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Power and Organizations a Case Study
Power and Organizations: A Case Study
Who is in charge is a huge element that determines the organizational structure of a company. Part of understanding this notion is examining the bases of power and the delicate balance between dependency and power. The bases of power are important in understanding the organizational structure of a company and how its leadership delegates authority over the subordinates and other members of the organization as a whole.
One of the most basic bases of power is that of coercive power. Here, the research describes coercive power as "the ability of a leader to punish those who do not conform to their ideas or demands" by withholding rewards or punishing those who are not obedient to the leader's demands (Tran, 2007, p 2). One major example of coercive power is the marketing manager's enforcement of forty-hour work weeks for…
Rao, Sree Rama. (2008). Dependency: The key to power. Citeman. Web. http://www.citeman.com/3690-dependency-the-key-to-power.html
Tran, Thang Q. (2007). Basis of power effects on method of communication. United States Military Academy. Web. http://www.sys.virginia.edu/sieds07/papers/SIEDS07_0004_FI.pdf
Power and Weakness
obert Kagan's 2002 article entitled "Power and Weakness" which appeared in the journal Policy eview is a fine example of an argument that takes advantage of its assumptions without discussing them. The purpose of this essay is to critically analyze this source which represents a sustained reflection on the detractions, merit and implications of the author. This essay will first summarize the article by discussing the explicit and implicit assumptions made by the author. The next section of this essay will state my personal views on the subject presented and discuss the implications that I believe the article to be putting forth.
The essential point of the article can be inferred by the subtitle of the article: Why the United States and Europe see the World Differently. This piece was written in the year 2002 which, in historical terms was a very delicate and trying time for…
G. Howell and J.C. Pevehouse, "When Congress Stops Wars," Foreign Affairs, September/October 2007.
J. Goldsein, "The contemporary presidency: Cheney, Vice-Presidential power and the War on Terror," Presidential Studies Quarterly, 40:1 (2010)
L. Jacobs & B. Page, 'Who influences U.S. foreign policy?', American Political Science Review, 99:1 (2005)
Kagan, Robert. (2002). Power and Weakness. Policy Review. 13
However owners of this people were highly prohibited to mistreat them as it was against the customary law of the community to do so.
The following is the list of the title given to different people in Lao community depending on their job and duty performed in the community.
Huu muang (transl. "ear of the muang") - head of foreign affairs, diplomat
Taa muang (transl. "eye of the muang") - scholar, wise person, advisor
Kaan muang (transl. "seed of the muang") - religious head, head of cultural affairs
Haak muang (transl. "root of the muang") - astrologer, head of computation of time and Forecast
Ngau muang (transl. "trunk of the muang") - advisor, elder of the seenaa council .
Khuu muang (transl. "roof timbering of the muang") - administrators of minor political
Units, state officials faa muang (transl. "wall of the muang") - military, head of defense paa muang (transl.…
Marc Bleacher, (1986). China Politics, Economics and Society. France Printers, London
Macrae janet and peg white, (1984). The Chinese Way, Brooks Waterloo, Sydney.
Jana Raendchen, (2012). The Socio-political and Administrative Organization of Muang in the Light of Lao Historical Manuscripts. Retrieved August 5, 2012 from http://www.laomanuscripts.net/downloads/literaryheritageoflaos31_raendchen_en.pdf
Rosita Dellios, (2003). Mandala: from Sacred Origins to Sovereign Affairs in Traditional Southeast Asia. Retrieved August 5, 2012 from http://epublications.bond.edu.au/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1007&context=cewces_papers
Then and Now
A half-century after it was written, C. Wright Mills's The Power Elite remains relevant to American society. Mills's analysis of the ways in which powerful people in different sectors of society share economic interests and so share concepts and access to power remains true of the United States now. We can see many of the same dynamics at work in this election year, for while some of the key particulars of American society have changed, the way in which power interests intersect and reinforce each other.
Mills wrote The Power Elite in the aftermath of World War II. By 1956, the year of publication, much of the country had moved on to what they believed would be generations of peace and prosperity. But Mills's view of society was that there were important holdovers from the war economy and the social priorities that had arisen during…
Mills, C.W. (1956). The Power Elite. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Weber, M. (1978). Max Weber: Selections in Translation, W.G Runciman
(Trans.) Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Pluralism is a theory that states "…groups with shared interests influence public policy by pressing their concerns through organized effort." (Edwards, 2010, p.14) and the many linkage groups across America would seem to indicate that this theory is being carried out in practice as opposed to the hyper-pluralist theory in which pluralism runs wild and no one can agree with anyone else. Those institutions that can become organized in the most effective manner seem to be the ones who can influence the government when it comes to public policy.
Because it is the voters who must be convinced to cast their ballots for a specific candidate, candidates must campaign for office. When it comes to a campaign, it is the primary purpose of the organization to reinforce, activate, and convert voters. (Edwards, 2010, p.136) Campaigns need to reinforce voter's positive perception of a candidate, activate them into becoming involved, and…
Edwards, George, Martin Wattenberg, and Robert Lineberry. (2010). Government in America: People, Politics, and Policy. Boston: Pearson Longman. Print.
Power of Media in American Values
Discuss the power of the media in shaping contemporary American values.
The online oxford dictionary defines media as "the main means of mass communication (television, radio, and newspapers) regarded collectively" (oxforddictionaries.com). This implies that the public globally are highly dependent on media to get information regarding what surrounds them, so is the American public (Edwards, 2001;9). In any case, the most efficient way of transmitting information to a large population almost instantly is the media. Media has been present since the beginning of man, all that has been changing and improving is the means of disseminating the information to the masses with the result being significant. For instance, the arrival of television in the early 1950's revolutionized the media industry and its efficiency to providing information to Americans has been undoubtedly superb. Just like any other technological advancements, the changes in media have…
Thus, the initial negotiation was not a difficult choice, as Miami had both the lowest opportunity cost and the highest benefits.
Later, when Washington re-entered the picture, it was because the league had raised suspicion with respect to the Miami contract with Howard. As a result, the cost-benefit analysis and risk analysis shifted. If Howard went to arbitration against the league, he would risk losing $50-60 million over the length of his contract. In this new position, Howard would have felt that we would make about $10 million less if he went back to Washington, since that was the last offer from that team at the time. In addition, the career success benefit did not have the same opportunity cost that it did before -- if Washington won back Bird rights to Howard it would be able to add him to a team full of quality free agents that it…
They have worked hard to change the views of women in power. In particular, the women that have succeeded despite having "female" personality traits and leadership styles have paved the way for a shift in the paradigm that allows for future women to be more readily accepted. Once this occurs, more women will be in management. This allows for the rational-legal authority to also shift, since leaders tend to prefer to be surrounded by their own kind. More women in leadership will beget more women in leadership in the future.
Another method of acquiring real power was to create it. Sharon Patrick notes that if opportunities to build one's power are not immediately present, then those opportunities need to be created. hile Patrick discusses this approach as being congruent with her "female" values because the new ventures and partnerships allow her to lead in her own style, creating such ventures…
Muoio, a. (1998). Women and men, work and power. Fast Company. Retrieved June 23, 2010 from http://www.fastcompany.com/magazine/13/womenofpr.html?page=0%2C0
My colleagues at work know me for being honest yet diplomatic and congenial. To my staff, I am an authority figure who knows how to empathize with them, as I also rose through the ranks before I became a middle manager. However, in order to preserve the authority, respect and influence I have over my staff, I also make it a point to assume the role of a superior while offering empathic advice or suggestions to them. Further, I only discuss with my staff issues that are related to our work, which may include personal problems that led to poor performance, absences, among other issues. I also offer my honest opinion in every issue discussed, and I think that my honesty and ability to empathize with my staff made me a good influence and inspiration to them.
