...Children dying of pellagra must die because a profit cannot be taken from an orange. And coroners must fill in the certificate -- died of malnutrition -- because the food must rot, must be forced to rot."(Steinbeck, 391) Thus, Steinbeck makes a cogent commentary on the corruptibility of the human being under the influence of power and economical profit.
Arthur Miller's All My Sons also exemplifies the way in which power can determine unethical acts and abuse. Thus, the protagonist of the story, Joe Keller is a corrupt manufacturer who, in the past, has taken advantage of his power and has knowingly killed over twenty army pilots when he sold defective equipment for the planes. Just as in Steinbeck's novel inhumanity was shown to be the main consequence of the abuse of power, in Miller's play the question of honor is raised. Joe Keller, in spite of the fact that…… [Read More]
Social Security checks would be months behind if done manually. However, the other side of this coin is a gorgon's head: public information needs to be easily available while private personal information is protected as much as possible. In reality, information technology is a powerful tool to beat crime, terrorism and poverty, if we only wield that sword properly.
So what is the key? I say it is education, but not the kind we all think about with memorization and regurgitation. We need to teach our children to think, to make rational decisions, to behave ethically and to measure their actions by their effects. We need to train children to seek out the truth and how to know it when they find it. We need to teach them the have the courage and passion to use it. We must become a nation of life long learners, for knowledge will be…… [Read More]
Bardhan, P. (1997) "Corruption and Development: A Review of the Issues." Journal of Economic Literature 35: 1320-46.
Barro, R. (1996) "Determinants of Growth: A Cross-Country Empirical Study." NBER orking Paper No. 5698.
Barro, R., and Lee, J. (1993) "International Comparisons of Educational Attainment." Journal of Monetary Economics 32: 363-94.
Bhagwati, J.N. (1982) "Directly Unproductive Profit-Seeking (DUP) Activities." Journal of Political Economy 90: 988-1002.
Buchanan, J.M.; Tullock G.; and Tollison, R., eds. (1980) Toward a Theory of the Rent-Seeking Society. College Station: Texas a & M. University Press.
Campos, J.E.; Lien, D.; and Pradhan, S. (1999) "The Impact of Corruption on Investment: Predictability Matters." orld Development 27 (6): 105967.
Cheung, S.N. (1996) "Simplistic General Equilibrium Theory of Corruption." Contemporary Economic Policy 14 (3): 1-5.
Davies, B. 2001. "Making macaroni out of Marconi." Centaur Communications. [online] http://www.ideasociety.co.uk/marconi.htm
Easterly, ., and Levine R. (1997) "Africa's Growth Tragedy: Policies and Ethnic Divisions."…… [Read More]
environment in which an organization operates, seen as a cumulus of social, economic, legal or technological factors, is constantly changing. We may refer to the specific or general environment so as to separate the environment in which the company revolves on a day-to-day basis, including here its suppliers or customers, from the general conditions within the country (Schermerhorn, Hunt and Osborn. Organizational ehavior. Eighth Edition. John Wiley and Sons. 2003. Chapter 12,-page 14). It becomes evident that the organization is influenced by both these different environments and that the decisions made within the company and the organization's politics are strictly determined by them.
The government regulations on business form much of the legal and economic factors of the general environment. However, they are also specific, as they have a direct impact on the company's business and on the decisions taken. A common business regulation is the Anti-Trust set of regulations,…… [Read More]
Sometimes, as we see in King Lear, the thirst for power leads to nothing but trouble. It should be noted that the power did come but it was not enough to erase what had already happened. As a result, of this power hunt, King Lear and Cordelia discover what true love is all about. Gloucester and Edgar also learn the value of love. In "The ife of Bath's Tale," we see that power is ugly as the knight only acts to fulfill his desires. However, he is redeemed when he comes around and finally realizes true love and can appreciate it. Both of these stories tell cautionary tales about the power of love and the love of power.
Bloom, Harold. Shakespeare: The Invention of the Human. New York: Riverhead Books. 1998.
Chaucer, Geoffrey. "The ife of Bath's Tale," the Canterbury Tales. Nevill Coghill, trans. New York: Penguin Books.…… [Read More]
Thus, these authors warn that the abuse of authority must be consistently checked and fought in order to keep it from expanding. This is currently being evidenced in our society. The Bush administration has repeated thwarted the power of Congress and the Supreme Court by attempting to pass laws that directly by-pass the national legislature and promoting a system that takes away presidential checks. The Bush administration repeated refuses to provide subpoenaed documents and to allow information access and disclosure. It is evident from their behavior that without such accurate disclosure the government is drifting closer and closer to the realities discussed within this book.
In the final analysis, Blair's new book is a haunting reminder of the world of 1984, and the contemporary establishment of his book, featuring a four-term Bush administration only highlights the urgency of the issues and themes he discusses within his book. The fact is…… [Read More]
Ethics in elationship to Power Structures
Ethical obligations allegedly breached by Smith or Halloran while in office
Senator Malcolm Smith and New York City Councilman Dan Halloran were accused of attempting to fix the mayoral ballot. They were allegedly reported having exchanged thousands of dollars in cash. This money was intended to pay off the officials of the epublican Party to agree to one of the Democrats, Smith on the GOP line. Halloran demonstrated clear ignorance as he walked into the evil bargain as the confidential witness dangled campaign funds for a personal interest bid. In the context of public ethics, the actions of Smith and Halloran raise questions their principles of justice, democratic society, and common good (Stensota, 2010).
