Prescription Drug Abuse Essays (Examples)

Filter results by:

 

View Full Essay

Drug Abuse and Rehabilitation in Long Island

Words: 1234 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18922499

Drug Abuse in Long Island, New York

With more than seven and a half million residents, Long Island, New York is a major center of commerce and education, but like many other densely populated large urban centers, this city also has a significant drug abuse problem. To determine the facts about the problem, this paper reviews the relevant literature to provide epidemiological evidence concerning the incidence of drug abuse in Long Island, and what community-based resources are available to its resident. Finally, a review of a recent research study article concerning these issues is followed by a summary of the research and important findings concerning drug abuse in Long Island in the conclusion.

eview and Analysis

Epidemiological evidence concerning drug abuse in Long Island

Like many other major American urban centers, all types of drugs are abuse in Long Island, but heroin abuse in particular has become a serious problem…… [Read More]

References

About Long Island Addiction Resources. (2017). Long Island Addiction Resources. Retrieved from http://liaddictionresources.com/.

About Long Island Center for Recovery. (2017). Long Island Center for Recovery. Retrieved from http://www.longislandcenterrecovery.com/.

About Outreach House. (2017). Outreach House. Retrieved from http://www.opiny.org/ outreach-treatment/adolescent-residential-svcs/brentwood-long-island.

About Seafield Center Alcohol and Substance Abuse Treatment. (2017). Seafield Center Alcohol and Substance Abuse Treatment. Retrieved from http://www.seafieldcenter.com/ about_us.
View Full Essay

Prescription Drug Use Research Pradel V Delga

Words: 1192 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19434616

Prescription Drug Use Research

Pradel, V., Delga, C., Rouby, F., Micallef, J. nd Lapeyre-Mestre, M. (2010). ssessment of buse Potential of Benzodiazepines from a Prescription Database Using 'Doctor Shopping' as an Indicator. CNS Drugs, 24(7), 611-620.

This study involved assessing the potential for abuse of several benzodiazepines using so called doctor shopping and to recommend that a "doctor shopping indicator" statistic can be useful in reducing prevalence of prescription drug over-use.

McCabe, S.E., West, B.T., Morales, M., Cranford, J.., Boyd, C.J. (2008). Does early onset of non-medical use of prescription drugs predict subsequent prescription drug abuse and dependence? Results from a national study. ddiction, 102, pgs. 1920 -- 1930 doi:10.1111/j.1360-0443.2007.02015.x

This study examined the associations between early onset of non-medical use of prescription drugs and the development of prescription drug abuse and dependence in the United States. Research participants comprised a nationally representative cross-sectional sample of civilian non-institutionalized adults aged…… [Read More]

Article 10:

Higgins, G.E., Mahoney, M., Ricketts, M.L. (2009). Non-Social Reinforcement of the Non-Medical Use of Prescription Drugs: A partial test of social learning and self-control theories. Journal of Drug Issues. 949-964.

Researchers examined the explanation of the nonmedical use of prescription drugs to test the comparative utility of two theories of drug use (i.e., social learning theory and self-control theory) on the nonmedical use of prescription drug use. Using data from the 2006 Monitoring the Future Survey, they found that both theories have a link with the nonmedical use of prescription drugs. A consistent theme was that social learning theory had a consistent link with the nonmedical use of prescription drugs. However, self-control and nonsocial reinforcement have inconsistent links with the nonmedical use of prescription drugs.
View Full Essay

Drug Abused Pregnant With Fetus

Words: 1460 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69338994

Substance Abuse Upon a Fetus

Women's Issues

The Effects of Substance Abuse upon a Fetus

The Effects of Substance Abuse upon a Fetus

The ideas and consensus regarding what is appropriate behavior for pregnant women has changed in the world over the course of modern history, and specifically over the course of the past few decades. It is commonly held in modern countries around the world that substance abuse of any kind of drug is harmful and to be avoided during pregnancy. The fetus within the womb and the mother are connected in innumerable ways during pregnancy. This is why it is often said that what happens to the mother during pregnancy, also happens to the fetus. If the mother experiences stress during pregnancy, the fetus experiences stress, too. If the mother is high on cocaine throughout pregnancy, the fetus will ingest cocaine as well, in several ways, but primarily…… [Read More]

References:

Bondi, P. (2013). Statewide Task Force on Prescription Drug Abuse & Newborns. Florida State Attorney General, Web, Available from:  http://myfloridalegal.com/webfiles.nsf/WF/RMAS-94LJPF/$file/Statewide_Task_Force_on_Prescription_Drug_Abuse_and_Newborns_Final_Report.pdf . 2013 May 19.

Chasnoff, I.J., Burns, K.A., & Burns, W.J. (1987). Cocaine use in pregnancy: Perinatal morbidity and mortality. Neurotoxicology and teratology, 9(4), 291-293.

Curet, L.B., & Hsi, A.C. (2002). Drug abuse during pregnancy. Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology, 45(1), 73-88.

Ebrahim, S.H., & Gfroerer, J. (2003). Pregnancy-related substance use in the United States during 1996-1998. Obstetrics & Gynecology, 101(2), 374-379.
View Full Essay

Prescription Drugs and the Health

Words: 1724 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73682728

The FDA also, amongst others, has recommended that clinical trials used to support advertising claims be approved by the FDA and to institute stiff fines against those found gaily of deceptive tactics. (Turning Medicine Into Snake Oil...) There is little doubt from the research that pharmaceutical companies have to be made more accountable for their products and advertising promises.

eferences

Borden Anne. Vioxx Stroke isk could last for Years. 2007. etrieved June 1, 2007 at http://www.lawyersandsettlements.com/articles/00888/vioxx-stroke-risk.html

Deceptive Prescription Drug Marketing Tactics 'Common and Dangerous'. 2006.

etrieved June 1,2007, at http://www.uspirg.org/newsroom/health-care/health-care-news/deceptive-prescription-drug-marketing-tactics-common-and-dangerous

Introduction to the Health Care Industry: Health Expenditures and Services in the U.S. etrieved June 1, 2007, at http://www.plunkettresearch.com/HealthCare/HealthCareTrends/tabid/294/Default.aspx

O'Connor K. x for prescription drugs. etrieved June 1, 2007, at http://www.oconnorhealthanalyst.com/pgs/rx.html

Oxycontin Manufacturer Agrees to Plead Guilty and Pay Fine of $600,000,000.

etrieved June 1, 2007, at http://tyler.injuryboard.com/defective-products/oxycontin-manufacturer-agrees-to-plead-guilty-and-pay-fine-of-600000000.php?googleid=8636

Prescription Meds Changing Health Care. etrieved June 1, 2007, from Spending http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/medicalnews.php?newsid=60788…… [Read More]

References

Borden Anne. Vioxx Stroke Risk could last for Years. 2007. Retrieved June 1, 2007 at http://www.lawyersandsettlements.com/articles/00888/vioxx-stroke-risk.html

Deceptive Prescription Drug Marketing Tactics 'Common and Dangerous'. 2006.

