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Prayer in Public Schools
The issue of prayer in public schools has been the subject of intense debate. That is because religious people would like for their children to be able to follow their religious teachings by praying in school but people who are not religious would prefer that religion was kept out of the public schools altogether. Prayer in public schools is also sometimes a problem for people who are religious but whose religions are not the religious traditions recognized in school prayers. The debate actually demonstrates the two fundamental ideas addressed by the First Amendment to the U.S. Constitution: (1) the establishment of religion by the government; and (2) the infringement of the free exercise of religion by the government.
The Two Constitutional Issues: eligious Infringement and eligious Establishment
When the Colonialists first left Britain to establish a new society in North America, one of the most important…
Dershowitz A.M. (2002). Shouting Fire: Civil Liberties in a Turbulent Age. New York,
NY: Little Brown & Co.
Friedman, L.M. (2005). A History of American Law. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster.
Gregory, R.F. (2010). Encountering Religion in the Workplace: The Legal Rights of Workers and Employers. Ithaca, NY H.R. Press.
Prayer: Finding the Heart's True Home y Richard Foster
About the Author
Richard J. Foster is the author of many best selling books, which includes the most famous "Celebration of Discipline and Streams of Living of Water." He is also the founder of Renovare an infrachurch movement that is dedicated to the restoration of the Church in all her comprehensive expressions. In addition, his is a general editor of the forthcoming Renovare Spiritual Formation Study ible (1).
Foster is undoubtedly one of the foremost modern writers and speakers on Christian spirituality. His childhood was among Evangelical Friends. While, he spent his adult life among friends pastor and a professor of theology at Friends University, among the many positions he has held. Foster frequently made reference to Quaker historical figures and his own Quakerism both in his books and speaking (1).
Richard J. Foster, the best-selling author has offered this…
1. Samuel, Bill. Richard Foster: Quaker Writer on Christian Spirituality. July 1, 2001. www.quakerinfo.com
2. Prayer: Finding the Heart's True Home. Bright field: Richard Book Review. Book Finder.com.
3. Student Books Online. Faculty of Christianity.
Prayer at Public School Events
During the last few years there has been passionate debates concerning prayer in public schools and at public school events. Advocates believe that it is not only a moral issue but prohibition of prayer in public schools denies their right of freedom of religion, while opponents claim it is a violation of separation of state and church.
In fact, over recent decades, one of the most litigious areas of the First Amendment has been religion (Prayer pp). The United States Supreme Court has ruled in more than twenty cases concerning prayer, religion in schools, public access for religious purposes, and the observance of religious holidays in public places, to name but a few (Prayer pp).
In Engel v. Vitale, 1962, the United States Supreme Court held with Engel and ruled that the state could not require the recitation of a formal prayer in public schools…
Matthew 18:20. The Holy Bible Containing the Old and New Testaments: King
James Version. National Publishing Company. 2000.
Bergel. Banning Prayer in Public Schools Has Led to America's Demise.
Accessed May 12, 2005.
Prayer in School
There was a time in America, where although the constitution guarantees a separation of church and state, many of the government institutions still encouraged or at least included components which were based on religious practices. In the past, the children of American public schools would enter the classroom, stand at attention for the pledge, and then join in with the class in prayer. In the locker room, the football or basketball coach would lead his players in a prayer both to win and that no one was injured in the game. The majority of the population of American citizens was Christian and so they would logically pray to a Christian god or to the savior of that religion. Students who did not belong to the Christian religion could either choose to abstain from this activity, or they could pray along with the other students in order to…
Duin, Julia. "School Prayer Charges Stir Protests." The Washington Times. 2011. Print.
Eckholm, Erik. "Battling Anew over the Place of Religion in Public Schools." The New York
Times. 2011. Print.
"Guidance on Constitutionally Protected Prayer in Public Elementary and Secondary Schools."
Prayers in Public Schools
In the case of Engel v. Vitale (1962), the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that prayer in the U.S. public school system was unconstitutional and that such prayers "breached the constitutional wall of separation between Church and State." Ever since, the courts around the country have consistently turned down the efforts to reinstitute even the most innocent expression of religious devotion in public funded schools in complete disregard of an equally consistent American public opinion that has expressed its support for prayers in public schools. I believe that prayers in public schools should be allowed just as they were allowed during the first 200 years of our country's existence and shall argue in this essay why I believe so.
If we examine the U.S. constitution closely, it would be apparent that the founding fathers and the framers of the U.S. constitution had never intended a ban on…
'James Madison." (2002) One Nation Under God. America's Christian Heritage. Updated: 14 July 2002. Retrieved on November 22 from http://www.leaderu.com/orgs/cdf/onug/madison.html
'Public Schools Don't Have a Prayer." (2004). U.S. Gov Info / Resources. About.com. Retrieved on November 22 from http://usgovinfo.about.com/library/weekly/aa070100a.htm
Shelby, Mark. (1992). Separation of Church and State: Has it gone too far? Retrieved on November 22 from http://www.forerunner.com/forerunner/X0183_Separation_of_Church.html
Southers, Michelle Marie. (2002). School Prayer. National Parliamentary Debate Workshop July 10, 2002. Retrieved on November 22 from http://www.willamette.edu/cla/rhetoric/workshop/DebateResearch/michellesouthers.doc .
Prayer in School and Its Historical Context:
Prayer in schools is one of the major issues that put teachers, parents, and administrators at odds to an extent that even simple discussions regarding the subject can degenerate into heated debates. In most cases, discussions on prayer result in heated sidebars about morality, rates of crime, and the Constitution. Even though parents, teachers, and administrators continue to debate about prayer, children still have to go to school. According to a 2005 Gallup Poll survey, approximately 76% of Americans support a constitutional amendment to allow voluntary prayer in public schools (Butler, 2012). This could be the reason why many schools continue to promote prayer on school compounds even though such practice is unconstitutional. egardless of the current heated debates, prayer in schools is an issue that can be understood from current practice and the historical context.
The heated debates surrounding prayer in schools…
Butler, M. (2012, April 22). Prayer in Schools: Benefits from Both Sides. Retrieved October 19,
2013, from http://www.education.com/magazine/article/prayer-in-schools/
"Prayer and the Public Schools." (n.d.). Americans United. Retrieved October 19, 2013, from https://www.au.org/resources/publications/prayer-and-the-public-schools
They claim that it relaxes them and makes them feel at ease. How true is this and what are the reasons behind it? If they indeed do help in bringing relief from stress then this would be a medical breakthrough. People are seen to take many medications for stress, some go into a state of depression and the productivity of others falls to very low levels. If such a practice of prayers or meditation can actually eliminate and prevent stress then people would not need to spend so much money on medications and they can prevent themselves from coming under stress. After all it is true that prevention is better than cure. It would be really interesting to know the factor which causes such an action.
This research will investigate and analyze the studies done on this subject. Its aim will be to pinpoint and try to decide…
1) Anonymous - Spirituality for Stress Relief. [Online Website] Available at http://www.lifepositive.com/Mind/psychology/stress/mental-health.asp[Accessed on: 12/11/2005]
2) Astin, M.C., Lawrence, K.J., & Foy, D.W. - 1993. Posttraumatic stress disorder among battered women: Risk and resiliency factors. Violence and Victims, 8, 17-28.
