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This is because as a culture, female virginity is considered an important indicator of one's purity and innocence and although sexual intercourse before marriage is acceptable to men; the same case does not apply to women as premarital sex is strongly discouraged for women (Kayir cited in ibid).
Premarital Sex: East Asian Cultural Views
Sexual evolution in China, Korea, Vietnam, and Japan
esults of a 2005 survey in China showed that in urban China, the average age for first sexual experience among boys and girls is 17.4 years old. Chinese sociologist Professor Zhou Xiaozheng was not surprised by this results as he believes that, "The opening-up of Chinese society and early arrival of puberty have contributed to this change in sexual behavior." (Xinhua, 2005, pars. 1-4). Further, "Sex used to be taboo in traditional Chinese society. But today, sex products are available to almost everyone in the cities, from Internet…
Asadi, M.A. (2000). Premarital Sex and the Destruction of the Nuclear Family.
Retrieved from www.geocities.com/justiceparadigm/presex.pdfonMarch 15.
Bruce, C. (n.d.) "The curious case of the unnecessary recantation: Berger and secularization" in Peter Berger and the Study of Religion. Routledge: New York.
Chang, J.S. (1996). What Do Education and Work Mean? Education, Nonfamilial, Work/Living Experiences and Premarital Sex for Women in Taiwan. Journal of Comparative Family
Relationships are complex and can be complicated by a longing for a lasting commitment. For this reason, many have opted to simply have sex without any type of commitment (sex with no strings attached). Others hold the belief that sex is a pledge to be committed. The purpose of this discussion is to explain why sex must involve commitment. e will also present the opposing opinion on this issue. This discussion will seek to prove that sex should involve commitment. e will begin the discussion with the opposing view.
Sex without Commitment
Some individuals have the belief that sex without commitment is acceptable and that it will not have adverse affects. They contend that sex without commitment is easier for everyone involved and averts problems that can occur in a committed relationship. Sex without commitment has always existed in some form or another but in recent years, sex without commitment…
Buss, David M. The Evolution of Desire: Strategies of Human Mating. New York: Basic Books, 1994.
Defries, Zira, Richard C. Friedman, and Ruth Corn, eds. Sexuality: New Perspectives. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1985.
LeMoncheck, Linda. Loose Women, Lecherous Men: A Feminist Philosophy of Sex. New York: Oxford University Press U.S., 1997.
Matthewes-Green, Frederica. "Now for Some Good News." First Things: A Monthly Journal of Religion and Public Life Aug.-Sept. 1997: 20+.
Those individuals who are most likely to idealize their partners are those who are also most likely to be disappointed. It also seems to be the case that those most likely to idealize their partners are those who are most likely to move quickly from engagement (or an equivalent but less formal relationship) to marriage. Such a quick trip from first date to the altar is often a very poor choice in the long run, as summarized below:
Waller... assumed that courting couples are generally blissful, optimistic lovers who, in order to sustain their romance, draw attention to their desirable qualities, suppress thoughts and behaviors that might weaken their romance, and try to see the best in the other person. After they are married, however, spouses may no longer be as motivated to "put their best foot forward" to impress their marriage partners; moreover, the intimacy of marriage makes sustaining…
Flowers, B. (2007). The limits of a technical concept of a good marriage: Exploring the role of virtue in communication skills. Journal of marital and family therapy 27(3), 327-340.
Larson, J.H. (2000). Should we stay together? A scientifically proven method for evaluating your relationship and improving its chances for long-term success. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Marazziti, D. & Canale, D. (2004). Hormonal changes when falling in love. Psychoneuroendocrinology 29, 931 -- 936.
Niehuis, S. (2006). Organization of partner knowledge, its effect on passion, and the mediating effect of idealization. North American Journal of Psychology 8:33-46.
Social Construct of Prenuptial Events: From the Bridal Sheets to the Bachelorette Party
The social constructs of the transition from single adulthood to married life throughout recent history have differed between men and women. In modern construct women and men often share a similar prenuptial event that has many elements of public expressions of sexuality, the bachelor or stag party and the bachelorette or staggette party. (Tye and Powers, 1998, pp. 552-561) In most western societies before 1900 and especially during the enaissance the prenuptial ceremonies and rituals included a longer period of time that encompassed a gray area that included the business of the marriage transaction and the ritual of becoming publicly aware of the person you were to marry. Historically speaking there was little if any overt display of sexuality during pre-1900 premarital celebrations. (uggiero, 1985, p. 26) Changes in public sexual expression from before 1900 to now…
Benson, P.J. (1992). The Invention of the Renaissance Woman: The Challenge of Female
Independence in the Literature and Thought of Italy and England. University Park, Pa: Pennsylvania State University Press.
Fordham, J. (Apr/2000):. "Death of a Porcupine: DH Lawrence and His Successors."
Literature and History. Vol. 9 Issue 1, pp.56-67.
Music on Teens Actions
In the past 40 years all kinds of music has turned out to be more and more overt predominantly towards the negative side like sex, drugs, aggression and violence. Lately two of the genres which have caught great attention is hard rock music and rap music. In most of the cases, the lyrics of the music are made in such a way that they induce negativity in the developing minds of the teenagers. This negativity is reflected in their actions in the form of drug abuse, aggression, violence, sex and rebellious actions towards parents, family, family and society in general. This kind of negative music is a major concern these days because it poses mental and physical threat to the teens of today. Some of the other alarming effects of such music are pregnancy, STDs, accidents, killing and this has resulted to be the normal lifestyle…
Burns, Kate. The American Teenager: Examining Pop Culture. Annotated Edition. Publisher Greenhaven Press, 2003. ISBN 0737714670, 9780737714678, pg 150-189.
Connell, J., and C. Gibson. Sound tracks: Popular music, identity and place. London: Routledge. Pg 145-147. 2003.
Hawkins, S. Settling the pop score: Pop texts & identity politics. Aldershot: Ashgate Publishing. Pg 121. 2002.
Martino, S.C., Collins, R.L., Elliott, M.N., Strachman, A., Kanouse, D.E., & Berry, S.H. Exposure to degrading vs. non-degrading music lyrics and sexual behavior among youth. Pediatrics, 2006, 118, 430 -- 444.
Hell Is for Other People
Me: Boy, you're here a lot earlier than usual.
Stranger: Yeah, I have a hot date tonight: hopefully, tonight's the night, if you know what I mean (Winks).
Me: You're sexually active?
Stranger: What do you mean by that? Of course I'm sexually active, why do you ask.
Me: Oh. Well, because the other day you mentioned going to church ... you said you were Catholic, right?
Stranger: (Laughs) Yes, I am...but that doesn't mean I can't have a little fun, you know? (Winks again).
Me: Aren't all unmarried Christians supposed to be celibate though? I thought premarital sex was a mortal sin ... "fornication," right?
Stranger: Yes, it is, but we all sin because human beings weren't created perfectly; only God is perfect.
Me: I'm sorry, but I don't really understand...as a Christian, aren't you supposed to refrain from all sexual activity except in…
However, while I see that Boy Scouts has helped develop my empathy and my planning ability, I know that I continue to struggle with my ability to frame concepts for a group. Servant leadership is not about asserting power, but about developing rightful authority. ather than force a group to do the leader's bidding, a servant leader's role is to persuade people to follow the leader's path. However, it is not really the leader's path that he asks people to follow. On the contrary, because a servant leader listens to people, respects all members of the group, and considers short- and long-term consequences, the path that the servant leader proposes should be one that is best for the group. Of course, that path may not seem best to the group because of competing interests, short-term worldview, or the fact that every plan is going to have pluses and minuses for…
Bennis, W., and Thomas, R. (2007). Leading for a lifetime: how defining moments shape leaders of today and tomorrow. Boston: Harvard Business Press.
Cress, C., Collier, P., and Reitenauer, V. (2005). Learning through serving: a student guidebook for service-learning across the disciplines. Sterling, VA: Stylus Publishing.
Greenleaf, R. (2002). Servant leadership: a journey into the nature of legitimate power and greatness. Mahwah, NJ: Paulist Press.