Retrieved June 1,2007, at http://www.uspirg.org/newsroom/health-care/health-care-news/deceptive-prescription-drug-marketing-tactics-common-and-dangerous

Introduction to the Health Care Industry: Health Expenditures and Services in the U.S. Retrieved June 1, 2007, at http://www.plunkettresearch.com/HealthCare/HealthCareTrends/tabid/294/Default.aspx
View Full Essay

Prescription Drugs Number of Medicare

Words: 1531 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92313347

The Act creates a positive balance between government interests to save money and the interests of Medicare recipients to receive a wide range of drugs for their specific needs. The current ban on government negotiations with pharmaceutical companies serves to protect Medicate recipients by using the positives of the free market, such as the experience and purchasing power of PBMs. hile there are serious potential problems with this approach, such as the potential for fraud between pharmaceutical companies and private interests, overall the ban on government negotiations with pharmaceutical companies provides a good balance between recipient and government interests.

orks Cited

American Legislative Exchange Council. Prescription Drugs. 19 October 2005. http://www.alec.org/2/4/talking-points/7.html

Barry, Patricia. New Salvos in the Prescription Drug ars: Class action suits are exposing schemes that gouge consumers. AARP Bulletin, January 2005.

19 October 2005. http://www.aarp.org/bulletin/prescription/a2005-01-06-salvos.html

Dealey, Sam. Drug Dealings: Democrats had it right before. National Review Online, May…… [Read More]

Works Cited

American Legislative Exchange Council. Prescription Drugs. 19 October 2005. http://www.alec.org/2/4/talking-points/7.html

Barry, Patricia. New Salvos in the Prescription Drug Wars: Class action suits are exposing schemes that gouge consumers. AARP Bulletin, January 2005.

19 October 2005. http://www.aarp.org/bulletin/prescription/a2005-01-06-salvos.html

Dealey, Sam. Drug Dealings: Democrats had it right before. National Review Online, May 05, 2004, 9:12 A.M. 19 October 2005. http://www.nationalreview.com/comment/dealey200405050912.asp
View Full Essay

Drug Abuse in Eastern Kentucky

Words: 3027 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29623389

drug use and abuse in the United States and presents differing approaches that are used (or proposed) to get a handle on the problem. There is no doubt that the drug abuse issue is not new and it is not being reduced by any significant amount. This paper presents statistics and scholarly research articles that delve into various aspects of the drug abuse issue in the United States, with particular emphasis on drugs that are abused in eastern Kentucky and generally in the Appalachian communities.

History of Drug Use & Availability

The history of illegal drug use in the United States goes back to the 19th Century, according to the U.S. Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA). The DEA has a Museum in Arlington, Virginia, that illustrates the history of drug discoveries, drug use, and drug abuse through the years. The DEA reports that morphine, heroin, and cocaine were "discovered" in the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bureau of Justice Statistics. (2008). Drugs and Crime Facts / Drug Use / Youth. Retrieved November 30, 2012, from http://bjs.ojp.usdog.gov.

Drug Enforcement Agency. (2012). Illegal Drugs in America: A Modern History. Retrieved November 30, 2012, from  http://www.deamuseum.org .

Grant, Judith. (2007). Rural women's stories of recovery from addition. Addiction Research and Theory, 15(5), 521-541.

Havens, Jennifer R., Oser, Carrie B., and Leukefeld, Carl G. (2011). Injection risk behaviors
View Full Essay

Drug Culture Final the Second

Words: 1767 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88370120

Brick and Cutter's Way can be categorized as both thrillers and films noir due to the fact that the narratives of these films revolve around an investigation into the mysterious deaths of young women at the hands of power-hungry men. While the investigation in Brick is fueled by a desire to expose a drug trafficking ring at a high school, thus making drugs a central issue, drugs in Cutter's Way are not a factor that contributed to the deaths of the individuals Cutter was looking into. However, that is not to say that drugs to not play a major role, as Cutter is heavily addicted to alcohol, which causes him to be discredited despite the fact that he is able to solve not only the crime at hand, but also reveal why his father was targeted by the same murderer years before.

On the other hand, Cabin in the Woods,…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Drug Abuse Economically Alcohol Consumption Causes Injuries

Words: 1265 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10008471

Drug Abuse Economically

Alcohol consumption causes injuries, deaths and other problems in the society. In order to reduce the problem economists must understand it, and know the economic burden or effects it causes. Economists approach the problem using costs and further put it in real numbers. Economists use assumptions to simplify their work, and focus on what that really matters. They make rational decisions based on reason, and encourage them to act using that reason and not based on facts. They think at the margin while isolating variables; thus the notion that economists can be said to act rationally based on in their own interest.

Economic Approach

Different factors should be considered when looking at alcohol consumption. Economists should use statistics to know the rate of alcohol consumption, and the increasing alcohol consumption rates. Many people tend to believe alcohol myths, which are unrealistic and misleading. Believing and acting on…… [Read More]

References

Korgen, K.W., White, J.M. And White, S.K. (2008). Sociologists In Action. Atlanta: Pine Forge Press.

Lipsey, R.H. And Harbury, C. (1992). First Principles of Economics. New York: Oxford.