3) Robert Karasek, Tres Theorell - Book Title: Healthy Work: Stress, Productivity, and the Reconstruction of Working Life. Publisher: Basic Books. Place of Publication: New York. Publication Year: 1990. Page Number: 34.
4) Pargament - 1990. God help me: Toward a theoretical framework of coping for the psychology of religion. Research in the Social Scientific Study of Religion, 2, p.195
Religious organizations like the Quakers have extolled the virtue of group prayer. In my experience with Christian group prayer, I have noticed that the practice serves several functions, including the increase in prayer power as alluded to in Matthew 18:19-20. Group prayer can help the individual focus on the prayer and on God rather than having the mind wander to selfish thoughts. I felt much more focused when praying in the group than I usually do on my own. My inner thoughts are private, but I am focused on the Biblical passage or concept being invoked for the purposes of the prayer. Therefore, group prayer can be helpful to beginners because it helps us to figure out how to pray and what to focus on while praying. I would not have known about the various Bible passages or prayers used had I not attended the group prayer sessions.
There are other insights, also described above, that I have gleaned form reading this particular article, which is why I chose it. Though I have my own opinions about prayer within counseling, I do believe that everyone is entitled to handle his or her sessions as they would like. However, I was quite surprised at the 82% statistic, as I had often believed that those who underwent counseling would be much more liberal and would thus be less inclined to believe in any religious component to therapy. Often times, those seeking religious therapy would see a priest rather than a psychologist or psychiatrist. Yet it was quite illuminating to see that, perhaps, even those more liberal did not necessarily shun prayer as a means to understanding themselves and their surrounding. Yet, again, there is no basis to this latter statement, though it can be a component that a further study…
To do so will invite the eventual backward motion and we will find ourselves returned to the times that minorities were mistreated for being different, only this time it will be based in religious differences. This was one of the things meant to be avoided by the constitution mandate of separating church and state.
If we uncover the initial understanding of the separation of church and state, we will discover that it implies a protection from discrimination by insisting that the non-religious state, which by law treats everyone equally, must be maintained as the powers of the public school system (ice, 1997).
The separation of church and state has become the crux of school prayer controversy across the country, but it's really a simple concept. We are not supposed to mesh church and state, period. The founding fathers that penned the constitution, did not allow for exceptions, nor did they…
Rice, Patricia (1997, June). SOUTHERN BAPTISTS EXPECTED to BACK PRAYER AMENDMENT., St. Louis Post-Dispatch, pp 08A.
Shapiro, Deborah R.(1995, May). Shall we pray? Jews, Christians debate prayer in schools., Jewish Advocate, pp PG.
Prayer Invading Impossible
Building on Matthew 19:26, "With God all things are possible," Jack W. Hayford shows Christians that the power of prayer indeed means Invading the Impossible. The title of the book uses rather violent diction to describe the power of prayer: which many Christians associate more with surrender, mercy, and humility more than the militarism the term "invade" implies. However, Hayford is an impassioned Christian writer. The author never wavers from his stance that prayer indeed does invade -- take over from -- what was previously deemed impossible.
Published originally in the late 1970s and re-released in 2002, Prayer is Invading the Impossible can be considered a minor classic in its field. The book is written for a lay audience rather than for clergy. As such, the language, tone, and style of the book are informal. References to scripture are not as replete as some readers would like.…
" The desire of the humble is to be one with God and to heed God's Word without being demanding. To have faith and be humble means internalizing the words of God, "Thy kingdom come, Thy will be done in earth, as it is in heaven," (Matthew 6:10). Trusting that God's kingdom is far greater than any person could imagine is the meaning of Christian faith. Likewise, Christian faith means praying for God's will to be manifest on earth rather than the will of human beings. Human beings are fallible, whereas God is not. To have faith in a person is good to an extent, but having faith in God is far more reliable and meaningful. "It is better to trust in the LORD than to put confidence in man," (Psalm 118:8).
Jesus reiterates the importance of faith throughout his life and teachings. Faith and prayer remain closely linked in…
The superimposition may then change the meaning of the ritual. What after all is "pure" worship? As Smart remarks, the utterance of a group of ritual words complete with the relevant bodily postures made during the worship service. This can also be seen in readings of the Holy Quran where the opening verse is read out loud some thirty times per day. Much of this can be seen as pure worship with no ritual imposition. This practice literally is pure prayer and has no other interpretation, but given our definition of prayer as a ritual object is included, if nothing more for the fact that the quotation is from a literal book, that is, the Holy Quran (ibid., 74-75).
It is in the above way that Smart points out that the ritual is integrated into and becomes a part of a person's ritual life. In this way, worship is…
Ninian smart's seven dimensions or religions. (2010). Retrieved from www.maccray.k12.mn.us/css/../NinianSmart7demensions.pdf.
Smart, N. (1996). Dimensions of the sacred: An anatomy of the world's beliefs. Berkeley, CA: Harper
It is their way of participating in the mission itself without having to be there.
Prayer gives Paul strength. He asks others to pray for him to have strength when he was on a mission. Being on a mission can turn into a very lonely experience. He wanted prayer that he would be strong and lack timidity when it came to spreading the ord in a strange land. In Thessalonians, he writes, "Finally, brothers, pray for us that the message of the Lord may spread rapidly and be honored, just as it was with you" (II Thessalonians 3:1). Here we see Paul's needs in prayer. He needs protection, comfort and the knowing that he is looked after by those above and below the heavens. There is no doubt that Paul is understood the power of prayer. He knew that he would need it when he was serving in the mission…
The Holy Bible, New International Version. Grand Rapids: Zondervan. 1988.
Authentic Prayer in Habakkuk
The world today offers many challenges, especially for the person who is determined to maintain a sense of faithful love for God. In addition to the many scientific and non-faithful persons attempting to dethrone God from the faithful heart, personal struggles and challenges could also lead to significant despair. Even the strongest of faiths can be tested, challenged, and even a little shaken. It is my belief that this is one of the reasons why the Bible is filled with examples of everyday human beings who, despite the faith required for their positions as prophets or preachers, nevertheless experienced challenges that were every bit as hard on their faith as the challenges we experience today (Hays, p. 16). Hence, a prophet like Habakkuk and the nature of his prayers provide for the reader an honest rendition of what it truly means to have faith, and indeed,…
The Book of Habakkuk
Arnold, Bill T. & Beyer, Bryan E. Encountering the Old Testament, 2nd ed. Baker, 2008
Chisholm, Robert B. Jr. Interpreting the Minor Prophets Zondervan, 1990
Hays, Daniel J. The Message of the Prophets. Zondervan, 2010
Although the historical meaning of the Thanksgiving Holiday has become somewhat trivialized, focused more on turkey and cranberry sauce and the beginning of the Christmas shopping season, I believe our family is one of the few that feels deeply in their souls the essence of being grateful. The tragedies that have befallen all of us are tragedies in which we all shared; not one of us here to day was or is spared from the pain that came from the loss of dad and Todd. The fact that we are now all here together, gathered in the presence of God, is no small miracle. Tragedies like ours are enough to tear apart families. Often the damage done is irreparable. Yet somehow through the grace of our Lord we have been able to transcend and to overcome.