Smith and Halloran must adhere to the principle of ethical policymaking. This principle requires that they hold one another accountable for what they know and value. As such, it draws…… [Read More]
Whether this actually takes place is not the topic of this discussion, however. It is only important here in the sense that if it is taking place, it would fall into the discussion of whether it is right to use the power that these individuals have and keep that power instead of telling the truth, even if the truth may diminish the power that they previously enjoyed.
The most important Arthur Miller quote for this discussion, however, would be "...the strongest man in the world is the man who stands most alone." This quote is very important when looking at whether truth or power is more important, because it indicates that the man who tells the truth is the one that is often shunned and ignored, while the powerful people continue to use (and abuse) that power in order to stay ahead of others. It is unfortunate that individuals feel…… [Read More]
Graham Greene's novel The Power and the Glory (1940) is one of his works that the author himself identified as a Catholic story, and it is clearly concerned with issues of Catholicism in both theory and practice. The novel is set in Mexico in the 1930s at a time when the Church was in conflict with the political powers in Mexico. Greene gives his story an allegorical structure, with the two opposing forces represented by the hiskey Priest and the Lieutenant of Police, neither of whom is ever named beyond this identification with their jobs and roles in life. The metaphorical framework for the novel evokes images of death, leading ultimately to the death of the priest but also suggesting the death of a corrupt religious order. The novel was deemed anti-Catholic by the Church, which sought to have it banned for a time, though the novel is more critical…… [Read More]
Full creativity allows the production of greater wealth, for a stronger and more evolved society.
Further in defense of the moral systems or perceived lack thereof in terms of newly created wealth, D'Souza asserts that most wealth currently created is the result of personal effort, rather than means such as inheritance. The wealth can then indeed be seen as the reward for effort, rather than wealth as a result of luck in its pure sense. Morality's role should then not be concerned so much with justifying the accumulated wealth, but rather with using it wisely for the benefit of humanity, creativity, freedom and evolution.
Another characteristic of freedom, as seen above, is the recognition of new and revolutionary ideas, and implementing those when they are superior to the old. In terms of economy this is as true as in terms of morals. Those in power for example refuse to accept…… [Read More]
This was however, not the view held by the Catholic Church in their view of the novel. The view of the Catholic Church, was that "the latter element" -- that is, human wretchedness -- had appeared "to carry the day" in a way that did injury "to certain priestly characters and even to the priesthood itself." Moreover, the novel portrayed a state of affairs so "paradoxical" and "erroneous" that it would disconcert "unenlightened persons" who formed "the majority of the readers."
Summary and Conclusion
Greene was not disconcerted by the view of the Church and simply remarked that he did not own the copyright and therefore could do nothing to change what was already written. The following quote from the work is quite poignant and after having read about the life of Greene can just as easily be assigned to come from within him as from within the mind of…… [Read More]
"They were informed by the committee that they could assert a claim of 'executive privilege' as a justification for not answering questions and not providing the documents, but they had to do that by appearing and making that claim in front of the committee. They were not simply free to ignore a lawful subpoena to appear. In short, nobody was above the law." (Weiner). However, even though they were cited with contempt, Congress could not enforce those citations because the Attorney General refused to refer the citations to a grand jury.
The most remarkable aspect about this article is that it gives one example of how a corrupt presidential administration can abrogate the protections guaranteed in the constitution, to prevent over-concentrating power in one governmental branch.
Babington, Charles. "Stem Cell Bill Gets Bush's First Veto." WashingtonPost.com. 2006. The Washington Post Company. 6 March 2008 http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/07/19/AR2006071900524.html.
President Bush vetoed a bill…… [Read More]
Greene's the Power and the Glory
Graham Greene's The Power and the Glory is believed by some to be his finest work. The book addresses a variety of social, religious and personal issues that lay close to the heart of the author. The Mexican situation and the Catholic faith are for example two prominent issues addressed by the work. elow is then a consideration of the context and inner truths from which Graham Greene created this work.
Roman Catholicism in Mexico
Greene met the woman who would be his wife, Vivien Dayrell-rowning while he was working at the Nottingham Journal. While some say that this is his reason for converting to Roman Catholicism, it is obvious that his devotion and affection for this religion later became much deeper than the catalyst for a woman's love. The way in which the protagonist of The Power and the Glory, the priest, is…… [Read More]
sex, power, alcohol and money on moral and ethical acts
Ethics, Sex, and Morality
Sex is still a subject that is a victim of human irrational treatment of an otherwise clear functional human phenomenon. Such incidents as homicide, and insanity gold and gems have also been subjected to such irrational treatment but, luckily, the mysteries around these have been dispelled over time. Sex has not been so lucky though as there is still a cloud of mystery and deliberate misrepresentation, perception and near-superstitious handling of the phenomenon. Sex is the most emotionally involving aspect of human existence. It is not a wonder then, that there is so much confusion directed at it. Lately, though, it seems that the wind of change is sweeping fast to affect people's view of sex. Some forces in operation around the subject of sex are clearly defined now. It is increasingly impossible to have a…… [Read More]
A Problem with the law
This paper will focus specifically on police corruption and the ways in which to lessen and decrease instances of police corruption. The first section includes an introduction explaining the effects of police corruption from rapes to murder and how it impacts society. It also expresses the need to act, as the United States becomes more like the exceedingly corrupt African countries of Nigeria and South Africa. Comparison of other countries reveals a lack of authority and government as well as public safety concerns.
