary of Sociology. Chicago: University of Chicago Press
5. Giddens, Anthony (1995) Politics, Sociology and Social Theory: Encounters with Classical and Contemporary Social Thought. Cambridge: Polity Pres
Income disparity does not allow those living in poverty to climb out and join the middle class, and keeps the most wealth, power, and privilege in the hands of a select few.
Topic Sentences to introduce references
Census Income Data
Worsening American Income Inequality: Is World Trade to Blame?
Income and Wealth Inequality in the United States
A Tool for Measuring Income Inequality
The Two Nations
This paper analyzes income levels in the United States. Specifically, it discusses how there are two distinct nations in the United States, one with people who have income levels in the top 20%, and those with income levels in the bottom 20%.
As the disparity grows between rich and poor in America, so does the inequality in our country, which threatens the very fabric of our lives. Income disparity does not allow those living in poverty to climb out and join the…
Author not Available. "Income and Wealth Inequality in the United States." Americans for Democratic Action. 2002. 27 April 2004. http://www.adaction.org/pubs/304inequality.html
Blank, Rebecca M. "Selecting among Anti-Poverty Policies: Can an Economist Be Both Critical and Caring?" Review of Social Economy 61.4 (2003): 447+.
Burtless, Gary. "Worsening American Income Inequality: Is World Trade to Blame?" Brookings Review Spring 1996: 26+.
DeNavas-Walt, Carmen, Robert W. Cleveland, and Bruce H. Webster, Jr. "Income in the United States: 2002." Census.gov. Sept. 2003. 27 April 2004. http://www.census.gov/prod/2003pubs/p60-221.pdf
Poverty Reduction occur on a Local Scale or must it be in a roader Scope to be Meaningful? Discuss with Reference to Specific Examples.
One of the biggest issues that a host of governments and international organizations are wrestling with (i.e. The UN) is how to effectively eliminate poverty. This is because, a number of different programs have been implemented in the past that were suppose to have a dramatic impact on reducing levels. Yet, in reality they are having limited effects at addressing the underlying causes. Instead, most of the money that is intended to tackle these challenges is squandered through: government bureaucracy and corrupt leaders.
A good example of this can be seen by looking no further than Tanzania. After gaining independence in the 1961, the country began to experience 6% economic growth. This caused many international aid organizations and donors to provide increased amounts of funding for…
2011 World Hunger and Property Facts, 2011, World Hunger. Available from: [31 May 2011].
Aid and Fairer Trade, 2010, UN. Available from: [31 May 2011].
Macro Economic Development, 2011, Aid Indonesia. Available from: [31 May 2011].
Microfinance in Cambodia, 2011, CMA. Available from: [31 May 2011].
" It's the "oppression theory," D'Souza claims that helped those nations who were colonized by the West, and he makes sense when he points out that while British colonialism was bad for his grandfather in India, it was good for him. The British brought English language traditions to India, and that helped him; the West brought technology to India, and that is good, too. And the British built roads, railway systems, docks, irrigation, and more, and here in the U.S., "Jesse Jackson is vastly better off because his ancestors were enslaved than he would have been if that had never happened." Why? Jackson and "others like him" (that sounds like of racist or at least condescending) would be living in Somalia or Ethiopia or Nigeria. Pretty strange idea, but he is right by saying colonialism brought "millions of nonwhite people into the orbit of Western freedom."
QUESTION #3: Why does…
America, having the perfect schools has long been thought to be the panacea of all our nation's social troubles. If only we could teach our children to master America's social values while still in school, we could produce a population of perfect engineers for our future society. Injustice, racism, poverty, and all the other social illnesses of America would be cured by this new generation of progressive thinkers. The quality of our nation's education system needs to be improved, and President Bush's education reform plan will do just that.
It is obvious that the so-called "progressive" educational approach has failed. The academic knowledge of our children has fallen in comparison to other industrial nations. In an attempt to stem our nation's slide in educational rankings, government expenditures for education have risen dramatically. Every year, billions of taxpayer dollars are poured into the U.S. education system. The government seems to believe…
Digest of Education Statistics, 1991." National Center for Education Statistics. http://nces.ed.gov//pubs2002/digest2001/ch6.asp .
Economic & Social Data Ranking. http://web.hhs.se/personal/suzuki/o-English/UnitedStates.html.