Managerial Economics. FK Publications.
View Full Essay

Drug Abuse Scenario Analysis

Words: 1958 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41487760

drives under the influence of alcohol, it is a criminal offense abbreviated as driving under the influence (DUI). However alcohol is but one of the many substances that can interfere with one's driving capability. DUI charges can also be pressed against individuals who are driving under the influence of other kinds of drugs, including illegal drugs and even prescription medication. Taking drugs and driving at the same time, whether the drugs are just prescription muscle relaxers or medicinal marijuana is illegal and a DUI offense. The argument that one took drugs because of doctor's orders is not a defense to DUI charges. Various drugs have different effects on drivers. The drugs that impair concentration, judgment, alertness and/or motor skills are regarded as dangerous and in several cases even more dangerous than alcohol. Driving while having a blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of more than 0.08% or higher is illegal in the…… [Read More]

References

African-Americans, Substance Abuse and Spirituality - Minority Nurse. (2013, March 29). Retrieved from http://minoritynurse.com/african-americans-substance-abuse-and-spirituality/

Cohagan, A., Worthington, R., & Krause, R. (2013, July 3). Alcohol and Substance Abuse Evaluation . Retrieved from http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/805084-overview#aw2aab6b3

FindLaw. (n.d.). Driving Under the Influence of Drugs - FindLaw. Retrieved from http://dui.findlaw.com/dui-charges/driving-under-the-influence-of- drugs.html

MedlinePlus. (n.d.). Steroids: MedlinePlus. Retrieved from http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/steroids.html
View Full Essay

Prescription Pill Abuse Epidemic

Words: 703 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83697666

Perception of Drug Companies

The author of this response has been asked to respond to several questions that pertain to the pharmaceutical industry. In order, those questions will be what practice, factor or event has been most damaging to the public perception of the pharmaceutical industry, what practice, factor or event has been most enhancing of the public perception of the pharmaceutical industry and what would be the most effective day for the medical product industry to improve its public image. While drugs are most certainly life-saving and life-sustaining, there are also some major problems that are present and thus must be dealt with.

While it is easy to point to the recent "pharma bro" brouhaha with Turing Pharmaceuticals and drug pricing overall, most people have coverage and what Turing did is not really that common in terms of frequency and the amount of companies that devolve into the practices…… [Read More]

References

CDC. (2016). Understanding the Epidemic -- Prescription Drug Overdose -- CDC Injury Center. Cdc.gov. Retrieved 18 February 2016, from http://www.cdc.gov/drugoverdose/epidemic/

Chandler, A. (2015). Who Is 'Pharma Bro'? The Atlantic. Retrieved 18 February 2016, from http://www.theatlantic.com/national/archive/2015/12/pharma-bro-martin-shkreli/421083/
View Full Essay

Psychology - Drug Abuse in

Words: 360 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86439316

Whereas the harms associated with some illicit (and prescription) drugs is cumulative, some of the most popular recreational drugs such as ecstasy actually destroy neurons each and every time they are used.

Each time you take ecstasy, for example, neurons dedicated to respond to the neurotransmitter dopamine lose their ability to do so. As a result, ecstasy use in particular is known to interfere with the natural neurotransmitter reuptake mechanism. This impairs your ability to maintain a healthy mental frame of mind because dopamine reception and reuptake is fundamentally important to perceiving pleasure and to experiencing happiness. Ultimately this is a major cause of clinical depression in young people, requiring life-long treatment with antidepressant medications which are associated with negative side effects of their own. Suicide is also directly attributable to the psychological effects of clinical depression. Therefore, if you hope to achieve your academic potential and to avoid causing…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Tackling Drug Abuse

Words: 1646 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22657399

Inhalants refer to the ordinary household products that are sniffed or inhaled by individuals so as to get high. There are many household products that are misused as inhalants. Some of these products include gasoline, hair spray, fabric protector, air conditioner fluid, nail polish remover, and correction fluid, propellants in aerosol, cleaning fluids and cooking spray. These products are mainly bagged, sniffed, snorted so as one to get high. They can be sniffed directly from the containers. In most cases when an individual is under the influence of such inhalants one is likely to engage in anti-social or criminal behavior (Ksir, 2002). This report endeavors to explain the theoretical and empirical literature regarding theories of drug information and addiction.

The intoxicating inhalants that have volatile vapors are ingested through the trachea and nose. However, some inhalants are used for medical reasons as in the case of nitrous oxide. The inhalation…… [Read More]

References

Dick, DM & Bierut, LJ (2006). "The Genetics of Alcohol Dependency." Current Psychiatric Reports 8 (2): 151 -- 7

Ksir, Oakley Ray; Charles (2002). Drugs, society, and human behavior (9th Ed.). Boston

[u.a.]: McGraw-Hil

Morse, RM & Flavin, DK (August 26, 1992). "The definition of alcoholism, The Joint Committee of the National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence and the American Society of Addiction Medicine to Study the Definition and Criteria for the Diagnosis of Alcoholism." The Journal of the American Medical Association 268 (8): 1012 -- 4
View Full Essay

Teen Drug Abuse - Prescription or Not

Words: 5056 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15688478

Teen Drug Abuse - Prescription or Not

Differences between nonalcoholic offspring of alcoholics (family history positive, FHP) and matched offspring of nonalcoholics (family history negative, FHN) have been identified on a variety of behavioral, cognitive, and neurological measures. Compared to FHN teens, FHP adolescents and young adults demonstrate more disturbed school careers, impulsivity, rebelliousness, and nonconformity (National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2006); poorer neuropsychological performance (Worden & Slater, 2009); and significantly lower amplitude in P300 brain waves, which are believed to measure selective attention (Cicero, et al. 2005). Further, following ingestion of alcohol, sons of alcoholics report less body sway and less subjective intoxication (Grant, et al., 2005), higher levels of flushing (McBride, 2011), and decreased P300 amplitudes when performing difficult tasks (Foster, et al., 2009).

Not all individuals with a family history of alcohol dependence become alcohol and/or drug abusers, however, and genetics alone cannot account for…… [Read More]

Resources

Ajzen, I. (2010). The theory of planned behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50(2), 179-211.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC]. (2006). Youth risk behavior surveillance -- United States, 2005. MMWR 2006, 55.

Cicero, T.J., Inciardi, J.A., & Munoz, A. (2005). Trends in abuse of OxyContin and other opioid analgesics in the United States: 2002-2004. The Journal of Pain, 6, 662-672.

Drug Enforcement Administration. (2005). Prescription pain medications: Frequently asked questions and answers for health care professionals and law enforcement personnel. Journal of Pain and Palliative Care Pharmacotherapy, 19(1), 71-104.
View Full Essay

U S Soldiers and Drug Abuse

Words: 2241 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87155212



One of the most frequent injuries is represented by the traumatic brain ones.. amongst other symptoms, one can mention anxiety, severe depression. Headaches and the difficulty to reason clearly. PTSD, post traumatic stress disorder is also manifested through depression, insomnia, flashback.