On this Thanksgiving I would like to evoke the positive memories of my…
Given the limitations mentioned above, researchers studying intercessory prayer are also banging their heads against reality because they are claiming to make discoveries that are "incompatible with current views of the physical universe and consciousness" (Sloan, p. 504). That having been said, if IP studies are held to the "standards of science" and if "more precise hypotheses are tested" then a "scientific revolution" is not beyond imagination (Sloan, p. 513).
Using personal prayer for health reasons. An article published in 2004 reports on a national survey that was conducted in 1998; in that survey researchers found that 35% of participants used prayer for "health reasons" (McCaffrey, et al., 2004, p. 858). Of those respondents, 75% prayed for "wellness" and 22% prayed for "specific medical conditions" (McCaffrey, p. 858). Of the 22% who prayed for specific medical conditions 69% "found prayer very helpful,' McCaffrey reports on page 858. This research…
Benson, Herbert, Dusek, Jeffery a., Sherwood, Jane B., Lam, Peter, Bethea, Charles F.,
Carpenter, William, Levitsky, Sidney, Hill, Peter C., Clem, Donald W., Jain, Manoj K.,
Drumel, David, Lopecky, Stephen L., Mueller, Paul S., Marek, Dean, Rollins, Sue, and Hibberd, Patricia L. (2006). Study of the Therapeutic Effects of Intercessory Prayer
(STEP) in cardiac bypass patients: A multicenter randomized trial of uncertainty and certainty of receiving intercessory prayer. American Heart Journal, 151(4), 934-942.
82). Therefore, Orgien suggest that, "To be is to participate in him who is" and this participation is facilitated through prayer.
In terms of the benefits of prayer Origen refers to aspects such as inner peace, the prevention of sins and the promotion of good deeds. The theme of the distinction between the body, the world of nature and the mundane world of human activity and the Godly dimension is also related to the benefits of prayer. Origen therefore refers to the soul as being "elevated above earthly matter" in the process of prayer in order to contemplate God. "The inward mind is the correlate of God, and it is in the mind, not in the body, that we are to find the image of God in man, which is the 'affinity' to God of which the Platonists speak" (Chadwick, 1984, p.113)
In the first part of the treatise on…
Chadwick, H. (1984). Early Christian Thought and the Classical Tradition: Studies in Justin, Clement, and Origen. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Retrieved April 27, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=12288379
Greer, R.A., (Trans.) (1979) Origen. New York: Paulist Press.
Origen. Retrieved April 26, 2009 from http://looklex.com/e.o/origen.htm
Origen's Teachings on Prayer and Church. H.H. Benedict XVI. ( 2007) Retrieved
"You came near when I called you, and you said, "Do not fear." O. Lord, you took up my case; you redeemed my life. You have seen, O LORD, the wrong done to me. Uphold my cause!." (lamentations 3: 57-59)
What hindrances of prayer do you have?
The hindrances to prayer that I experience are mainly due to a lack of faith at times. Like many people, I sometimes on occasion feel that I do not have sufficient faith and belief in the reality of prayer. However, prayer has proven to be a powerful force in my life and I feel that God responds to our prayer according to that way we act and adhere to His word and guidance.
4. Do you identify with any of these authors?
Yes, I identify with the general views expressed in Isaiah and in many of the other extracts. I believe that very…
The U.S. Supreme Court has supported school cooperation in regards to the establishment of religion. They have done this because they respect the religious nature of people and feel that people should be able to accommodate their spiritual needs (hat are the pros and cons of prayer in school, n.d.)?
On the other side of the debate, those who are against putting prayer back into the public schools often argue that school prayer violates the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment because it says that the government shall not make laws in regards to the establishment of religion. Due to the fact that public schools are financed by the government, prayer that is led by school officials or included in any school program can be seen as government-established religion. Proponents to school prayer feel that school prayer ignores the division of church and state. Traditionally public schools are thought to…
"Prayer in Public School - Overview of Governing Constitutional Principles." 2003. Viewed 23
June, 2010. < http://www.allaboutpopularissues.org/prayer-in-public-school.htm >
"What are the pros and cons of prayer in school?" n.d. Viewed 23 June, 2010, <
efficacy of prayer has often been documented, but at the same time there are a lot of ethical concerns and people are reluctant to combine prayer with counseling. The authors of this article discuss the ethical concerns and recommend ways of circumnavigating and dealing with these concerns. Counselors are recommended to care for the client's welfare and prayer is a great part of that caring, either for counselors themselves praying for clients or advocating that clients resort to prayer.
ealistically speaking, however, todays counselors would be reluctant to employ spiritual tools, such as prayer and counseling, to psychological problems. Counselors who work in religious practice may find it helpful and therapeutic to pry with client in both a private and family group sessions. Other counselors who work in private settings but have religious clients may find it, likewise, helpful for these clients that they offer prayer as part of the…
Weld, C & Erickson, K (2007) The Ethics of Prayer in Counseling and values, Volume 51
The Purpose of Prayer
I think the main purpose of prayer is to make the person praying feel better and/or give them a feeling of hope that their prayer will come true. I believe that most people pray to "ask" for something, such as good health, more money, a good job, etc. Others pray for more global items, like peace, or freedom, or better lives for the poor. Some people do pray just to speak with God, but I think that most people pray for selfish reasons, even if they do not say so. For example, many people pray for themselves, and their desires are selfish, and will only help them. Others pray for other people, but they still hope their prayers will be answered, and that will justify their prayers and their wishes.
I do think that prayer can change some people for the better, but I do…
Vardy, Peter & Arliss, Julie. The Thinker's Guide to God. Alresford, Hants, UK: John Hunt Publishing, Ltd., 2003.
How can God satisfy both participants in the conflict?
Twain's moral is that the religious rhetoric used to justify war and the merging of patriotism and faith is always suspect. Each side believes that his or her cause and nation is just. During wartime, prayers 'cancel one another out' and show the hypocrisy of the inflated, one-sided view of warfare expressed in propaganda. It is easy to see Twain's message reflected in real life, particularly in the cases of ethnic conflicts where participants are pitted in age-old hatreds and use religion as a justification for their crimes. Such was the case of the Bosnians vs. The Serbs and the Protestants vs. The Catholics of Northern Ireland. To pray for victory in war, points out Twain's old man, is to pray for the death of other people: "If you pray for the blessing of rain upon your crop which needs it,…
The whole concept of Christianity is that all people are sinners, but that God will forgive those sins and those sinners if they only ask for redemption. The lyrics say, "I lost my way but now I'm on my knees / if it's not too late won't you tell me please / You gotta place for me / a little grace for me" (Bentley). That lyric is not about the prodigal son, it is about all who have lost their way, which is every Christian. hat this song makes clear is that the idea of redemption as it has been portrayed in Christianity may have its beginnings in the parables told by Jesus, but those parables were broadened by the crucifixion and resurrection, and they changed them in the same way that they changed all of the other traditions of Judaism.
Bentley, Dierks. "Prodigal Son's Prayer." AZLyrics.com. N.p.…
Bentley, Dierks. "Prodigal Son's Prayer." AZLyrics.com. N.p. 2011. Web. 30 Mar. 2011.
Carter, Joe. "Finding God in the Gaps of Country Music." First Things: On the Square. N.p. 9
Feb. 2011. Web. 30 Mar. 2011.
Luke 15. New International Version. N.p. 2011. Web. 30 Mar. 2011.