Komives, S., and Wagner, W. (2009). Leadership for a better world: understanding the social change model of leadership development. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Flea by John Donne
In the 1500's, Europe was a very dirty place, and fleas were a major problem. It was, in fact, fleas that were responsible for the Black Death, or Plague, that had ravaged Europe since the 1300's. However, in the late 1500's, a flea landed on the breast of a certain lady in French Society by the name of Madame Des Roches, a writer of some fame, and this sparked off an obsession with the flea as the subject of literature. hole books were devoted to the flea, and the flea became a subject for comedy, romance, poetry, and all sorts of artistic expression. Around this time an English poet, named John Donne, wrote a poem entitled The Flea, in which he metaphorically compares a flea to the act of sex.
Structurally, The Flea is a poem that alternates its meter between lines of iambic tetrameter, and…
Donne, John. The Flea. Web. July 26, 2011. http://www.luminarium.org/sevenlit/donne/flea.php
Another important area of change relates to sexual norms and values in the family. Studies show that there has a definite growth in more permissive attitudes towards sex and particularly premarital sex. The number of people who see sex between an unmarried man and woman as "wrong" dropped from 36% in 1972 to 24% in 1996. (the Emerging 21st Century American Family)
These statistics indicate a change for the earlier view of sex as only being acceptable between married couples; which questioned the established norm and role of sexuality in the traditional family.
Another central area of change since the 1950's is the value associated with child rearing and the family. The more traditional concept of the family has at its core the ideal and value of providing secure and moral child - rearing practices. This aspect has changed and there has been a move away for this central value.…
Klein H.S. The Changing American Family. Retrieved January 29, 2007 at http://www.hoover.org/publications/digest/3020821.html
Popenoe D. (1993) American Family Decline, 1960-1990: A Review and Appraisal. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 55 (3), pp. 527-542
The Emerging 21st Century American Family. Retrieved January 29, 2007 at http://22.214.171.124/search?q=cache:aCtD_N20o7QJ:www.norc.org/online/emerge.pdf+Decline+in+the+American+Family+Values&hl=en&gl=za&ct=clnk&cd=6
The American Family Association (AFA). Retrieved January 29, 2007 at http://www.afa.net/about.asp
Christian marriage is one of the most important Christian traditions. Since God created the first man and woman, He intended us to create strong relationships with our partners, procreate, and participate in community life in this way. Marriage is the foundation of not only strong families, but also of strong individuals and strong societies. Therefore, Christians should continue to advocate strongly for the institution of marriage in spite of secular norms and trends that lead away from the marriage tradition.
The current trends that include a high rate of divorce, or partnerships that do not result in marriage, do not agree with Christian lifestyles. Moreover, these trends are relatively new and certainly do not reflect the tradition established by Christianity. The divorce rate has only been high within the past century, as previously it was not normative to divorce. Domestic partnerships that result in children without a wedding is also…
Cooke, Bernard. "Christian Marriage: Basic Sacrament." Chapter 4 in Perspectives On Marriage by Kieran Scott & Michael Warren. Oxford University Press, 2007.
Scott, Kieran. "Cohabitation and Marriage as a Life-Process." Chapter 8 in Perspectives On Marriage by Kieran Scott & Michael Warren. Oxford University Press, 2007.
" He is right that many Americans who call themselves Christians and who attend Christian worship services do not live their lives based on the Beatitudes. And then Kavanaugh also says "Nietzsche seems to have understood the Sermon on the Mount better than many Christians." ell wait a minute. If Nietzsche found the Sermon on the Mount "scandalous," and attacked it as "demeaning of the will to power," how can that be construed as understanding it better than many Christians?
To even bring Nietzsche into a discussion about "The Alternative Kingdom" is ludicrous. In Nietzsche's the Birth of Tragedy (p. 23) he says the "Christianity was from the beginning, essentially and fundamentally, life's nausea and disgust with life, merely concealed behind, masked by, dressed up as, faith in 'another' or 'better' life." In his essay, Human, all too Human, Nietzsche denounces the Christian idea of "...sins perpetrated against a god,…
Kavanaugh, John Francis. Following Christ in a Consumer Society. New York: Orbis Books,
Nietzsche, Friedrich. Human, All Too Human. Lincoln, Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press,
Nietzsche, Friedrich. The Birth of Tragedy. New York: Penguin Books, 1993.
Therefore, the concept of a traditional Western marriage can be used as a tool for making those who are different from the norm, such as homosexuals, feel alienated and distant from society. On the other hand, advocates of gay marriage suggest that allowing homosexuals to share in the rites and responsibilities of traditional marriage can be a way of recognizing their personhood, and can lead to unification between seemingly diverse sub-populations among the larger Western culture. As the above example demonstrates, there is no easy answer to the question of whether traditions promote unity; some traditions promote unity, while some promote divisiveness, and even the same tradition can have different meanings in different communities.
Furthermore, though traditions develop from a community's shared experiences, it is important to differentiate between a tradition's appearance and the underlying reality. For example, in American weddings, the bride has traditionally worn white to signify virginity…
For example, Walker and Hennig add that, "It has frequently been found that children (particularly boys) in divorced, mother-custody families exhibit lower levels of well-being than children in intact families, with more externalizing and internalizing behavior problems and lower levels of cognitive and social competence" (p. 64). My son is also currently at a formative period that has special significance for single-parents families. For instance, Walker and Hennig also point out that, "Single-mother families are often affectively charged, with high instrumental affection combined with high negativity and conflict, particularly in the transition to adolescence" (1997, p. 64).
The "transition to adolescence" can be a rocky period in anyone's life, of course, and it is reasonable to expect my son to experience some problems in general and with me in particular during this transitional period. Fortunately, this challenging developmental period is eased somewhat as children grow into mid-adolescence. As Walker and…
Burns, A. & Scott, C. (1999). Mother-headed families and why they have increased. Hillsdale,
NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Crossman, S.M. & Adams, G.R. (1990). Divorce, single parenting and child development.
Journal of Psychology, 106(2), 205-207.
Moreover, an 'abstinence-only' education program is sometimes perceived by teenagers as providing one-sided and medically inaccurate information. (Studies by Kirby, 1997 and Huberman, quoted in "educing Teenage Pregnancy" 2006) shift in attitudes towards teenage sexuality must occur in the U.S. To facilitate the development of appropriate policies and programs to reduce teenage pregnancy. Presently, sexual activity, rather than the pregnancies that can result from it, is seen as the problem requiring intervention. Teaching young people that premarital sex is a moral failure does not prevent pregnancy -- studies show that those with fearful and negative attitudes about sexuality are less likely to use contraception when they have sex than those who believe they have a right to decide to have sex (eiss, 1990).
It is, therefore, important to have a more comprehensive program of sexual education for teenagers that gives due recognition to the fact that sexual expression is a…
American Opinion on Teen Pregnancy and Related Issues 2003." (2004). Science Says: A Project of the National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy. Retrieved on May 18, 2007 at http://www.teenpregnancy.org/works/pdf/American_Opinion.pdf
Kirby, D. (2001). "Emerging answers: research findings on programs to reduce unwanted teenage pregnancy." National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy. Retrieved on May 18, 2007 at http://www.teenpregnancy.org/resources/data/pdf/emeranswsum.pdf
Reducing Teenage Pregnancy." (2006). Planned Parenthood. Retrieved on May 18, 2007 at http://www.plannedparenthood.org/news-articles-press/politics-policy-issues/teen-pregnancy-sex-education/teenage-pregnancy-6240.htm
Reiss, Ira L. (1990). An End to the Shame: Shaping Our Next Sexual Revolution. Buffalo, NY: Prometheus Books.
Patty's introduction to prostitution certainly reinforces this notion: it became a part of her life as a result of her social situation and a perceived necessity. Still, more fervent moral positions against prostitution, in the Untied States, often come from Christianity. Obviously, it violates the general principles of Christianity to pay for sexual intercourse; however, it is also a violation of Christian principles to engage in premarital sex, extramarital sex, homosexual sex, or even masturbation. Notably, none of these actions are illegal in the United States -- or at least the antiquated laws pertaining to them are not enforced -- and of them, only homosexuality is ever regularly regarded as a form of social deviance; though this too is a matter of debate. Ultimately, viewing prostitution as a moral crime from the standpoint of Christianity fails miserably, because doing so would require accepting that law should be solely determined by…
Brown, Stephen E. et al. (1991). Criminology: Explaining Crime and its Context. Cincinnati: Anderson Publishing.
Dash, Leon. (1996). Rosa Lee: a Mother and Her Family in Urban America. New York: Basic.
Pagliaro, Ann Marie and Louis A. Pagliaro. (2000). Substance Use among Women. Lillington: Brunner/Mazel.