It is important to underline that these psychological disorders are usually associated with drug abuse. Taking this into consideration, it can be underlined that we are dealing with a social phenomenon. Most soldiers do not have the psychological training needed in order to do what they need to do once in combat. War has never been and could never be a pretty things, so the atrocities that these young men witness or are forced to do, shake them up psychologically. The use of drugs is to be understood in close connection to this factor.

Depression is not a factor that can be ignored. And there is no time for…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Allen, T., the Iraq war-on drugs, 2006, March 20, 2008 http://www.inthesetimes.com/article/2670/

Alcohol and other drugs plague soldiers in Iraq, March 20, 2008 http://www.jointogether.org/news/research/summaries/2005/alcohol-and-other-drugs-in.html

Kelly, R., U.S. soldiers in Iraq suffer horrific brain and mental injuries, 2004, March 20, 2008 http://www.wsws.org/articles/2004/nov2004/sold-n20.shtml

Millitary Drug Programs, March 20, 2008 www.jackson.army.mil/Directorates/Asap.htm
View Full Essay

Illegal Drug Use Implications

Words: 710 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72701892

Drugs and Behavior

What are drugs exactly and what are some ways drug users get away with illegal usage?

Defining drugs use is a surprisingly difficult proposition. The definition as stated in the session II review is as follows: "any substance taken into the body that alters the function or structure of the body organs ... that changes body state or mental function." But this definition might not only apply to the substances that we would normally consider to be a "drug," but also to substances like chocolate. For example, chocolate has properties that have been shown to change body state and mental function by making a user feel happier for example. Furthermore, drugs can also be naturally occurring substances such as marijuana or mushrooms and thus cannot be further classified in regards to being synthetic substances. There are also countless useful drugs that significantly improve an individual's well-being. Thus…… [Read More]

References

OHSINC. (N.d.). How to Beat a Drug Test. Retrieved from OHSINC: http://www.ohsinc.com/info/how-to-cheat-a-drug-test/

The Economist. (2015, July 16). President Obama for the prisoners. Retrieved from The Economist: http://www.economist.com/blogs/democracyinamerica/2015/07/criminal-justice-reform

The White House. (N.d.). Prescription Drug Abuse. Retrieved from Office of National Drug Control Policy: https://www.whitehouse.gov/ondcp/prescription-drug-abuse
View Full Essay

History of Direct to Consumer Advertising of Prescription Drug Products in US

Words: 729 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57150721

History of Direct to Consumer Advertising of Prescription Drugs in the U.S.

Imagine this: you are at home watching television one evening after work. As you casually flip through the channels searching for something interesting to watch, you notice a multitude of advertisements for prescription drug products. This form of advertisement is known as direct-to-consumer advertising, and is now well-known to practically all American households. One needs only to watch virtually any commercial television program or to browse through any consumer-directed magazine to view advertisements for a variety of prescription drugs. In regard to broadcast media, this is a relatively new phenomenon because, for many years, pharmaceutical manufacturers had to follow certain requirements. These requirements consisted of the inclusion of a substantial amount of material about the drug product's side effects, contraindications, and effectiveness.

Recent changes in 1999 under the guidance of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) altered the…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Jackson, Charles O. (1970). "Food and Drug Legislation in the New Deal." Princeton University

Press.

Palumbo, Francis B. "The Development of Direct-to-Consumer Prescription Drug Advertising

Regulation." Food and Drug Law Journal 57.3 (2002). 423-443.
View Full Essay

Substance Abuse in the Military

Words: 1400 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83212221

Drugs and Alcohol Abuse

The United States military faces considerable difficulty related to substance abuse amongst its personnel. It is critical to denote that its substance abuse issues pertain to both active personnel on duty, as well as to veterans. Of the myriad issues that the military faces, one is the evolving nature of substance abuse in the 21st century. Whereas such abuse has traditionally focused on alcohol and illegal narcotics, there is a stronger emphasis on the abuse of prescription medication. This abuse, in addition to binge drinking, (Institute of Medicine, 2015, p. 243) has considerable ramifications for the aforementioned military personnel. Active personnel face situations in which their readiness and ability to engage in combat is impaired by over-consumption of drugs and alcohol, whereas veterans must reckon with decreased quality of life and ability to successfully reintegrate into society because of the same problems.

Consequence of War ?…… [Read More]

References

American Psychological Association. (2003). Guidelines on multicultural education, training, research, practice, and organizational change for psychologists. American Psychologist. 58(5), 377-402.

Bohart, A.C., Tallman, K. (1999). How Clients Make Therapy Work: The Process of Active Self-Healing. New York: American Psychological Association.

Furuya, S., Slobodzien, J. (2015). ASAP Triage (brief screen note) for:.

Furuya, S., Slobodzien, J. (2015). Confidential treatment program. ASAP Triage.
View Full Essay

The Nida Drug Abuse Screener

Words: 772 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85630952

Substance Disorder

There are a number of different instruments that are used to diagnose substance disorders. One of these NIAMED, which has an online screening tool, the NIDA Drug Screening Tool. This test is used for screening. The patient is surveyed with respect to his/her use of various drugs, both illegal and prescription, with the focus on non-FDA approved uses of the latter. The tool was launched in 2009 as an aid to help physicians quickly and easily screen their patients for drug abuse risk (NIAMED, 2009).

This test is typically administered online, but it can be administered in offline format. The test is a survey. The results are provided at the end of the survey when the test is administered online. The test is one of the more basic tests, in that it is a single source, single method test that only focuses on frequency of usage and on…… [Read More]

References

Brown, R., Leonard, T., Saunders, L, & Papasouliotis, O. (1997). A two-item screening test for alcohol and other drug problems. Journal of Family Practice. 44 (2) 151-160.