Frase, Larry E, and William Streshly. Top Ten Myths in Education. Lanham, MD: Scarecrow, 2000.
Hirsch, E.D. The Schools We Need and Why We Don't Have Them. New York: Doubleday, 1996
COPING & ADJUSTMENT
The author of this response is asked to offer a journal of personal reflection and observations about the author's life up to this point from several different perspectives. It will be described how well the author has adjusted as it relates to four overall dimensions. Those dimensions are adjusting to life in terms of subjective well-being, diversity, contexts and thinking critically, the balancing of life priorities including home, work, school recreation and family, the developing of the author's identity including self-esteem, self-concept, ethnicity and/or gender and coping with stress via means of social support, multiple coping strategies and/or self-control. While the author of this report has more than a few things that could have done and handled better than they were, the totality of the author's life reflects a decent amount of balance and solid outcomes.
As it relates to subjective well-being,…
BYU. (2014, October 20). The Verdict on Cohabitation vs. Marriage. The Verdict on Cohabitation vs. Marriage. Retrieved October 20, 2014, from http://marriageandfamilies.byu.edu/issues/2001/January/cohabitation.htm
Fessler, P. (2014, September 16). A 'Circle' Of Support Helps Families Stay Out Of
Poverty. NPR. Retrieved October 21, 2014, from http://www.npr.org/2014/09/16/347954335/a-circle-of-support-helps-families-stay -
Poverty Income Inequality and Female Labor Market Participation
1.1. Problem Statement
Today's global inequality and poverty is an outcome of two successive centuries of unequal progress, and eradication remains one of the greatest global challenges. The 2020 Global Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) identified that 22 percent of the world population (1.3 billion people) live with multi-dimensional poverty, with 42 percent living in Sub Saharan Africa and 41 percent living in South Asia. Every multidimensionally poor person is deprived of multiple poverty indicators which include health, education, and standards of living indicators, which include cooking fuel, drinking water, sanitation, electricity, housing, and asset ownership (UNDP, 2020). The different levels of poverty and income inequality are a manifestation of differences in gender labor participation. According to the International Labor Organization estimates, the women labor force participation rate of 49% is disproportionately lower than the men labor force participation rate of 75% and…
Cipollone, A., Patacchini, E., & Vallanti, G. (2014). Female labor market participation in Europe: novel evidence on trends and shaping factors. IZA Journal of European Labor Studies, 3(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/2193-9012-3-18
ILO. (2016). Global Gender Gap Report. In Encyclopedia of Family Studies. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781119085621.wbefs350
ILO. (2017). World Employment Social Outlook. In Report. http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---dgreports/---dcomm/---publ/documents/publication/wcms_579893.pdf
Ntuli, M. (2014). Determinants of South African Women\\\\' s Labour Force Participation, 1995- IZA DP No . 3119 Determinants of South African Women\\\\' s Labour Force Participation, 1995 – 2004 Miracle Ntuli October 2007 Forschungsinstitut Institute for the Study of Labor. November 2007, 1995–2004.
OECD. (2019). Measuring the impact of social protection on inclusive growth. In Can Social Protection Be an Engine to Inclusive Growth (pp. 21–37). OECD Publishing, Paris. https://doi.org/10.1787/a43dc9c3-en
Raihan, S., & Jahan, I. (2018). How Does Social Protection Affect Labor Force Participation in Bangladesh? South Asia Economic and Policy Studies. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-13-2071-2_8
UNDP. (2020). Charting pathways out of multi-dimensional poverty?: Achieving the SDGs. 1–52. http://hdr.undp.org/sites/default/files/2020_mpi_report_en.pdf
America During the 1960's
The 1960's began well for America. President Kennedy appeared to have the social and economic aspects of the country under good control. After his assassination,
President Lyndon Baines Johnson took over and attempted to continue Kennedy's ideals. Policies such as the war on poverty as well as other implementations such as civil rights for all were to form part of Johnson's "Great Society." This appeared to improve things after the tragic death Kennedy. However, horrors such as the Vietnam ar and the subsequent economic crisis brought about a decline in the short-lived prosperity. Other elements such as violence resulting from resistance to new civil rights laws also contributed to decline where better administration may have resulted in progress. Below these elements are considered to arrive at a conclusion about the degree of progress and decline in America during this time.