The other section explains and identifies the different forms of corruption that happen with police officers including: opportunistic theft, tampering of evidence, and accepting of bribes. When police officers commit these crimes, they are often not prosecuted. This is due to the lack of evidence of witnesses against them. Most police officers are trained to…… [Read More]
The acketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act (ICO) is a federal law that was passed in 1970. This law permits the trial and prosecution for actions that are performed as part of an ongoing criminal enterprise. Actions that include such criminal behavior has illegal gambling, bribery, murder and money laundering are all typical of ICO violations.
The ICO act was intended to bring down crime families and mafia organizations or other organized crime. Within these criminal families are systems that protect the long standing hierarchies that control and deliver the criminal behavior within these families. As a result, old laws could not reach these criminals and new prosecutorial powers were needed to ensure that justice was taking place.
The ICO Act originally was legislated to prosecute the Mafia and others involved in organized crime, but over time, the definition of what constitutes racketeering activity has expanded. Consequently, the application…… [Read More]
Corruption in Ethiopia
Corruption is a problem in many developing countries. Defined as the abuse of power with the aim of gaining personal advantage, corrupt practices can include, but are not limited to the offering or taking of bribes, facilitation payments, and embezzlement. The harm created by corruption can be great, not only in terms of increasing the direct costs, with funds being directed away from their legislate use, hindering social needs, the practice is also a deterrent and may hinder aid and development and presents an opportunity cost. This is certainly the case in Ethiopia.
A developing nation will benefit from the creation of a stable environment. Stable environments aid in the provision of social needs, such as healthcare and education, as well as supporting economic development which will facilities increased disposable income for individuals and for the government to provide services. The presence of corruption is a factor…… [Read More]
17th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution was ratified in 1913. It altered the way in which Senators of the Congress were elected. Previously, under Article 1 of the Constitution, it was the state legislature's responsibility to elect senators to Congress. ith the 17th Amendment, however, the voting power was placed directly into the hands of the public. The Amendment also provided a way for states to allow governors to fill vacancies in their state's appointed seats in Congress by temporarily appointing a senator until a time in which a special election could be conducted.
The text of the Amendment states specifically that "two Senators from each State, elected by the people thereof, for six years" shall be the manner in which senators are now voted into office. This effectively made the process of electing senators more democratic and less representational, in the sense that that the voting public had the…… [Read More]
Rise of the Papacy in the Middle Ages
The ishop of Rome had always exerted the highest authority in the Church since the time that St. Peter took root there, recognized by the Church as the first Pope.[footnoteRef:1] His successor St. Linus followed in Peter's footsteps, as did each of the successors on down the line throughout the centuries (with the exception of the Avignon Popes during the Great Western Schism). That Rome should serve as the center of the new Church even after the Roman Empire fell is no surprise, as John Farrow notes: "It was inevitable that the new religion should spread to Rome. All roads led to the seat of the Imperial splendor, all things came there, for in truth it was the center of the known world."[footnoteRef:2] Thus it was quite natural for Peter to establish himself there, for as head of Christ's Church, he was…… [Read More]
Policy Paradox" and the ire
In Chapter 14 of Policy Paradox, Stone (2001) unearths the shaky foundations upon which citizen's rights rest. According to Stone, there is a constant friction between those rights which are defined by a legal system and those which an individual ought to have. hen these rights are defined, it is often as a result of a judge's ruling: "...judges thus articulate new standards of behavior in the course of resolving disputes about existing constitutional, statutory, administrative, or judicial standards" (p. 330). This implies that judges, and all officials at the judicial level of a legal system, work in the interest of the public and society as a whole. However, as episodes 10 and 11 of the first season of the television series The ire reveal, this is a naive assumption.
Episode 10, "The Cost," reveals the corruption and self-interest that runs rampant at state, and…… [Read More]
Free Are American Media
Events occur and become news, news circulate all around the globe. In early times it was almost impossible to convey these happening with in short period of time but with the advent of time technology grew exponentially and gave a fast source of communication called "media."
Media has played a very important role throughout. Any event occurring in one side of the globe gets to the other side within a span of minutes. They cover events such as politics, sports, entertainment etc. And telecast it to the other regions. Every event that had occurred in the past has been covered by the regions local and international media. The point lies in the contradicting news telecasted by the media i.e. one event coverage contradicting to the same event covered by another channel.
The process of broadcasting consist of many events such as coverage, filtration, etc. A channel…… [Read More]
Woodrow Wilson used the radio to appeal to the American public directly to support the nation's entry into the then-unpopular World War I. Franklin Roosevelt, of course, was the master of the fireside chat, and even after his demise, the rapid rise of the Soviet power and the Cold War enabled Harry Truman to "scare hell" out of the country by using the media.
Popular, collective fear of the Soviets tipped the balance even farther in favor of the powers of the chief executive. The Johnson Administration refused to spend the funds allocated to crucial agricultural programs, to bully Congress into accepting its deficit spending for the Great Society and the Vietnam War (87). These examples, along with the escalation of the Vietnam War, show how Democratic presidents were often just as guilty as Republican presidents of abusing the office's authority. In recent memory, the Clinton Administration went to court…… [Read More]
Leadership, Business and Rhetoric
Leadership, Business, and Rhetoric
To what extent do different situations merit different types of leaders? Different situations definitely require different types of leaders. When it comes to a team environment, transformational leaders who work with others instead of giving orders are the best choice. Some environments, such as the military, do not lend themselves to that type of leadership, though. These environments require a transactional leader who is clearly in charge and has no problem giving orders to others. There are generally severe penalties for not carrying out these orders, and there is little, if any, teamwork between the leader and the followers. One style of leadership will not be effective in all situations, nor should it be used in all situations.
