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These number from Halifax and Brunswick counties are alarming not only because of the high correlation between teen pregnancy and dropping out of school, but also because the interrelationship between educational proficiency and teenage pregnancy. For example, only "forty-one percent of teenagers who begin families before age 18 ever complete high school." (the National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy, 2006). Furthermore, "parenthood is a leading cause of high school drop out among teen girls." (the National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy, 2006). Finally, "only about 2% of teen mothers have a college degree by age 30." (the National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy, 2006). What seems clear is that teenage mothers are unlikely to finish their secondary educations and dramatically less likely to pursue post-secondary education than their non-parenting counterparts. Clearly, these teenage mothers are likely to remain financially disadvantaged, because there is a clearly established relationship between education and…… [Read More]
Pregnancy outcome and the time required for next conception, Jain (1969) looks at a large group of presumably fertile women and seeks to determine the average age of conception after a previous pregnancy or the length of time between pregnancies in the absence of birth control. According to the study the average length of time between pregnancies remains high in those under the age of 20, then levels out to spike again in individual women according to advancing age. Additionally the outcome of the pregnancy was also considered, where those who had live births ending the pregnancy or fetal death via natural or artificial means also experienced shortened pregnancy intervals, though higher among ages less than 20 and which gradually increases with maternal age.
The paper hypothesis surrounds an empirical exploration to add to the knowledge base regarding the length of pregnancy interval by age of women and to…… [Read More]
Pregnancy and Diabetes: Risk Factors and Avoiding Complications
Death in-Utero and Death Following irth
Health of the Diabetic Mother
Medical and Advisory Team
Pregnancy requires more insulin in the body than normal because of the increased production of hormones that can lead to insulin resistance.
For a woman suffering from type 1 diabetes this is especially problematic because she already has difficulty producing or responding to insulin. Not only is the mother's health at risk, but the baby's health may suffer as well. As insufficient insulin causes blood sugar to rise in the mother, the sugar travels across the placenta to the baby. When the baby's blood sugar is high, the baby makes extra insulin to keep its own blood sugar normal. Problems of the developing baby may include larger or smaller size, increased risk for malformations or birth defects, or…… [Read More]
Pregnancy and Prisons
Carolyn Lindsey was four months pregnant when she was incarcerated in a Texas prison for violating the terms of her probation on a drug charge. hen she gave birth, Carolyn had a minute to coo at her daughter's tiny face before a prison guard whisked little Desiree Nicole away (Tomaso, "Pregnant Inmates").
Carolyn is part of a disturbing national trend - a rising number of pregnant inmates giving birth in prisons. In 1999, a prison survey conducted for the American Correctional Association found that more than 2,800 babies were born to female inmates in from 1997-1999 (illing, "Babies Behind Bars").
In federal prison alone, statistics from the Bureau of Justice show that in 1998, the latest year when data is available, there were over 103 pregnant female inmates (ACLU, "Statistics Relating to omen..."). An estimated 13,000 women, typically young and unwed, are pregnant upon incarceration (Tomaso).
Most…… [Read More]
In addition, she must engage regular thyroid function checkups to ensure that the standard regimen of treatment for this condition remains effective. In this case, the hormone replacement therapy that is the traditional method of treatment is one which absolutely must be continued to the benefit and survival of the unborn child. As the article by Shomon (2006) indicates, "you must continue to take your thyroid hormone replacement (i.e., Synthroid, Levoxyl, Levothroid, Armour, Thyrolar) and it's extremely important that you do, now and throughout the rest of your pregnancy. You are your baby's only source of thyroid hormones at this point - your baby's thyroid gland isn't fully functional until after 12 weeks of pregnancy. If you don't have sufficient thyroid hormones, you are at an increased risk of miscarriage, and your baby is at increased risk of developmental problems." (Shomon, 1)
Jane indicated in her interview with me that…… [Read More]
Pregnancy Cessation Study
The purpose of this qualitative study was to identify current and potential barriers to smoking cessation in pregnant women. Using a naturalistic approach and semi-structured interviews of subjects that meet the study criteria for participation is an appropriate and consistent data collection method to effectively meet the purpose of this study.
Using semi-structured telephone interviews are appropriate for a naturalistic data collection, because the naturalistic approach involves collecting data that occurs in the participant's everyday life rather than a controlled lab approach. Semi-structured interviews are more casual therefore gathering naturally occurring data is more likely, e.g. A person is more likely to divulge personal information if they aren't feeling judged, and a more informal interview lends itself better to this approach. Conducting the interviews via telephone is also more conducive to gathering naturalistic data, because the participants are more likely to be comfortable in their familiar environment,…… [Read More]
A monitoring function should be inherent in health care for each prospective mother to determine the level of her risk for depression during or after pregnancy.
Early detection is closely connected with the first two strategies, in that awareness is the most important factor. If the mother is at high risk of depression, she should be monitored very closely for possible symptoms of depression, even if these symptoms can also be attributed to the normal course of pregnancy and childbirth. This strategy goes hand-in-hand with disability limitation. The mother-to-be should be treated as soon as possible after detection in order to prevent the depression from becoming very serious. Rehabilitation for pregnancy related depression include medication in serious cases, or talk therapy in less pronounced cases.
Dept. Of Health and Human ervices (1999). Achievements in Public Health, 1900-1999: Healthier Mothers and Babies. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, Centers for Disease…… [Read More]
The Effects of Folic Acid Deficiency during Pregnancy.