NIAMED (2009). NIDA launches drug use screening tools for physicians. National Institutes of Health. Retrieved May 9, 2016 from https://www.nih.gov/news-events/news-releases/nida-launches-drug-use-screening-tools-physicians

NIDA Drug Screening Tool. (2016). Retrieved May 9, 2016 from https://www.drugabuse.gov/nmassist/

Rahdert, E. & Czechowicz, D. (1995). Adolescent drug abuse: Clinical assessment and therapeutic interventions. NIDA Research Monograph. Retrieved May 9, 2016 from http://digisrv-2.biblio.etc.tu-bs.de:8081/docportal/servlets/MCRFileNodeServlet/DocPortal_derivate_00001904/Monograph156.pdf#page=152
View Full Essay

Drug Profile

Words: 1740 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26459243

Drug Profile

Drug addiction is a human issue that cultivates biological, psychological, and social consequences, among others. The manifestation of addiction itself is characterized by physical dependence, and is defined by the uncontrollable, compulsive urge to seek and use drugs despite harmful repercussions (Fernandez, odriguez & Villa, 2011). Philologically, drug use affects the reward center, where dopamine receptors are over-stimulated. Ultimately, the repetition of drug use is encouraged to achieve the same, heightened, pleasure response (U.S. DHHS, 2007). Psychological responses to drug use may reflect motivations caused by positive pleasure, anxiety, or protection. The bodily effects of drugs often reflect the drug's class: stimulants, depressants, narcotics, hallucinogen, and cannabis. Each class represents various drugs and causes distinct biochemical responses. In addition to illicit drugs, prescription drugs are also highly abused and are categorized within the drug classes. Drug addiction does not discriminate between gender, race, sexual orientation or creed, and…… [Read More]

References

Connecticut Department of Mental Health and Addiction Services (CDMHAS). (n.d.). Drugs with addictive potential. Retrieved 08 March 2012 from: http://www.ctclearinghouse.org/topics/customer-files/Drugs-with-Addictive-Potential-071105.pdf

Coon, D., & Mitterer, J. (2009). Psychology: A journey. (1st ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

Fernandez, G., Rodriguez, O., & Villa, R. (2011). Neuropsychology and drug addiction. Papeles del Psicologo, 32(2), 159-165.

Hyman, S., & Malenka, R. (2001). Addiction and the brain: The neurobiology of compulsion and its persistence. Neuroscience, 2, 695-703.
View Full Essay

Drug Legalization as the Country

Words: 3788 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89122943



"As a case in point we may take the known fact of the prevalence of reefer and dope addiction in Negro areas. This is essentially explained in terms of poverty, slum living, and broken families, yet it would be easy to show the lack of drug addiction among other ethnic groups where the same conditions apply." Inciardi 248()

Socio-economic effects

Legalizing drugs has been deemed to have many socio-economic effects. A study that was conducted by Jeffrey a. Miron, who was a Harvard economist estimated that by legalizing drugs, this would inject about $76.8 billion in to the U.S. every year. 44.1 billion dollars would come from savings made from the law enforcement measures and 32.7 billion would be from tax revenue. This revenue can be thought to be broken down as follows: 6.7 billion dollars from marijuana, 22.5 billion from heroin and cocaine and the rest from the other…… [Read More]

References

Blumenson, Eric, and Eva S. Nilsen. How to Construct an Underclass, or How the War on Drugs Became a War on Education. Massachusetts: Drug Policy Forum of Massachusetts, 2002. Print.

Campos, Isaac. "Degeneration and the Origins of Mexico's War on Drugs." Mexican Studies/Estudios Mexicanos 26.2 (2010): 379-408. Print.

Chabat, Jorge. "Mexico's War on Drugs: No Margin for Maneuver." Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 582.ArticleType: research-article / Issue Title: Cross-National Drug Policy / Full publication date: Jul., 2002 / Copyright © 2002 American Academy of Political and Social Science (2002): 134-48. Print.

Council on Hemispheric Affairs. "Low Taxation Perpetuates Insecurity in Central America." 2011. May 5th 2012. .
View Full Essay

Drug Crime Does Research Evidence Suggest That

Words: 908 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45481255

Drug Crime

Does research evidence suggest that current policies on drugs and crime are still appropriate?

While "tough" policies designed to curb drug use and distribution are attractive politically, and look good on paper, research shows that such policies are no longer appropriate. Instead of responding to drug use as a public health problem, governments like that of the United States and the United Kingdom still regards criminalization as "the sine qua non-of responsible policy-making," (Downes and Morgan, 2007, p. 212). Unfortunately, the criminalization approach happens to also be irresponsible policy making based on emotion rather than fact. Governments with criminalization policies like the United States and Great Britain show a disturbing "state of denial" about the way criminalization creates and enhances organized crime, and may have even exacerbated some types of substance abuse (Downes and Morgan, 2007, p. 212).

Drug use patterns have also changed dramatically, requiring an intelligent…… [Read More]

References

Downes, D. And Morgan, R. (1992, 1997, 2002, and 2007) in M. Maguire, M. Morgan and R. Reiner (eds) The Oxford Handbook of Criminology. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

South, N. (2007) 'Drugs, Alcohol and Crime' in M. Maguire, R. Morgan, and R. Reiner (eds) The Oxford Handbook of Criminology (4th edn). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
View Full Essay

Drug Enforcement Strategies

Words: 2653 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22350168

In jails, not one of the violent criminals was under the influence of heroin at the time their crime was committed. Twenty-one percent of state inmates incarcerated for violent crime were under the influence of alcohol alone at the time they committed their crime. The number of those under the influence of marijuana alone was too small to be recorded statistically. (National 1998) These facts indicate that it is not the drug users that are committing the crimes, but the people who deal with drugs. If there was no money to be gained from dealing with drugs, these criminals would have to find legitimate jobs and the police would only have to worry about traffic.

The efforts to target youth with drug education in the ar on Drugs has fallen far short of its original goals. The ONDCP is budgeting less than 12% of the $100 million it was planning…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Drug Enforcement Division. City of Orlando Police Investigations, Orlando Police Department Website. 6 November, 2006 http://www.cityoforlando.net/police/investigations/ded.htm

Madigan, Lisa, "Strategies for Fighting Meth: Law Enforcement Strategies." Illinois Attorney General. 6 November, 2006  http://www.illinoisattorneygeneral.gov/methnet/fightmeth/law.html#content 

National Center on Addition and substance Abuse at Columbia University (CASA) Behind Bars: Substance Abuse and America's Prison Population. New York: Columbia University, 1998.