Can we identify a set of personality traits common to all successful leaders? The most successful leaders are natural leaders. That means they do…… [Read More]
Leadership and Realtors
I have many aspirations and many things I would like to accomplish in my lifetime. That said, one of my strongest vocations is establishing myself in my community as a successful real estate agent.
I've always had a knack for sales and I love architecture and residential construction. But my affinity for real estate probably dates back to my childhood, when my uncle Herbie used to drive me around in his big tan Buick Skylark, taking me to all his listings so I could see how he showcased his properties. My uncle Herbie used to make me guess how much he had listed each property for, if I was wrong, he would wonk me on the head with this old leather scabbard he had in the back seat, if I was right, he would give me a piece of salt-water taffy. Long story short, I've wanted to…… [Read More]
There is a ripple affect that ensues from this as well, reaching out to affect jobs, which affect incomes, which again affect economical aspects.
5. The ethical decision-making framework includes the concepts of ethical issue intensity, corporate culture, and individual factors. Discuss how these concepts influence the ethical decision-making process.
The ethical issue intensity concept is truly foremost in determining the degree by which the decision-making process is extended. When the degree of intensity regarding the ethical issue at hand is substantial, the decision making process is likely to be handled with either more care in its concern or more hastily in its chaos. Factoring in corporate culture, the decision making process will be sensitive to the exact nature of the ethical issue in connection to specifics outlining the concept of corporate culture. Individual factors will contribute to the decision-making process according to the various manners of the specific individual…… [Read More]
Related to this concept of "myth" is the concept of "vision." A vision can transform an organization's ideology or sense of purpose into a road map for the future (Bolman, 2008,p. 255). Vision can translate into principles being integrated into the very fabric of the organization. Vision can foster the development of an organization's culture that predicates itself on hard work and determination; determination to attain specific benchmarks, this determination can quickly metastasize through the entire organization (Bolman, 2008, p. 256).
The question then becomes what administrative structure is more adept at handling such conditions. Is a more centralized "top-down" approach similar to the management styles of former Home Depot CEO Robert Nardelli and President Jimmy Carter the most beneficial? These management styles have often been lauded for their micromanagement and intense hands on approach defined by their incessant need to be involved in the every decision making process. Ultimately,…… [Read More]
Prince by Machiavelli [...] what Machiavelli believes are the qualities of the best rulers and of the best states. It will also look at the questions: Why does he support these qualities? Why do they need to have such qualities? Do you think he's right? If so, pick a good ruler and show that he (or she) has these qualities. If you don't agree, choose a counterexample and do the same. Machiavelli's work "The Prince" illustrates how power and those who wield it have not changed throughout the centuries. Power has always corrupted, and those who wield it tend to be those most easily corruptible. This is easily evident in the modern conflict between the United States and Iraq. Each state believes the other is corrupt and led by a corrupted and corruptible leader, capable of using deadly force against its enemies. These problems seem to have plagued nation-states for…… [Read More]
Lord Rings the Two Towers First paragraph: 5-8 sentences. In sentence, include title, author, subject/theme book. In middle paragraph, reader interest - statement, quote, background information.
Lord of The Rings: The Two Towers by J.R. Tolkien
The Lord of the Rings: The Two Towers by J.R. Tolkien illustrates the theme that absolute power corrupts people in an absolute fashion. The story unfolds the saga of a great, all-powerful ring that gives its wearer the ability to rule over all of Middle Earth. Various beings strive to gain control over the ring as the tale unfolds, including the former hobbit driven mad by the ring's power named Gollum and the evil wizard Saruman. The good hobbit Frodo nearly dies in his quest to bring the ring to the only place in the world -- Mount Doom -- where it can be destroyed. The book illustrates the important lesson that truth, duty,…… [Read More]
iddley Walker by ussell Hoban [...] what the story tells of iddley's own "Master Chaynjis?" How does iddley change from the beginning of the novel to the end? What important insights does iddley have about himself and his world? "iddley Walker" is the fascinating and often disturbing story of young iddley, a twelve-year-old boy living in the wake of a nuclear holocaust. The book follows him through some almost mythical adventures, but mostly contains a thesis on modern nuclear warfare and technology, and where it could lead society. iddley learns many lessons throughout the book, but the most important lesson he discovers is that power is not what it is cracked up to be, and that power can corrupt.
At the beginning of this unusual book, the hero, iddley Walker, is a boy becoming a man. He has just completed his "naming day" ceremony, and he kills a wild boar…… [Read More]
Faustus' Acceptance to Eternal Damnation
Many traditions and legends have been created all the way through the long history of western culture. Among which one of the most outstanding and well-known as well long lasting traditions of western culture is of the Faustus legend, where in this legend, a man called Faust or Faustus, sells his soul to the devil for almost twenty-four years for the purpose of worldly power. This makes it a very prominent story that has been narrated many times over by writers such as Goethe, Lessing, and Mann. However, most probably the famous telling is Doctor Faustus by Christopher Marlowe.