Schlaadt, Richard G. (1992). Wellness: Drugs, Society, & Behavior. Guilford: Dushkin.
sex education is designed to increase teenagers "tastes" for premarital sex? How could it act to increase those "tastes"?
The desire for sexual contact is a natural, innate human desire and is not something that can suddenly be stimulated by knowledge like an advertising campaign can make you thirsty for soda. It is possible that sexual education can normalize sexuality and remove a sense of guilt teens might have; however, it can also normalize safe sex and abortion.
Why could the two consequences of sex education discussed above either raise or lower the number of teenage pregnancies that result?
Sex education can lower the number of teenage pregnancies by providing accurate information to teens about sexuality and disabusing them of myths such as the idea the withdrawal method is an effective form of birth control. It can also provide them with information about the best methods of birth control possible.…
The gender-based sexual double standard is logically indefensible on any level.
Piercing the thin veil of justifications offered supporting it requires little more than substitution of the identity of the subjects in any hypothetical or analogy based on the premise. Nevertheless, it persists throughout most of American culture, and sadly, its manifestations in the Western World are infinitely more benign than the cruelty it inspires elsewhere. Ultimately, its roots lie both in the usefulness of rationalization for justifying the truly immoral pursuit of sexual conquests by deception, and (likely) male psychological fears of sexual inadequacy whose details far exceed the scope of this essay.
Baker, ., Elliston, F. (1998) Philosophy & Sex. Buffalo: Prometheus
Committee on the College Student, Group for the Advancement of Psychiatry. (1966). Sex and the College Student. New York: Atheneum
Geddes, D.P. (1954) an Analysis of the Kinsey eports on Sexual behavior in…
Baker, R., Elliston, F. (1998) Philosophy & Sex. Buffalo: Prometheus
Committee on the College Student, Group for the Advancement of Psychiatry. (1966). Sex and the College Student. New York: Atheneum
Geddes, D.P. (1954) an Analysis of the Kinsey Reports on Sexual behavior in the Human Male and Female. New York: Mentor
Henslin, J.M. (2002) Essential of Sociology: A Down-to-Earth Approach. Boston: Allyn and Bacon
One survey at a college also contemplating condom dispensers arrived at this surprising finding: 41% of students "said that they would have sex without a condom if one was not immediately available" (Cooper 2006, p.2). hen condoms were left out for free at the health center, noted one nurse, the students took them by the handful. "Condom dispensers are a good, consistent source," of condoms for students, in other words, students do not need to do a great deal of pre-planning to use them, which lessens the chance they will accidentally find themselves unprepared. "They ensure that condoms are both affordable and available to students" (Cooper 2006, p.2).
Regarding the cost, most universities that have implemented the plan have found the machines extremely cost-efficient: "One benefit of condom dispensers is that they would pay for themselves…The money placed into the machines would be used to purchase more condoms" (Cooper 2006,…
Cooper, Adra. "Condom dispensers proposed to help CAP STDs." The Guilfordian.
September 26, 2006. May 20, 2009. http://media.www.guilfordian.com/media/storage/paper281/news/2006/09/29/News/Condom.Dispensers.Proposed.To.Help.Cap.Stds-2318180.shtml
Wexler, Kimberly. "South Carolina Students' Demand for Condom Dispensers Denied."
University Wire. February 20, 2008. May 20, 2009.
Sun Chief: Autobiography of a Hopi Indian is a book written by Don C. Talayesva, a Hopi who learned the ways of white people. Talayesva and Simmons write to educate the reader about the Hopi culture. The book is told from only one man's point-of-view and yet Talayesva writes in a way that introduces all readers to the unique ways of life shared by all the Hopi people. Although the narrative is told from a man's point-of-view, the reader understands what it means to be both a man and a woman in the Hopi society. In addition to discussing matters of gender, the author also delves into issues related to sexuality. hat makes Sun Chief: Autobiography of a Hopi Indian remarkable is the way that the book discusses Hopi culture in relation to the white oppressor. Talayesva writes for a white audience, and is deliberately provocative so that white people…
Talayesva, Don C. And Simmons, Leo William. Sun Chief: Autobiography of a Hopi Indian. Yale University Press: 1963.
hile Indian women and those of mixed races were certainly lower class citizens, they could easily become elite through their marriage to a white male of Spanish decent (Mabry 1990). Marriage was often seen to transcend any race or class issue, and thus prompted many women to act in non-virtuous ways in order to secure a future (Johnson 1998).
This difference in virtuous intent also relates to the very real danger for women in Bahia who committed acts considered to be sexually outlandish or improper, whether married or single. For married women, the punishment for adultery could include death until 1830. Prior to that time, men who killed their adulterous wives were often acquitted, since they were defending their honor in the eyes of the social system of the time (Caulfield 2000). Further, even single women found to be concubines could be killed by their families, to prevent a loss…
Arrom, Silvia Marina. 1985. The Women of Mexico City, 1790-1857. Stanford, CA: Stanford University.
Burns, Kathryn. 1999. Colonial Habits: Convents and the Spiritual Economy of Cuzco, Peru. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
Caulfield, Sueann. 2000. In Defense of Honor: Sexual Morality, Modernity, and Nation in Early-Twentieth-Century Brazil. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
Fisher, John. 2003. Bourbon Peru, 1750-1824. Liverpool, England: Liverpool University Press.
Instead, they are conflicted by their feelings of responsibility and the mixed reactions that they receive from women in the Japanese society. Suzuki (2007) reports that many Japanese men consider Japanese women "too demanding" (p. 432). A greater number of Japanese men have sought marriage partners outside of Japan due to the disconcerting roles that are expected of them. Since Japanese women no longer feel comfortable with the assumed traditional Japanese family roles, men who desire to live by the traditional masculine traits have increasingly taken Filapina brides (Suzuki 2007). Such women are able to mesh better in a family environment with traditional Japanese husbands and fathers, who do not know how to reconcile their masculinity and the independent Japanese woman (Suzuki 2007).
Men are also finding a new role in fatherhood, often hampered by their instinct to be a "hands-off" father. In one case described by Seto, Becker &…
Roberson, J. (2003). Men and masculinities in contemporary Japan: Beyond the urban salaryman model. London: RoutledgeCurzon.
Seto, a., Becker, K.W., and Akutsu, M. (2006, Fall). Counseling Japanese men on fathering. Journal of Counseling & Development, 84, pp. 488-492.
Sugihara, Y., and Katsurada, E. (2002, Nov). Gender role development in Japanese culture: Diminishing gender role differences in a contemporary society. Sex Roles: A Journal of Research, pp. 443-452.
Sugihara, Y., and Katsuradam, E. (2000). Gender-role personality traits in Japanese culture. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 24, pp. 309-318.
Teenagers in the Media
The modern media portrays the average teenager as a stereotype. Instead of portraying teenagers as individual people, the media tends to depict a stereotypical entity without unique idiosyncrasies or differing preferences. Teens in the media, such as in advertising, in movies, or in television programs are usually written by adults and therefore the representations depicted are caricatures rather than honest reflections of real people. There are typically three different stereotypes of teenagers which the media exploits and reinforces: teens who are obsessed or at the very least highly concerned with brands and physical image, teens who use drugs or alcohol prevalently and whose concern is more to do with parties and other debauchery rather than schooling and planning for their future, and that all teens engage in behaviors such as premarital sex as minors.
Some of the images that are seen in advertising which features products…
Let the average man be divine. Available from: [27 February 2013].
Murphy, R (producer) 2009, Glee (television broadcast) 19 May 2009, Los Angeles and New
York, 20th Century Fox.
Phillips, T (producer) 2012, Project X, (film) United States, Warner Bros. Pictures
ethnicity as well as that of Latin America. Discussed are the changes such as socialization, cultural attitudes, laws and customs, which need to be made so women can have more freedom. Essay is based on Silvana Paternostro's In the Land of God and Man: A Latin oman's Journey. One source used.
In the Land of God and Man
Silvana Paternostro paints a vivid picture of her life growing up in Columbia during the 1970's. The culture of the Latin world was not that much different than life for women in the United States. A new generation was emerging here, as well as there. However, for females growing up during those years, choices were limited and rebel thoughts were frowned upon by contemporaries and older generations alike. Although, there have been many changes during the last three decades, women are still being harmed by the customs and attitudes of our society.…
Paternostro, Silvana. In the Land of God and Man: A Latin
Woman's Journey. Dutton/Plume. September 1999.