McCaffrey, Barry R.. The National Drug Control Strategy, 1998: A Ten-Year Plan. Washington, DC: Office of National Drug Control Policy, 1998. p. 58.
View Full Essay

Drug Legalization of Drugs Legalization

Words: 3087 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44577201

Economists are concerned with the impact that the sale of drugs has on both individual and economic freedoms and frame their argument from this perspective. Others argue that reliance on the criminal justice system has not produced significant results and that it is time to reframe the argument to focus on the education, prevention, and treatment of drugs.

From the economic perspective, there are apparent differences between government prohibition and legalization of drugs. It has been estimated that total government expenditures devoted to the enforcement of drug laws is well in excess of $26 billion. These figures are also significant in state and local law enforcement agencies with drug related incidents making up one fifth of the total investigative resources and drug enforcement activities. Approximately 25% of the total prison population, municipal, state and federal, is made up of drug law violators. In fact, ten percent of all arrests are…… [Read More]

References

Millhorn, M., Monoghan, M., Montero, D., Reyes, M., Roman, T., Tollasken, R., & Walls, B. (2009). North Americans' attitudes toward illegal drugs. Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment, 19(2), 125-141.

Miron, J.A. (2001). The economics of drug prohibition and drug legalization. Social Research, 68(3), 835-855.

National Institute on Drug Abuse (1998). The economic cost of alcohol and drug abuse in the United States. National Institute of Health Publication, 98-4327.

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. (2009, April). National household survey on drug abuse main findings, 1998.
View Full Essay

Drug Alcohol Abuse Drug and Alcohol

Words: 2315 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76887406

Substance use is frequently associated with child abuse and domestic violence. It also is a leading contributor to marital dissatisfaction, family breakups and rejection of family members. The importance of the family in understanding alcohol and drug use and abuse is underlined by these highly destructive consequences of alcohol and drug dependency on the abuser and the family. (Lala; Straussner; Fewell, 17)

Peer Group plays an important part in resolving the problem as they are able to take the drug or alcohol abuser more into confidence compared to others since most people associate themselves with their respective peer group in terms of habits, tastes and concerns. It has been demonstrated that a drug abuser will definitely abide by a member of the peer group to which he belongs and obey requests of abstinence more than anyone else. Educational system also plays an important role in tackling the prevalence of the…… [Read More]

References

Ammerman, Robert T; Ammerman, Peggy J. Ott; Tarter, Ralph E. (1999) "Prevention and Societal Impact of Drug and Alcohol Abuse" Routledge.

Lala, Shulamith; Straussner, Ashenberg; Fewell, Christine Huff. (2006) "Impact of Substance

Abuse on Children and Families: Research" Haworth Press.

Laufer, William S. The Legacy of Anomie Theory: Advances in Criminological Theory.
View Full Essay

Drug Policies Major Policies History

Words: 3387 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8012701

14). Soon, Congress passed the Marijuana Tax Act, which was signed into law in 1937. Like the Harrison Act, the Marijuana Tax Act placed marijuana into the same category as the cocaine and opium drugs. It was now illegal to import marijuana into the United States (McWilliams, 1991). However, this law was ineffective in curbing marijuana use (Brecher, 1986, p. 14).

By the early 1940s narcotic addiction had significantly reduced in the United States (Harrison, Backenheimer and Inciardi, 1999). However, this was not the result of legislative initiatives. Instead, it was because World War II was cutting off the "supplies of opium from Asia and interrupt the trafficking routes from Europe" (Inciardi, 1992, p. 24).

Several other legislative efforts in the supply reduction department served to establish more severe penalties for violations of drug laws, and tighten controls and restrictions over legally manufactured narcotic drugs (Harrison, Backenheimer and Inciardi, 1999).…… [Read More]

References

1999). Recreational Drug Information. History of Drug Use U.S. Retrieved from the Internet at www.a1b2c3.com/drugs/.

Brecher, E. (1986). Drug Laws and Drug Law Enforcement: A Review and Evaluation Based on 111 Years of Experience,' Drugs and Society 1:1.

Drucker, Ernest. (1999). Harm Reduction: A Public Health Strategy. Current Issues in Public Health, 1: pp. 64-70.

Drug Policy Alliance. (February 17, 2005). Harm Reduction: Options that Work. Retrieved from the Internet at  http://www.drugpolicy.org/news/021705harm.cfm .
View Full Essay

Drug and Alcohol Abuse Over

Words: 1450 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92179665

In some cases, these issues or problems stem from different cultural views and beliefs. While at other times, these issues will affect someone who lives in an environment with: parental drug/alcohol related problems, disruptions to the family, social deprivations, the lack of economic opportunities, physical/sexual abuse, peer pressure and stress. The question I will try to determine is whether or not ethnicity and economic factors play a major influence in determining who will be the most likely to abuse drugs and alcohol?

This will highlight the primary reasons as to why someone will begin using these stimulants on a regular basis. Once this is determined, one can provide specific insights that will illustrate the root causes of the problem and their lasting effect on society.

Describe the data collection method (Research Method)

The basic approach that will be used for collecting and analyzing the data is evaluation research. This is…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Drug Use in Teens

Words: 1071 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22600247

Drug Use in Adolescents

The author of this report has been charged with writing a brief scholarly report with a few key components. The author of this report has been asked to select a topic of interest. That selected topic shall be substance and drug abuse in adolescents. As part of this scholarly report, there will be three major components. The first will be a description of the area of interest and why the author of this report is interested in it. Second, there will be a brief literature review with scholarly sources that cover that same topic. Finally, there will be a reflection and reaction to the literature review including whether there was agreement, how the author of this report perceives the involved paradigm(s) and so forth. While many kids avoid the pitfalls and negative outcomes of drug use and abuse, many fall prey sometimes or many times and…… [Read More]

References

Jaynes, S. (2014). Using Social Disorganization Theory to Guide Substance Abuse

Prevention among Adolescents: Implications for Educators. Journal Of At-Risk

Issues, 18(1), 35-40.