The social upheaval during the time period is the most prominent influence on Marlowe's version of Doctor Faustus. This novel has been suspected of being first performed in 1594, which was a time of great change in Europe. During this period the Medieval Times were over…… [Read More]
Julius Caesar: Disruption and Justice
The central dilemma of William Shakespeare’s Julius Caesar is the question of the value of republican virtues versus the value of stability. At the beginning of the play, Brutus and Cassius debate the risks of assassinating Caesar, versus Caesar being allowed to become a tyrant. Although Shakespeare’s literary version of Caesar clearly is not a bad man, the crowds who would allow Caesar to become king are all too willing to sacrifice democratic ideals for despotism, and Caesar seems unwilling to stop them. But after Caesar is killed, the government which emerges in his wake is even more tyrannical. The play is ambiguous. Caesar’s not-so-hidden desire to become a king results in the destruction of the republic, but the unlawful means used to stop it do not achieve their desired results. In fact, the unlawful attempt to stop Caesar’s illegitimate attempt at seizing power simply…… [Read More]
Advising princes how to rule he states, "You must know, then, that there are two methods of fighting, the one by law, the other by force: the first method is that of men, the second of beasts; but as the first method is often insufficient, one must have recourse to the second. It is therefore necessary for a prince to know well how to use both the beast and the man" (Machiavelli 58). This is extremely telling in the current situation with the executive branch as well, in many ways.
For example, many people disapprove of the methods of security and incarceration since the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001. They believe many of the tenets of the Patriot Act, along with the treatment of prisoners in Guantanamo Bay and other facilities are unethical and go against rights granted in the Constitution. However, these methods continue, and it could be…… [Read More]
Plato held that a just state would be run by philosopher guardians. Plato thinks that, given their education, talents, virtues and the way their lives would be controlled in his Republic, such people are the best possible rulers. Is he right about this?
One of the contradictions in Platonic philosophy is that its oligarchic structure of rule by philosopher kings who are 'the best' and 'most fit' to create a 'just' state embodies an antidemocratic and unjust philosophy. The idea that only those temperamentally fit to rule should rule has often been used to justify tyranny. Socrates, at the beginning of the Republic, calls for his listeners to strive to live a good life, not one that is merely pleasurable or self-serving. However, despite his calls for justice, a society which denies individual autonomy can never be just and dictatorships almost inevitably produce self-serving regimes.
At the beginning of the…… [Read More]
Stanwick and Stanwick (2009) in their case study "Tyco: I'm Sure That It's a eally Nice Shower Curtain" is that certain the Tyco CEO and his business associates, family and acquaintances misappropriated the shareholder's funds under the pretext of legitimate corporate functions and allocations. Elements of favoritism can be seen in the way the CEO, Dennis Kozlowski awarded loans from the Tyco coffers to himself and Frank Walsh without seeking the approval of the board. This was viewed as corrupt and a direct violation of the various responsibilities accorded to the board of directors by the shareholders and investors. According to Stanwick and Stanwick (2009), the CEO and the other board of directors were corrupted by the power and influence that they had in the company.
The major issues presented in the case
White collar crimes
White collar crime was defined by Sutherland (1939) as a crime that is committed…… [Read More]
Though women constitute only 12.7% of the sworn police force they are implicated in only 5% of the total cases registered against the use of excessive force. Statistics further indicate that women officers account for only 6% of the total dollars paid out for court settlements for The Use of Police Force 4
police abuse related cases. [DR. Kim Lonsway, 2002] It is clear that a women police officer is less likely to resort to excessive force use compared with a male police officer and this presents a clear case for more representation of women in the police force. Inducting more women would therefore be a positive step.
Another study by the University of California compared the effects of race, gender, and experience of the officer and the link to the possibility of the officer being investigated by Internal affairs for the use of excessive force. For the study, the…… [Read More]
Thus, the members of the Convention assumed that, although power was a necessary evil, it was also dangerous, especially when provided to the wrong person who might take advantage of this power for his own gain. In essence, the members attempted to compose a constitution that would insure effective power for the government when needed but that would also place reliable checks and safeguards on the use of that power. Once again, this aim can be traced back to Montesquieu's essay in which he states "to prevent the abuse of power, 'tis necessary that by the very disposition of things (that) power should be checked... " (Leone 37).
ut the members were also much too experienced in the ways of politics to take for granted that conscientious and moral men would always be elected to office. To them, human nature was universally fallible and only built-in safeguards could be…… [Read More]
Autocracy and Democracy
There are different forms of government throughout the world. Each nation decides how it will govern its people and in whom the power will be vested. It is expected that when the nation is established, either the citizens or those who led the efforts to create the new nation will find a system of governance that works for all considered. There are many different forms of government, perhaps as many different forms as there are governments to adopt them. Some nations have kings and queen who rule their monarchy, others are theocracies where the rulers are the clergy, and still others are meritocracies where those who are put in positions of power have been granted the honor based on their value to the rest of the society. Two nearly diametrically opposed systems of government are democracies and autocracies. In the former government type, the people are the…… [Read More]
Dangers linger in any relationship where one party holds power and the other party gives it. Any student of leadership, must recognize that tripwire, and assiduously avoid it through correctly recognizing the dangers that abuse of power can bring.
Bass, B., Atwater, L., & Avolio, B. (2008). The Transformational and Transactional Leadership of Men and omen. Applied Psychology, 5-34.
Beverly Alimo-MetcalfAlban-Metcalfe, J., Bradley, M., Mariathasan, J., & Samele, C. (2008). The impact of engaging leadership on performance, attitudes to work and well-being at work: A longitudinal study. Journal of Health Organisation and Management, 586-598.