The importance of folic acid consumption beforehand as well as throughout pregnancy cannot be understated. In as much as there are numerous causes of Neural tube Defects (NTDs), the predominant cause is failure to take substantial amounts of folic acid. Can public campaign of strengthening folic acid in the diet minimize the occurrence of NTDs found in the poor people in relation to the typical number of NTDs found in the wealthy class of people? Dessie et al., (2017) states that in as much as cases of NTDs in emerging nations are four times higher compared to those found in industrialized nations, what matters the most is how to mitigate this issue through administering proper diet throughout pregnancy. In as much as the World Health Organization is determined to mitigate the rate of NTDs globally, regions where people with below…… [Read More]
Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) is a project involving examination of health departments and CDC (Center for Disease Control) of a given State. PRAMS was unveiled in 1987. This project gathers data relating to the experience and attitudes prior to, in the cause of and period immediately following a pregnancy. Data collected is always specific to a given State. The surveillance expedition takes care of up to 83% of Infant births in U.S.A (CDC, 2017).
When PRAMS was unveiled there was a serious national and statewide curiosity around infant mortality, reduction, and disparities. Prenatal care with State support had my interest as well. At the time there was no information in relation to States that would enlighten State or local program evaluation and development. PRAMS structure makes it possible for deep inquiry into topics of reproductive health compared to the extensive but limited information contained in birth certificates (CDC,…… [Read More]
This note discusses on certain complications pregnant women encounter during their pregnancy, labor and birth. Appropriate patient education is necessary in prepregnancy, ante partum, labor and delivery settings to address complications and risk factors that could harm the mother and infant during labor and birth. Several of these risk factors can be eliminated by proper patient education. Nurses are not simply health care providers and caregivers; they also functions as patient educators with a high obligation to provide patients and their family members with all vital information ranging from simple to complex health matters, preventive measures, nutrition, exercise and medications. Competent in patient education, nursing techniques, and client teaching, professional nurses are effective communicators and can help make a marked change in the clinical status of a patient. Below are a list of complications commonly seen in pregnancy, labor and birth. This note also discusses the nurse’s role in patient…… [Read More]
The author of this brief report has been asked to answer several questions relating to the development of a fetus after conception and what can happen along the way in terms of issues or external influences. Questions that will be answered to include the major periods and developments in pregnancy, what percentage of pregnancies end in life births, the organism most at risk for firth defects, the role of folic acid when it comes to birth defects, what teratogens are, the difference for a low birth weight baby and a small-for-gestational age baby, how poverty can have an effect on the entire situation and the process that is typified by a normal uncomplicated birth in terms of tests and assessments. While all pregnancies are a work in progress sand are subject to setbacks, there is a normal ebb and flow to a pregnancy and this is usually seen…… [Read More]
Fragile X Syndrome / Pregnancy Options for Carrier of Fragile X Syndrome
Fragile X syndrome (FXS) denotes a genetic disorder, which leads to development of numerous growth-related issues, such as cognitive impairment and learning disabilities. Typically, the syndrome affects males more intensely compared to females (Genetic Home eference, 2015).
Decision and its reason
If I were a FXS carrier, I would choose to use an egg donor for having a baby. This alternative provides the benefit of reducing FXS risks as the recipient or carrier need not necessarily possess her own eggs in a sufficient quantity. As such, there is a marked aversion to both, risks of the disorder and that of ovarian dysfunction associated with FXS. The risk in making use of an egg donor to get pregnant are - possible uncertainty regarding the family history of the donor (i.e., medical conditions apart from the genetic disorders tested for…… [Read More]
There are a number of different renal impairments that can impact the fetus. Most renal impairments are related to urine production rather than elimination, because metabolites are cleared in the placenta (Vanderkeyden, Kumar & Fisk, 2003, p. 279). However, outflow problems like hydronephrosis are also possible. In some cases, congenital problems cause one kidney only to be affected. Ultrasound testing usually detects renal impairments like renal insufficiency. However effective early detection may be, there are important preventative measures that should be taken in pregnancy to reduce the chance of the fetus developing renal disease. Many of the preventative measures involve the avoidance of certain medications: both over-the-counter and prescription pharmaceuticals.
For example, Munk, von Brandis & Larsen (2010) found that Candesartan, a member of the angiotensin-receptor blockers (ABs) family, created some fetal abnormalities and also long-term side effects including renal dysfunction and arterial hypertension in adulthood (Munk, von…… [Read More]
The chapters outlined the significance of the study, the intended objectives, the hypotheses statements, justification of the study, the research design, and the findings and conclusions. The examination carried out within the sections of this paper will be important for bridging the gap of knowledge on the use of UB-PAP in the diagnosis of obesity among obese pregnant mothers. It will be particularly helpful in informing the patients and their practitioners in accessing obesity situations (Thomson, 2012).
Chapter 3: Literature review
Originative and current literature on the use of UB-PAP in the management of the gestational weight features in this section. The focus of this paper is the effectiveness of the UB-PAP, but this examination will look at the relationship of the behavior pattern of the obese pregnant women in relation to the respective gestational weight. Books, journal articles, and reports provide a scholarly approach in relation to the problem…… [Read More]
pregnancy alongside with discussion on an interview taken of a mother who shares her experiences of during and after pregnancy moments.
Pregnancy- an interview
Pregnancy is that stage of reproduction when the sperm has fertilized itself with the female reproductive egg known as fetus or embryo inside the female womb. A pregnancy can also be of multiple gestations, as in case of twins, triplets and quadruplets, except of humans all other mammalian pregnancies mostly conceive more than one off springs but human pregnancy is the most studied of all mammalian pregnancies. The occasion of childbirth usually occurs after 38-40 after conception, while it can take from 7 to 15 days to conceive. This makes approximately 40 weeks from a woman's last menstrual cycle of four weeks. The World Health Organization defines normal term for delivery as between 37 weeks and 42 weeks Typol, (2006).