Lanza, H.I., Grella, C.E., & Chung, P.J. (2014). Does Adolescent Weight Status
View Full Essay

Non-Medical Usage of Prescription Medications

Words: 2536 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40241850

Addiction of Teenagers to Prescription Drugs

Addiction of teenage prescription drugs

The problem of addiction of teenagers to prescription drugs has been on rise in modern days. It is estimated that daily in the United States 2,500 youth abuse prescription drugs. This is not only a problem in the United States, but it also affects teenagers in Europe, South Asia, and Southern Africa. Over 15 million people have reported abusing prescription drugs globally. This is higher than those who reported abusing heroin, cocaine, and hallucinogens. A 2007 survey carried out in the United States in 2007 indicated that in one month 6% of 17 to 25-year-olds and 3.3% of 12 to 17-year-olds had abused prescription drugs. This might seem like a low number, but considering that this only happened in one month you can imagine how prevalent the rates would be in one year. A survey conducted in 2012 found…… [Read More]

References

Cranford, J.A., McCabe, S.E., & Boyd, C.J. (2013). Adolescents' nonmedical use and excessive medical use of prescription medications and the identification of substance use subgroups. Addictive Behaviors, 38(11), 2768-2771.

Drazdowski, T.K., Jaggi, L., Borre, A., & Kliewer, W.L. (2014). Use of Prescription Drugs and Futur e Delinquency among Adolescent Offenders. Journal of substance abuse treatment.

Havens, J.R., Young, A.M., & Havens, C.E. (2011). Nonmedical prescription drug use in a nationally representative sample of adolescents: Evidence of greater use among rural adolescents. Archives of pediatrics & adolescent medicine, 165(3), 250-255.

McCabe, S.E., Boyd, C.J., & Young, A. (2007). Medical and nonmedical use of prescription drugs among secondary school students. Journal of Adolescent Health, 40(1), 76-83.
View Full Essay

Alcohol Abuse and Dependence Among the Elders

Words: 1360 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76994226

Benshoff, John J. & Laura K. Harrawood, Darwin Shane Koch. (Apr-May 2003) "Substance abuse and the elderly: unique issues and concerns." Journal of Rehabilitation. Journal article retrieved from Find Articles Health & Fitness database on 25 Oct 2005 athttp://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0825/is_2_69/ai

This article by John J. Benshoff, Laura K. Harrawood, and Darwin Shane Koch entitled "Substance abuse and the elderly: unique issues and concerns," attempts to understand why alcohol abuse amongst the elderly (defined as individuals over the age of 65 for the purposes of the article) has gone largely ignored in issues pertaining to rehabilitation and the field of geriatric medicine. The article also attempts to gain inkling upon the scope of the problem of substance abuse in the elderly population. The article admits while "various sources of data suggest that alcohol problems are ordinary events, but largely unrecognized in this population, and estimates of the prevalence of heavy drinking or…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Drug Use Among Teenagers

Words: 1572 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17843360

Rise of Illicit Drug Use Amongst Teenagers

According to recent surveys, there has been a rise in the use of illicit drugs amongst teenagers. One particular drug that has seen a steady increase in use is Ecstasy, while in other studies researchers have seen drugs become more available in a variety of markets, like the Internet, in order to cover a wider area for distribution.

Teenagers have been a prime source for these Internet-dealers, and while certain drugs have seen a drop in their use, it is only because they have been replaced by more illicit and easier to obtain drugs. Contrary to popular belief, teenage drug use is on the rise, and appears to only be heading on the up and up.

In a study conducted last year by the University of Michigan's Institute for Social Research, out of 44,000 students, "the proportions of eighth-, 10th-, and 12th-graders who…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Teenage Marijuana Use Declines While Ecstasy Use Increases

AORN Journal. Issue February 2001. Association of periOperative Registered Nurses.

Annual Survey Reports Trends in Drug Use by Teenagers

AORN Journal. Issue February 2002. Association of periOperative Registered Nurses.
View Full Essay

Legal Response to Drugs

Words: 1236 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9481766

Drugs

Decriminalization of drugs is an ineffective legal policy that has harmed millions of Americans. Since Nixon's declaration of "war" on drugs, American policy towards mind-altering substances has been as violent and futile as the term "war on drugs" would suggest. Drug use is not qualitatively different from alcohol use. The prohibition of alcohol failed miserably in the early 20th century, leading also to a proliferation in profitable black market businesses that fueled organized crime. The same pattern has been occurring with mind-altering substances of all types. Drug cartels have blossomed throughout the Americas, and the global black marketplace is teeming with criminal behaviors that are linked to protecting the lucrative but illegal drug trade. If trading in drugs were akin to trading in alcohol, then drug cartels would no longer need the massive stashes of weapons used to protect their property. The war on drugs has ruined far more…… [Read More]

Reference

Sledge, M. (2013). The drug war and mass incarceration by the numbers. The Huffington Post. Retrieved online:  http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/04/08/drug-war-mass-incarceration_n_3034310.html
View Full Essay

Manalapan High School Drug Epidemic

Words: 527 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75327415

Drug Epidemic at Manalapan HS in Manalapan, NJ

In most high schools, drugs are a common rite of passage. As a matter of fact, the problem is so serious that it has reached epidemic levels. According to the National Institute on Drug Abuse - NIH (2014), 22.1%, 16.3%, and 22.7% of high school students (seniors) in 2013 admitted to binge drinking, cigarette smoking and marijuana smoking, respectively.

Prescription drugs are also being abused at an alarming rate. For instance, "in 2013, 15.0% of high school seniors used a prescription drug non-medically…" (National Institute on Drug Abuse, 2014). One of the prescription drugs most abused, as the National Institute on Drug Abuse (2014) further points out, was Adderall. The said prescription drug is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Other commonly abused prescription drugs are products with dextromethorphan as a component and Vicodin.

In a study conducted by…… [Read More]

References

Kuczynski-Brown, A. (2012). School Drug Use: Survey Finds 17% of High School Students Drink, Smoke, Use Drugs During the School Day. Retrieved from  http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/08/23/annual-survey-finds-17-pe_n_1824966.html 

National Institute on Drug Abuse -- NIH. (2014). Drug Facts: High School and Youth Trends. Retrieved from http://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/drugfacts/high-school-youth-trends
View Full Essay

Legalizing Drugs

Words: 1008 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62692066

Drug Legalization

This week, Columbian drug smugglers surgically opened six Labrador retriever and Rottweiler puppies and stuffed packets of heroin inside their bellies. Countless human beings have willingly stuck packages of illegal substances into any available bodily orifice or swallowed unknown quantities only to pass them out later. These instances indicate the grimly extreme lengths drug smugglers are willing to go in order to circumvent American drug prohibition laws. Drug trafficking is one of the world's most dangerous businesses; trafficking is intimately connected to crimes ranging from theft to murder to terrorism. In an article in Canadian paper the National Post, Ted Carpenter notes that both leftist and rightist paramilitary groups have "been financed largely by that country's cocaine trade." Carpenter continues to state, "The harsh reality is that terrorist groups have been enriched by prohibitionist drug policies that drive up drug costs ... hat anti-drug crusaders refuse to acknowledge…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Carpenter, Ted Galen. (4 Jan 2005). "Drug Prohibition is a terrorist's best friend." National Post.