Beyer, J. (1999). Taming and promoting charisma to change organizations. The Leadership Quarterly, 307-330.
Bolman, L., & Deal, T. (1991). Reframing Organizations. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Pedler, M., Burgoyne, J., & Boydell, T. (1944). A Manager's Guide To Self-Development 4th ed. London: McGraw-Hill.
Ulrich, D., Zenger, J., Smallwood, N., & . (1953; CR 1999). Results-Based…… [Read More]
legal system of the United States of America rests on the Constitution, including the Bill of ights? The answer is that this is not completely true; the Constitution, when it was initially developed, did not enable authorities to cope successfully with all the disputes that would arise in a basic human society. As the country started to grow and develop, it became more complex, and many issues started to arise, when initially there were none. The need for these problems to be addressed and answered adequately also became important, and finally, it was understood that the only way in which to obtain all the required answers would be the English Common Law. Common Law can be defined as a body of enforceable rules that have grown because of the disputes and arguments that take place all the time within any particular country, and this body of common law in fact…… [Read More]
Following the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks on the United States by violent fanatics, the federal government passed legislation which was designed to protect American citizens and to prevent further deaths. One piece of legislation, Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act, more simplistically known as the Patriot Act, has been at the center of vehement debate on both sides, in support of and in opposition of the document. Among the many provisions of the act, some of the most contentious include: reduction of restrictions of law enforcement agencies, allows the Secretary of the Treasury to regulate financial transactions, and gave further powers to law enforcement and immigration officials in allowing them to detain, arrest, or deport immigrants who have been suspected of terrorist activities (Schulhofer 2005,-page vi). Following 9/11, there was a national grief over the tragic events and…… [Read More]
They now work together in what has become an ideological battle against the U.S. In this vicious battle against the terror outfits, our people have been robbed of their cherished freedom, which has always been the cornerstone of our constitution.
As history has time and again illustrated, 'power corrupts and absolute power corrupts absolutely'. This can be extended to the patriot act, which has given absolute power to the law enforcers at the cost of the freedom and privacy of its citizens. Ethnic profiling and 'speculation without any accountability' have undermined the rule of law and overridden civil and constitutional rights of thousands of citizens. The much-touted 'preventive paradigm' of which the patriot act is an important tool has resulted in much wrongdoing. The former president's acceptance that Iraqi invasion was a 'terrible mistake' is enough proof of the strategic misadventure of a failed intelligence system backed by emergency terror…… [Read More]
e. Paterno - would not have had the centralized power that he possessed. Instead of him being the lone arbiter of the team's interests and performance, he would have been controlled by the necessary third objective party that Paknis insisted should have been there to investigate each and every aspect of the team's functioning. Paterno would have been simply an actor within a larger democratic system of individuals objectively interested in the team's good and in their ethical performance. These would have included an objective and large area of stakeholders such as citizens, groups, elected representatives, and other appropriate institutions. In this way, Paterno would have been held in check and his mythical presence controlled by objectively elected representatives and citizens who would have taken great care to ensure that public interest, rather than personal interest, prevails. It is the leader's responsibility to enhance the team's reputation not to destroy…… [Read More]
Zimbardo experiment and its results.
The Zimbardo Experiment was one of the most insightful psychological experiments related to prison and correctional culture. It helped to elucidate various mechanism of power and the manipulation of power that are at work within prisons. It helps to explain instances of brutality and debauchery that oftentimes are found within correctional facilities. The results of this experiment were so shocking, convincing and deplorable that the man who conceived of it terminated it six days prior to its purported finish date. This experiment roundly reinforces the adage that power corrupts, and absolute power corrupts absolutely.
The premise for Professor Phillips' Zimbardo Experiment was relatively simple: he would get college students from around the Stanford area to impersonate security guards while simultaneously recruiting similar college students to act like inmates. It is important to emphasize the non-partisan nature of these students. They were selected fairly randomly and…… [Read More]
Arguments for and against the Patriot Act
The unusual events surrounding the creation and passing of the Patriot Act make it a suspect bill in many eyes. However, major media reports like this one: "Fifty-nine percent in an ABC News/ashington Post poll favor continuing the additional investigative authority in terrorism investigations that was granted to the FBI starting in 2001. President Bush urged such an extension of the Patriot Act today" (Langer) insist that there are others who support it and promote it as a protection against the kind of terrorism that was seen on 9/11. For supporters the idea of sacrificing civil liberties for security measures such as the TSA is, while unfortunate, a necessary evil. Those who oppose it, like alternative media journalist Ryan Dawson and Sen. Ron Paul, decry it as government intrusion. This paper will give arguments for and against the Patriot Act and…… [Read More]
Psychology of Fear Management
One true tale of horrific prison abuse comes from Abu Ghraib, where guards tortured and psychologically damaged a number of prisoners. In talking about the issues and atrocities that occurred there, the Stanford Prison Experiment was mentioned. The takeaway was how the experiment can and should always serve as a reminder that people can change very drastically when they are put in a particular situation. Most of the guards at Abu Ghraib did not have any past disciplinary problems, anger issues, or other concerns that would have made them unfit for the job they were doing. They were, as much as anyone can be, "normal." Despite that, they tortured and harmed other people, because they had the opportunity to treat others as though they were "less than." It is not possible to say whether every person who had this opportunity would do the same thing, but…… [Read More]
Lens One: Structural Theories
Organizational structure refers to how work activities or tasks are divided, and how relationships are established and maintained (Corlett, n.d.). Bureaucratic organizations are structured formally and may result in a pyramidal shape with the bulk of employees at the bottom with the least amount of decision-making power (Corlett, n.d.). The bureaucratic organization can also take on the image of a machine (Morgan, 1998). Morgan (1998) adds that structural theories offer precision in the design and implementation of organizational details. For example, the work of teachers is highly formalized down to the details of lesson plans and the measurable outcomes in terms of test scores. A core goal of a mechanistic, bureaucratic organization is predictability. The machine image also demonstrates the ways an organization emphasizes speed, clarity, and efficiency. Structural theories illustrate how educators participate in chains of command, and there are legal and contractual bases of…… [Read More]
Too many leaders today do not see much as necessarily bad or good, and they simply go through their life without realizing there is so much more out there to be done and seen, just like the people in Plato's Cave. They have blinders on -- some of which are part of society, and some of which are self-inflicted. If only they would break out of the chains which enslave them in that Cave they could climb up into the light where they could truly see, and they would be aware of all the beauty and wonder in this world.