There are various terminologies for…… [Read More]
As to the statistics on violence against women in terms their ethnicity, the report indicated "no consistent pattern" with regard to race. egarding abuse visited upon a woman in the year preceding her pregnancy, estimates range from 4 to 26% of the females indeed were abused in that time frame, according to the study. Clearly, there is a wide gap in these estimates, indicating the need for additional research.
Meanwhile, is there evidence that a woman's risk of being physically abused increases during her pregnancy? Saltzman's article explains that though "statements are commonly made that the incidence of abuse escalates" during the time a woman is carrying a baby, "little is actually known" regarding those generalized assumptions. Much of the information that has been brought forward with reference to that issue is "anecdotal evidence" or "small studies with self-selected participants"; these studies have not, the writer asserts, been on…… [Read More]
Schreiber and Young’s (2015) “Illinois Releases Pregnancy Accommodation Proposed Rules” and Smith and Tischler’s (2014) “Accommodations under the Pregnancy Discrimination Act” both examine workplace rules regarding pregnancy for workers. Smith and Tischler look at some of the problems associated with the Pregnancy Discrimination Act (PDA) and the challenges that employers runs into when attempting to follow it while also staying compliant with Equal Opportunity laws. Schreiber and Young look at rules proposed by the state of Illinois regarding pregnancy discrimination in the workplace. This paper will compare and contrast the two to find where similarities and differences exist.
Smith and Tischler (2014) point out that the PDA applies to any company the employees 15 or more workers and is an expansion of the Civil Rights Act in that it includes workers who are impacted by pregnancy or childbirth. In short, the PDA affirms that an employer may not…… [Read More]
In this essay, the author discusses various ways to prevent pregnancy. The essay discusses why people might choose to prevent pregnancy, some historical forms of birth control, and the types of contraceptives in use today. When discussing modern pregnancy prevention methods, the essay explores potential side effects as well as their failure rates and also how proper use can help reduce the number of failures. The author also discusses where people can get birth control and the steps that they need to follow in order to access certain types of birth control methods. While the essay may explore legal barriers to accessing birth control, it does not explore the various cultural or religious objections to birth control, other than to note that some religious or cultural traditions are opposed to pregnancy prevention.
Exploring how pregnancy prevention has reduced female mortality and can continue to improve female health. …… [Read More]
Case Study and Care Plan: High-risk Obstetrics for Women in Rural America.
High-risk pregnancies are a risk to the health of both the mother and her fetus. A pregnancy turns to a high-risk if the mother is suffering from existing health conditions, for example, high blood pressure, being HIV-positive, or diabetes. Other factors that promote high-risk pregnancy include obesity and overweight, early or old maternal age, and multiple births (Lowery, 2018). The problem of high-risk pregnancies is exacerbated by the rurality of the region a woman lives. Americans in rural America often have worse health as compared to the general population. The reason for this disparity is because rural populations are geographically isolated, have low socioeconomic status, limited access to income-generating opportunities, and the majority are older. These problems are even more pronounced to high-risk pregnant women living in rural America. This paper, therefore, explores the case of high-risk…… [Read More]
Abortion trends varied widely by state as well. "Teenage abortion rates were highest in New York (41 per 1,000), New Jersey, Nevada, Delaware and Connecticut. By contrast, teenagers in South Dakota (6 per 1,000), Utah, Kentucky, Nebraska and North
Dakota all had abortion rates of eight or fewer per 1,000 women aged 15 -- 19. More than half of teenage pregnancies ended in abortion in New Jersey, New York and Connecticut" (Guttmacher, 2010). It is important to keep in mind that teenage abortion rates may reflect multiple issues. First, they may reflect that teenager's own personal beliefs and desire to raise a baby. However, they may also reflect prevailing societal norms in that geographic area, which can make it difficult, and even practically impossible, for pregnant teenagers to obtain abortions.
Portrayal in popular culture
Perhaps one of the most alarming things about teen pregnancy is that it is receiving more…… [Read More]
An unplanned pregnancy is traumatic for any woman, and especially teenagers who completely unprepared or unwilling to carry a child to term. The United States leads all other developed, wealthy, industrialized nations in prevalence of teen pregnancies: with the UK in a fairly distant second place (Kmietowicz, 2002). About 52 out of every 1000 teenagers aged 15-19 in the United States give birth, compared with less than seven per 1000 teenagers in other countries including Japan, Switzerland, Sweden, the Netherlands, and Korea (Kmietowicz, 2002). Teen pregnancy is a problem because it ruins young lives. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, 2012), "only about 50% of teen mothers receive a high school diploma by 22 years of age, versus approximately 90% of women who had not given birth during adolescence." A high rate of high school drop out among teen mothers is not the only…… [Read More]
Compared to only a few decades ago, American society has become more open and accepting of teenage pregnancy. Pregnant teens are no longer hidden away with relatives. More importantly, many school and community groups have adopted honest and aggressive strategies to address the growing incidences of teenage pregnancy.
This paper evaluates the effectiveness of four different styles of programs in preventing pregnancy in teenage girls. These programs include sex education in schools, one-on-one conversations between patient and health care worker in a clinical setting, service learning programs and finally, youth development programs. Emphasis is given on the effectiveness of these programs in preventing pregnancy in teenage African-American girls.
The first part of this paper is an overview of teen pregnancy statistics, both throughout the United States and with African-American teenagers in particular. The next part of the paper then identifies the factors behind the rising rates of pregnancy…… [Read More]
Moreover, an 'abstinence-only' education program is sometimes perceived by teenagers as providing one-sided and medically inaccurate information. (Studies by Kirby, 1997 and Huberman, quoted in "educing Teenage Pregnancy" 2006) shift in attitudes towards teenage sexuality must occur in the U.S. To facilitate the development of appropriate policies and programs to reduce teenage pregnancy. Presently, sexual activity, rather than the pregnancies that can result from it, is seen as the problem requiring intervention. Teaching young people that premarital sex is a moral failure does not prevent pregnancy -- studies show that those with fearful and negative attitudes about sexuality are less likely to use contraception when they have sex than those who believe they have a right to decide to have sex (eiss, 1990).