The Great Society
Johnson's presidency began…
Garraty, J.A. & R.A. McCaughey. The American Nation: A History of the United States. New York: Harper & Row, 1987.
Make Love, Not War. http://www.cgsocialstudies.com/~dudley/coldwar2/reading/13-reading.pdf
Schultz, S.K. "The Almost Great Society." May 5, 2003. State Historical Society of Wisconsin, 1997. http://us.history.wisc.edu/hist102/lectures/lecture27.html
Poverty is defined as having a meager annual income, insufficient for meeting basic expenditure. esearch has confirmed that older adults, from the age of 65 years and above, when poor, confront immense burden in meeting with their basic housing, food, healthcare and other expenses. Poverty in the elderly populations is a persistent and grave issue in America. Almost 10% of elderly individuals (aged 65 years and above) belong to families with annual income below America's official poverty line, also termed as the federal poverty level (or FPL). An older adult (age- 65+) who lives alone was labeled as a 'poor' individual if his/her annual income before tax amounted to less than 10, 326 dollars, in 2008. Elderly couples having incomes under 13, 014 dollars were labeled as poor. oughly one in every six elderly individuals was nearly poor, or poor, with income less than 125% of FPL; nearly a third…
Butrica, B.A., Murphy, D.P., & Zedlewski, S.R. (2010). How many struggle to get by in retirement?. The Gerontologist, 50(4), 482-494.
Caldera S. (2009). Social Security: Ten Facts That Matter. Washington, DC: AARP Public
Policy Institute. Retrieved 25 July 2015 from http://assets.aarp.org/rgcenter/econ/fs154_socsec.pdf
Cawthorne A. (2008). Elderly Poverty: The Challenge Before Us. Center for American progress.
Poverty and Homelessness in Children
Poverty is the deficiency in the amount of money or material possessions considered to be acceptable for individuals in a particular country. Among families who are homeless with children 42% of homeless children are under the age of six years old. The majority of homeless families with children cited poverty as the third most common reason for their being homeless. A child is born into poverty every 33 seconds in the United States.
Key professional and community organizations addressing this issue/population: There are several organizations addressing this issue including the U.S. Department of Agriculture with programs like the Supplemental Nutrition Program, the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) seeking to provide affordable housing to everyone, the Children's Defense Fund, Voices for America's Children, the National Urban League, and the National Coalition for the Homeless. Local and community-based organizations such as The Salvation Army,…
Poverty in the U.S.
Poverty is a major variable in the lives of many people in the U.S. The median household income for families in the U.S. is $59,000 (Semega, Fontenot and Kollar)—yet 40.6 million people live in poverty in the U.S., or 12.7% of the population (Semega, Fontenot and Kollar). If poverty were a health issue it would be considered an epidemic. This paper will address the issue of poverty in the U.S. and explain how it is an injustice and how it affects higher education for young people.
Poverty is a socioeconomic issue that impacts everyone—not just the lives of families who directly suffer from it. When communities suffer from poverty, the rest of the world is impacted, too. Employers are impacted because the pool of educated individuals from which they will be able to select their talent shrinks, as most people who grow up in poverty suffer…
59-84). A lack of rule of law equates to lawlessness and high levels of violence and theft.
In aggregate the factors of investment, fertility, schooling, and socio-political openness to new venture create statistically significant differences in economic performance between the regions. What De Gregorio (et. al.) also found was Latin American nations are continually coming in and out of economic crises, which makes their banking system, money supply and balance-of-payments highly risky and difficult to invest in even when there is a growth opportunity. Latin America's greatest challenge will be in overcoming the tendency to continually cycle from one economic crisis to another.
De Gregorio (2004) - "Growth and Adjustment in East Asia and Latin America"
Econom'a Journal. Jose De Gregorio - Volume 5, Number 1, Fall 2004, pp. 69-134.
Brookings Institution Press. Accessed from the Internet on February 7, 2007 from location: http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/economia/toc/eco5.1.html
De Gregorio (1992). "Economic Growth…
De Gregorio (2004) - "Growth and Adjustment in East Asia and Latin America"
Econom'a Journal. Jose De Gregorio - Volume 5, Number 1, Fall 2004, pp. 69-134.