Since the 1950s, television has become an increasingly vital part of life, providing both an escape from the pressures of everyday life as well as offering social commentary. Television shows that center on family life have historically been among some of the highest-rated shows. One of the reasons why these shows are among the most popular are that they reflect the realities of actual families and family problems yet do so in a unique and refreshing way. In order to understand the role of television in explaining family structures, it is necessary to compare television shows from the 1950s, 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s with contemporary television shows.
TELEVISION SHOWS COMPARED
There are numerous similarities and differences between television shows of the 1950s, 1970s, and 1980s that center on family life and television shows depicting contemporary families and family forms. In general, television shows have adapted to reflect changing…
The children do not see a template of moral fiber in the structure of the family, are certainly not learning it at school, and therefore have no basis for any type of ethic or morals other than the secular humanist -- "it depends" and "if you don't hurt anyone" viewpoint. The secular humanist, though, espouses that there are moral values that can be ascribed without God:
. . . The moral consequences of believing the universe not to be guided by a personal god to whom petitionary prayer can be addressed are huge. That is why it is so inadequate to call oneself solely an atheist; one needs some sort of description for what motivates one's behavior afterwards (Cooke in Kurtz, 2010).
And, reading this, one might forgive Al and Peg if they at least had a moral view; but that is the issue, they do not, which causes the…
Clark, T. (2008). "Center for Naturalism." The Center for Naturalism.
Cited in: http://www.centerfornaturalism.org/index.htm
Kurtz, P. (2010). "Beyond Atheism -- Beyond Agnosticism -- Secular Humanism."
Council for Secular Humanism. Cited in:
Fornication means unlawful sexual intercourse (ible Study Guide 2011, ible.com 2011). Sexual intercourse is physical sexual contact of the genitals of at least one of the involved. Unlawful means outside a valid marriage. Hence, premarital sex, adultery, homosexuality and bestiality are forms of fornication. Fornication is so grave a sin that fornicators are barred from inheriting the kingdom of God [1. Cor. 6:9-11]. It is so serious that it is the only lawful ground for divorce and remarriage [Matt. 5:32; 19:9] (ible Study Guide, ible.com). Otherwise, marriage is an indissoluble union between a man and a woman.
The Holy ible is firm and clear about its stand against fornication. It says that fornication emanates from the heart and defiles the person, as in Matt. 15:19-20 (ible Study Guide 2011, ible.com 2011). It is the work of the flesh [Gal. 5:19]. St. Paul exhorts Christians to avoid it [1 Cor. 6:18.…
Bible.com. What does the Bible Say about Fornication?, 2011. Retrieved on November
22, 2011 from http://www.bible.com/bibloanswers_result.php?id=256
Bible Study Guide. Fornication, 2011. Retrieved on November 23, 2011 from http://www.biblestudyguide.org/index.htm
Walking Wounded. Christians Resisting Sexual Temptation, 2000. Retrieved on November 22, 2011 from http://www.walking-wounded.net/htm/christians_and_sexual_temptation.html
The Impact of the Pro-Life Movement on Abortion Rates
The Impact of the Pro-Choice Movement on Abortion Rates
The Future of Roe v. Wade
When Does Life Begin?
A Comparison of Abortion Practices in Different Countries and the United States
The Current Status of the Abortion Debate in the United States
How Will the Trump Administrations Stance on Planned Parenthood Affect Abortion Rates in the U.S.?
How the Pro-Life and Pro-Choice Movements have Affected Americans Public Opinion about Abortion 
II. The Pro-Life Movement
III. The Pro-Choice Movement
Despite becoming the law of the land in 1973 when the U.S. Supreme Courts decision made abortion legal, pro-life advocates continue to hammer away at the laws concerning the status of human embryos and fetuses in an effort to eventually reverse this landmark decision. In response to the growth of pro-life organizations,…
This is the result of the child's physical and cognitive growth. Nature pursues a given path. One asks how does the world surrounding the child help or hinder the child's development. This is the question that is answered by Bronfenbrenner's theory (Paquette & yan, 2001).
Bronfenbrenner believed that the family suffered from the change in society from industrial to technological. Families were still locked into the normal 40-hour work week. Mothers were very often in the workforce, leaving the children with less parental influence at home. Bronfenbrenner thought that the schools were being called upon to fill the gaps left by parents. He thought that society should step in to provide support for the new family structure brought on by technology (Paquette & yan, 2001).
1. Crandell, T., Crandell, C., & Vander Zanden, J., 2009 Human Development (9th Ed.). Boston. McGraw-Hill
2. Gilbert, ., Widom, C., Browne, K., et…
1. Crandell, T., Crandell, C., & Vander Zanden, J., 2009 Human Development (9th Ed.). Boston. McGraw-Hill
2. Gilbert, R., Widom, C., Browne, K., et al. (2009). Burden and consequences of child maltreatment in high-income countries. The Lancet. 373(1). pp. 9657.
3. Maschi, T., Morgen, K., Hatcher, S., et al. (2009). Maltreated children's thoughts and emotions as behavioral predictors. Social Work. 54(2).
4. Murrell, a., Christoff, K., & Henning, K. (2007). Characteristics of domestic violence offenders: Associations with childhood exposure to violence. Journal of Family Violence. 22. pp. 523-532.
5). While divorce can lead to safety for children and adults caught in violent and abusive relationships, it can also lead to increased violence down the line. Studies indicate that children who grow up in abusive situations often tend to become abusive themselves as adults, and this means that abuse and violence could continue to grow in our culture as these children grow up and continue the ongoing cycle of abuse and violence.
Another bedrock of American culture is religion, and divorce goes against many religious teachings. The freedom to worship any religion we please is a foundation of the country and our culture, and religious worship tends to go down in divorced families. Fagan and ector continue, "eligious worship, which has been linked to health and happiness as well as longer marriages and better family life, is less prevalent in divorced families" (Fagan, and ector). This means that…
Butler, Ian, et al. Divorcing Children: Children's Experience of Their Parents' Divorce. London: Jessica Kingsley, 2003.
Cozort, Larry a. "Is the Tax Court Becoming a Divorce Court? The Answer Could Change How the Innocent Spouse Rules Are Interpreted." Journal of Accountancy 195.2 (2003): 35+.
Doherty, William J., et al. "Why Marriage Matters: Twenty-One Conclusions from the Social Sciences." New York: Institute for American Values, 2002.
Editors. "Divorce Statistics." Divorce Magazine. 2005. 5 Nov. 2008. http://www.divorcemag.com/statistics/statsUS.shtml
The church stresses a well-balanced family life that is characterized by a mother and father at home, as well as the knowledge that the family unit will remain together in the afterlife. According to the church's official Web site, "The family is ordained of God. Marriage between man and woman is essential to His eternal plan. Children are entitled to birth within the bonds of matrimony, and to be reared by a father and a mother who honor marital vows with complete fidelity" (the family, 2008, p. 3). All of this is not to say, though, that Mormons do not know how to have fun or enjoy themselves; in fact, happiness is clearly a primary objective of the church's teaching for its families: "Happiness in family life is most likely to be achieved when founded upon the teachings of the Lord Jesus Christ. Successful marriages and families are established and…
The family: A proclamation to the world. (2008). Official Web site of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Retrieved 2008-04-04 at http://www.lds.org/ldsorg/v/index.jsp?vgnextoid=e1fa5f74db46c010VgnVCM1000004d82620aRCRD&locale=0&sourceId=1aba862384d20110VgnVCM100000176f620a____ .
Howard, B.K. & Powell, M.A. (2004, August). Effects of family structure, education and religion on contraceptive decisions by women in their twenties. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association, Hilton San Francisco & Renaissance Parc 55 Hotel, San Francisco, CA, Online Retrieved 2008-04-04 at http://www.allacademic.com/meta/p109418_index.html
Weaver, a.J., Flannelly, K.J., & Strock, a.L. (2005). A review of research on the effects of religion on adolescent tobacco use published between 1990 and 2003. Adolescence, 40(160), 761 [Questia.com].
Wollheim, P. (2006). Latter-Day screens: A history of Mormons and the movies. Afterimage, 33(6), 26-27 [Questia.com].