I also establish my legitimacy as a middle manager by showing that I…
Power Its Use and Misuse
Use and misuse of power: Different types of power
Power is often conceptualized as a force that is done 'to' someone 'by' something (such as an institution) or someone. However, power is often a far more subtle form of influence. Power is not necessarily 'bad;' rather it is how it is used makes all of the difference. When T.S. Eliot wrote: "Half of the harm that is done in this world is caused by people who have power and want to feel important. They do not mean to do harm; they are simply absorbed in the useless struggle to think well of themselves," he was likely writing about the use of coercive power (Manning & Curtis, p. 143). Coercive power is the typical scenario that comes to mind when people are talking about the potential misuses of power. "This is the power to force someone…
Straker, David. (2012). French and Raven's Five Forms of Power. Changing Minds.
Retrieved at: http://changingminds.org/explanations/power/french_and_raven.htm
Few products are truly necessary to the average consumer, and even fewer products become omnipresent. Examples of such products are automobiles, clothing, food, and shelter. Power tools are another such product. Any individual who has undertaken a home improvement project has most likely purchased and used power tools. While power tools range from the largely ordinary (i.e., drills) to the vastly complex (i.e., tools used on large-scale construction projects), it is clear that power tools have become an integral component in nearly every individual's life.
This paper analyzes and examines the multitude of issues related to power tools. Part II discusses statistics regarding power tools, companies and competition in the industry, government regulation, and health hazards. Lastly, this paper concludes with recommendations about whether the company should manufacture power tools in its excess plant space.
STATISTICS REGARDING POWER TOOLS, COMPANIES AND
COMPETITION IN THE INDUSTRY, GOVERNMENT REGULATION, AND…
"Black & Decker." Retrieved from http://www.blackanddecker.com on July 14, 2002.
"Bosch." Retrieved from http://www.boschtools.com on July 14, 2002.
"DeWalt: High Performance Industrial Tools and Accessories." Retrieved from http://www.dewalt.com on July 14, 2002.
"Hand and Power Tools." Retrieved from http://www.osha-slc.gov/SLTC/handpowertools on July 14, 2002.
Power, by definition, is the "ability to control the behavior of others, even against their will" (hio, 2000, p. 179). he relationship between power, and our belief system or ideology is quite simple - this control that can be exerted over another person, group, country, race, or religion is most often associated with wealth. he majority of sociologists believe that with wealth comes power, and with more wealth comes more power (hio, 2000, p. 179).
Power is intertwined into our system of beliefs throughout - our political system is one prime example of that relationship. Most of the top government positions are occupied or funded by someone who is wealthy. George W. Bush hails from exas, land of oil millionaires, and he once was the owner of the exas Rangers. Yes, the owner of a Major League Baseball team. You might say he has some money. Wealthy persons are surely…
There are some kinds of power that may not be negative, such as the power that is labeled as "legitimate" by Thio on page 358. Legitimate power is when the person believes the control being exercised is with their "consent" or permission (Thio, 2000, p. 357). This type of power is either influence, which is the "ability to control others' behaviors through persuasion rather than coercion or authority" or authority, which is power represented by organizations or institutions, such as our government (Thio, 2000, p. 358). Influence is a more subtle approach to power, such as a professional athlete attempting to influence his fans to purchase a certain brand of sneaker or apparel.
Just as there is consensual yielding of power, there are the kinds of power that someone uses without the permission of the other person. This type of power is defined as illegitimate (Thio, 2000, p. 357). The use of this sort of power is called "coercion" - the "use of force or the threat of force to compel obedience" (Thio, 2000, 357). For example, when someone commits sexual violence against another person, it is typically their threats of harm that prevent the victim from yelling out for help.
Obviously, our entire lives and belief systems are centered around power, and its control of our actions. Someone always holds power at all times, and for some sociologists, it is the power elite with all of the control, or to others power is evenly distributed among large groups in our nation. Regardless of which theory is believed, it is undeniable that power struggles exist daily, and can bring positive as well as negative repercussions for those in power, and those without power.
At the end of the school career, the average Japanese child is then highly educated. Hotaka is no exception, while his high level of intelligence also counts in his favor. Hotaka is not physically very adept, but enjoys water sports such as swimming and sailing. In general, physical prowess is not something he will need during his future career in his father's company.
Another element that counts in Hotaka's favor is the fact that he has a particular affinity for his father's work. He is very communicative with his father, and enjoys learning from him. He sees entering his father's role as an opportunity to further the family legacy. Like his father, he also feels that family values and traditions are highly important not only for the stability of Japanese culture in general, but also for the Japanese individual specifically.
Although Hotaka is limited in terms of personal career choice,…
Are words as powerful as weapons? Malala Yousafzai has often made this analogy in her speeches and written works, and there is some merit to the idea that words have a power that is similar to the power held by weapons. She’s said, for example, that “books are more powerful than guns.”
The analogy is not a new one, but Malala is a poignant example of this idea in action, having survived an attempt on her life, merely for speaking strongly in favor of girls’ education rights. For Malala, this analogy is what got her started, and has proven to drive her since that point.
What she means when she says this is simple. Guns, as a form of violence, can harm or kill people, but they can only harm or kill each person individually. Even weapons of mass destruction that could wipe out an entire civilization would be…
After all, a person's sense of self-worth depends on feeling competent and able to influence what is happening in one's life. How much power we perceive ourselves to have directly influences our sense of self-esteem.
In a discussion of power currencies, Hocker & Wilmot (2007) say how much power we have depends on whether we have "currencies" other people want. In other words your power over another person rests on your having something to give them that they need. For example, in the days when women had few rights and little power in their marriages, they did have sex (a valuable currency), which they could give or withhold in order to exert power. But it depends on the relationship what the currency is. Sex isn't a currency in a business relationship, for instance, and perhaps it shouldn't be used as a currency in an intimate relationship.
Every person has potential…
Hocker, J.L. And Wilmot, W.W. (2007). Interpersonal conflict. Seventh Edition. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Otherwise, during long stretches of straight roads, power steering is not necessary.
Still used on almost all late twentieth-century commercial automobiles, power steering systems have not changed substantially in their basic principles since they were first developed as hydraulic systems in the middle of the twentieth century. ecently power steering systems have improved dramatically. Nice (nd) notes that power steering does consume fuel and so automobile engineers have been striving to make the hydraulic systems more efficient. Electronic controls would "eliminate the mechanical connection between the steering wheel and the steering," (Nice nd). Essentially, an electronic power steering system would feel more like a computer gaming wheel than a traditional car wheel (Nice nd). General Motor's Hy-Wire system is an emerging example of electronic "drive by wire" power steering systems (Nice nd).
Power steering has not changed society for better or for worse. Some positive effects of power steering include…
Bellis, M. (nd). Automobile history. About.com. Retrieved Sept 24, 2008 at http://inventors.about.com/od/cstartinventions/a/Car_History.htm
Car Talk." (2005). Retrieved Sept 24, 2008 at http://cars.cartalk.com/content/advice/powersteering.html
Electronic Power Steering." Indiacar.com. Retrieved Sept 24, 2008 at http://www.indiacar.com/infobank/epc.htm
Nice, K. (nd). How car steering works. How Stuff Works. Retrieved Sept 24, 2008 at http://auto.howstuffworks.com/steering4.htm
The crux of this challenge however is the distribution and fulfillment system, an area Amazon.com for example had streamlined for low-quantity orders before ever launching their website and online store. This equates to what Elberse and Oberholzer-Gee (2006) mention as the ability of online retailers to in effect feed the creation of long-tail markets by representing thousands of products online and fulfilling them through synchronized order management and supply chain systems.