It is, therefore, important to have a more comprehensive program of sexual education for teenagers that gives due recognition to the fact that sexual expression is a…… [Read More]
Exercise and Pregnancy
"How much, and how intensively, nurse, should I exercise over the course of my pregnancy?' A seemingly simple question -- and one a gynecological or obstetrical nurse must be prepared to answer, given that many newly pregnant women may feel more comfortable directing such queries to a nursing staff health care provider, rather than a physician. This may be particularly the case if the attending physician is male, and the woman has concerns germane to the 'female' experience of pregnancy and exercise, such as weight control or temporary pregnancy-specific problems related to exercise such as bladder or back pain or incontinence. ut as nursing strives to teach and treat the whole individual undergoing a pregnancy, all nurses must be prepared to answer such crucial questions as to how much, when, and how a pregnant woman should exercise.
Article 1: 1998 Overview from the American Family Physician
As…… [Read More]
According to Tamara Kreinin, president of the Sexuality Information and Education Council of the U.S., "Manipulating facts about condoms is using a scare tactic to try and get kids not to be sexually active" (Morse, 2002).
One of the consequences of a lack of full and complete information to youth actually causes self-imposed ignorance of their own safety. If adolescents do not get the proper education on protecting themselves from STDs, it is unlikely they will get much beyond playground rumor. In several reviews conducted by the U.S. Surgeon General and by the Committee of HIV Prevention, abstinence only programs have little to no effect on the sexual behavior of adolescents ("Abstinence"). Further, denying young people full and accurate information about sex, contraception, and prevention of sexually transmitted diseases puts them at needless health risks. The reality is that teens will talk about sex, will experiment, and will likely have…… [Read More]
The two researchers, Nichols and Good, continue, "Teen pregnancies are an acute national problem because when young girls have children, the risk of poor developmental outcomes, such as poverty or lost career and educational opportunities, increases substantially for both mother and child" (Nichols, and Good 101). Thus, the cycle of poverty could continue through generations, all because of teen pregnancy. Many minority women do not have the resources to get birth control, which is another cause of teen pregnancy in minorities and poverty-stricken areas. This is one area that society could intervene, and create more awareness for teens in poverty-stricken areas, and create more educational opportunities for new, young mothers, so they can continue their education and break the cycle of poverty. Another social problem of teen sex is that studies show it can lead to decreased interest in school and other activities. Another author notes, "Early teen sex is…… [Read More]
Additional aid from social service agencies to facilitate a better diet and breast-feeding would be optimal in such instances. Yet for all women, simply having individuals around them who stress that the lifestyle changes are important can have a critical social facilitation effect. Prenatal care also can play a role in creating such an informed support network for the woman.
Above all, the woman must be motivated to change and aware of what changes are needed. Education, age, and other factors may act as enablers for the woman to appreciate the gravity of her situation, and to appreciate the long-term affects her health decisions can have upon her fetus and subsequent postnatal development. However, although "traditionally it has been felt that women who are better educated tended to make healthier lifestyle changes" according to one survey, physicians were the most influential in their decision-making processes regarding their pregnancy, and all…… [Read More]
Practicing nurses must be careful and ensure that they are following both laws and patient wishes as much as possible when it comes to determining emancipated status and altering treatment or conduct as such. If a minor is confirmed as emancipated, however, they are considered a full adult when it comes to capacity to make medical decisions, receive full information, etc., and this legal status can lead to other ethical and personal issues (Broaddus & Chandrasekhar, 2011). Not only are emancipated minors less likely to have external educational support, as mentioned above, but they are also less likely to have the emotional and financial support of other pregnant adolescents and most pregnant women generally (Valvano, 2009). Nurses should take these factors into consideration when providing care to pregnant emancipated minors, extending what personal support is appropriate and determining needs for external care as well as potential avenues for providing such…… [Read More]
Maternal Mental Health in Pregnancy and Child Behavior. This is designed to provide better insights about how parental postpartum depression (PPD) is impacting the mother and the child. The findings are determined based upon looking at different cultures and the frequency of them. It is at this point, when there is a focus on previous research and any kind of gaps in existing theories. (Lukose, 2011)
In the future, these conclusions can improve everyone's understanding of how this is impacting both the patent and child during the pregnancy process. Then, after they are born is when these factors are taken into consideration to see how this is influencing their development. Over the course of time, this will enable healthcare professionals to understand the impact PPD on the parents and their children. (Lukose, 2011)
Provide a summation of the research conducted and the research findings
The research looked at the effects…… [Read More]
There are many positive effects of exercise during pregnancy. It can decrease the time it takes to get back into shape after giving birth. It may also decrease the amount of time spent in the hospital. In addition, it can increase Apgar scores and birth weight, as well as decrease discomfort during pregnancy. Women who exercise during pregnancy also find that they have less difficulty and length of labor. Research shows that exercise has many benefits for pregnant women.