Brookings Institution Press. Accessed from the Internet on February 7, 2007 from location: http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/economia/toc/eco5.1.html
De Gregorio (1992). "Economic Growth in Latin America." De Gregorio, Jose Journal of Development Economics 39(1): 59-84.
The phrase that was popular in 1965, when Johnson got his legislation passed, was "Cultural deprivation"; that phrase, and the culture of poverty became what Stein calls "central constructs" around a policy that hopefully would help children that were "shackled by the chains of disadvantage which bind them to a life of hopelessness and misery" (Stein, 2004, xiv).
Schools were a "promising site for government intervention" because the field of education could "…interrupt the otherwise intractable poverty culture," Stein continued, reviewing the federal government's attempt to end poverty. By funding programs to help low income students, the government set out to "…impart middle-class norms, and break the chains of poverty and disadvantage," for poor students, blacks, Latinos, immigrants and others who were seen as "victims of cultural deprivation," Stein continues on page xv. But the problem with the government's intervention was that the "very characterizations of 'disadvantaged youth'…functioned in ways…
Cuthrell, Kristen, Stapleton, Joy, and Ledford, Carolyn. "Examining the Culture of Poverty:
Promising Practices." Preventing School Failure. 54.2 (104-110).
Harrison, Brigid Callahan. Power and Society: An Introduction to the Social Sciences. Florence,
KY: Cengage Learning, 2010.
Interpretive sociology does not agree with the thought that behavior is related to society as effect is related to cause since this entire idea is dysfunctional with that which composes social life in reality. Interpretive sociology holds that understanding of our fellow man should be the pursuit of each day as sense is made of their individual societal existence. Seeking to understand is the concept held in interpretive sociology instead of the seeking of an explanation. Therefore it is understood that "structural" or that of Marxism and Functionalism (i.e. The interpretive/interactionist/social action sociologies) as well as Weber's interactionism, ethnomethodology and the Structural arguments in sociology that a "science of society" is likely. Therefore, there exists an agreement even among the interpretive sociologies. The natural science argument is based on "cause and effect" principles. That claim that the behavior of humans is the effect of some cause in society or class…
Townsend, Peter (1970) the Concept of Poverty. Heinemann Weber, Max (1958) the Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York.
Gilbert (1999) Social Research Update No. 27 University of Surrey Department of Sociology
Marx, Karl (1970) first published 1870 capital Vol.1 Penguin.
Sanjeev Prakash is Director of the Environment, Technology and Institutional
Research and compare and contrast education in America. Dr. Carson grew up in poverty and claims education is the reason for his success. Is this an accurate statement? How does education impact directly or indirectly crime in America? Next, choose a district in an inner city and one in a non-urban area. Discuss the educational programs in each and then discuss the crime statistics within each area. What conclusions can you draw regarding education and its effect on crime in the area?
Several explanations of this have been thoroughly elaborated and they are based on the traditions popular in poverty-stricken regions, the unequal distribution of educational infrastructure, the standard of education in the less developed regions, the opinions of poor households and several others. There has been conclusive evidence showing that education truly boosts the development and advancement experienced by a region or community. Educational regulators and workers find themselves…
The apparent point here is that land traditionally belonging to native tribes will be used to mine in the interest of the developed world. It makes me feel both sad and powerless. I do not have all the information, but stories like this always make me feel that those with the greatest physical, technological, or financial power, or all three, tend to have more power than even those with the right to a certain piece of land or way of living.
The second point confirms the previous observation, that the consistent support of those in power has resulted in the approval of the project without any regard for the rights of those who have possessed the land for far longer. Again, this gives me a sense of powerlessness when faced with decisions by politicians who have only their own interest at heart.
This is far longer than the mere…
Technology and America's Global Power:
America is considered as the cradle of contemporary anti-imperialism and the pioneer of a mighty empire across the globe. The country's global position in the 21st Century is defined by tensions in its policies and public discourse (Hay, 2004). Consequently, the role of the United States as a sponsor of worldwide stability continues to raise concerns on whether an empire can function effectively on the basis of anti-imperialism. However, the United States has also played a significant role in addressing and solving international order problems such as distant conflicts and grievances. During this process, America has continued to expand its global power to the extent of being viewed as the world's super-power. Technological advances have been critical elements with which the country has expanded its power through
Information technology has been the main element behind America's military system which supports in global military…
Agre, P.E. (n.d.). Information Technology In the Political Process. Retrieved from Department
of Information Studies -- University of California website: http://polaris.gseis.ucla.edu/pagre/political.html
Boot, M. (2006, October). The Paradox of Military Technology, Retrieved August 23, 2011,
homelessness in America, especially looking at children and families who are homeless. Homelessness has always been an issue in America, but today, there are even more homeless people in the country because of the economic crisis. People have lost their jobs and their homes, and have nowhere to go but the streets. Homelessness used to be viewed as an often solitary issue, but today, many families with children are homeless, and that leads to a dim view of the future for these families.