According to Newman (2005) the network centricity of the Power Law is a contributing factor to its efficiency. From the standpoint of online retailers, this network effect is illustrated by the level of supply chain integration, synchronization, and the use of real-time shared data to create stronger hub-like efficiencies within a Power Law-dominated industry. One assumption and area of future research is in the definition of velocities of information throughout a Power Law network. Figure 2 shows a graphical…
Columbus (2001) - Defining Your Direction in Guided Selling. AMR Research. November 1, 2001. Louis Columbus. Accessed from the Internet on September 24, 2006 at http://lwcresearch.com/filesfordownloads/DefiningYourDirectioninGuidedSellin.pdf
Elberse and Oberholzer-Gee (2006) - Superstars and Underdogs: An Examination of the Long Tail Phenomenon in Video Sales. Harvard Business School Working Paper Series No. 07-015. September 5, 2006
Newman (2005) - Power laws, Pareto distributions and Zipf's law. Contemporary Physics. Volume 46, Number 5, September 2005. Pages 323-351.
Only then will the moe effective use of knowledge occu and its value is de-politicized, making it moe potent in geneating pofits (Chatand, 1985).
It is a paadox that the moe challenging, disuptive and uncetain a given industy is the moe oganizations factionalize thei stuctues, ceating splinte goups and politically volatile stuctues that only acceleate a company's demise. The paadox is that in the toughest and uncetain of times in the telecommunications industy, Veizon Telecommunications needs to think moe about how they too can be a disuptive foce in the maket. Instead, the management team is focused on a highly balkanized, vey politically-diven agenda of holding onto powe by ceating smalle silos o depatments that can easily manage the data that is peceived as the most valuable asset thee is in the oganization. The paadox comes full cicle when a company is sold in pieces and the sold unit o…
Chartrand, R.L. (1985). The politics of information. Journal of the American Society for Information Science, 36(6), 376-376.
Frederic Jallat, & Ancarani, F. (2008). Yield management, dynamic pricing and CRM in telecommunications. The Journal of Services Marketing, 22(6), 465-478.
Liljander, V., Polsa, P., & Forsberg, K. (2007). Do mobile CRM services appeal to loyalty program customers? International Journal of E-Business Research, 3(2), 24-30,33-40.
Piercy, N.F. (1989). Information control and the power and politics of marketing. Journal of Business Research, 18(3), 229-229.
The doctor giving the instructions was a male doctor .it is often perceived or if I may put it a misconception that the male gender is superior. Therefore, the female nurse took in the instructions given to her by the doctor keeping it in mind that he was superior and thus the instructions given were correct. If for instance the nurse was receiving instructions from a female doctor then they would have some doubts on the instructions given. This means that gender played a role in the situation as it influenced the way the nurse took I the instructions given
Policies to address negative gender related perceptions
Within the healthcare there are various strategies hat have been put in place to ensure that negative gender related perceptions are eradicated. This includes gender awareness programs which are aimed as sensitizing the staff on the importance of gender equality. The programs entail…
Jayme, N. (2009).Social power persuades. Retrieved June 30, 2013 from http://askthecognitivebehaviortherapist.com/2009/05/04/social-power-persuades/
Tai, B.H. (2008). Editor's Review - Power Dynamics in the Classroom. Retrieved June 30, 2013 from http://hepg.org/her/abstract/187
Power of the President
The executive power shall be vested in a President of the United States of America," (Article II, Section1). The United States Constitution outlines the various powers, duties, and rights of the President mainly in Article Two, after treating the various roles of congress. The President functions simultaneously as the Chief and Head of State, as the Commander in Chief of the United States Army, as Chief Legislator and Diplomat, as the manager of the economy and the state of the union, and as the head of his political party. Some of these roles are not specifically mentioned in the Constitution. An examination of the Constitution reveals that the Chief Executive of the United States is endowed with much power. He alone has the power to pardon high treason or to make treaties with foreign nations, for instance. However, because of the intricate system of checks and…
Power of Myths
Myths are probably one of the most misunderstood phenomena because of their slightly absurd and almost unreal elements. While ancient myths may have lost their glory to many, they are still considered important by people like Joseph Campbell who have tried to unearth the mystery surrounding them. Campbell in his book Power of Myth has tried to highlight just that- 'power of myths'. Why are myths important, what function do they serve, what is their connection to our modern lives and reality. These are some of the questions that Campbell seeks to answer in his book, which is actually a series of dialogues with Bill Moyers.
The author has tried to explain why myths play n important role in our lives even today when apparently most of us have lost interest in ancient mythology. Campbell explains, "These bits of information from ancient times, which have to do…
Campbell, J. 1973. The hero with a thousand faces, Princeton: Princeton University Press
Joseph Campbell, The Power of Myth. New York: Doubleday, 1988.
Stigliano, Tony, Fascism's mythologist: Mircea Eliade and the politics of myth, ReVision, 01-01-2002, pp 32.
Syberberg, H.J. 1984. Hitler: A film for Germany. Trans. J. Neugroschel. New York: Farra, Straus, Giroux.
To stimulate economic development and fiscal growth, local, state and federal governments work in tandem with the private sector. Urban planning can therefore be a highly political endeavor. Urban planning involves large-scale land-use projects that involve political decisions. For example, how to zone a metropolitan region is a political issue. Should new schools be built in neighborhoods with higher property taxes because the residents of those neighborhoods can afford them? Or should new schools be built in poorer neighborhoods to mitigate the long-term effects of poverty such as a lack of access to education?
Therefore, the six core ways in which urban planning is political in nature include the following. First, urban planning involves land use projects. Determining whether land is devoted towards residential, business, park and recreational, or health care needs is a politically charged issue. Second, the drawing up of political zones will impact voter behavior and affect…
Catlin, R.A. (1993). Racial Politics and Urban Planning. University Press of Kentucky.
Domhoff, G.W. (2005). Wealth, Income, and Power. Who Rules America? Retrieved online: http://sociology.ucsc.edu/whorulesamerica/power/wealth.html
Power in Cathedral and Ethics
People in the position of power have the authority to influence the world around them. ith this power should come responsibility. Those with the power to change the world must stand behind their actions. They have the responsibility to take ownership of their choices and they also have the implicit responsibility of bettering the lives of the people around them. In Carver's "Cathedral" and Pastan's "Ethics" are both short stories which deal with individuals with power and how those people utilize their positions responsibly or shirk their responsibility in favor of personal pleasure.
In Carver's "Cathedral," the story begins with the narrator informing the reader that he is uncomfortable with his impending visitor because the man is blind. This narrator is seemingly dismissive of everything; not only the blind man or his relationship with the man's wife, but dismissive of his wife's first marriage, of…
Carver. "Cathedral." Print.
Pastan. "Ethics." Print.
Power of Goodness in 1001 Nights
"One thousand and one nights" is probably one of the most famous books in the world. While most of the readers are children, it is just as true that the book can be enjoyed by adults as well. The texts provide not just beautiful descriptions and captivating adventures, but they are also full of symbols and significant meaning. From this point-of-view, it can be stated that the levels of interpretation may vary according to the readers' general culture. "One thousand and one nights" is a book in which the marvellous and the supernatural are mixed with the everyday life elements, creating a fantastic world in which goodness and evil encounter and fight under various forms.