However, as both exercise and pregnancy exert stresses on the body, the cumulative effects must be taken into consideration when analyzing the relationship between exercise and pregnancy. In general, research about this topic is sparse, and animal studies have presented conflicting findings. Chronic disorders such as diabetes, hypertension, and heart disease are the most obvious reasons to discourage persons at risk from intense rehabilitative exercising while pregnant. In addition, small…… [Read More]
Teen Pregnancy: The ole of Parental Support
A significant proportion of babies in the U.S. are born to women aged 15 to 19 years. In 2014 alone, 249,078 babies were delivered by teenage women, representing a birth rate of 24 in every 1,000 females in this age category (Centres for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 2016). This represents a historic low in the prevalence of teen pregnancy in the U.S. compared to two decades ago, with delayed and/or reduced sexual activity as well as increased use of birth control among teens believed to be the major contributors of the decline (CDC, 2016). Even so, teen pregnancy in the U.S. remains the highest in the developed world (Department of Health and Human Services [HHS], 2016).
Whereas majority of teen births are unintended and occur outside marriage, it is important to note that many of these are intended (Sekharan et al., 2015).…… [Read More]
Teenage pregnancy issues should be undertaken by putting into practice programs that will help prevent teenagers from becoming pregnant. Health care providers need to devise intervention programs that allow family, school and society in general to provide the necessary information to teenagers through sexual education. The family portion should involve parental education and information on sexual health issues. Schools need to be more focused on offering courses about gender issues and more training for teachers regarding sexual education. Schools and families need to work together in order to prevent teenage pregnancies. The aim of these programs should be to reduce the number of teenage pregnancies among girls by increasing their knowledge of sexual health issues. This can be done by offering teenagers information in a convenient, friendly, and familiar environment so that they are well informed of the choices that they have (Sarantaki and Koutelekos, 2007).
East, Patricia…… [Read More]
The authors state, "underlying mechanism through which exposure to childhood abuse is associated with increased risk of panic cannot be determined based on these data alone" (p. 888). They offer several possible explanations. Exposure to abuse as a child may result in an extreme and realistic fear of threat to survival. This may be how panic disorder starts. Later, it may persist, or recur spontaneously, even without abusive conditions. In the face of a real life threat, panic is not pathological, but in childhood panic may make the child more vulnerable to panic later. Exposure to abuse may lead to biochemical changes that increase the risk of a disorder. Because the study was based on interviews with 18 to 21-year-olds, who were asked to recall past experiences, the findings could be contaminated by recall bias in which young people with mental instability might be more likely to report abuse in…… [Read More]
Health Needs for Teenage Pregnancies
hat are the special needs of teenagers who are pregnant? Certainly the fact that an expectant mother in her teens is quite different than a married woman in her mid-twenties in terms of the psychology -- and the physical needs -- of her condition, and so there are things a pregnant teenager needs that are likely different from a mature woman. This paper delves into those special needs and basic situations that teenagers face when pregnant.
The Healthcare Needs of Pregnant Teenagers
First of all, according to Tricia Michels, writing in Public Health Reports, pregnant teens are already facing "stigmatization in many aspect of their lives" just by the mere fact that they are pregnant and all their friends are living normal teenage lives (Michels, 2000, p. 557). Hence, tending to their new unborn babies is another challenge that must be approached with intelligence and…… [Read More]
Cautiousness towards environmental contaminants in fish and seafood has led pregnant women to limit or eliminate fish and seafood from their diet. The Food and Drug Administration and the Environmental Protection Agency addressed the problem by advising the women to avoid large ocean fish, such as shark, swordfish, king mackerel and fish because of their higher mercury content. According to the agencies, pregnant women may safely consume up to 12 ounces of shellfish or smaller ocean and farm-raised fish, such as salmon and canned light tuna, per week. DHA-enriched eggs, which provide up to 150 mg DHA per egg, are now available for these mothers' diet. DHA supplements may also be taken but sparingly because of their fish oil content (Steele).
Caution Over Vitamin A Supplements
According to the Institute of Medicine, pregnant women do not need vitamin-mineral supplements unless there is a risk for nutritional deficiency (Nutrition Research Newsletter,…… [Read More]
Ropivacaine in Epidural Pregnancies
hen it comes time for a woman to have her baby, women worry with the different options and what kind of anesthetic she wants to block the pain during the delivery, who go to the hospital once they start going in to labor, will have already decided that they would like to have an epidural. Therefore, at a certain point in her delivery, the anesthesiologist will be notified, and they will come to the birthing unit room that the mother is in to perform the procedure right there while she is either laying on her side or sitting up while the mother is curled tightly over her belly. This position allows the anesthesiologist to have the best view of her spine so he can make sure that he is putting the needle in between the vertebrae and right outside of the membrane outside the spinal nerves…… [Read More]
physiological perspective, the first trimester of pregnancy is when the majority of fetal development occurs, and also when the full development of the placenta occurs. The first twelve weeks or so after conception see the transformation of a fertilized egg cell into a fetus that shares blood flow with the placenta through the umbilical arteries and vein. As a result, these twelve weeks are particularly crucial for the health and development of the fetus at its most vulnerable stage. Among numerous other physiological changes, the mother's nutritional intake needs (which include vitamins and minerals) increase substantially, so nutrition is crucial. The avoidance of alcohol is necessary to avoid birth defects caused by the substance: as Blackburn notes, "drinking alcohol at any stage of pregnancy can affect the brain and other areas of development" (Blackburn 2007, 221).