Yet, I suggest that while Anne Clifford succeeded in life -- she was at last able to join the fellowship at Penshurst and through long life and tenacity to reclaim her lands -- Aemilia Lanyer succeeds in an imaginative vision: out of marginality, out 'of absence, darkness..., things which are not,' indeed out of weakness, Lanyer creates in Salve Deus a remarkable community of strength, present more powerfully and enduringly in her fiction than in life itself. (Pebworth and Summers 46)
This fictionalization of such a "remarkable community" is one aspect of the rigors of life during this period in history that might escape a casual reader today, but the fact that Lanyer was able to craft such a work during such an otherwise bleak era suggests that she did in fact have some compelling reasons beyond money and fame that drove her work.
John Milton's masque "Comus." Because Europe…
Briggs, Julia. This Stage-Play World: Texts and Contexts, 1580-1625. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1997.
Hall, Kim F. Things of Darkness: Economies of Race and Gender in Early Modern England. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1995.
Haselkorn, Anne M. And Betty S. Travitsky. The Renaissance Englishwoman in Print: Counterbalancing the Canon. Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts Press, 1990.
Hunter, William B., Jr. Milton's Comus: Family Piece. Troy, NY: Whitston Publishing Company, 1983.
While Catholics view Jesus as being a part of God, Jews see Jesus as a human who was wonderful teacher and storyteller, not the son of God (Kreeft, 1987). In the eyes of Jews, Jesus does not have the power to save souls; only God can. For Catholics, Jesus is the Son of God who rose from the dead and saved humankind. Jews do not share this belief.
Catholics also believe that Jesus absorbed the sins of the people. For them, Jesus replaced Jewish law and erased the sins of their ancestors. For Jews, the commandments and Jewish law are still binding.
Judaism rejects the idea of original sin -- the idea that people are born with sins and require an act of grace provided by the sacrifices of Jesus to erase humankind's sins (Kreeft, 1987). For Catholics, salvation only exists through Jesus. In the eyes of Jews, humans are…
James D. Davidson, Dean Hoge, and Katherine Meyer. (2001). American Catholics. Alta Mira.
Kreeft, Peter. (May, 1987). Comparing Christianity & Judaism." National Catholic Register.
Liguorian. (January 2000). American Catholics: Three Generations, One Church. Liguorian: 12-16.
Problems and issues are inevitable in every society. These can be societal problems or issues that are profession-related. Sometimes people are so accustomed with their situation that effecting change would result to a social problem. A child who had been a victim of long-term domestic abuse may not welcome change if that change would mean being departed from his own family. A government employee would not welcome change if it would mean a loss in his
"corruption-takings." Or a victim of racism may be reluctant to change if his employment would be endangered.
Change is the only thing permanent in this world but it can be controlled. Change may cause problems but these problems may also cause further changes if not solved. 'Social change is the shifts in the attitudes and behavior that characterize a society' (Greenwood & Guner 2008).
Some of the societal and profession-related problems that need…
Greenwood, J. & Guner, N. (2008 May).Social Change. Bonn, Germany.
More. (2011). Social Justice Launch Pad. Retrieved 22 Jun 2011, www.more.com.
NASW. (2011). Code of Ethics of the Natl. Association of Social Workers. Retrieved 22 Jun
Personality and Behavior: Changing for the Better
Hundreds of thousands of years of instinctive programming influence the behavior of modern humans in ways they do not fully understand, and in many cases, people may not even be aware of these influences on their behavior. This is not to say, of course, that modern humans are incapable of thoughtful and purposeful action, but it is to say that such unconscious influences on behavior can cause problems if they are not recognized and dealt with in a meaningful fashion. To gain additional insights in this area, this paper provides a review of the relevant peer-reviewed and scholarly literature concerning personality and behavior, followed by a discussion concerning how behavior can be influenced by personality in ways that can cause individual problems such as risky behaviors that lead to substance abuse or unprotected premarital sex. Finally, an examination concerning how the interactionism view…
Aizen, I. (2005). Attitudes, personality and behavior. Maidenhead, England: Open University
Carver, C.S. & Sheier, M. (2004). Perspectives on personality, 6th ed.
Livesley, W.J. (2001). Handbook of personality disorders: Theory, research, and treatment.
A study published in 2007 suggested that "The ASCA National Model can help school counselors think proactively about how they can best serve the students in their schools, and it contains ideas and tools for developing comprehensive school counseling programs that use the current best practices in the field" (Dimmit, Carey, 2007, p. 227).This study will attempt to discern whether those standards have been met. If they have not, then perhaps modifications can be made. If they have then the study will have at least verified that the program was successful.
The perception in the 1980's as compared to the 1960's could be said that there were plenty of individuals during that particular time that felt that counselors had little, if anything to do with solving school education problems. Comparing this laisse faire attitude towards counselors then, with the far more intense attitude currently shown towards education in general, and…
ACES-ASCA Committee on the Elementary School Guidance Counselor (1966), Preliminary statement. Personnel & Guidance Journal, 44, 659-661.
American School Counselor Association (2003) the ASCA National Model: A framework for school counseling programs, Professional School Counseling, Vol. 6, No. 3, pp. 165-169
American School Counselor Association. (2005). The ASCA national model: A framework for school counseling programs (2nd ed.). Alexandria, VA
ASCA. (2006). School Shooting Resources, American School Counselor Association, Retrieved November 14, 2007: http://www.schoolcounselor.org/content.asp?contentid=524
" (Rosser, et al., 1999) Furthermore, Rosser et al. (1999) relates that these changes are overwhelming for some students and "…can overtax their capacity to cope, thereby compromising academic and emotional functioning." Unfortunately, there remains a paucity of recent research, especially longitudinal studies, concerning the experiences of adolescents during their transition to high school. According to Isakson and Jarvis, "The amount of time spent in school serves not only to educate students, but also to shape their social world, contributing to overall development. Yet, changing schools represents a specific life transition that is acknowledged as a challenging and potentially stressful life event" (p. 1). In fact, that transition to high school represents a profound challenge for many young learners no matter what their primary school organization. For instance, Isakson and Jarvis note that, "Whether the eighth-grade year was spent in a kindergarten through eighth-grade school (Grades K-8), a middle school…
Zadie Smith's hite Teeth and the 'us vs. them' post-colonial discourse of identity
One of the difficulties of constructing an identity through the post-colonial discourse of race, religion and ethnicity is the difficulty of filtering out the discourse of the oppressor, the 'us vs. them' binary that defines colonialism. Colonialism is constructed upon a series of binaries, of 'savage vs. civilized,' 'English vs. native,' 'white vs. non-white,' and of course 'good vs. bad' and 'pure vs. impure.' The logical response for the rebellious colonized peoples of the world who wish to oppose colonialism would seem to be to vow to become everything that colonialism is 'not.' To be against colonialism is to celebrate a pure, native culture, before it was impinged upon by colonialism. However, to do so is impossible -- no identity is 'pure.' Even native cultures themselves are fusions and hybrids, and tensions exist within the…
Smith, Zadie. White Teeth. New York: Vintage, 2000.
100). Much of the focus of personnel selection using psychological testing was on new troops enlisting in the military during two world wars and the explosive growth of the private sector thereafter (Scroggins et al., 2008). Psychological testing for personnel selection purposes, though, faded into disfavor during the 1960s, but it continues to be used by human resource practitioners today. In this regard, Scroggins and his colleagues advise, "Many H practitioners, however, have continued to use personality testing with an optimistic and enduring faith in its ability to discriminate between good and poor job candidates" (p. 101).
In cases where cheating is suspected (such as in the case of an teen applicant possibly using a smartphone or consulting crib notes during testing by visiting the restroom), psychologists have a professional responsibility to conform to relevant privacy laws with respect to the results of such tests, including following the decision-making model…
Barnes, F.P. & Murdin, L. (2001). Values and ethics in the practice of psychotherapy and counseling. Philadelphia: Open University Press.
Bersoff, D.N. (2008). Ethical conflicts in psychology. American Psychological Association.
Bonventre, V.M. (2005, Spring). Editor's foreword. Albany Law Review, 68(2), vii-ix.
Charman, D. (2004). Core processes in brief psychodynamic psychotherapy: Advancing effective practice. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
According to a 2002 survey conducted under the auspices of NIH, ecstasy abuse among college and university students in general is a widespread trend that impedes academic performance (Bar-on, 2002). The NIH survey targeted 66 4-year American universities and colleges alike. The projected findings indicated a diminishing trend in undergraduate academic performance amongst students who indulge in binge drinking and abuse ecstasy in the process. Elsewhere, a Harvard College drug study indicated persistent drug users were more likely to miss lectures and delay in their coursework than the average student (Montgomery & Fisk, 2008).