The book consists in a collection of tales. Some of them can be considered as belonging to the folk genre. It is worth underlining that the book was written…
Burton, Richard. "The Arabian nights study guide." Retrieved march 17, 2009 from http://www.bookrags.com/studyguide-arabiannightsburton/sum.html
Gerhardt, Mia. "The art of story-telling: a literary study of the Thousand and one nights." 1963
Hovannistan, R., Sabagh, G. (eds.). "The Thousand and one nights in Arabic literature and society," Georgia Review, 34. 1980
Irwin, R. "The Arabian nights: a companion." 1994
As for the major dilemma (China vs. President of the U.S. Operations), the protagonist should first check if the two alternatives are available to him. In other words, he should talk to the CEO and ask how eligible he is for the vacant position in USA. If Pierre asserts that there is a high probability for him to be elected, then Michael will have a family council and ask for his wife and children's opinions, which weigh significantly in his decision. If he is still torn between the two alternatives or has a more pronounced appetite for the President of the U.S. operations position, then he can resort to the following tactic. He could tell Pierre that he is highly interested in the vacancy and that he would like to postpone his answer to the China opportunity until the "winner" of the elections is announced. However, going to China represents…
Peebles, M.E., Widmann, N.C., Kopelan, A.D., Hassan, F., Cohen, A., Rhodes, G.B. (2005). Into the Fray. Harvard Business Review, January 2005, 83(1),15-23.
Strategic leadership and decision making. Leveraging power and politics. On the Internet at: www.au.af.mil/au/awc/awcgate/ndu/strat-ldr-dm/pt4ch17.html. Retrieved November 7.
hen taking office, financial industry of America was in chaos. Economy was in its worst contraction, values of housing were plummeting and credit cards were frozen plus other external forces like Iran, Pakistan, and Afghanistan. Nevertheless, there has been success in his Agendas. Though the economy still remains weak, the president has put forward various initiatives that help in stabilizing recommended longer term programs for sustained growth, housing and capital market, starting a process of reaching out to the world aiming at changing image of America and to change priorities of American military that are in Iraq and Afghanistan, Dana D. Nelson, (2008).
The big issue is how Obama has been successful? There has been focus by the commentators that tight team work, deliberative methods and calm style of leadership could be. Obama read the country plus the political moments rightly. He was having in mind that in 2009 America…
Fred Zakari, " The Secrets of His Success" Newsweek 2009.
Christopher lee, "Alito Once Made Case For President Powers" Washington post. January 2006, retrieved 2009
Dana D. Nelson," The unitary executive question," Los Angeles Times, 2008.
Power and the Use of Language, Orwell's 1984 And Beyond
George Orwell's 1949 dystopian novel 1984 has become almost iconoclastic in its meaning for contemporary society. Almost like the term Machiavellianism, 1984 evokes images in popular culture, along with the author's name as an adjective, and phrases that were used in the book. Even the term "Orwellian" denotes a certain type of society; phrases like "Big Brother," "Newspeak," "Thought-Police," etc. are now part of the vocabulary when describing totalitarian regimes. The novel's premise has become part of a modern archetype, imitated on television, popular music, movies, and even one of the most popular advertisements ever made, the 1984 launch of Apple's Macintosh.
Nineteen Eighty-Four focuses on a new type of society -- repressive, totalitarian, staunch, all-powerful, all knowing, oligarchical, and pervasive. The novel's main character, Winston Smith, is a simple civil servant assigned to the daily task of perpetuating the…
Orwell, G. (1990). 1984. New York: Penguin Books.
Rai, A. (1990). Orwell and the Politics of Despair. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Wain, J. (1978). Essays on Literature and Ideas. Santa Barbara: Greenwood Press.
Power Relations in Junichiro Tanizaki's Naomi
The most powerful and lasting contributions to the literature of a given era are invariably penned by bold thinkers struggling to comprehend the ever changing world in which they live. Spanning the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the Japanese Meiji Restoration period, which was propelled by the fusion of industrialized economy and estern culture, and personified by the authorial brilliance of authors such as Jun'ichir? Tanizaki, shaped and inspired a momentous political and social transformation within one of the world's most ancient civilzations. The toppling of previously infallible Shoguns and the sudden distribution of democratic ideals across boundaries of gender and class forced many traditional Japanese to recalibrate their worldview instantly, and the result is a wealth of material, including novels, plays and works of critical nonfiction, all of which focuses intently on the crumbling conventions of age-old gender roles. ith the external…
Tanizaki, Jun'ichiro. "Naomi," trans. Anthony H. Chambers." (1986).
Power of the Media
Few things in life have much power to influence individuals and society as a whole, either negatively or positively. The media is one such medium. hether it is books, the Internet, magazines, movies, music, newspapers, radio, television, or some other form, the media has tremendous power to impact both individuals and society as a whole, both negatively and positively. In recent years, there has been great controversy over whether the media has the power to promote or curb violence.
This paper analyzes and examines the power of the news and print media to promote or curb violence. Part II gives an overview of the role of the media in general. In Part III, how the media promotes or curbs violence is reviewed. Lastly, this paper concludes with recommendations for balancing the relationship between the media's need for freedom of expression and society's desire for less violence.…
Morgan, Joan. "From Fly-Girls to *****es and Hos."
High CEO salaries and bonuses reinforce that sense of specialness.
hat is emotional intelligence? How is it related to leadership? How is emotional intelligence related to different leadership traits? hat leadership traits might prevent corruption, or promote it? How might training and development in the area of emotional intelligence and leadership prevent corruption and unethical behavior from developing in organizations?
Emotional intelligence is often called 'people smarts,' or the ability to motivate individuals, to make them want to do what they must do, rather than to merely order them to 'do it.' A lack of emotional intelligence or empathy can lead to ham-fisted management, and to the bullying of employees. A good manager is interested in collaboration, and believes in the value of employee involvement in the company's decision-making processes. A lack of emotional intelligence generates hostility between different organizational branches and levels, and discourages suggestions and valuable input from…
Nahavandi, A. (2006). The art and science of leadership (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ:
Power & Nationalism
Koreans seems to have grown tired of the American presence in their country. Is this a fact? What are its causes and how has it come to this status? The American presence in the Korean Peninsula dates from the Korean War, which was the first major war after the Second World War. The war started in 1950 with the invasion of South Korea by the Communist North. The war had been predictable for some time, as the Communist threat had become more persistent in that part of Asia, with the Communists having gained power in China in 1949, however, the United Stats had previously stated that it held no interest in the area and that it would not intervene.
Albeit this, Harry Truman and his advisors decided to send air strikes in North Korea and gained a United Nations mandate to send troops under its emblem to…
Korean War History Guide. Can be found on The History Beat, on the World Wide Web at http://www.searchbeat.com / http://www.korea.army.mil/welcome/sofa.htm (for the SOFA agreement)
http://www.yonip.com/main/articles/declaration_on_current_situation.html (for a case of two Americans that crushed to death two Korean girls in a car accident)
Power Train, LTD
How would you create a system to manage the resource constraints?
The case mentions that a project management office might be a valuable tool to help. Considering that the organization is running multiple projects simultaneously, this seems like a reasonable solution. It is unlikely that any adjustments to the multi-project software system will be able to handle all the nuances involved with projects in the organization. The company has almost two thousand employees and is running a large number of projects simultaneously. With all the problems that the company is currently having it seems like a dedicated project office would be necessary to better manage the company's resources.
If the company chooses not to implement a dedicated project office there are some other options that they may consider. One option would be to upgrade the software or to find a replacement. A better system could possibly handle…
French and aven's power taxonomy contains five different types of power. These are coercive, reward, legitimate, expert and informational power. These different forms of power might have some overlap but there are elements of mutual exclusivity in these forms as well.