Zoey's preganancy undergoes what is termed induced labor, in which she is given a…… [Read More]
In light of the evidence in this literature review then it is of great import that monitoring of the health of pregnant women is vital in reference to LW infants not only in the sense of present terms but as well to lifelong health considerations for the LW infant which is probably why stated further is: "Given the relative neglect that mothers and newborns have suffered, their centrality to the Millennium Development Goals, and the cost-effectiveness of maternal and newborn health interventions, a greater emphasis on safe motherhood and newborn health is clearly needed within many health sectors." (JHPIEGO, 2003)
Stated in the publication "Shaping Policy for Maternal and Newborn Health: A Compendium of Case Studies (2003) is that: "The health of a newborn is inextricably linked to the health of the mother; the majority of newborn deaths are caused by the poor health of the mother during…… [Read More]
While pregnancy per se is not a permanent condition, there are long-term consequences of the state. (M kel, 2005) the issue of work/life balance and quality of life can become important factors in the life of the female employee. Many organizations also tend to have the perception that women with children will be less focused and dedicated to their work. (Kidwell, 2001) the idea that the man is the bread winner and the woman the nurturer is still the main stream value. Although women have been in the workforce since the industrial revolution, in the past they exited the workplace after a child was born and returned only much later. In the past few decades however, women are less likely to want to leave the workforce. Many factors have impacted this decision -- higher standard of living, single mothers, lower wages and fewer opportunities to return back after an extended…… [Read More]
Woman in Fourth Month of Pregnancy
Exercise and Diet Plan
The client is in her late twenties and four months pregnant with her first child. She is concerned about maintaining muscle tone and flexibility so that she can have her baby naturally. She does not express any concerns about managing her weight gain during her pregnancy and, indeed, she is tall and proportionately streamlined. However, she confesses to never having truly engaged in an exercise program since she graduated from college.
The considerations we have reviewed and the exercise regime that we have selected for her is outlined below.
A review of the client's history did not reveal any health concerns. Specifically, we discussed the following special conditions that could cause us to limit her exercise routine: heart problems, asthma or chronic lung problems, high blood pressure, muscle or joint problems, any persistent bleeding, and/or placental problems. Extreme weight problems…… [Read More]
The bill includes no provisions for other types of expanded access to prenatal and post-natal care for impoverished women, or expanded funding for drug treatment of pregnant women outside of prisons. It seems like a convenient way to test the constitutionality of Roe v. Wade, as if the bill is contested, the issue of legal abortion will certainly arise in the appellate courts, perhaps even in the Supreme Court. But even if abortion does not become the primary focus of the bills proponents and opponents, the bill also raises the troubling civil rights issue of special litigation that penalizes substance-abusing women who can become pregnant more than women who cannot, or men.
I understand that some members of the hospital staff are hopeful that the bill will enable some women to enter drug treatment more easily. However, as no additional funding for such treatment is provided in the bill, it…… [Read More]
He brought it back and presented it to Emily who was thrilled, as were the grandparents and other relatives and friends who had gathered at the hospital to congratulate the new parents.
Then something happened. The babies were brought into Emily's room, one wrapped in pink and the other in blue. Rob picked up his son and held him for several minutes, walking and swaying around the room. Then he blurted, "I can't do it to him. I can't name him the III." Emily explained that they had not picked out any other boy names, but Rob said they would just have to come up with another name. "I want my son to have his own name," said Rob.
For two days Rob and Emily searched for a name in the baby-name book that they both liked. Finally, on the day she and the babies were to be discharged, they…… [Read More]
teenage pregnancy on the family of the effected girl. In addition to that, this paper also highlights the prevailing rates of teen pregnancy in the U.S.A. And the adverse consequences of adolescence pregnancy. Furthermore, the strategies to prevent teenage pregnancy have also been discussed by this paper.
Setting the Scene
Teenagers are forced to confront a crisis because of an unintended pregnancy, which in most cases is an unwanted pregnancy. The unmarried adolescents, who are pregnant, have to make a number of complex decisions. These decisions include choosing between aborting and giving birth, and choosing between raising the baby by themselves or placing them for an adaption. Simultaneously, other decision in relation to school, work and interpersonal relationships are to be taken by the affected teenagers. (Wirkus & Maxwell, 2010)
Another important decision that the teens confront is to opt the manner in which they will discuss this issue with…… [Read More]
, Binns, Colin W., and Alfonso Helman. (2006): "Which Women Stop Smoking During Pregnancy and the Effect on Breastfeeding Duration." Biomed Central. http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2458/6/195
Torfs, Claudine P. And Roberta E. Christianson. (2000): "Effect of Maternal Smoking and Coffee Consumption on the Risk of Having a Recognized Down Syndrome Pregnancy." American Journal of Epidemiology. Vol. 152, No. 12: 1185-1191.
Solomon, Laura J. And Virginia P. Quinn. (2003): "Spontaneous Quitting: Self Initiated Smoking Cessation in Early Pregnancy." Nicotine and Tobacco Research. Vol. 6, Sup. 2; S203-S216.
leinman, Michael. (2000): "The Health Effects of Air Pollution on Children." Irvine: University of California.
Eichhammer P, and Johann M. harraz. (2003): "High Frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Decreases Cigarette Smoking." Journal of Clincial Psychiatry. 64:951-953.
In conclusion, the literature presented clearly shows that smoking during pregnancy does have an adverse affect on infants and fetuses and that through the proper treatment and counseling, these effects can…… [Read More]
Their heritage is important because certain ethnic groups are more likely to be carriers of Tay-Sachs. "The incidence of Tay-Sachs is particularly high among people of Eastern European and Ashkenazi Jewish descent. Patients and carriers of Tay-Sachs disease can be identified by a simple blood test that measures beta-hexosaminidase a activity." (NINDS, 2011). Because the Trosacks have a fetus with Tay-Sachs, it is not necessary to test their blood and examine the beta-hexosaminidase a activity of either of the parents. However, doing so may help Peter transition out of denial and understand the reality of the diagnosis.