First, it is important to define homelessness. Two authors write, "It is usually accepted that those who sleep in public places or squat in derelict buildings are homeless" (Chamberlain, and Johnson 35). However, there are many other ways to define homelessness. Families living temporarily in shelters are homeless, and so are people who are hospitalized or institutionalized that have nowhere to go on their release. So are…
Chamberlain, Chris, and Guy Johnson. "The Debate about Homelessness." Australian Journal of Social Issues 36.1 (2001): 35.
Latham, Buffalo. "The Art of Homelessness." The Humanist Jan.-Feb. 2002: 20+.
Nunez, Ralph Da Costa, and Laura M. Caruso. "Are Shelters the Answer to Family Homelessness?" USA Today (Society for the Advancement of Education) Jan. 2003: 46+.
The public face of stigma involves the general public's negative beliefs, feelings and behaviours directed toward those with a stigma" (¶ 4). Public stigma may contribute to a cycle of poverty by: a) Employers discriminating against obese individuals or those who may be HIV-infected or mentally ill. b) Being poor, per se, may contribute to even more public stigmatization.
Self-stigma and public stigma closely connect, eeder and Pryor (2008) stress . The degree an individual perceives that his/her employers, family, family, and landlords possess stigmatizing attitudes; he/she will likely experience the pain of self-stigma. One's awareness of public stigma frequently promotes self-stigma.
A stigma, similar to a disease may spread from one individual to another. The individual who decides to affiliate with a member of a stigmatized group may acquire a courtesy stigma. In a sense, as the individual gains admission into the stigmatized category, both the stigmatized group's members…
Jeanine B. et al. Poverty and Social Assistance in Transition Countries Journal of Comparative
Economics, Volume 29, Issue 1, Pages 188-189
Katsiaouni, O. & Gorniak, J. (2001). Globalization and rural poverty in transition economies.
Paper for Expert Group Meeting on Globalisation and Poverty Reduction: Can th Rural Poor Benefit from Globalisation? organised by Division for Social Policy and Development, United Nations, 8-9 November 2001, New York.
American Mother's Living In Poverty
Welfare reform in the United States has been hailed as a great success, reducing the number of people on the welfare rolls from 4.4 million in 1996 to 2.1 million in 2001. But these figures hide the suffering of the multitude of American women who are living on or below the national poverty line. In this paper we will challenge the argument that the welfare reform initiative is 'working' and suggest instead that according to credible sources women are in fact penalized by the very system that has been put in place to 'help' them.
The United States Census bureau shows how the 'poverty threshold" is calculated each year. This figure is a dollar amount that the department has determined is what is required for a number of people living together. The two main characteristics of the threshold formula are the size of a family…
For Crying Out Loud: Women's Poverty in the United States. Eds. Diane Dujon and Ann Withorn. Boston: South End Press, 1996.
Hays, Sharon. Flat Broke with Children: Women in the Age of Welfare Reform. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2003.
Katz, Michael. The Undeserving Poor: From the War on Poverty to the War on Welfare. New York: Pantheon Books, 1989.
On the other hand, 'resistance for liberation' may have the obverse effect causing children (in this case adolescents) to take these self-same disabling elements and use them for their growth and success.
Poverty may be a social construct but it need not tarnish an individual for life. Ultimately, the individual decides what to do with his or her life, and the same circumstances that can turn one into a drug-doped self-destructed convict can turn another into a bastion of society.
Ayers. W. A kind and just parents. The children of juvenile court
Leadbetter, B.., & Niobe, W. (2007). Urban girls revisited: Building strengths. NY Univ. Press. NY.