Unfortunately, the people in the Cave choose not to make an attempt at going outside, and because they do not strive to see more and to learn more, they do not teach the children to see more and to learn more. The cycle simply perpetuates, and this is the case…… [Read More]
The history and influence of the Templars did not end with these confessions and executions. To Philip's "dismay" (92), the story seemed to gain power now that it was a legend. In fact, it is recorded that when de Molay was burning, he spoke and cursed Philip.
The history of the Knights Templar is riddled with obscurity and doubt. hile we know that they did exist, we must wonder what happened to such a powerful and prominent Order. Certainly, the Templar was at one time a well-respected and useful Order in Christendom. The one event that seemed to be liked to the demise if the fall of the Holy City. The result of this fall is two-pronged for it immediately rendered the Order less significant and it also proved their inability to uphold their mission. Public sentiment has always been fickle and it would be silly to think that medieval…… [Read More]
Diaz del Castillo has an undoubted ideological bias in stressing how that the small band of Spanish soldiers, barely numbering in the several hundreds, could never have defeated the mighty Mexican army, but his account gives the reader pause. Diaz del Castillo's account, even if one allows for a certain amount of exaggeration here and there, to have a ring of authenticity, as he portrays his own people as well as the Aztecs warts and all, including their squabbling about gold: "now all men covet gold, and the more we have the more we want, yet several recognizable pieces were missing from the heaps" (Del Castillo 274)
Morally speaking, can the Spanish conquest be 'wrong' and yet the way of life of the conquered morally abhorrent? The Conquest of New Spain raises many troubling ethical questions for a critical reader, reading with a post-colonial, post-modern mindset. Although it was not…… [Read More]
The painting is shocking because of its dramatic perspective. First and foremost the table is not situated in the centre of the painting, nor is Jesus. In a symbolical manner this transmits the idea that God is no longer in the centre of man's world and this accounts for the chaos that seems to be omnipresent. The lower side of the painting is dominated by human figures and an atmosphere of panic and confusion seems to be dominating. The upper side of the painting is filled with angels. There is a clear separation lien between the scared world of the divine and the one of the people. The dark colours, as well as the composition succeeded into transmitting the desired message, managing to appeal to the viewer's emotions.
As opposed to the simplicity that the Protestants supported, a new style emerges, that is the aroque. This new artistic…… [Read More]
Haemon is in an impossible position. Although it could be argued that Antigone is in an impossible position as well, forced to choose between obeying the will of the gods or the will of man, Haemon must choose between loyalty to his proposed wife and his father as the king of the state. His temperament is such that he is an innate compromiser. He is forced to negotiate between two people who do not believe in compromise, upon any terms.
Creon has begun a horrible chain of events. The Theban king has attempted to supplant the will of the gods, refusing to let Polynices' soul enter the underworld and be judged by the gods, thus taking on the role of the gods as judgers of men's souls as well as a judge of his citizen's actions on earth. By refusing to obey the king's orders and defy the gods,…… [Read More]
The relationship between man and machine has long been a fearful one. From the dawn of industry there have been visions of the machines rising, one day, to destroy us all. For Lang, this was a core philosophical argument. Within the stifling confines of the city, the urban landscape itself is machine-like, and thus the entire world becomes nothing but a man-controlled environment the sole purpose of which is to provide for the luxuries and lives of the owners at the absolute cost of the workers.
The underground world of Metropolis serves several significant purposes. First, it provides a level of unfamiliar mystery: who are these people? Why do they work like this? How did they get there? The psychological effect is to create a sense of the fantastic but with an absolute belief of the possible. ecause they are below ground, we experience a seemingly irrevocable distancing between the…… [Read More]
Maxx Company -- Strategic Marketing Plan
TK Maxx Strategic Marketing Plan
TK Maxx is expanding beyond the brick and mortar footprint that helped it rise to the top of retail operations in the United Kingdom. As with its competitors, TK Maxx has entered the mobile digital market and is implementing multiple distribution channels (McVey, 1960). The company has a clear target market that transcends the various channels over which its goods are marketed. This is the case because the market segment targeted by TK Maxx is made up of digital natives or consumers who have discovered the benefits of being technologically savvy -- particularly for shopping.
The marketing objectives for TK Maxx were identified as follows:
To increase market share for kid's shoes by 25% by September 2018.