Tay-Sachs impacts a person by interfering with genetic lipid storage. An insufficiency of the enzyme beta-hexosaminidase a, which is responsible for biodegrading gangliosides, leads to a buildup of the ganglioside GM2 in tissues and nerve cells in the brain (NINDS, 2011). Because gangliosides develop, and normally degrade, rapidly in infancy, the disease progresses…… [Read More]
Certainly it would give rise to debate within the community, and would perhaps because it circumvents the authority that was asserted by the community in limiting the teen's awareness to abstinence, would eventually have to be abandoned because of the ways in which the community would relate the process to what it actually is: getting the kids the information on birth control.
If educating the kids as to the alternatives available to them is prohibited, then it becomes incumbent upon the health professionals to take the discussions to the parents. Since most kids, estimated at 47%, say that their decisions about sex are most influenced by their parents (the National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy, 2007, found online at then educating the parents must become the focus of the effort. If Vermilion Parish and other places within and outside of Louisiana would tie the hands of educators and health professionals…… [Read More]
WHERE THE UCK STOPS
This will consist of a physician, a geneticist, an ethicist, a lawyer or legal practitioner, and a health care provider. The physician or pediatrician will make the diagnosis (of Tay-Sachs), the geneticist, as a specialist, will provide more specific information on genetic diseases, particularly Tay-Sachs, as to causes and risks, prevention, diagnosis and treatment. The physician and geneticist can together form a plan of care for the nurse's implementation. The ethicist will provide information on the accepted moral values of correct human conduct, behavior and decisions involved in dealing with Tay-Sachs disease. The lawyer or legal practitioner will inform the parties on current laws and court decisions covering or affecting the management of these genetic disorders. And the nurse who will carry out the detailed instructions of the geneticist and the physician and incorporate the guidelines provided by the lawyer into these…… [Read More]
Sensitive Issues in Nursing -- Loss of Pregnancy
At least 2.5 single spaced pages. Do not double space. Put answers in boxes. Each answer at least one solid paragraph, make boxes longer if necessary.
Format for Research Article Critique Name:
Directions: The purpose of this assignment is to review a research article and determine how it impacts nursing practice. Use this form to analyze the relevance of the research to nursing practice. APA format for the research critiques are required only for the citation for the article. The answers to the questions do not have to be written in APA format, but do need to be in complete sentences.
Caelli, PhD, K., Downie, PhD, J., & Letendre, A. (2002). Parent's experiences of midwife-managed care following the loss of a baby in a previous pregnancy. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 39(2), 127 -- 136.
Read the article. Write a one paragraph…… [Read More]
" (International Conference on Population and Development ICPD) (ibid)
However the meaning of reproductive right extends into other areas. For example, this includes the right to non-discrimination based on sex/gender and the right to privacy as well as the right to information. The issue of the reproductive rights for women becomes problematic and often fraught with controversy when it is applied to those infected with the HIV virus. This dilemma has far-reaching implications for the millions of women with HIV throughout the world.
3.2. Different perspectives
The different views on the subject of reproductive rights range from the more conservative view that all reproductive rights should be denied in Women with HIV to more perceptive views that links the denial of reproductive rights to other human rights issues. For example, one view from a survey conducted by the International Community of Women Living with HIV / AIDS (ICW) states that,…… [Read More]
Drugs and Pregnancy
The habit of taking drugs continually well into the pregnancy stages of a woman has been associated with several effects that the drugs may have on the fetus. There have been several arguments posited by various groups depending on their standpoint about the issue of drug abuse and pregnancy. There have also been attempts, as seen in this session, to classify the drugs into those that do not arm the fetus and those that can in some way hurt the fetus. Having gone through the entire course and getting exposed to numerous materials, there is one thing that stands out clear and I came to understand with insurmountable evidence, the fetus is adversely affected by the drugs that the mother takes. This is true bearing that the fetus depends on the mother for entirely everything for its survival.
The central issues identified during the entire session include…… [Read More]
Vancomycin should be given for at least 60 minutes. The initial dosage for pediatrics with renal impairment is not less than 15 mg/kg per day or 15 times the GF in mL/min. Premature infants should have longer dosing intervals. PO administration should be 40 mg/kg/day in 3-4 divided doses for 7-10 days. The maximum is 2,000 mg/day, which may be diluted in 1 oz of water or administered through an NG tube (PD).
Vancomycin is contraindicated to patients with hypersensitivity to vancomycin (Drug.com, 2012). Commercially prepared frozen Vancomycyn Hydrochloride injections in 5% dextrose may also be contraindicated to those with known allergic reaction to corn or corn products (Drug.com).
The patient should inform the doctor or pharmacist of all prescription and non-prescription or herbal products currently used (Medicine Net, 2012; Levinson, 2012). Aminoglycosides, amphotericin B, other antibiotics, and live bacterial vaccines are special mentions. If treatment requires…… [Read More]
Teenage pregnancy is described as being pregnant or being a mother below 20 years of age in most of the conducted researches. Only two researches considered had an age limit of 20 years, while another one had a limit of 21 years (Noll, Shenk, & Putnam, 2009).
The rate of teenage child birth differs by a 10 factor in case of first world nations. Netherlands on one hand has a negligible rate of 12 infants per 1,000 teenagers each year while Russia on the other hand has a rate of 100 infants per 1000 teenagers. During the 1990's United States of America spiked with teenage pregnancies which was the same in 1980's as well. Japan and European nations have controlled pregnancy rates (40 infants per 1,000). England peaks the European bloc with teenage pregnancy. One research in 2000 concluded that annually in England, around 90,000 child births…… [Read More]
Urban Problems and Solutions
In the 1990's, the United States exhibited a decreasing trend in the rates of pre-marital sex and teen pregnancies. However, the rate of teenage pregnancy in United States is yet considered to be alarming in comparison to that of other developed countries of the world. It has been estimated that about 1 million teenage girls in the U.S. are being victims of teenage pregnancy every year.