Lichter, D., Shannahan, M., & Gardner, E. (2002). Helping others: The effects of childhood poverty and family instability on prosocial behavior, Youth and Society, 34, 89-119
Martin, D., Martin, M., Gell, ., Davis, C., & Guerreri, K. (2008). Adolescence, 43, 608-711.
Ayers. W. A kind and just parents. The children of juvenile court
Leadbetter, B.R., & Niobe, W. (2007). Urban girls revisited: Building strengths. NY Univ. Press. NY.
Lichter, D., Shannahan, M., & Gardner, E. (2002). Helping others: The effects of childhood poverty and family instability on prosocial behavior, Youth and Society, 34, 89-119
Martin, D., Martin, M., Gell, R., Davis, C., & Guerreri, K. (2008). Adolescence, 43, 608-711.
Cause of Homelessness in America
has numerous social problems. Homelessness seems to be one of the most important ones. There are several causes that determine homelessness. However, the primary cause of homelessness can be considered the reduced affordable housing level and the national increase in poverty. Other causes of homelessness refer to high unemployment rates, low salary levels in certain urban and rural areas, the inability of certain individuals to pay health care bills, the inability qualify for public assistance, domestic violence, mental illness, addiction disorders, and others. It is important to understand that there are specific factors that influence homelessness in the U.S., but these factors are allowed to develop because of the state's authorities. In other words, these authorities seem to not be able to manage the social situation of individuals in a homeless situation. If their situation is analyzed, it can be established that homeless people's actions…
1. Top Causes of Homelessness in America (2012). HomeAid. Retrieved April 1, 2013 from http://www.homeaid.org/HomeAid-Stories/69/top-causes-of-homelessness .
2. Causes of Homelessness (2011). Homeless Coalition of Hillsborough County. Retrieved April 3, 2013 from http://www.homelessofhc.org/index.php/get-educated-information-homelessness/causes-of-homelessness.
3. Crane, M. et al. (2005). The Causes of Homeless in Later Life: Findings from a Three Nations Study. Journal of Gerontology. Retrieved April 3.
4. Fischer, P. (1992). Victimization and Homelessness: Cause and Effect. New England Journal of Public Policy. Retrieved April 3, 2013.
Fist, Stick, Knife, Gun
Fist Stick Knife Gun: A Personal History of Violence in America.
The book, Fist Stick Knife Gun: A Personal History of Violence in America, is a memoir told by the American activist Geoffrey Canada who gives his own personal account of what is was like to grow up on the streets of Harlem in the 1950s or 1960s. His account details his perspective of what it was like growing up in this environment where parents, peers, and sometimes even teachers preached the value of being tough. These kids were taught that the ideal response to violence is with more violence. Kids in this neighborhood were taught that they had to be strong and "take it like a man" if they were even confronted on any occasion. This culture of violence can be studied from many different perspectives.
However, the two I found to be the most…
Canada, G. (2010). Fist, Stick, Knife, Gun: A Personal History of Violence in America. Beacon Press.
Card, D., & Dahl, G. (2011). Family Violence and Football: The Effect of Unexpected Emotional Cues on Violent Behavior. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 103-143.
Hayward, K., & Young, J. (2011). Cultural Criminology: Some Notes on the Script. International Journal Theoretical Criminology, 259-285.
Among the main concerns, other than health, poverty, and education, are political involvement and the patronage of black businesses. Voter registration is another concern, closely tied to political involvement, that many black Americans need to take note of. When more black Americans become involved with politics, they have more of an opportunity to make changes that are needed. This does not mean that Smiley advocates changing the laws and rules of this country so that blacks are in power and whites are submissive, but only that the equality that should be there for all Americans does not always extend to black Americans as much as it was designed to do originally.
Some of this discrimination is intentional, but there is also discrimination that is not deliberate, but simply happens because of the way that laws are written or the way that things have always been done. This is the kind…
Globally, the United States has been known as "a nation of immigrants" almost from its inception. Beginning in the 1600s with English Puritans and continuing today, America is a melting pot of culture and ethnicity. In fact, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, immigration was the major source of U.S. population growth. Looking over our 200+ years we find that to clearly be true, with approximately 1 million immigrants coming to America during the 17th and 18th century. Almost 3 million arrived during the 1860s, and another 3 million in the 1870s. In the next four decades, the number of immigrants rose to over 25 million people, most from various European nations, most arriving in New York or one of the Eastern seaports (Damon, 1981). Despite the politicization, as of 2006, the United States actually was the number one country globally to accept legal immigrants into…
Anderson, S. (2010). Immigration. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Brooks, P. (2004). Immigration. Chicago, IL: Heinemann Library.