Legitimate power is essentially formal power, which reflects social rules. This is where somebody has a position of formal power, and has the expectation that those people subordinate will obey his or her dictates (MindTools, 2014). This is where somebody is "the boss," or otherwise in a position where society grants authority, such as a parent, teacher, judge or other position where there is some formal power ascribed to the position. There are other types of legitimate power based on social norms, such as the power of reciprocity, where somebody might expect a gift on the basis of having given one in some societies (ChangingMinds, 2013). It…
Changing Minds.org (2013). French and Raven's forms of power. ChangingMinds.org. Retrieved March 6, 2014 from http://changingminds.org/explanations/power/french_and_raven.htm
Frost, T. & Moussavi, F. (2011). The relationship between leader and power base and influence: The moderating role of trust. Journal of Applied Business Research. Vol. 8 (4) 9-14.
Hofstede, G. (2014). Dimensions. The Hofstede Centre. Retrieved March 6, 2014 from http://geert-hofstede.com/dimensions.html
Mind Tools. (2014). French and Raven's five forms of power. MindTools.com. Retrieved March 6, 2014 from http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newLDR_56.htm
These types are power can be used by anybody who can skillfully wield them. Expert power is that power which derives from somebody's expertise in a subject (Giang, 2013). They have experience or formal training in something, and others trust in their knowledge, abilities and insight. Senior people at lower levels of the organization will still have a fair bit of expert power that they have cultivated over their years of experience. espect lies at the heart of expert power, which differentiates it from the formal power types where respect is not a precondition for the power to be effective.
Another informal power type is charisma power. This form of power works on the basis of a person's personal charisma. A good example from outside of the workplace is the con man, who uses charisma to gain power over his victims. But not all charisma power is bad, it just…
Abudi, G. (2011). The 5 types of power in leadership. The Fast Track. Retrieved April 18, 2014 from http://quickbase.intuit.com/blog/2011/08/26/the-5-types-of-power-in-leadership/
Giang, V. (2013). The 7 types of power that shape the workplace. Business Insider. Retrieved April 18, 2014 from http://www.businessinsider.com/the-7-types-of-power-that-shape-the-workplace-2013-7
In addition those on the board of directors may have worked at the same accounting or law firms and had business dealings with one another in the past. Even some college professors and ex-high ranking government officials who have conducted studies or have useful connections are board members (Holbrook, 2004). The author further reports that "These people with intertwined relationships with corporate management often sit on multiple boards, causing an even greater conflict of interest (Holbrook, 2004-page 4)."
As was mentioned previously the sources of power for a corporation can differ slightly depending on whether or not the corporation is publicly or privately held. Publicly held organizations are often beholden to shareholders (each of whom owns a percentage of the company) (Winkler, 2004). Publicly held corporations must make financial information about the company available to shareholders (per government regulations).
Shareholders have a significant amount of power because they are a…
Andero, a. (Winter 2000) the changing role of school superintendent with regard to curriculum policy and decision making, Education. Retreived October 18, 2007 from; http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3673/is_200001/ai_n8889262
Bigley, G.A., & Wiersema, M.F. (2002). New CEOs and Corporate Strategic Refocusing: How Experience as Heir Apparent Influences the Use of Power. Administrative Science Quarterly, 47(4), 707+.
Danaher, K., & Mark, J. (2003). Insurrection: Citizen Challenge to Corporate Power. New York: Routledge.
Gabbard, D.A. & Ross, E.W. (Eds.). (2004). Defending Public Schools (Vol. 1). Westport, CT: Praeger.
The fact that Lysistrata's "came to power" by virtue of her own leadership abilities which were recognized and celebrated by their peers rather than having them thrust upon her from above is pointed out by Ober (1989), who reports, "The Athenians' demonstrated concern with native intelligence, their distrust of elite education, and their respect for the authority of the elders are parodied by Aristophanes, who mimics rhetorical topoi in the speech of Lysistrata, the female demagogue:
Listen to my words
I am a woman, but I'm smart enough
Indeed, my mind's not bad at all.
Having listened to my father's discourses
And those of the older men, I'm not ill educated. (Lysistrata 1123-27 quoted in Ober at 182)
Indeed, Lysistrata's leadership qualities were clearly demonstrated in her ability to organize the women of Athens to show the warring men of the city just who in fact had "the power" suggests…
Abusch, T. (2001). "The development and meaning of the epic of Gilgamesh: An interpretive essay." The Journal of the American Oriental Society, 121(4): 614.
Black's Law Dictionary. St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co., 1990.
Brodie, Thomas L. Genesis as Dialogue: A Literary, Historical, & Theological Commentary. New York: Oxford University Press, 2001.
DeLashmutt, Gary. (2007). "Genesis 1:1-2:4 -- the Beginning of Our World." Xenos Christian Fellowship. [Online]. Available: http://www.xenos.org/teachings/ot/genesis/ .
Moreover, the author assumes that in any negotiation, both parties participate even if one has the greater power. In many cases power is used to create generalized influence and has nothing to do with a situational negotiation. For example, a supervisor might weld power by calling frequent meetings or demanding frequent checks on employees. No negotiation is involved; the supervisor wields power through rank but the employees have no say.
Therefore, the textbook's explanation of power is helpful in illustrating how parties in negotiations gain or use power. Power is a conflicted term because it can be easily translated into negative influence over others. On the other hand, the authors show how power need not entail influence and in fact at the beginning of the chapter the authors make sure to distinguish between power and influence, which they define as "power in action,"…
Their protests alerted the rest of the country to their concerns. Chester Cooper writes that our experience in Vietnam "created greater tension in American society than any other event since the Civil ar" (Cooper 537). As a result of the protests, the Vietnam ar became a household word.
Student protests were incredible in generating awareness of an issue. The government realized that the more attention these protests garnered, the more something in Vietnam needed to be done. Tina Gianoulis writes, "there is no doubt that the idealistic energy of the youth of that period did change history" (Gianoulis). She states that Nixon experienced anxiety over the protests as well as the escalating violence in Vietnam. The student protests were not only raising awareness of Americans across the country, they were raising awareness of the current administration, which knew it could not hide from its responsibility. Approval of the war dropped…
Cooper, Chester. The Lost Crusade: America in Vietnam. Greenwich: Fawcett Premier Books.
Gianoulis, Tina. "Student Demonstrations." St. James Encyclopedia of Popular Culture. GALE
History Resource Center. Site Accessed July 18, 2009.
In Bulbul and Menon 169).
Other companies besides Proctor and Gamble have created advertising with emotional appeal. Consider, for example, print ads for McDonald's restaurants that show a mother and her young daughter taking time together for lunch. Think of ads that show a sleek car speeding through empty city streets or a teary-eyed young woman surprised with the gift of an engagement ring. ecent research validates the wisdom of these creative decisions. "Emotions dominate cognition and need to be considered as the most crucial factor in the advertising process. Emotional reactions function as the gatekeeper for further cognitive and behavioral reactions" (Poels and Dewitte 18).
Advertisers also use color to provoke emotional responses in consumers. Some research has been done, but the field is still wide open for further study. Lichtle noted that "despite its importance surprisingly little is known about the influence of colour in advertising," (37).
Baker, William E., Heather Honea & Cristal Antonia Russell. "Do Not Wait to Reveal the Brand Name." Journal of Advertising 33(3). Fall (2004): 77-85.
Bulbul, Cenk, and Geeta Menon. "The Power of Emotional Appeals in Advertising." Journal of Advertising Research 50(2) June (2010): 169-180.
Heath, Robert, & Pam Hyder. "Measuring the Hidden Power of Emotive Advertising." International Journal of Market Research 47(5) (2005): 467-486.
Lichtle, Marie-Christine. "The Effect of an Advertisement's Colour on Emotions Evoked by an Ad and Attitude Toward the Ad: The Moderating Role of the Optimal Stimulation Level." International Journal of Market Research 26(1) 2007: 37-62.