To increase market share in home textiles by 15% by September 2018.
To increase e-commerce sales of designer bags and accessories by…… [Read More]
This was portrayed at the very end when he got up and walked away from his own executioner, never knowing that the deed was complete. "Cincinnatus made his way in that direction where, to judge by the voices, stood beings akin to him." (pg 223)
At least 'Invitation' ended with some hope, which is more than the author of 'An Individual Assignment' provided. The theme in 'Individual' was much more dark and despairing than the one provided by 'Invitation'.
This portrayed darkness could be due to the eras and settings for each story. Dugaev seems to be a dissident struggling against a Communistic regime, probably Stalinistic in nature.
The author portrays the overwhelming sense of futile despair that many individuals probably felt at that time, since there were millions of people killed for daring to confront the atrocities of the time. Comparing this darkness to the state of fantasy and…… [Read More]
Power of the Cross: alter ink and the Nature of Non-Violence in Christianity
alter ink, professor of Biblical Interpretation at Auburn Theological Seminary and well-known international lecturer, discusses in his religious discourses the nature of Christianity in society, particularly in its creation of a different 'worldview' among its followers/believers. ink posits in Engaging the Powers that Christianity successfully creates social transformation by creating a distinct 'worldview' among its followers, manifested through religious institutions, artifacts, and rituals/traditions. In effect, Christianity, as a religious philosophy and ideology, subsists to non-violence in order to establish influence and power in society. ink appropriately terms this phenomenon of Christian dominance as "the power of the cross."
In studying the nature of the Christian worldview, ink traces the origin of Christian dominance in the world. His analysis showed that by portraying an image of a non-violent religion, Christianity has gained power and influence over its people.…… [Read More]
Evil is PowerPoint?
Author's contact information with further details of collegiate affiliation, etc.
Edward Tufte is not fond of PowerPoint. To say he is not fond of PowerPoint is an understatement. Edward Tufte hates PowerPoint; he firms believes that it is evil. This paper serves as reflection of the PowerPoint and Tufte's attitudes about PowerPoint. I am conflicted in this matter. I both agree with his position and also disagree with his position. Tufte is correct when he states that PowerPoint has the power to change behaviors and institutions. PowerPoint is being used more often in corporate or professional settings as well as in the educational setting. This is both good and bad. He makes a strong point; the skills required to write reports diminish as the use of PowerPoint increases. PowerPoint, he argues makes every assignment turn into a sales pitch.
How Evil is PowerPoint?
In the 21st…… [Read More]
As the term suggest, liquefied natural gas (LNG) is natural gas that has been reduced to a liquid by cooling it to minus 161°C thereby eliminating oxygen, carbon dioxide and other unwanted components to achieve almost pure methane (Liquefied Natural Gas 2012). According to one LNG producer, "In the liquefaction process, impurities are removed from the gas before it is cooled. The cooling of natural gas to -162°C causes it to liquefy at which point it takes up 1/600th of its original volume. This allows the gas to be stored and transported safely and economically in large vessels" (LNG Liquefaction Process 2012, p. 2). Interestingly, Chandra (2012) points out that after natural gas is cooled to -- 161.5° C ( -- 260° F) and reduced, the actual volume shrinkage is about 610 times; however, 600 times reduction is typically cited in the literature. Because of its highly cooled and liquid…… [Read More]
Every country has its own powerful and influential groups that seem to control and literally run the state. These groups have unlimited powers and they seem to exert an unhindered and unobstructed influence on the economic, political and military decisions. Wright Mills was one of the pioneers in the field of power elite theorists who closely examined the nature and function of the elite and explained how the three powerful groups i.e. The economy, politics and military merge to dominate the state affairs and to certain extent even personal affairs of people. This is because this power elite enjoys the privileges to make major decisions that affect everything including life of the common man:
The powers of ordinary men are circumscribed by the everyday worlds in which they live, yet even in these rounds of job, family, and neighborhood they often seem driven by forces they can neither…… [Read More]
tension between businesses interests in maximizing profits and the public's interest in receiving complete, truthful, and non-misleading information about products that they purchase.
The dangers against greenwashing are that consumers will have no confidence in the products or services they are buying. This means that they will not purchase specific items. As they feel they are being deceived and cheated through false labeling / misrepresentation. At the same time, there is the possibility that a firm could face penalties from government regulators who feel that they are engaging in false advertising. This will have a negative impact on the image of the organization and their ability to address the needs of customers in the future. ("Six Sins of Greenwashing," 2007)
For an executive; it is advisable to not practice these kinds of policies. The reason why is because it will hurt the brand image of the products they are selling…… [Read More]
Changeling is the 2009 film directed by Clint Eastwood that looks at the complex relationship between Christine Collins and the Los Angeles Police Department (LAPD) as she sets out to find her son, alter, who vanished and "mysteriously" reappeared only to have been replaced by an imposter. Through her continued insistence that the child returned to her was not her legitimate son, Reverend Gustav Brieglib, who was on a personal mission to expose the LAPD's corruption, is able to demonstrate that the police department, and Captain J.J. Jones who handled the Collins' investigation, acted negligently in their investigation and the subsequent (unlawful) detention of Mrs. Collins. Through Changeling's narrative, plot, and dialogue, Eastwood is able to highlight the impact and influence of social institutions on abuse and corruption and the disempowerment -- and subsequent empowerment -- of women.
Changeling begins with Christine Collins (Angelina Jolie), a single, working mother, and…… [Read More]