A parallel IP esearch dubbed "Predictors of academic achievement and retention among college freshmen" projected that while certain students manage to cope with the new life role upon entering college, a good number of students flunk out of college before completing their freshman year. According to this research, 75% of the freshman drop out is related…
Bar-on, R. (2002). Bar-on Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-I): Technical Manual. Toronto, Canada: Multi-Health Systems
Erikson, E (1956) "The problem of ego identity" (pdf) Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association 4: 56 -- 121
Kotter, J & Cohen, D (2002) the Heart of Change: Real-Life Stories of How People Change Their Organizations Harvard Business Review Press
Montgomery C. & Fisk J.E. (2008) "Ecstasy-related deficits in the updating component of executive processes" Human Psychopharmacology 23 (6): 495 -- 511
Sociologists base their studies of youth subcultures on structured and unstructured interviews, participant observation and analysis of media, texts and music. Unlike similar studies in the 1950s and 1960s, such as Albert Cohen's Delinquent Boys (1955) that described post-World War II youth cultures as a relatively new and unknown phenomenon, more recent research over the past thirty years has been heavily based on feminist and postmodernist theories. These place special emphasis on the diversity and multiplicity within each subculture, while trying to avoid the stereotypes that commonly appear in the mass media. This new type of sociology also appears to me more journalistic than objective, scientific or value free, rejecting the principles and pretensions of Talcott Parsons and his generation of postwar sociologists. Of course, any type of sociology should still consider questions of ethnicity, social class, immigration, poverty, inequality and violence, although the funding to investigate these…
Wilson, B. (2006). Fight, Flight, or Chill: Subcultures, Youth and Rave into the Twenty-First Century. McGill-Queen's University Press.
Wood, R.T. (2006). Straightedge Youth: Complexity and Contradictions of a Subculture. Syracuse University Press.
According to Peter Berger, there are four motifs of sociological consciousness. These are: 1) the debunking motif, 2) the unrespectability motif, 3) the relativization motif, and 4) the cosmopolitan motif. These four things allow sociologists to sort concepts and understand human psychology slightly better than would be possible without this understanding. Sociologists are human and thus equally subject to the same psychological pitfalls as the cultures and populations that they are studying.
The debunking motif is the idea that sociologists will want to ignore or debunk the rules of the social system that he or she sees. Indeed, there may be occasions where the sociologist in question will be faced with the need to eradicate the mythology of the social system as well. hat is most commonly meant by "debunking" is the process of looking beyond or through what is most obvious. The culture or population being investigated will…
"Cohabit.html." Smart Marriages. Web. 20 Oct. 2011.
Macionis, John J. Sociology. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1995. Print.
Films and Directors of the French New Wave Movement
Discuss the male/female relationship in the Umbrellas of Cherbourg, My Night at Maud's, Le boucher Shoot the Piano Player regards to the Nouvelle Vague.
La Nouvelle Vague, or the "New Wave," is a term given by film critics in the late 1950's to a cluster of French filmmakers who began a movement that rejected classical cinema to introduce new perspectives of romantic youthfulness. hey also broke with traditional models to address political or social themes with refreshed images and dialogue. Additionally, they believed that cinema could discover the mysterious often un-discussed facets of human experiences. hese fresh ideas were especially moving when filming the male/female relationships as seen in "he Umbrellas of Cherbourg," "My Night at Maud's," "Le Boucher" and "Shoot the Piano Player."
he Umbrellas of Cherbourg
he Umbrellas of Cherbourg, directed by Jacques Demy, portrays traditional male and female…
This low budget film did not realize the success at the box office of "400 blows," but it did impress the critics. Some call, "Shoot the Piano Player" Truffaut's masterpiece. His artistry in this film out shines that of Godard's "Breathless," in the sense that it did not rely on star appeal but tells a multi-level story with amazing clarity and conviction. In addition, his consistency of quality is impeccable. From the opening sequence to the last, the story remains poignant. The use of intensity, humor, unpredictability, flashbacks, superior acting, and vivid use of music keeps the viewer attentive. Critics note that "Shoot the Piano Player," is endearing due to the unassuming honesty seen in the main character. This is, perhaps, on of Truffaut's greatest gifts.
In 1965 Godard produced "Pierrot le fou." It is a story of a man who escapes his predictable life and the Mediterranean with the lovely Marianne. All is well until Marianne, like Charlie's brother, is being chased by hit-men. And, following the theme of Breathless, the two lead an unconventional life on the lam. The couple, played by Belmondo and Karina, is dynamic and definitely have chemistry but are too contemporary and rule-breaking to be committed in any meaningful way. The lines between them are unreal and artistic as seen in this exchange, "Why do you look so sad? Because you speak to me in words and I look at you with feelings." As in Breathless, Godard chooses removed long-shots of action sequences but offers more substance in this plot. Perhaps because the main characters are older, their love seems more tortured than teasing. Similar to "400 Blows," Godard plays keep away with the realization of happiness, though his characters are dealing with a wider range of emotion and thought.
[Note: Could add personal thoughts as a conclusion]
advancement, computer and information technology are double-edged swords. On one hand, they offer marginalized individuals and groups with effective new ways of empowerment. However, the same technology also threatens to sharpen the inequities that already exist between social groups.
This paper examines one of the most powerful ways in which groups have harnessed the promise of technology - through the redefinition and creation of new "cybercommunities." The first part of the paper looks at the example of Staying Connected, a network that provides single teenage mothers with public exchange messages, private e-mail and chatrooms.
The next part of the paper then looks at the main barrier to reaping the benefits of this rapidly changing technology. In the United States alone, for example, many people from disadvantaged communities do not have access to computers and information technology. The last part suggests steps that could be taken to avert this inequity, including…
Dunham, Philip J. et al. "Computer-mediated social support: Single young mothers as a model system." American Journal of Community Psychology, 26(2): 281-306. ProQuest Database.
Jones, Steven G. CyberSociety: Computer-Mediated Communication and Community. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, 1995.
Microsoft Extends Technology Access to Latino Communities." Presspass. December 6, 1999. Microsoft. 13 July 2003 http://www.microsoft.com/PressPass/press/1999/Dec99/LatinoCommPr.asp.
NTIA Factsheets on the Digital Divide." Falling Through the Net. October 2000. National Telecommunications and Information Administration. 13 July 2003 http://www.ntia.doc.gov/ntiahome/digitaldivide/ .
ISSUES AND TRENDS IN CURRICULUM DESIGN
The obj3ective of this study is to review and research issues and trends in curriculum design relating to healthcare and to elaborate on recommendations dealing with the issues and in view of the trends.
Gone are the days in education when the issues were simple and the lessons followed course since in today's society there are healthcare issues such as AIDS, premarital sex and needed birth control measures as well as other non-sexually related diseases including cancer and other health issues. The curriculum for healthcare education is a touchy issues because of the various religion, political, social, and familial values that exist in a diverse society with many races, ethnicities, and backgrounds. For this reason, the educator in healthcare must understand the volatile ground on which curriculum design may tread and the various view of parents, communities, as well as religious and…
Albert LJ (2010) Curriculum Design: Finding a Balance. The Journal of Rheumatology. Retrieved from: http://www.jrheum.com/subscribers/07/03/458.html
McKimm, J. (nd) Curriculum Design and Development. Retrieved from: http://www.faculty.londondeanery.ac.uk/e-learning/setting-learning-objectives/Curriculum_design_and_development.pdf
Olsen, LK (1994) Trends and Issues in Health Education Curriculum. Liberty University. 1994. Department of Health Professions. Retrieved from: http://digitalcommons.liberty.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1010&context=health_fac_pubs
Stevenson, KR (201) Educational Trends Shaping School Planning, Design, Construction, Funding and Operation. National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities. Retrieved from: http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED539457.pdf
Morality, Culture, And Environment
The ideas behind morality are very different based on the culture, society, and environment in which that morality is seen. Because of that, there are questions regarding exactly what morality is, and how it can be addressed or understood. In short, what is moral to one person may not seem moral to another. Society as a whole generally determines what is acceptable within that society, but once a person leaves that society and goes to another, there may be very different thoughts and feelings about morality in the new society to which the person has moved (Blackburn, 2001). That can be true from country to country, but a person does not have to leave his or her home country to find differing views of morality. Especially in the United States, where there are so many different types of people and regions seem to have very different…
Blackburn, S. (2001). Ethics: A very short introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Harris, S. (2010). The moral landscape: How science can determine human values. New York: Free Press.