Faith in a Prayer for the Dying
Stewart O'Nan's, A Prayer for the Dying, is an in depth portrayal of one man's experiences of loss. The main character, Jacob, seems to experience great human tragedy throughout his life. The unique thing about Jacob, however, is that he always seems to preserver in spite of the tragedies occurring around him, while those he is with perish. This gives Jacob insight and experience with tragedy, and we are able to observe O'Nan's exploration of how much grief the human condition can endure. His portrayal of Jacob in the story would lead us to believe that O'Nan is of the opinion that we are resilient creatures in the face of great dilemma -- that we are hopeful when hope consistently pervades us. Jacob proves that, while not immune to the devastating mental affects of tragedy, human beings still can have hope. Human beings…
O'Nan, Stewart. A Prayer for the Dying. New York: Henry Holt and Company. 1999.
Counseling and Paye
Chistian Paye in Counseling
"Chistian Clients' Pefeences Regading Paye as a Counseling Intevention" is a quantitative study by Weld and Eiksen (2007) in the Jounal of Psychology and Theology. Thei study used a suvey of counselos and thei Chistian clientele with a Peason and Fishe appoach to quantifying the data. The implications of the analysis ae used to discuss the counselo-patient elationship in tems of paye, expectations, seculaity, ace, gende, and a vaiety of othe factos.
The eseaches note a lack of scholaly eseach on the subject of "client expectations about paye in counseling" and attempt to fill a potion of that gap analyzing a suvey of Chistian clientele and thei counselos (Weld, Eikson, 2007, p. 328). In the light of ecent laws egading counselos' espect fo clients' eligious beliefs, specialty counseling has developed that includes a Chistian/spiitual appoach to healing. Weld and Eikson (2007) acknowledge that…
references Regarding Prayer as a Counseling Intervention. Journal of Psychology and Theology, 35(4): 328-341.
Jesus' Teachings, Prayer, & Christian Life
"He (Jesus) Took the Bread. Giving Thanks Broke it. And gave it to his Disciples, saying, 'This is my Body, which is given to you.'" At Elevation time, during Catholic Mass, the priest establishes a mandate for Christian Living. Historically, at the Last Supper, Christ used bread and wine as a supreme metaphor for the rest of our lives. Jesus was in turmoil. He was aware of what was about to befall him -- namely, suffering and death. This was the last major lesson he would teach before his arrest following Judas' betrayal. Eschatologically speaking, the above set the stage for the Christian ministry of the apostles, evangelists and priests. Indeed, every Christian is called to give of him or herself for the Glory of God and the Glory of Mankind. The message at the Last Supper was powerful. People have put themselves through…
Lord's Prayer as the Model for Christian Prayer
The Lord's Prayer is the principal Christian prayer that Jesus Christ taught his followers, saying, "Pray then in this way." The prayer appears in Matthew 6: 9-13 and Luke 11: 2-4, and summarizes Jesus' teaching and stresses the concern of honoring God before that of meeting one's own needs and also reveals Christ's sense of a filial relationship with God (Columbia Pp). After the Second Vatican Council, the Roman Catholic Church added a version of the doxology, 'For thine is the kingdom ..., ' to prayer when used in the Mass (Columbia Pp). The doxology was already current in Protestant liturgies, and is also present in some manuscripts of Matthew (Columbia Pp). The prayer is called Paternoster in Latin, it also occurs in the Didache, and the first three phrases of the prayer parallel the opening words of the ancient, Jewish Kaddish…
"Lord's Prayer." The Columbia Encyclopedia. Sixth Edition. 4/22/2004; Pp.
Remsen, Jim. "Parishioners take at fresh look at the Lord's Prayer.
Knight Ridder/Tribune News Service. 8/7/2002; Pp.
Christian, Graham. "The Prayer of Fire: Experiencing the Lord's Prayer."
eligion and health have long been linked, and continue to be so in most cultures around the world. In fact, both mental and physical health problems were once believed to have supernatural or spiritual origins, a belief which persists until this day in spite of empirical evidence showcasing the biological and chemical causes of illnesses (Koenig, 2000). egardless of whether or not religion is a worthwhile social institution, religion, spirituality, and practices like prayer remain central to the lives of most people. eligion can be inextricably linked with personal and cultural identity, and can greatly inform both medical decisions and health practices including lifestyle choices. There is also a notable link between religiosity and a number of health outcomes including morbidity and mortality rates, proven in empirical studies. The literature tends to support a strong connection between prayer and stress relief in particular, as prayer and religion are widely believed…
Bearon, L.B. & Koenig, H.G. (1990). Religious cognitions and use of prayer in health and illness. The Gerontologist 30(2): 249-253.
Davis, L.I. & Owens, C. (2013). The impact of religion on health practices. American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy. Retrieved online: http://www.aacp.org/governance/SIGS/hdcc/Documents/Webinar%20Materials/Impact%20of%20Religion%20Webinar.pdf
Koenig, H.G. (2000). Religion and medicine I. International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine 30(4): 385-398.
Koenig, H., King, D. & Carson, V.B. (2012). Handbook of Religion and Health. Oxford University Press.
Instead, holiness is attained through right-mindedness and a right heart. You say that the body affects the mind -- and indeed it does. But no longer is an obsession with bodily attributes, such as food, drink, and adherence to the laws of Leviticus (including circumcision) that connects us to God.
"Again Jesus called the crowd to him and said, 'Listen to me, everyone, and understand this. Nothing outside a man can make him 'unclean' by going into him. Rather, it is what comes out of a man that makes him 'unclean.'" (Mark 7:14-15). I do indeed agree that religiosity cannot be found in rote prayers, learned in childhood, or be encompassed by a vague sense of spirituality that does not take into consideration Christ's sacrifice. On the subject of prayer, I can only say that I pray daily -- both in the conventional manner in which you seem to think…
BibleGateway.com. October 26, 2010. http://www.biblegateway.com/
Scottish Covenanter Party
We are inclined to of revolutions as being historical events that disrupt the order of the world, eras that rewrite the history of their times and transform the cultures of the places. And of course the great revolutions of the world do indeed do all of these things. But simply because the historical effect of revolutions is such a radical transformation of the world, we should not therefore be lured into seeing revolutions as arising from disjunctures in the social fabric. Revolutions are not like a meteor crashing into the body politic and changing the way in which things are done in an abrupt and external fashion. he English Civil War, like other revolutionary battles, was fought along long-standing cultural, economic and religious faultlines.
Rather, revolutions are like earthquakes: While they may seem to come out of nowhere and while they certainly shake the world, they arise…
The Book of Common Prayer represents an attempt by Thomas Cranmer to introduce church reform in England. Cranmer had risen to prominence by suggesting means to implement Henry VIII's much-desired divorce from Catherine of Aragorn. A grateful Henry made Cranmer his aide in carrying out the divorce and in 1533 made Cranmer Archbishop of Canterbury. Though Cranmer did not participate in some of Henry's more zealous anticlerical acts, he held very profound beliefs about the direction the church should take.