Power of Blood in Shakespeare's Macbeth
Blood is powerful when it comes to invoking images and illiam Shakespeare knew when he wrote Macbeth, the audience would remember everything with blood imagery sprinkled throughout the drama. Blood imagery helps emphasizes the extrreme change in Macbeth's character and it is compelling because blood is vital for life. hen we see blood, we generally think of life or death in some or another.ith Macbeth, Shakespeare reminds us not only of the loss of life but the loss of sanity that also occurs as a result of the death that occurs in the play. As the play progresses, blood represents guilt, which eats Macbeth alive. Later, we associate blood with justice. Blood symbolizes the lives and minds that are lost in the play.
Blood is present from the easrly moments in the play, establishing an eerie mood. Mark Van Doren writes Macbeth's world is…
Bloom, Harold. Shakespeare: The Invention of the Human. New York: Riverhead Books. 1998. Print.
Bradley, A.C. Shakespearean Tragedy. New York: Fawcett Premier. 1991. Print.
Eastman, Arthur. A Short History of Shakespearean Criticism. New YorK W.W. Norton and Company. 1974. Print.
Shakespeare, William. Macbeth. New York: Washington Square Press. 1992. Print.
Then, aside from unethical behavior, the firing of John Lasseter also indicates the existence of political behavior within the company. As Lasseter had observed upon his employment with the firm, management at Disney had been based on loyalty to the firm and seniority, rather than actual performances, competence or innovative style. As he put it:
"You put in your time for 20 years and do what you're told, and then you can be in charge" (case).
The decision to fire Lasseter was not related to his competence in his job, but to his frictions with his managers. The situation eventually materialized in the manager's decision to have him fired, and the decision was a political one -- supported by executives -- rather than a justified one.
Today, John Lasseter is the creative force behind the films of both Pixar and Disney and finds himself in a position in…
Debruge, P. (2011). John Lasseter: empower player. Variety. http://www.variety.com/article/VR1118044116 accessed on December 13, 2012
Case study: John Lasseter. Power and politics in the fall and rise of John Lasseter.
Power of Media vs. Power of Me: Young Adult Response to Movie Images
The topic of the effects of the media and its effects on adolescent self-image and self-esteem has become the subject of a number of academic research projects. In the literature reviewed, movies were found to included in the general definition of media. A majority of the studies posit that we gain our self-image by comparing ourselves to others. We attempt to find a group into which we fit. When we do not find a group to which we feel we belong, it can lead to a poor self-image and poor self-esteem.
There are many articles that draw a relationship between low self-esteem and conditions that can cause serious health problems such as bulimia, anorexia nervosa, depression and even suicidal tendencies. Most of the studies draw a clear cause and effect between unrealistic media images and the low…
Women in Control
What some see as a male-dominated world, others see females in control, sometimes behind the scenes.
When it comes to selecting mates, it is women who are in ultimate control. And, they are quite selective. Of the many characteristics women look for in a man, good financial prospects, social status, ambition, size/strength, and dependability are only a few ("Women's Long-Term" 109). Although if a man has many of these characteristics he may be able to more likely attract a female of his liking, in the end, men are at the mercy of women, when it comes to relationships, love and procreation. This is a significant amount of control that women solely possess.
Dreher's study regarding the glass ceiling and how women have been positively impacted by the increase in the number of work-life human resource practices in the last two decades. When compared with figures from the…
Arslanian-Engoren, C. "Feminist Poststructuralism: A Methodological Paradigm for Examining Clinical Decision-Making." Journal of Advanced Nursing 37(6) Mar 2002: p. 512-517. Mar 2002: p. 512-517. Academic Search Premier. EBSCOHost. University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ. July 17, 2006 http://web111.epnet.com/.
Dreher, G. "Breaking the Glass Ceiling." Human Relations. 56(5) May 2004: p. 541-562.
Kalabamu, F. "Changing Gender Contracts in Self-Help Housing Construction in Botswana." Habitat International Jun 2005: p. 245-268.
Keynan, H. "Somalia: The Great Escape." UNESCO Courier 48(9) Sept 1995: p. 26-27. Academic Search Premier. EBSCOHost. University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ. July 17, 2006 http://web111.epnet.com/.
Power Control Theory Definitions and Meaning
Power control theory argues that treating sons and daughters differently is what causes the difference that exists in risk perceptions among the genders and so is the cause of resulting delinquencies. The exploratory will therefore focus in situations where two parents are present and siblings are of the opposite sex (Blackwell & Mark, 2003). The focus of power control theory is how gender relations get established, maintained and perpetuated in the society. It is notable that power control theory tries to explain "common" delinquent behavior. This paper will therefore examine criminal offences committed by adults that aren't overly offensive such as income tax cheating, driving under the influence, assault and illegal gambling. These offenses are closely parallel to those used frequently in deterrence research (Blackwell, Perceived sanction threats, gender, and crime: A test and elaboration of power control theory, 2000).
Considering the various definitions…
Blackwell, B. (2000). Perceived sanction threats, gender, and crime: A test and elaboration of power-control theory. Criminology, 439 - 488.
Blackwell, B., & Mark, R. (2003). Power-control as a between- and within-family model: Reconsidering the unit of analysis. Journal of Youth and Adolescence.
Blackwell, B., & Piquero, A. (2005). On the relationships between gender, power control, self-control, and crime. Journal of Criminal Justice, 1 - 17.
Hagan, J., Simpson, J., & Gillis, A. (1987). Class in the Household: A Power-Control Theory of Gender and Delinquency. American Journal of Sociology, 788 - 816.
The court case scene also shows how focused the leaders are on maintaining their power. This is seen where Danforth says to Proctor, "You must understand, sir, that a person is either with this court or he must be counted against it, there be no road between" (Miller 94). This shows the complete lack of choice that the people of the society have. If they do not accept the will of the leaders completely, they are considered as being against them. This leaves no room for anyone to question anything. At the same time, it shows that the leaders of the town are intently focused on maintaining complete power. In this way, the leaders dominate completely, while the people are meant to be submissive to the point that they do not question any aspect of the leader's decisions.
It is in the context of this environment that the actions of…
Miller, A. The Crucible. New York: Penguin, 2003.
Team building, group dynamics, talent management, leadership development, and any number of other functional areas are much more about clarity, focus, aligning expectations, and defining roles than creating equality" (Myatt, 2012). In the last twenty years, organizations have come to the realization that the better their employees are at working together, the more successful their organizations will be.
eductions in budgets in the public sector mean that there is an increased pressure for these organizations to deliver more effectively. Team-building is a verifiable way to ensure a greater success at employee cohesion. Private sector organizations have largely realized this, as private sector organizations more frequently enlist the help of outside organizations such as team-building experts to teach and implement effective means of team-building for their workers. Given these trends in team-building, I would want to further explore: what are the immediate benefits of team building? What are the long-term benefits…
Cellucci, T. (2008, October). Bridging the Communication Gap. Retrieved from DHS.gov: http://www.dhs.gov/xlibrary/assets/bridging_the_communication_gap.pdf
Dillon, S., Buchannon, J., & Corner, J. (2010, November).Comparing public and private sector decision making: Problem structuring and information quality issues. Retrieved from https://secure.orsnz.org.nz/conf45/program/Papers/ORSNZ2010_Buchanan.pdf
Drexel.edu. (2013). 5 Stages of Group Development. Retrieved from Drexel.edu: http://www.drexel.edu/oca/l/tipsheets/Group_Development.pdf
Groeneveld, S., & verbeek, S. (2011). Diversity Policies in Public and Private Sector Organizations. Review of Public Personnel Administration, 353-381.