Stanford University (2011). The definition of morality. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Stanford University.
Superson, A. (2009). The moral skeptic. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Bolohead is discussed in the story is Bolohead ow where Keeaumoku ended at Kapiolani, which was right in front of one of the area's shopping centers, Ala Moana. Bolohead owers were detailed later on in the book around page 60. The narrator mentions old-school Bolohead owers and that the majority of them spoke with this kind of heavy, pidgin accent. They grew up before television became the nation's pastime. They essentially were old, growing up in the "Stone Age" before the invention of SUVs with DVD and TVs in the backseats. Eddie would have been considered the quintessential Bolohead and it showed with the author's choice of dialog for the character. Instead, confusing words like "how," Eddie said "ho" and "rememba" instead of "remember." "
Boloheads are also another name for bald heads and also described old, nearsighted men. Boloheads deviated from normalcy within the book by speaking pidgin and…
Armstrong, M., & Inouye, J. (2013). Depression and Chronic Illness: Asian/Pacific Islander Adults in Hawaii. Issues In Mental Health Nursing, 34(3), 169. Retrieved from http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.3109/01612840.2012.738356
McKinney, C. (2005). Bolohead row. Honolulu, Hawaii: Mutual Pub.
Mitchell, R. (2015). Robert Herrick, Victorian Poet: Christina Rossetti, George Meredith, and the Victorian Recovery of Hesperides. Modern Philology,113(1), 88-115. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/681024
Thio, A., Calhoun, T., & Conyers, A. (2013). Deviance today. Boston: Pearson.
Religion and Spirituality in a Broad Sense
Spirituality and religion are two terms that have rather unstable, historically changing definitions, characterized by numerous implied and explicit theological considerations. Further, the general contention is that these definitions are either overly specific or overly generic. A more astonishing fact is, possibly, these researches' level of concurrence that spirituality represents a private, budding, personal and emotional sphere, whilst religion is more public, group-based and fairly stable. Interviews and questionnaire tools arising out of these definitions characteristically undertake measurements of the spirituality element by posing questions with regard to people's self-identity, psychological experiences, and psychological health. By contrast, the element of religion is measured using questions that relate to religious participation, events and undertakings, observance of community or religious code. (Bender 1).
The ideal approach to spirituality would be considering it as a means to know the divine. Individual means to do so are,…
homosexual practices might have begun in the early centuries, the word "sodomy" was first used by a Catholic missionary, now a saint, Father Peter Damien around 1050. y sodomy, he meant masturbation and anal intercourse between men, a sin he condemned as the most perverse of sexual sins in his long letter to the Pope, entitled "the ook of Gomorrah." He emphasized that God designed sex exclusively for procreation and that the enjoyment of the sexual act outside this divine purpose was unnatural and therefore summarily grievously and wickedly sinful.
The unnaturalness of sodomy remained more or less the same through the centuries, till the 1700s when the so-called modern homosexual subcultures made themselves visible in London, Paris and Amsterdam. The rest soon perceived them as "sodomites (who were merely) ... constitutionally different from other men" (Wikholm 1999) and effeminate woman-haters who refused to have sex with women. Things were…
1. Alic, Margaret. Alfred Charles Kinsey. Gale Encyclopedia of Psychology, second edition. Gale Group, 2001
2. Boeree, George. Personality Theory: Sigmund Freud. 1997
3. Cameron, Paul. The Psychology of Homosexuality. Family Research Report.
Family Research Institute, 1999
In the peer-reviewed article by Watkins, et al., the authors focus on the implications of and reasons for longer live spans between 1800 and 1980. Watkins asserts that notwithstanding higher divorce rates and "declining fertility," women in the 1960 to 1980 window of time "spent more years in marriage and as parents than did earlier generations" (Watkins, et al., 1987, p. 346). While Watkins offers a great deal of data about families and marriage, she also says there is a "lack of historical data" to back up some of those assertions. The article goes through some mathematical calculations and models that attempt to explain family status with reference to how long people lived, their marriage patterns and fertility patterns (Watkins, 347). The bottom line for the Watkins article is to establish "…an essential skeleton for the social history of the family" along with a perspective from which today's family can…
In contrast to both Mead and Freud: "The genius of Malinowski was to perceive, and substantiate, the fact that the mind of the 'primitive' man was essentially no different than that of 'civilized' peoples. That is, although beliefs, motives, and emotional responses to situations might vary markedly from one culture to the next (a fact which would disprove the universality of Freud's Oedipal Complex), the ability of the mind to perceive and process information and to formulate creative, intelligent responses was the same regardless of race or culture" (Bronislaw Malinowski, NNMD, 2009). Myths, irrational as they might be, were common to all cultures -- and all cultures had unique elements of such irrationality. Malinowski's attitudes and expressions prefigure modern postmodernism and its emphasis on subjectivity and irrationality, and its suggestion that sexuality is merely one impulse amongst many, as opposed to the most significant impulse, as believed by Freud and…
"Bronislaw Malinowski." NNDB, 2009. Accessed June 19, 2009 at http://www.nndb.com/people/320/000099023/
Freud, Sigmund. Three Contributions to the Theory of Sex. Translated by A.A. Brill.
Project Gutenberg, 1920. June 19, 2009.
Predicting Marital Success or Failure
Climbing divorce rates and the redefining of traditional relationships in the latter half of the twentieth century have put a spotlight on the ideal of marriage. Adjusting gender roles, greater disposable income, globalization, and the acceleration of technology and social change have contributed to the way individuals engage in relationships, and consequently marriage. The increase in divorce rates has provoked researchers and marriage counselors to investigate and consider factors predicting marital success or failure. As the context and roles within relationships continue to evolve, the determination of contributing factors to the success or failure of marriage will continue to become more complex.
In the present, one key predictive factor for a successful marriage is based on premarital relationship quality. One study, conducted by Fowers and Olson, observed 393 couples over a 3-year period and found vitalized couples had the highest level of satisfaction and success…
Bramlett, M, & Mosher, W. National Survey of Family Growth, Division of Vital Statistics.
(1995). Cohabitation, marriage, divorce, and remarriage in the United States Retrieved from http://www.ezjustice.com/Topical_Material/New%20CDC%20Divorce%20Study.pdf
Charny, I. (2006). Staying together or separating and divorcing: helping couples process their choices. In C. Everett (Ed.), When marriages fail: systemic family therapy intervention and issues: (pp. 21-36). Binghamton, NY: The Haworth Press, Inc.
Ferguson, A. (2004). Theoretical frameworks for relationship transitions and the predictors of successful transitions. Proceedings of the Australian Psychological Society's Psychology of Relationships Interest Group 4th Annual Conference, http://www.lifethatworks.com/Theoretical-Frameworks-for-Relationship-Transitions.prn.pdf
Chistian counseling has become an impotant teatment modality fo a gowing numbe of health cae pactitiones and patients acoss the county in ecent yeas. Intoduced duing the ealy 1980s, Chistian counseling advocates integating eligious pactices and beliefs founded on eligious taditions with psychotheapeutic techniques to povide an optimal appoach to helping people cope with a wide ange of pesonal poblems and family issues. The pupose of this study is to povide a citical and systematic eview of the elevant liteatue in geneal and Gay R. Collins's book, Chistian Counseling: A Compehensive Guide (2007) in paticula, concening the oigins and tends in Chistian counseling and how this appoach can be used to povide the timely and essential inteventions that can help people bette cope with pesonal and family poblems. A summay of the eseach and impotant findings concening these issues ae pesented in the study's conclusion.
Table of Contents
references regarding prayer as a counseling intervention. Journal of Psychology and Theology, 35(4), 328-340.
West, W.S. (2004). Spiritual issues in therapy -- Relating experience to practice. Basingstoke:
Wood, G.D. & Ellis, R.C. (2003). Risk management practices of leading UK cost consultants. Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, 10(4), 254-262.
The high divorce rates in First World nations have encouraged researchers, family counselors, and religious advocates to investigate the core foundations for the creation of a successful marriage. Starting in the 1960s, evolving social context ultimately shifted the rationale in why individuals choose to marry, and over time, divorce has come to be viewed as the preferred alternative to an unhappy marriage. One main fundamental principle to achieve marital success is to recognize women desire love, while men simultaneously need respect to feel fulfilled within the relationship. Emotional intelligence within a relationship and acknowledging various marital myths also contribute to the fundamental elements of marital success. Dissociating from marital myths and misconceptions is an essential part to understanding the true foundations for a happy and successful marriage. Appreciating and understanding how attachment styles affect marital relationships is also essential. These beliefs and attachment styles contribute to the marital…
Eggerichs, E. (2004). Love and Respect: The Love She Desires, The Respect He Desperately
Needs. Nashville: Thomas Nelson.