Though Cranmer was hampered during Henry's lifetime from carrying out many of his own reforms, the old king's death in 1547 put the archbishop in a position to carry out a program of religious reform. In 1549 he put forward his major work, The Book of Common Prayer. This handbook for liturgical practice combined in one volume Cranmer's own versions of the Catholic Breviary, Missal, Pontifical, and Ritual. In the Book and the revised version that followed in 1552 Cranmer laid down the language and practice that should guide the Anglican church in England. Adherence to the practices outlined in the Book of Common Prayer was made compulsory under law in the Act of Uniformity of 1549. http://www.courts.fsnet.co.uk/SChamber.htm
In addition to lecture-based introduction to religious differences, video and/or live presentations from religious leaders and clergy from different faiths and role play exercises, the proposed implementation of training in this area should also include presentations from more experienced nurses who have already successfully negotiated the delicate issues involved.
Spiritual support undoubtedly provides measurable benefits in the hospital environment where it is well received by patients. In American society, religious pluralism requires the exercise of extreme sensitivity when it comes to offering patients spiritual support. While it is certainly possible to provide beneficial spiritual support such as prayer even where nurse and patient do not share the same religious beliefs, doing so dramatically increases the possibility of offending patients rather than benefiting them.
Maximizing the potential benefit of spiritual support while minimizing negative consequences requires vocational training designed to increase awareness of the full variety of religious belief systems…
Campbell CL, Reed-Ash C. (2007). "Keeping Faith." Journal of Hospice and Palliative Nursing. Vol. 9, No. 1.
Cavendish R, Konecny L, Krayuyak-Luis B, Lanza M. (2004). "Nurses Enhance Performance Through Prayer." Holistic Nursing Practice. Vol. 18, No. 1.
Galek K, Flannelly KJ, Vane a, Galek RM. (2005). "Assessing a Patient's Spiritual Needs: A Comprehensive Instrument." Holistic Nursing Practice. Vol. 19, No. 2. Grant D. (2004). "Spiritual Interventions: How, When, and Why Nurses Use Them."
Holistic Nursing Practice. Vol. 18, No. 1. Johnston-Taylor E. (2003). "Prayer's Clinical Issues and Implications." Holistic Nursing Practice. Vol. 17, No. 4. Nuss-Kotecki C. (2002). "Developing a Health Promotion Program for Faith-Based Communities." Holistic Nursing Practice. Vol. 16, No. 3.
Weld and Eiksen's "Chistian client's pefeences egading paye as a counseling intevention." This aticle was based on empiical evidence gatheed about the pefeences of Chistians seeking mental health counseling egading the utilization of paye. That evidence was based on a pai of suvey instuments, The Bief Theapist Suvey and The Paye Suvey fo clients. One of the most inteesting aspects of this study is that it consideed the pefeences fo paye utilized in mental health fom both the client and the theapist pespective, as the afoementioned suvey instuments wee espectively tageted to the clients and the suveys. Lagely because of the infomation explained in the liteatue eview that thee was a death of liteatue about the pefeence of how exactly clients wanted paye used in counseling, thee was no hypothesis on the pat of the authos. Howeve, they wee able to select both clients and theapists fom a faily wide…
references regarding prayer as a counseling intervention. Journal of Psychology and Theology. 35(4), 328-341.
Christians, it is our duty to pray for others. Christians are also Biblically obliged to pray even for those who appear to be beyond saving, or for the unlikeliest of souls. "First of all, then, I urge that supplications, prayers, intercessions, and thanksgivings be made for all people," (1 Timothy 2:1). Therefore, praying on behalf of world leaders becomes even more of a Christian imperative given the tremendous influence political leaders have on the people who they lead or rule. Over the course of the last year or more, I have made a conscientious attempt to pray for a set of world leaders who either needed guidance, support, and intervention from God, salvation from a sinful path, or strength as they traversed the difficult and challenging path of Christ.
Although I did pray for more than a dozen world leaders, I focused on the President of the United States, Barack…
Johnson, D.W. (2015). Biblical requirements of leaders. Christianity Today. Retrieved online: http://www.christianitytoday.com/le/2007/july-online-only/le-040329.html
Christian Aspects of Nursing
Nursing is a very important profession for the simple fact that it enables practitioners to engage directly with the public. As a nursing student who is also a Christian, it is important for me to realize that I should practice this profession in a way that is consistent with Christian values and morals. One of the most eminent Christian doctrines is the belief that "God created man in His own image" (Genesis 1: 27). Incorporating this tenet in my nursing practice means that I should attempt to do all that I can to assist my patients with their treatments, which includes praying for them.
Generally speaking, there is a clear distinction between one's profession and one's faith. However, as a Christian nurse I believe that it is important to help my patients and every way possible. Doing so, then, involves not only following nursing protocols and…
I'm not sure how to cite bible verses.
Prayer and the Death of Christ
Christian living today entails a number of important doctrines and actions, all aimed towards uplifting the individual's soul to a better relationship with God. As such, the Bible acts as a guide towards better Christian living and having a close and fulfilling relationship with the divine. Particularly, two doctrines that are central to Christian living include prayer and the death of Christ. Particularly, prayer helps the Christian individual to communicate with God on various levels, while Christ's death has profound meaning as the central premise of Christianity.
The Bible Encyclopedia (n.d.) defines prayer as a "conversation with God," in which the individual addresses God directly. Prayer can be offered either orally or mentally. A person can be in constant or occasional prayer, and it can be either spontaneous or formal. In the Bible, several phrases have been used to describe prayer, including…
Bible Encyclopedia (n.d.) Prayer. Retrieved from: http://christiananswers.net/dictionary/prayer.html
Bredenhof, W. (2012). The meaning of Christ's Death. Retrieved from: http://www.theseed.info/sermon.php?id=855
Elwell, W.A. (2014). Death of Christ. Bible Study Tools. Retrieved from: http://www.biblestudytools.com/dictionaries/bakers-evangelical-dictionary/death-of-christ.html
Von Buseck, C. (2014). Three Keys To Answered Prayer. Christian Broadcasting Network. Retrieved from: http://www.cbn.com/spirituallife/biblestudyandtheology/discipleship/vonbuseck_threekeysprayer.aspx
"THERE WAS NO DATE," Owen said. I wanted to cry -- not because I believed a single thing about his stupid "vision," but because it was the first time he had lied to me" (397). In this quotation, Owen's point-of-view about his death and the nature of his relationship with John is revealed. He does not want to tell John the date on the tombstone he envisioned, because he wants to protect John and keep him from worrying about his impending death. This quote shows how selfless Owen's point-of-view regarding his friendship with John is.
"IF KENNEDY CAN RATIONALIZE ADULTERY, WHATELSE CAN HE RATIONALIZE?" Owen asked me…! IF CATHOLICS CAN CONFESS ANYTHING, THEY CAN FORGIVE THEMSELVES ANYTHING, TOO!" (301). This quotation is highly demonstrative of Meany's point-of-view regarding Catholicism, which is contrasted with the Christianity which he inspires within the narrator. Meany continually disparages Catholic practices within the novel, particularly…
Here, he prays, that God will "strengthen you with power through his Spirit in your inner being... And I pray that you, being rooted and established in love, may have power, together with all the saints, to grasp how wide and long and high and deep is the love of Christ, and to know this love that surpasses knowledge" (Ephesians 3:14-9). This prayer is significant because Paul understands the power of God in each individual believer. The inner man is something that will live forever and this should be very important even in the aspects of daily life. This kind of inner man can only be strengthened through the Holy Spirit and Paul know this so he prays that believers know love that surpasses understanding. He knows that this love will allow believers to endure life's difficult times just as it helps him. Paul also prays that believers experience the…
Bible Online. Site Accessed August 30, 2008. http://www.biblegateway.com/
Turning the Tide: Chapter Reviews and Summaries
"the Rising Tide"
In Chapter 1 of Turning the Tide, author Charles Stanley writes about what he considers the main problems of America, namely a lack of civic engagement and religious family values. The first subtitle of the chapter is "The Story of Our Storm." Stanley makes an explicit analogy between the swelling of the ocean from an unexpected storm and the various crises that are occurring in America. Unlike the natural ebbs and flows of the ocean, Stanley states that the difficulties America is currently facing are man-made.