Due to the fact that teen mothers and babies are vulnerable to health hazards, the considerable birth rates among teens have become alarming. The ignorance of pregnant youngsters deprives them of taking appropriate medical attention, making them vulnerable to medical complexities. The teenage pregnancies have tremendous emotional impact on the adolescents. Under feeding, negligence in taking nutrients, habits of smoking, alcoholism, drug abuse etc. which are common among most of the youngsters make their newly born babies prone to health…… [Read More]
Qualitative data using individual stories are very important because they give insight into the challenges faced by certain groups such as pregnant teenage mothers. A more comprehensive approach to reducing adolescent pregnancy is needed. Many risk factors including a mother's own history, the absentee father, and misuse of birth control contribute to teenage pregnancies. These can override the benefits of school activity participation and performance in preventing teenage pregnancy. Therefore, programs designed to prevent pregnancy need to address many factors.
Allen E, onell C, Strange V, Copas, a, Stephenson, J., Johnson, a.M. & Oakley, a. (2007, January). Does the UK government's teenage pregnancy strategy deal with the correct risk factors? Findings from a secondary analysis of data from a randomised trial of sex education and their implications for policy. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 61 (1): 20 -- 7.
Clandinin, J., & Connelly, M. (1990). Stories of…… [Read More]
There are remedies (albeit not easy ones for the individuals involved), as suggested by the research. However, and this is very important, the current public health approaches that the Saudi government has taken, as Mabrey et al. (2010) note, have focused fairly narrowly on medical approaches. This focus includes research that has been conducted on metabolic syndrome (which is caused primarily by being overweight). This is caused by clear-cut factors and has a number of possible poor consequences.
Mabrey et al. (2010) note that metabolic syndrome is on average 10 to 15% higher in the GCC states than in the rest of world and that females are disproportionately affected by metabolic syndrome. These researchers are among those who note that a strictly medical approach to such medical problems is far from sufficient. For while metabolic syndrome itself can be identified and described in purely medical terms, such an approach does…… [Read More]
As noted, the agency provides a wide variety of services and programs. They service women and young children in the greater Henry County, GA area. The agency provides counseling for pregnant women, but it also provides support to those mothers who choose to keep and raise their children. They provide everything from baby formula and diapers to maternity clothing, baby clothing, car seats, and cribs to needy families and mothers. It is a full-service organization in that caseworkers are assigned to clients and can advise them throughout the pregnancy and beyond. PC also has counseling available for young mothers who choose to give their babies up for adoption. They also provide links to further educational information, and will counsel young women if they choose to have an abortion, too. They will not perform the abortion, however. They also provide ultrasounds for patients.
Funding is always a challenge in any community…… [Read More]
08% or higher. Blood Alcohol content is the concentrated amount of alcohol in the blood, and this number can be assessed via chemical and Breathalyzer tests. Though this limit was previously as high as.10% in some states, even the lowered limit is not adequate to prevent alcohol related vehicle accidents. In fact, law enforcement officials classify an accident as alcohol related if a driver's blood alcohol content was.01%, or two drinks, or higher. Though some groups praise the.08% law as one of the biggest steps in drunk driving prevention, other groups believe a no tolerance policy should be adopted for operating under the influence of alcohol, similar to the policy that is already in effect for minors.
The physiological effects of alcohol do not begin at.08%. In fact, they begin at much lower blood alcohol content levels. According to Brown University, moodiness increases at.02-.03%; fatigue, delayed reaction time, and errors…… [Read More]
Ethical Issues Surrounding Abortion
Notwithstanding the laws being passed in various states against a woman's right to chose to terminate her pregnancy, the position of this paper is that Roe v. ade is the law of the land and a woman has the ethical and moral right to decide to have an abortion. There are many positions for and against Roe v. ade, and there are many ethical issues that may be (and in many cases are) embraced on both sides of the issue. But the law of the land vis-a-vis a woman's right to the privacy -- regarding her own values -- when it comes to terminating a pregnancy has been determined by the High Court. As a nurse committed to fairness and ethics in healthcare issues, while I respect the rights of others to practice their own values in opposition to Roe v. ade, I am in support…… [Read More]
Teenage Pregnancy as a Social Problem
Teenage pregnancy is an established phenomenon in any social setting as Albarracin and Handley (2001) observes. ecently, the phenomenon has turned out to be a social problem moving from an empirical social fact. The move comes from the realization of rising costs to governments while the teenage girl is robbed-off the opportunity to embrace education. Once this observation is made the phenomenon assumes a reality position and becomes a concern to individuals, families and communities.
According to (Bonell, 2004), teenage pregnancy is regarded as a social problem owing to the fact they are closely associated with childrearing unsupported by men or strong family background. The result is higher social cost to government through single young mothers uptake of welfare provision from the government (Bonell, 2004)). (Albarracin & Handley, 2001), adds Teenage pregnancy can spur cycles of deprivation that fuel the…… [Read More]
In conclusion, atkins draws an important link between teen childbearing and poverty, which takes this discussion past morals and values and moves it into socioeconomic territory. Half of all mothers currently on welfare assistance "were teenagers when they had their first child," atkins writes. Also, a) less than a third of teen mothers "ever finish high school"; b) the children born to teenage mothers "are twice as likely to raise their children in poverty"; c) the children of teen mothers "...are more likely to do poorly in school, more likely to drop out of school, and less likely to attend college"; and d) girls whose mothers were teenagers at the time of their birth are "...22% more likely to become mothers as teens themselves," thus completing the cycle and perpetuating the problem into future generations.
An article by Jennifer a. Hurley ("Promoting the Use of Birth Control Reduces Teen Pregnancy")…… [Read More]