Gottman, J. (1993). A Theory of Marital Dissolution and Stability. Journal of Family
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Over the past 50 -- 60 years, the divorce rate in the United States has risen dramatically. Marriage was viewed differently in previous generations, and was generally considered an institution between one man and one woman. In today's modern culture, the lines between what is acceptable in a union between two entities is much more blurred than it was in earlier years. There is a movement to accept marriage as it was previously defined as too old-fashioned. Accordingly, there is a larger percentage of individuals who divorce after marriage, or who oftentimes do not marry at all, preferring instead to cohabitate one with another. Such a scenario seems to be based on a lack of overall commitment to the relationship, and this same lack of commitment affects married couples as well.
One recent study determined that in the 1950's happy marriages were the result of marrying someone with similar…
Amato, P.R., & DeBoer, D. (2001). The transmission of marital instability across generations:Relationship skills or commitment to marriage? Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 63, pp. 1038 -- 1051
Bennett, J. & Ellison, J.; (2010) I don't, Newsweek, Vol. 155, Issue 25, pp. 42 -- 45
Bowen, M, Dr.; (2011) Bowen theory, accessed on December 21, 2011 at http://www.thebowencenter.org/pages/theory.html
Burgoyne, C.B.; Reibstein, J.; Edmunds, A.M.; Routh, D.A.; (2010) Marital commitment, money and marriage preparation: What changes after the wedding?, Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology, Vol. 20, Issue 5, pp. 390 -- 403
Recently I happened to see a Hindi movie with one of my friends from India. The name of the movie was Kaante, translated as "Problems" in English. The movie mainly revolved around three stars: one hero, one heroine, and one villain. The common theme of the movie was that the hero wants to please the heroine, but she dislikes the hero, because heroine is from a rich family, while hero belongs to a poor family. In an attempt to attract the heroine, the hero plays different tricks without being successful to woo the heroine. However, one morning while passing through the heroine's big house, he hears the crying sound of the heroine. Entering the house, he finds that the heroine's parents are on vacation and house-servants are on leave because of the local festivity. He finds the villain of the movie trying to threaten the heroine for marrying…
These were being make, passiveness or unassertiveness, and a father who avoids conflict with a teenage child. Parental guidance on safer sexual practices, skillful assertion, negotiation and resolution of conflicts all help improve dating communication between teenagers. ut parents' strategies in solving everyday conflicts and issues with teenage children may be the true basis for the safe-sex negotiations in their dating. Parents who actively engage in open disagreement with their teenage children may induce confidence in their children to assert themselves and communicate their preference with a sexual partner regarding the use of condoms. These strategies are likely to develop from safe-sex communication with parents (Feingold).
Parental Processes and Style
The Kaiser Family Foundation surveys suggested that teenagers whose parents monitor their children's whereabouts and particular behaviors tend to have only one sexual partner or avoid unprotected sex (Howell, 2001). A combination of high-level communication and parental monitoring works well…
Aspen (2009). Sexual promiscuity in adolescents. Fact Sheets. Aspen Education Group.
Retrieved on July 21, 2011 from http://www.aspeneducation.com/factsheetpromiscuity.html
Feingold, A. (2006). Parents can help reduce sexual risk-taking. PsychCentral:
PsychCentral.com. Retrieved on July 21, 2011 from http://psychcentral.com/lib/2006/parents-can-help-teens-reduce-sexual-risk-taking
If you're confused about sex, you've come to the right place. The Bible, more than any other modern resource, offers clear-cut guidelines for how to deal with sexuality and sexual behavior. In fact, sex is one of the Bible's favorite subjects. Throughout both the Old and New Testaments, the Bible offers advice for young people and old regarding their sexual conduct, sexual morals, and heterosexual relationships. The Bible spells out clearly what behaviors will make you happy and which will cause you problems. Now, you don't need a Bible to realize that improper sexual conduct can lead to problems like disease or to parenthood before you are ready. However, when you are confused, turn to the Bible for inspiration and guidance.
In spite of what you might think, the Bible is pro-sex. The Bible teaches that sex can be a sacred and profoundly spiritual act of union between…
Interestingly enough, one of the themes in the post-modernism period of American history has been the reexamination of the "real America," particularly the moral, ethical and sexual changes that have evolved since the turn of the century. This has not been a new theme, nor has it been relegated to non-fiction. At the beginning of the 20th century, American novelists were expanding the role fiction took by examining high and low life in society. Edith harton, for instance, found tremendous hypocrisy within the ranks of the Eastern elite in terms of morality and sexuality and in Sister Carrie, Theodore Dreiser portrayed a country girl who moved to the big city of Chicago to become a "kept woman," relinquishing her American morals for the pleasures of the flesh. Similarly, even in the stories of F. Scott Fitzgerald, John Dos Passos, and Ernest Hemingway there are notions and reexaminations of…
Bales, R. (2001). Social Interaction Systmes: Theory and Measurment. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.
Berthrong, J. (2004). Love, Lust and Sex- A Christian Perspective. Buddhist-Christian Studies, 24(2), 3-22.
Gosine, M. (2010). Whatever Happened to the Real America. Boston: Pearson.
Smith, J. (1996, March). The Christian View of Sex: A Time for Apologetics, not Apologies. Retrieved July 2011, from Cathlic Education Research Center: http://www.catholiceducation.org/articles/sexuality/se0004.html
Cradock's 2004 study of a correlation between population categories and child abuse lead to the development of an assessment tool that allowed social workers to determine when children were at risk for child abuse and when to intervene and what actions would be seen as an over-intervention. By using this assessment, social workers will not only know how to identify the serious danger of child abuse and what children are at-risk for being abused, but also the assessment makes it possible for social workers to determine when intervening in the situation may be dangerous or unnecessary for the children involved. Of similar importance are the tools developed to assess and evaluate those convicted of both child physical and sexual abuse. In Milner and Murphy's 1995 study, the methods of assessment and evaluation are discussed and critiqued. These methods, including interview, observation, personality tests, and offender-specific assessments, are all studied in…
Arad-Davidzon, Bilhah, and Benbenishty, Rami. "The role of workers' attitudes and parent and child wishes in child protection workers' assessments and recommendation regarding removal and reunification. Children and Youth Services Review. 30.1 (2008): 107-121.
Bray, James H. "Family Assessment: Current Issues in Evaluating Families." National
Council on Family Relations. 44.4 (1995): 469-477.
Buckner, Lynn P. And Salts, Connie J. "A Premarital Assessment Program." Family
(Coleman et al., 2006) there are more significant differences between race and ethnic groups in beliefs about intergenerational assistance than are expected by chance the differences are not large. As expected, White European-Americans perceive that less help should be given to older adults than is true of African-Americans and Asian-Americans. Unexpectedly, European-Americans and Latinos rarely differ in their beliefs about intergenerational assistance. When differences exist among the three minority groups, it is typically because African-Americans and Asian-Americans perceive that more help should be given to older family members than Latinos. The family plays a unique role in forming and sustaining intimate relationships; however, there have been notable changes in the family in the past 50 years. As marriages are being delayed, birth rates are decreasing, and maternal employment, divorce, cohabitation, and births to single mothers are increasing, the course of intimate relationships is becoming more diverse and less stable and…
Bean, R.A., Crane, D.R., & Lewis, T.L. (2002). Basic research and implications for practice in family science: A content analysis and status report for U.S. ethnic groups. Family Relations, 51, 15-21.
Bramlett, M.D., & Mosher, W.D. (2001). First marriage dissolution, divorce, and remarriage: United Stales (Advanced Data from Vital and Health Statistics No. 323). Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics.
Chadiha, L.A., Veroff, J., & Leber, D. (1998). Newlywed's narrative themes: Meaning in the first year of marriage for African-American and White couples. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 29, 115-130.
Coleman, M., Ganong, L.H., & Rothrauff, T.C. (2006, December). Racial and Ethnic Similarities and Differences in Beliefs about Intergenerational Assistance to Older Adults After Divorce and Remarriage. Family Relations, 55(5), pp. 576-587.