Stanley identifies a wide variety of troubles currently afflicting America, only some of which are explicitly religious in nature. These include the rising bankruptcy and mortgage default rate; the escalating divorce rate; challenges to traditional values; even the rise of actual storms and extreme weather. Stanley also fingers more explicitly religious problems, such as…
New International Version (NIV). Bible Gateway.
< http://www.biblegateway.com/ versions/New-International-Version-NIV-Bible/>
[28 Jan 2013]
Stanley, Charles E. Turning the Tide. Kindle Edition. Howard Books, 2011.
Then, when the therapist is praying for the patient, they are changing their mental state of mind as well. This is significant, because it shows that when prayer is used during the process of obtaining mental health treatment, the patient would be more open to new ideas. At the same time, the therapist is more concerned about their patient's well being. Over the course of time, this improves the quality of treatment that is being provided; by helping the patient to be in the most resourceful state of mind and it is allowing the therapist to have more compassion. These two elements are necessary ingredients, in allowing the patient be able to help themselves, while having the trained mental health professional serving as a counselor / friend.
For a trained mental health professional, this article will provide a good foundation as to how prayer can be used, as a…
Weld, C. (2007). Christian Clients Preferences Regarding Prayers as a Counseling Intervention. Journal of Psychology and Theology, 35 (4), 328 -- 341.
Therefore the commerce under analysis is not a mere relation of exchange, but is a relation in which two forces become actively involved. Since it is man who initiates the process then it results that man is free to act as he wishes and not determined in his actions. The fact that this process is initiated in times of hardship demonstrate the fact that will and freedom are not enough in order to find the path towards the truth, freedom and serenity, and that god is needed in order to achieve this goal. If the exchange relationship is the mechanism through which god ad man communicate and unite, then prayer is the instrument which the process needs for its fulfilment.
Prayer is considered to be the active manifestation of religion, its incarnation. That is why the author argues that it is "real religion" as opposed to moral senses (the ethic…
Hegel, G.W.F. Lectures on the Philosophy of Religion, trans., E.B. Speirs and J. Burdon Sanderson. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, Ltd., 1895
Renard, J. The Handy Religion Answer Book . Detroit: Visible Ink Press, 2002
Sabatier, a. Outlines of a Philosophy of Religion. New York: George H. Doran Company, 1897
Fortunately for me, these things do not occur regularly enough for me to consider them a habit.
A do, however, habitually pray when I am confronted with difficulties in my life. These prayers differ from the ones for trivial problems like the ones listed above; those prayers are more recriminations about my own bad-behavior. The prayers when I face real difficulties in my life are real prayers. I do have a deep and abiding faith in God, and I believe that He desires to help people with their problems. When confronted with something that I cannot resolve on my own, such as a family member's illness, I call upon Him for assistance. I also have enough faith to believe that God does answer prayers, even if those answers are not always favorable. I do not believe that God is like a friend to whom I should stop speaking, when He…
I am in complete agreement with Stephen Thomas Erlewine's review of Madonna's album Like a Prayer. First, Erlewine states that the album is "her most explicit attempt at a major artistic statement." One of the reasons why Like a Prayer is a major artistic statement is that Madonna seems more mature in this album than she did in previous ones. For example, the subject matter of her songs, including the title track, is more deeply personal than it was on albums such as Like a Virgin. Moreover, on Like a Prayer, the "material girl" becomes a woman. In songs like "Promise to Try," she creatively expresses herself to members of her family and is no longer just singing about herself. Like a Prayer is "her most explicit attempt at a major artistic statement" because Madonna is stretching her own boundaries and refining her image. A second reason why…
As the Archbishop of Canterbury during the tumultuous reign of Henry VIII, Thomas Cranmer was in an extraordinary position to effect changes in England's political and religious direction. Through his writings, Cranmer laid the foundations for establishing the Church of England and moved England into the path of the growing European Reformation Movement.
By facilitating the numerous divorces of Henry VIII, he helped to weaken the authority of the Pope in England and contributed to the greater hold of the King.
This paper examines the effects of Cranmer's developing theology on the history of Tudor England. The first part of the paper looks at the role Cranmer played in justifying the theological bases of Henry VIII's numerous divorces. The next part then examines Cranmer's religious convictions, as enshrined in the Ten Articles and later, in the two versions of the Book of Common Prayer.
In the last section,…
Cranmer, Thomas. "The Most Healthful Medicine." ca. 1540. reproduced in Christian History, 1995. 14(4): 34-37.
D'Aubigne, Merle. Reformation in England. 2 vols. London: Banner of Truth, 1991.
McCulloch, Diarmaid. "Cranmer's Ambitious Legacy." History Today, July 1996. 49(6): 23-32.
McCulloch, Diarmaid. Thomas Cranmer: A Life. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1996.
book of Matthew is theology. The book, written by an unknown evangelist, is dedicated to the truth of Jesus Christ as the son of the living God. It is without a doubt that the author believed the truth of the conception of Jesus Christ. Therefore, Matthew 1:16, 18-25 is clear about this conception. However, there are numerous views negating this belief. Brown, claims that it is unrealistic to believe in the virgin birth because it is not mentioned anywhere in the New Testament other than in Matthew and Luke. This, according to him, is an indication that it was a late invention or one proposed by the early church, because such a remarkable and relevant issue could have been mentioned by other New Testament writters. In addition, Campenhausen performed a survey of the theology of the virgin birth of Jesus Christ in the early church. He observes that the virgin…
ole of Spirituality in the Treatment of Depression
Over the last thirty years, one of the most interesting paradoxes in the study and treatment of depression has been that increased knowledge about the biomedical and genetic causes of the disease has been coupled with a renewed interest in the effect of religion and spirituality on human mental health and well-being. No matter how religion and spirituality are defined -- and many scholars and laypersons see no great distinctions between the two -- there are now hundreds of studies that demonstrate the beneficial effects of religion on both mental and physical health. Indeed, the more firmly held and intrinsic a person's religious convictions are, the more salutary the effect. eligious people are more optimistic, hopeful and trusting, and have more purpose and meaning in life than those with weak or no religious views. All of these qualities are of course lacking…
Ai, A..L. et al. (2005). "Prayer Coping, Positive Attitudes, and Cardiac Surgery" in Lee, A.V. Coping with Disease. Nova Science Publishers, Inc., pp. 23-64.
Auer, B. And J.A. Ang (2007). Torment of the Soul: Suicidal Depression and Spirituality. AuthorHouse.
Beck, A.T. And B.A. Alford (2009). Depression: Causes and Treatment. University of Pennsylvania Press.
Biebel, D.B. And H.G. Koenig (2010). New Light on Depression: Help, Hope and Answers for the Depressed and Those Who Love Them. Zondervan Publishing House.