Damon, A. (1981, December). Immigration: A Look at the Record. AmericanHeritage.com.
Retrieved from: http://www.americanheritage.com/immigration/articles / magazine/ah/1981/1/1981_1_50.shtml
The authors go on to say that America has also forced their extreme versions of free capitalism and true democracy on the rest of the world, including into many places where those concepts really do not work. The American corporations that move into those areas control what food is eaten as well as grown there, and the conglomerates in the media bury most of the native culture of these other places under a strong onslaught full of American entertainment.
The authors, Sardar and Davies, address all of these issues with insight and research. The chapters in which they address culture very strongly, however, become somewhat repetitive and almost whiny on occasion. However, the authors are not saying that everyone has to agree with everything that they say. Even without agreeing with them completely, it is very easy to see that there are good reasons why many people do not like…
Sardar, Ziauddin & Davies, Merryl Wyn. (2003). Why do people hate America? Icon Books Ltd.; 2 Rev ed.
Interestingly enough, one of the themes in the post-modernism period of American history has been the reexamination of the "real America," particularly the moral, ethical and sexual changes that have evolved since the turn of the century. This has not been a new theme, nor has it been relegated to non-fiction. At the beginning of the 20th century, American novelists were expanding the role fiction took by examining high and low life in society. Edith harton, for instance, found tremendous hypocrisy within the ranks of the Eastern elite in terms of morality and sexuality and in Sister Carrie, Theodore Dreiser portrayed a country girl who moved to the big city of Chicago to become a "kept woman," relinquishing her American morals for the pleasures of the flesh. Similarly, even in the stories of F. Scott Fitzgerald, John Dos Passos, and Ernest Hemingway there are notions and reexaminations of…
Bales, R. (2001). Social Interaction Systmes: Theory and Measurment. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.
Berthrong, J. (2004). Love, Lust and Sex- A Christian Perspective. Buddhist-Christian Studies, 24(2), 3-22.
Gosine, M. (2010). Whatever Happened to the Real America. Boston: Pearson.
Smith, J. (1996, March). The Christian View of Sex: A Time for Apologetics, not Apologies. Retrieved July 2011, from Cathlic Education Research Center: http://www.catholiceducation.org/articles/sexuality/se0004.html
Immigrating to America contains a unique set of circumstances that are individual to each person and their home country of origin. In an effort to better understand these migration patterns it is useful to analyze the specific cases of immigration. The purpose of this essay is to examine the policies regarding immigration on three different countries. The three countries in question are Mexico, China and India. The essay will compare and contrast each country as they are described. In these descriptions the essay will argue for reasons as to why citizens of these countries are motivated to immigrate to America. Also included in this analysis will be the reaction from the collective forces of America and the specific impact that each country's immigrants create and sustain. Finally, a brief overview of how immigration effects the economy of the hosting America and whether it is necessary to enforce or create new…
Lahiri, Tripti. "Q&A: Why the U.S. Needs Indian Immigrants." Wall Street Journal. 29 Oct 2012: n. page. Web. 31 Mar. 2013. .
Preston, Julia. "Mexican Immigration to U.S. Slowed Significantly, Report Says. The New York Times, 23 April 2012, Web. 31 Mar 2013. http://www.nytimes.com /2012/04/24/us/mexican-immigration-to-united-states- slows.html?_r=0
Terrazas, Aaron. "Chinese Immigrants in the United Sates." Migration Information Source. Migration Policy Institute, n.d. Web. 31 Mar 2013. .
Puerto ico is a Caribbean Island which was formerly settled by two Native American tribes, Caribe and Arawak. In 1493, this Island was captured by Spain and up until about 400 years it was ruled by the Spanish. The native settlers during this time period had become slaves to the Spanish and with time as their population began to lessen, outsiders including black slaves were imported and the Indian race became less prominent. (Whalen)
The association between the United States and Puerto ico goes back to the times of the Spanish-American war which took place in 1898. As a result of this war and due to the terms which were presented under the Treaty of Paris in 1898, Spain had to let go of Puerto ico. Since then it has been an unincorporated territory of the United States of America. (Duany)
For Puerto ico, the 20th century started under the…
Aranda, Elizabeth. Emotional Bridges to Puerto Rico: Migration, Return Migration, and the Struggles of Incorporation. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2006. Print.