This poem is a favorite of mine because it reminds me to slow down and appreciate everything. It does not take long nor does it take much to renew and revive and that is exactly what the poet wishes to communicate.
In Joy Harjo's "Remember," the poet uses imagery and personification to convey points of importance. Because the poet is encouraging someone to remember, she pulls images from experience that will be familiar. She begins by telling the reader to "Remember the sky" (Harjo 1) and to "know each of the star stories" (2). In addition, it is important to know the moon. The poet wants to use images the reader already knows and identifies with in order to stress the importance of connecting with the earth. The importance of remembering one's parents is also important because we are all connected. She tells the reader to remember the "earth whose…
Bishop, Elizabeth. "The Fish." Literature: An Introduction to Reading and Writing. 9th Edition.
edited by Edgar V. Roberts and Henry E. Jacobs. Upper Saddle River, NJ:
Pearson/Prentice Hall, 2007. Print.
Frost, Robert. "Stopping by Woods." Literature: An Introduction to Reading and Writing. 9th Edition.
power ? Sound ? Feel ? In Discussion, examine a situation involving demonstrations power influences power dynamics. You propose strategies enhancing individual's power base efficacious interactions.
Power is one of the most important concepts in the contemporary society, especially considering that the present-day economic ideology dominating the world gradually influenced more and more individuals to direct their attention toward the material aspect of life. Authority has a strong influence over every-day life and generally shapes the way that the world as a whole functions. Social structures promote the idea of power and humanity practically reached a point where power is an integral part of the world.
This essay is going to address an instance involving three families with a one-year-old in which the husband needs to look after the material aspect while the wife needs to stay at home with the baby. By addressing the idea of power and by…
Adams, S. (2010). Women First, Men Last: Feminism's War on Men and Its Devastating Effects. Steven Adams.
Bonifacio, G.T. (2012). Feminism and Migration: Cross-Cultural Engagements. Springer.
McCloskey, L.A. Socioeconomic and Coercive Power within the Family. Gender and Society Vol. 10, No. 4 (Aug., 1996), pp. 449-463
Mitchell, R.K., Agle, B.R., Chrisman, J.J., & Spence, L.J. Business Ethics Quarterly Vol. 21, No. 2, (April, 2011), pp. 235-255 DOI: 10.5840/beq201121215
It is quite apparent that if the subordinates are not happy with the leader or the decisions that he makes, they will not work to the best of their ability.
A practical example of this sort of leadership is of Sir Richard Branson who is the owner of the Virgin Company. It should be noted that till this day, the company has a total of 50,000 employees. Despite having so many employees and such busy schedule, Sir Branson always looks after his employees and makes sure that none of their queries go un answered. He personally checks their emails or letters and replies to them. All his employees know that he goes thorough the email therefore they provide their input regarding company decisions as well. This sort of leadership exemplifies the notion that importance should be given to the subordinates as well. It is true that leaders may face tough…
Fiedler, Fred Edward. "A contingency model of leadership effectiveness.." Advances in experimental social psychology. By Berkowtiz, Leonard. 1st ed. New York: Academic press, 2013. Print.
Kipnis, David. The powerholders. Chicago: The Univ. Of Chicago Press, 1976. Print.
Pruitt, Dean G. And Jeffrey Z. Rubin. Social conflict. New York: Random House, 1986. Print.
Van Der Vliert, Evert . Complex Interpersonal Conflict Behavior. London: Psychology Press, 1997. Print.
Powers and ights of the Constitution
INSTITUTIONAL POWE: The Constitution gives the federal government the right to form a military service, including what is now the National Guard (Army National Guard, 2011), though it does so in cooperation with the states and localities to serve their interests as well. This section is important for a number of reasons, including the fact that it reinforces the differences between the state and the federal government without weakening the role of the states to protect and defend themselves. It also helps ensure that the troops and resources are readily available in each locality when urgent issues of various kinds result. They can be used for natural disasters, various forms of social control, helping in other times or need, as well as to address more complicated issues like war and terrorism. This latter issue has become most important recently as localities look to be…
Army National Guard (2011). Legal basis of the national guard. Viewable at http://www.arng.army.mil/aboutus/history/Pages/ConstitutionalCharteroftheGuard.aspx
Bancuk, L. (n.d.), Right to assemble. Learning to Give. http://learningtogive.org/papers/paper57.html
Crosses of Lafayette (2007). Private website. Viewable at http://lafayettecrosses.blogspot.com/ .
Cuban Missile Crisis (2011). Viewable at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cuban_Missile_Crisis .
Managers may perceive themselves above everyone and support techniques that formulate wide-ranging exploit of the controlling role, be it by making decisions themselves, scheduling officially to manipulate other people's decisions by the distribution of resources or merely demeaning delivery. This seemingly decreases the swiftness of managing and its assortment as well as verbal personality in support of further proper arrangement as well as control. For this reason, this paper discusses how managers might use their power differently within the five contexts that features in Mintzberg's 'The Untold Varieties of Managing," highlighting on how the use of power might show up in the different contexts?
Sighting managers as institutional actors makes an individual to mull over preceding research which has reflected on institutional actors, as well as sought to explore their actions in that precise perspective. For example, Henry Mintzberg has highlighted a perceptive study of…
Power Listening" by Bernard T. Ferrari
Power Listening by Bernard T. Ferrari:
The gift of silence -- the importance of keeping quiet to truly listen
We have all heard about the concept of 'power lunching' but the basic concept behind the book Power Listening by Bernard T. Ferrari is far simpler -- and also far more likely to promote effective work relationships. According to Ferrari, one of the critical problems in the workplace is a failure of employees to listen to one another. Ferrari suggests a variety of techniques to improve listening amongst employees, such as being reflective about the 'kind' of listener you are; respecting your conversation partner and his or her ideas; remaining silent while the other person is talking; challenging your assumptions; and keeping your focus. Listening is not something that is innate, any more than the gift of speech is: listening is a learned, socialized behavior.…
Bavelas, J. & Gerwing, J. "The listener as addressee in face-to-face dialogue." International
Journal of Listening, 25. 3. (2011): 178-198. 4 Dec 2013. Web.
Ferrari, B.T. Power listening: Mastering the most critical business skill of all. Portfolio Hardcover, 2012.
Leadership -- Power and Responsibilities / Integrity
hen it comes to the concept of "leadership" there are numerous definitions that can be applied. Every leader uses his or her own approach to leading, and while there are similar aspects to the behaviors of most leaders, how leaders approach their strengths is played out differently. In literature (like the blind man in Cathedral) and in real life (like the way Abraham Lincoln conducted himself in a political situation) leaders provide robust examples of how to get things done and how to influence the actions of others.
This paper uses the leadership styles and behaviors of several individuals to demonstrate their qualities (or, in the case of Jimmy Cross, lack of leadership qualities) as they lead -- and the paper points to the integrity the individuals showed in the process of their leadership.
Leadership and Integrity
Abraham Lincoln -- the subject today…
Abrashoff, Michael D. It's Your Ship: Management Techniques from the Best Damn Ship in the Navy. New York: Warner Books. 2002
Carver, Raymond. Cathedral: Raymond Carver, in The Wadsworth Casebook Series for Reading, Research, and Writing, Ed. Laurie Kirszner. Independence, KY: Cengage
Moreton, Catherine L. "10 Qualities that Made Abraham Lincoln a Great Leader." Business & Legal Resources. Retrieved February 16, 2013, from https://hr.blr.com . 2008.