The Baby Boomer Revival assumed shapes and forms different than the former ones with programs Charismatic movement, the East Timor Indonesian Revivals, the 'Jesus People', the Asbury College Revival; and the Saskatoon Revival representing the spirits of the times in order to woo people to the mission movement and get them interested in the Church. At oen time, the church would have prohibited these charismatic programs and many, indeed, were controversial when they first appeared and still are today. Nonetheless, their impression and effects have been enduring and in a time when traditional programs were falling flat with the church losing members per day, innovative programs were the only ones that succeeded.
What I have learned
Sometimes, dramatic changes -- a shift in perspective and a change of habits -- are necessary for end-goals and objective to be reached.
The Pre-Reformation Revival, 1300-1500
Corruption of the church lowered…
Can one be funny, and still be sincere? Hendra, although convinced of the wrongness now of adultery, took refuge instead in insincerity. His crime was no longer of passion, although he committed many extramarital sexual transgressions. His main crime was more of a lack of passion or love for God's world, and the good and believable things of God's world. As noted by Abraham Herschel in the book Moral Grandeur and Spiritual Audacity on the subject of prayer, the "beginning of prayer is praise," while in Hendra's humor, the beginning of his wit was subversion and a lack of praise and prayerful attitude towards all things of the world, not simply the bad things. hen Abraham Herschel notes, "the power of worship is song. To worship is to join the cosmos in praising God," Hendra only raised his voice in song to parody, not to express anything positive, only to…
Hendra, Tony. Father Joe. New York: Random House, 2004.
Hershel, Abraham & Susanna. Moral Grandeur and Spiritual Audacity.
They study the book of Jafaar al-Saadaq. They also believe Ali is the purpose of life and the divine knowledge of the prophet Mohammed, which actually rises him above the Prophet in their eyes. The religion is also very secretive, and they do not publish their texts or share them with other sects.
The Alawites recognize the Five Pillars of Islam, but do not believe that anyone can practice them because no soul is pure enough to practice them. They also do not believe in a back door entrance to heaven.
The evolution of political Islam actually began during the age of Imperialism, when there was widespread corruption and oppression in the Muslim world. The politicization of Islam was a result of Muslim fundamentalists and Islamic revolutionary movements rising up in protest over this treatment, along with protests against corrupt Muslim regimes in the region. These revolutionaries hoped to create…
Poets of the eighteenth, nineteenth, and early twentieth century concerned themselves with childhood and its various experiences, but the particular historical and aesthetic contexts within which different poets wrote affected their perspective on the matter greatly. As literature moved from Romanticism to naturalism, the tone poets took when considering children and their place in society changed, because where children previously existed as a kind of emotional or romantic accessory, they soon became subjects in their own right, with their own experiences and perspectives. By examining illiam ordsworth's "Michael," illiam Blake's "The Chimney Sweeper," and .B. Yeats' "A Prayer for my Daughter," one is able to see how the gradual transition from Romanticism to naturalism brought with it a less exploitative consideration of children, one that better reflected their place in the rapidly changing world.
The first poem to examine is illiam ordsworth's "Michael," because it fall squarely in the…
Blake, William. Songs of Innocence and Experience. London: Basil Montagu Pickering, 1866.
Wordsworth, W. Lyrical Ballads. 4th. 2. London: Longman, Hurst, Rees, & Orme, 1805.
Yeats, William. The Collected Poems of W.b. Yeats. London: Wordsworth Editions, 2000.
To combat subjectivity, he called for interpretation to be subject to church authority, which was the voice of reason. Reardon (1981) echoes this interpretation: "Hooker sets out to refute the puritan contention that in religion holy scripture affords the sole and absolute authority and rule" (p. 280). Hooker shows that the narrow principle of sola scriptura "disregards the larger context of the divine law in creation within which even the scriptural revelation must be placed if we are to understand its proper scope and purpose" (Reardon, 1981, p. 280). Not far from the Reformers, they upheld the idea that the directly inspired written word contains supernatural revelation. There is perhaps less emphasis on preaching and proclamation in the Anglicans than in the Reformers.
hat is the status of the creeds and traditions? In Anglicanism, the Nicene, the Athanasius, and the Apostle's creeds are stressed as true because they are taken…
Aland, K. (Ed.). (2004). Martin Luther's 95 theses. Saint Louis: Concordia Publishing House.
Avis, P. (2007). The identity of Anglicanism: essentials of Anglican ecclesiology. London and New York: T & T. Clark.
Bayer, Oswald. (2008). Martin Luther's theology: a contemporary interpretation (Trans T.H. Trapp). Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans.
Beckwith, R.T. (1988). "Anglicanism." In New dictionary of theology (S. B. Ferguson & D.F. Wright, Eds.), pp. 21-23. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press.
There are exceptions, where legal ramifications are employed and individuals are held to account for their inaction. For most people, including myself the idea that faith is the only solution to medical concerns, and especially emergent ones is unfathomable. Medical care is congruent with faith, as even for the most ardent believer in God if God had not meant for children to be cured of preventable a treatable disease he would not have developed treatments to do so. For the broader population this is a reasonable tenet and most people report taking themselves and their children to a doctor or hospital when they feel it is necessary. It is also clear that modern people are even more involved in their own wellness and may even be able to treat some injuries and illnesses at home, without medical intervention. Furthermore most know when they need to seek care for themselves and…
Barnes L.L. & Sered, S.S. (2005). Religion and Healing in America. New York: Oxford University Press
Hamer, D. (2004).The God Gene: How Faith is Hardwired Into our Genes.
Koenig, H.G. (2005). Medicine, Religion, and Health: Where Science and Spirituality Meet. West Conshohocken, PA: Templeton Foundation Press.
Nord, W.A. (1999). Science, Religion and Education. Phi Delta Kappan, 81(1), 28.
Health Care & Faith Diversity
It is quite obvious how different religions hold different philosophical views on various aspects and even when it comes to healing. Each religion highly upholds their spiritual values hence the need for health practitioners to be cautious while handling varied clientele whether they hold the same religious sentiments or not. In this research we will major on the views held by the Sikh, Buddhist and Judaist religions in comparison to the Christian belief on healing.