Duany, Jorge. The Puerto Rican Nation on the Move: Identities on the Island and in the United States. The University of North Carolina Press, 2001. Print.
Flores, Juan. Divided Arrival: Narratives of the Puerto Rican Migration, 1920-1950. Markus Wiener Publishers, 2003. Print.
Whalen, Carmen. The Puerto Rican Diaspora: Historical Perspectives. Temple University Press, 2005. Print.
Progressivism began as a social movement and evolved into a political movement, according to materials published by George Washington University (www.gwu.edu). Early in the social movement progressives were concerned about poverty, racism, greed and "class warfare," and they believed that those problems could be best addressed through education, a safer environment, and a workplace that was fair and safe (www.gwu.edu). Who were those considered to be progressives? The George Washington University narrative explains that they live "mostly in the cities," they had graduated from colleges and universities, and their beliefs included the belief that "…government could be a tool for change" -- and among the most vocal and visible social reformers / progressives were Jane Addams and journalists Jacob Riis and Ida Tarbel (www.gwu.edu).
Progressive journalists wrote investigative pieces that exposed "the evils of corporate greed" and they presented a balanced view of immigration and ethnicities, all the time "…urging…
Thus, investors are taxed at low rates and CEOs receive high pay specifically because they deserve it.
Thus, the facts are not contested by any side of this debate. The reality is that one must draw the line somewhere with respect to what sort of society one prefers to live in. The wealthy seek political power because they want to design a society in which they receive most of the benefits of opportunity while avoiding as much of the cost (taxation, regulation) as possible. Their ideal society probably already exists somewhere in the developing world, but alas American voters have sought to strike a more balanced approach to opportunity and cost. Many Americans -- some of them among the wealthy -- argue that too much wealth disparity is harmful to the country. First, as many Americans as possible should have the opportunity to succeed, something that does not come from…
Domhoff, B. (no date). Who rules America: Wealth, income and power. In possession of the author.
Buffett, W. (2011). Stop coddling the super-rich. New York Times. Retrieved September 22, 2012 from http://www.nytimes.com /2011/08/15/opinion/stop-coddling-the-super-rich.html
Allen, F. (2012). Sarbanes-Oxley 10 years later: Boards are still the problem. Forbes. Retrieved September 22, 2012 from http://www.forbes.com/sites/frederickallen/2012/07/29/sarbanes-oxley-10-years-later-boards-are-still-the-problem/
In his book, The orking Poor: Invisible in America, David K. Shipler investigates the often-ignored plight of working Americans who struggle with poverty. Shipler describes the combination of low-paying, dead end jobs and a vicious cycle of poverty that work together to stifle any hope of a better life for America's invisible working poor. Poor medical care, housing and education, coupled with child and sexual abuse help to create a cycle of poverty that can only be broken with the creation of a political will aimed to end the plight of the working poor, notes Shipler.
In The orking Poor, Shipler presents a thorough portrait of the lives and circumstances of the 35 million working poor in America. These Americans are those who are caught in relatively low paying, dead-end jobs, and who face enormous struggles in order to better their lot in the word. There jobs often…
Shipler, David K. 2004. The Working Poor: Invisible in America, 1st edition. Knopf.
Extreme Poverty and Hunger Eradication 7
I. Problem Overview
While the world has realized accelerated achievement in reducing extreme poverty over the last decades, poverty and hunger remain a chronic challenge in Africa. The Work Bank reports a decline in the global population living in extreme poverty (less than $1.90 a day) plunged to a low of 10% by 2015 which is equivalent to 736 million living below the poverty line (World Bank, 2018). The significant progress has been disproportionate, with the progress mainly recorded in South Asia, East Asia, and Pacific. South Asia has realized a decline of the poor population by more than a half from 500 million in 1990 to 216 million people in 2015 (FAO, 2018). However, a stark difference has been reported in Sub-Sahara Africa where extreme poverty is concentrated. The Poverty and Shared Prosperity report indicate an increase in the population living in extreme…