Power critical understanding difficulties managers confront seeking manage change'. Discuss. This undergraduate Essay (Level III) If resources reading list I
Power is critical to understanding the difficulties managers confront when seeking to manage change
Long gone are the times when firms would operate solely to generate profits and this represented their stated mission. Today, economic agents across the globe peg their success not only to financial results, but also to their ability to serve the various needs of the multiple stakeholder categories. In other words, while the final objective is that of registering profits, the aim is attained through a combination of strategic efforts targeted at serving the stakeholders.
For instance, the employees are the most valuable organizational assets and they are treated as such. The customers are not the forces purchasing whatever the company produces, but they represent the force telling the company what to produce. The technologic community…
Clegg, S., 1989, Frameworks of power, SAGE
Foucault, M., 1982, Afterword: the subject and power, University of Chicago Press
Heathfield, S.M., Resistance to change definition, About, http://humanresources.about.com/od/glossaryr/g/Resistance-To-Change-Definition.htm last accessed on February 14, 2012
Jermier, J.M., Knights, D., Nord, W.R., 1994, Resistance and power in organizations, 1994, Routledge
power influences people the most?
David A. Hilton, M Ed., MBA
Which type of power influences people most?
Strategic management -- theory vs. practice
In theory, strategic management is a very straightforward process. It involves defining a mission and establishing the tactical goals necessary to achieve the mission objectives. Establishing the tactical plan involves analyzing the internal and external company environment and defining a vision, business model, and appropriate strategy that aligns strengths and weaknesses to the corresponding environmental opportunities and threats (Maxwell, 2007). Key performance metrics are determined and monitored to ensure progress along the intended track and that the organizational structure and systems continually adapt in response to emerging or changing challenges.
In principle, the strategic leader prepares organizations for change and establishes a methodology for responding to changes (Kotter, 2001). In practice, weaknesses in strategic management are typically attributable to lack of skill on the part…
Benfari, R.C., Wilkinson, H.E., & Orth, C.D., (1986). The effective use of power. Business Horizons (May-June), 12-16.
Boyatzis, R.E. (1971). Leadership: the effective use of power. Management of Personnel Quarterly, 10 (3), 28-36.
Burns, J.M. (1978). Leadership. New York, NY: Harper & Row.
French, J.R.P., & Raven, B.H. (1959). The basis of social power. In D. Cartwright (Ed.), Studies in social power, (pp. 150-167). Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan, Institute for Social Research.
After the participants completed the assembly test, I issued a post-questionnaire to find out how they felt about the report and how helpful it was in guiding the assembly of a power supply. The post-questionnaire assessed the effectiveness of the assembly, asked if they understood the document and all the steps required to assemble the power supply, and also asked if the graphics were helpful. The post-questionnaire also asked the participants if they needed any additional information to make the document clearer or more useful.
Based on their responses to the pre-questionnaire both students indicated familiarity with all the tools required for the assembly including screwdrivers and wire cutters. Both participants also indicated some familiarity with AC/DC power, which they both claimed was from school. One of the two participants had about two years more schooling in electronics and so was more familiar than the other in assembling power…
Corporate governance failure is a serious threat to the future existence of any organization. The high corporate failure rates witnessed in the first decade of the century brought to the limelight the concept of effective corporate governance, and the core principles of trust and integrity. This text examines Wal-Mart's corporate governance strategy to determine how the company restrains managerial power, and how it aligns the interests of managers and directors with those of the organization.
Corporate governance failure is a serious threat to the future existence of any organization. Following the stream of corporate failures witnessed in the first decade of the century, the investor base has become more aggressive about effective corporate governance based on the core values of trust and integrity. Today, a company's ability to conduct its profit-maximization goal within the ethical boundaries of integrity, honesty, fairness is widely regarded as a source of competitive advantage. Towards…
Arjoon, S. (n.d.). Corporate Governance: An Ethical Perspectives. The University of West Indies. Retrieved 18 December 2014 https://sta.uwi.edu/conferences/financeconference/Conference%20Papers/Session%205/Corporate%20Governance%20-%20An%20Ethical%20Perspective.pdf
Bernstein, D. (2010). Essentials of Psychology (5th ed.). Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning
Edwards, F.R. (2003). U.S. Corporate Governance: What Went Wrong, and can it be Fixed? Columbia University. Retrieved 18 December 2014 from https://www0.gsb.columbia.edu/mygsb/faculty/research/pubfiles/1661/U.S.%20Corporate%20Governance%2010-05.pdf
Rhode, D.L. (Ed.). (2006). Moral leadership: The Theory and Practice of Power, Judgment, and Policy. San Francisco, CA: John Wiley & Sons.
If those influenced feel strong forces deterring them from changing. (4). If the people influenced by the change have pressure put on them to make it instead of having a say in the nature or the direction of the change. (5). If the change is made on personal grounds" or in other words, if the change does not seem to be motivated by the common good but instead for political reasons and finally (6). "If the change ignores the already established institutions in the group" (Bolognese, 2002). Forms of resistance may take the path of active-resistance or passive-resistance. "Symptoms of active-resistance include finding fault, ridiculing, appealing to fear, and manipulating. Passive-resistance symptoms include agreeing verbally but not following through, feigning ignorance and withholding information" (Bolognese, 2002).
Of the two strategies, the most common is perhaps active-resistance through ridicule, otherwise known as plain, old-fashioned complaining. No matter how necessary the change,…
Bolognese, Albert F. (2002). Employee Resistance to Organizational Change. Re-edited
Jul 2007. Retrieved 21 Aug 2007 at http://www.newfoundations.com/OrgTheory/Bolognese721.html
Michelson, Barton J. "Leadership and Power Base Development: Using Power
Effectively to Manage Diversity and Job-Related Interdependence in Complex Organizations. Concepts for Air Force Leadership 193-199. Retrieved 21 Aug 2007 at http://www.au.af.mil/au/awc/awcgate/au-24/michelson.pdf
It could be argued that a conflict of interest could arise in the executive's ability to create or destroy a convention, assuming inadequate resistance from the rest of the governmental body.
The idea that constitutional conventions exist outside of the bounds of courts and are injusticiable can be quite frustrating for many political scientists and politicians. Conventions are best viewed as a set of governmental traditions or norms that while not legally binding are often socially binding through votes of confidence (ozenberg, 1998). They are to be viewed as a political aberration that exist in large numbers in both the British and U.S. systems of government. There is no agreed-upon system for dealing with questions arising from the topic of constitutional conventions, yet these very same conventions, by nature, adhere to the cultural, legal, and social norms and morals of the society, which the executive oversees.
There is no singular…
Bradley a. & Ewing, K. (2002) Constitutional and Administrative Law, New Jersey: Longman.
Haselgrove-Spurin, Corbett. (2004). Conventions of the Constitution, London: NARD Press.
Jaconelli, Joseph. (2005). "Do Constitutional Conventions Bind?." The Cambridge Law Journal 64, 1, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Legislate Council Secretariat. (2002). "Some Basic Information on Constitutional Conventions." LEGCO Pamphlet, London: Legco Press.
power is depicted in William Shakespeare's "King Lear," Book I of John Milton's "Paradise Lost" and Francis Bacon's "Of Plantations" and "The Idols" from his "Novum Organum."
Shakespeare's depiction of power in King Lear shows how cunning, ruthless people come to gain political power at the expense of those that show qualities that one would desire in a leader: nobility, honesty and integrity. Shakespeare's key focus is the transition of power from one king or leader to his progeny. In King Lear, the title role decides to abdicate the throne and divide his kingdom equally between his three daughters: Goneril, Regan and Cordelia. Whereas the first two flatter him, Cordelia is honest and is ultimately punished for it: she loses her inheritance. In another part of the story, two brothers fight for control of a dukedom.
Here Shakespeare illustrates a contradiction between well-meaning, honest people and manipulative, power-hungry people. One…