The Sikh hold the belief that when one is sick it is the will of God and that He is merciful to heal; however one has to consider medical treatment in order to get well. During illness: Sikh patients engage in prayers to seek God for help, seek to obtain peace by remembering Gods name, recite sacred hymns (Gurbani) which are words from the holy scriptures (Guru Granth…
Dharma Haven, (2005).Tools for Healing Relaxing and Awakening. Retrieved March 30,
2012 from http://www.dharma-haven.org/tibetan/healing.htm
Manitoba, (2006). Core Competencies for Spiritual health care Practitioners. Retrieved March 30, 2012 from http://ahpcc.org.uk/pdf/compaudittool.pdf
Marinell & James (2009). Jewish Views of Illness and Healing. Retrieved March 30, 2012
Benedictine Values as Compared to Ethics Principles
Many different sets of ethics are used throughout the world and within different organizations, but there are a few foundational principles upon which most of those are based. Early in the Christian era St. Benedict (480-547 AD) wrote a collection of values that people should live by. There were a great number of these, but the University of Mary selected six of these that apply most specifically to the students who matriculate there -- community, hospitality, moderation, prayer, respect for persons, and service (University of St. Mary, 2011). Besides these moral edicts from the church are some basic principles by which most systems are built today. They include the four foundational principles of ethics and the two divisions of virtue ethics. The purpose of this paper is to outline all of these concepts, then to compare and contrast the Benedictine values to the…
British Psychological Society (BPS). (2009). Code of ethics. Retrieved from http://www.bps.org.uk/sites/default/files/documents/code_of_ethics_and_conduct .pdf
Stanford University. (2007). Virtue ethics. Retrieved from http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/ethics-virtue/
University of St. Mary. (2011). Our mission: Our Benedictine values. Retrieved from http://www.umary.edu/about/mission/benedictinevalues.php
William Fay's 1999 spiritual text entitled Share Jesus Without Fear, is an emotional and poignant tale that encourages the followers of Jesus Christ into a harmonious practice of evangelical Christianity. Fay holds a unique position in the evangelical community and presents a self idealized person who can truly understand what it is to be a follower of Christ. This is best summarized when he wrote " but be aware: you are not responsible for causing a person's heart to turn toward God."[footnoteef:2] This idea sets the tone for this manual of sorts that helps the reader assume a position of nonjudgmental awareness and truly accepting faith as the true motivator towards God's will. [2: Fay (1999). Share Jesus Without Fear, p.3.]
The book is an instructional work that is aimed at Christians who are eager to learn about one of the more interesting facets of the Christian religion;…
Fay, W. (1999). Share Jesus Without Fear. Broadman and Holman, Nashville, TN.
Rather than preaching or even attempting to define what the righteous path is, simply living the righteous path is better and more righteous. Silence, in other words, is a major source of righteousness itself, and the calmness of silence is its own reward.
Perhaps the most direct, simple and yet profound way in which the various elements of Dhammapada's statement can be approached is through Haught's concept of action. Especially prevalent in Western religions, according to Haught, this is the concept that direct action must be used in accordance with and to bring about religious principles and beliefs. Good action, according to Dhammapada's statement, leads to good living, with joy the natural result of righteousness. This has not always been seen as a cycle that reaches completion in this world in the Judeo-Christian religions or in many Eastern traditions, but through re-birth, ascension to heaven in the afterlife, or even…
One of the main differences between the two texts is that language has changed to reflect shifts in gender norms. Notably, the newer version omits the word "obey" for the woman's marriage vows. Likewise the phrase "Who geveth this woman to be maried unto this man?" is also removed in the current version.
In spite of key differences related to tone and gender, many features have changed little in the Book of Common Prayer marriage ceremony. The exchange of rings is a similar feature. Also, the purpose of marriage is outlined to mention procreation in both texts. Heterosexual language prevails.
Thus, the general structure of the two documents are remarkably similar and shows that the Anglican Church has attempted to remain true to the original document. For example, a pithy introduction is soon followed by the exchange of vows and the "declaration of consent." The main differences between the two…
Prayer is the contemplation of the facts of life from the highest point-of-view. It is the soliloquy of a beholding and jubilant soul." (36)
Travel is too often used as an escape and reflects deep spiritual discontent. "The soul is no traveller; the wise man stays at home, and when his necessities, his duties, on any occasion call him from his house, or into foreign lands, he is at home still." (39)
Acting independently requires a great degree of courage, as individualism is not rewarded in a society that champions conformity. "It is easy in the world to live after the world's opinion; it is easy in solitude to live after our own; but the great man is he who in the midst of the crowd keeps with perfect sweetness the independence of solitude." (9)
Society never changes, only individuals have the power to…
evisionist historian often seek to find non-Christian association among the lives of the founding fathers, such as the Freemasons, and Humanism, yet it is clear that these organizations were not dominant to religion and that a strong Protestant ethic still reigned supreme, especially in the language of the foundational documents of the nation.
Fundamentalism has in fact created a more recent expression in modern America as churches attempt to "go back to the word" and support the idea that the scripture of the church is divine and unfailing. Though interpretations are varied in this group in general they espouse and return to "family values" via some "golden era" ideals regarding the past.
At its base, fundamentalism was compatible with the religiosity of the people, for both assumed the reality of supernatural power and the prevalence of supernatural forces at work in the world. By stressing such theological notions as…
Domke, D., & Coe, K. (2007). The God Strategy: The Rise of Religious Politics in America. Journal of Ecumenical Studies, 42(1), 53.
Harries, R. (2003). After the Evil: Christianity and Judaism in the Shadow of the Holocaust. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Lippy, C.H. (1994). Being Religious, American Style: A History of Popular Religiosity in the United States. Westport, CT: Praeger.
McDermott, R.A. (1993). The Spiritual Mission of America. Re-vision, 16(1), 15-25.
Christian Spiritual Revival
From the time of creation rivals have been the greatest force in history. hrough revival human beings are brought out of darkness to live in the light. Revival in the Christian life is essentially a renewal of heart; a time of turning away from sin, which brings death, and a turning toward Jesus, who brings life. he word revival means to "live again," derived from two Latin roots re- (again), and vivere (to live). Just as an EM zaps the heart of his patient back to life with a surge of electricity, so to the Holy Spirit works in the life of individuals, and, at times, in whole Christian Communities to bring the back lost vitality; reawakening faith in God, and restores one's commitment to being His disciple. his paper will briefly explore four condition of an authentic spiritual revival found in II Chronicles 7:14, and comment…
The first two conditions for revival are humility and prayer. The word "humility" is derived from the Latin word humus, which means earth or ground. To be humble, then, suggest lowering oneself, toward the ground. It is necessary for revival because in making oneself, and one's opinions, lower or less important, one recognizes the One who is higher -- namely, Almighty God. After humility, prayer naturally follows. A great example of humility and prayer today comes from John Hamilton, a Texas Ranger outfielder, who recently admitted that his addiction to drugs and alcohol came about because he "took God out of first place."[footnoteRef:2] Now in recovery, Mr. Hamilton shares his story and tells people, "when you fail, God wants you to respond to it by coming to Him and asking for help."[footnoteRef:3] [2: Audrey Barrick, "Josh Hamilton Tells Megachurch 'God First,'" The Christian Post (November 8, 2008), http://www.christianpost.com/article/20101108/josh-hamilton-tells-megachurch-god-first (accessed November 2010).] [3: Ibid.]
The next two conditions for revival are seeking God and repentance. In order to live again, God says that one must seek his face and turn from their wicked ways. These two conditions show one motion, a turn, which has two effects. It calls the soul to turn away from evil and toward good. The revival of career criminal, Mark Rowan, sheds light on the awesome power of such a turn. According to his autobiography,[footnoteRef:4] Rowan led a dark life of crime and lawlessness until one day he came to Christ. He now leads hundreds of people to Christ through his dynamic testimony of faith. [4: Mark Rowan, Condemned: The Transformation of a Violent Gang Leader, (Monarch Books, 2008)]
As long as there is human frailty and weakness, there will be a need to heal, to be restored, and to live again. I experience this need for revival in my own life. I find myself being prideful, when I should be humble. At times, I pray only when I need things instead of out of love for the One who made me. I seek my own will instead of searching for God's face. And I do not always turn away from my wickedness. However, there are moments when the Holy Spirit's voice in my heart is discernable and I am able to be humble, prayerful, and close to God. I pray that these moments increase so that I can live again and again in the light of God's grace.