'Heroine found hidden in puppies' bellies." (5 Jan 2005). MSNBC.com. < http://msnbc.msn.com/id/6791103/>.

Ostrowski, James (1989). "Thinking About Drug Legalization." CATO Institute. <  http://www.cato.org/pubs/pas/pa121es.html >.

'Speaking Out Against Drug Legalization." United States Drug Enforcement Agency. < http://www.usdoj.gov/dea/demand/speakout/>.
View Full Essay

Drug Screening Is Used More

Words: 3363 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39455260



In most cases, recreational drug use is seen as a victimless crime and a harmless activity. This attitude changes in the workplace if the drug use impairs performance to the detriment of other workers or if the work involves public safety, in which case tolerance for drug use drops significantly. Another reason why tolerance for some drug use is so high is because the attitude is a reaction to the apocalyptic warnings emanating from law enforcement and government, given that people know that mild marijuana use, for instance, is not the mind- and life-bending experience often claimed. Many do not see the problem as being as dire as it is made out to be, and so they do not see it in the way earlier generations did.

Casey J. Dickinson notes the increasing use of pre-testing for applicants as a way not assuring that the person hired does not use…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Dickinson, Casey J. "New Vision Gets Results Before Employers Hire." The Central New York Businesss Journal (10 Dec 2004), 5.

Finkel, Kevin W. "Water Intoxication Presenting as a Suspected Contaminated Urine Sample for Drug Testing." Southern Medical Journal, Volume 97, Number 6 (June 2004), 611-613.

Fitzpatrick, Jr., John J. "State Labor Legislation Enacted in 2006: Minimum Wages, Workplace Security, Prevailing Wages, Equal Employment Opportunity, Wages Paid, Time off, Drug and Alcohol Testing, Child Labor, Human Trafficking, and Immigrant Protections Were among the Most Active Areas in Which Legislation Was Enacted or Revised during the Year." Monthly Labor Review, Volume 130, Issue 1 (2007). March 16, 2008. http://www.questia.com/read/5020677401?title=State%20Labor%20Legislation%20Enacted%20in%202006%3a%20Minimum%20Wages%2c%20Workplace%20Security%2c%20Prevailing%20Wages%2c%20Equal%20Employment%20Opportunity%2c%20Wages%20Paid%2c%20Time%20off%2c%20Drug%20and%20Alcohol%20Testing%2c%20Child%20Labor%2c%20Human%20Trafficking%2c%20and%20Immigrant%20Protections%20Were%20among%20the%20Most%20Active%20Areas%20in%20Which%20Legislation%20Was%20Enacted%20or%20Revised%20during%20the%20Year.

French, Michael T., M. Christopher Roebuck, and Pierre Kebreau Alexandre. "To Test or Not to Test: Do Workplace Drug Testing Programs Discourage Employee Drug Use?" Social Science Research (March 2004), 45-63.
View Full Essay

New Leading Cause of Accidental Death

Words: 3509 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7176824

Prescription Drug Abuse

The overall point of conversation when speaking of prescription drugs in the public and political sphere has usually focused on cost and/or ease of access among all Americans. The overall points of conversation relating to drug has often centered on drugs like heroin, cocaine, crack and marijuana. However, as time and trends have shifted, the primary focus of both overall topics has centered on the use and abuse of prescription drugs, usually certain classes of drugs such as sedatives, opiates and anti-anxiety drugs. Common drugs focused on include Xanax, any narcotic-based painkiller such as Oxycontin and sedatives or muscle relaxers such as Valium and Soma. While prescription drugs are very important to have at the ready, the likelihood and propensity towards abuse of the drugs and other legal behavior is significant and this is even true among people who obtain the drugs legally at the onset.

Analysis…… [Read More]

References

Doyon, S., Klein-Schwartz, W., Anderson, B.A., & Welsh, C. (2013). A Novel Approach

to Informing the Public about the Risks of Overdose and Nonmedical Use of Prescription Medications. American Journal on Addictions, 22(2), 108-112.

doi:10.1111/j.1521-0391.2013.00305.x

Garcia, A.M. (2013). State Laws Regulating Prescribing of Controlled Substances:
View Full Essay

Effects of Drugs on the Economy

Words: 2964 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89660913

Drugs on the Economy

History of drugs in the United States

How drugs affect the United States Economy both positively and negatively

How decriminalization of drugs like marijuana stand to lessen the burden on tax-payers

Wonder drugs like morphine, heroine, and cocaine to mention but a few pose a lot of problems to the entire American society. Americans have had to grapple with the deleterious effects of drug abuse and addiction. estrictions were imposed at the beginning of the 20th Century through domestic and overseas law enforcement to contain the drugs epidemic. Such enforcements were initiated to limit opium and cocoa crops (Drug Enforcement Administration, 2012). This term paper seeks to give a brief history of drugs in the United States of America and subsequently outline how drug use affects the American economy both positively and negatively. The paper also endeavors to list how decriminalization of drugs like marijuana stands…… [Read More]

References List

Bureau of Justice Statistics. (2011). Prisoners in 2010 (revised). Retrieved June 22, 2012 from http://bjs.ojp.usdoj.gov/index.cfm?ty=pbdetail&iid=2230

Drug Enforcement Administration. (2012). Illegal drugs in America: A modern

History. Retrieved June 22, from  http://www.deamuseum.org /museum_ida.html

Easton, S. (2009). Legalize Marijuana for Tax Revenue. Retrieved June 22, from http://www.businessweek.com/debateroom/archives/2010/03/legalize_mariju.html
View Full Essay

Economics of Alchohol Abuse Alcohol for Consumption

Words: 1853 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61366901

Economics of Alchohol Abuse

Alcohol for consumption is not a necessary food item, but for some has become a standard part of adult culture. Increasing the level of alcohol consumption, however, moves from an economic paradigm to a social issue due to the ancillary health and behavioral effects from alcohol abuse. In turn, this becomes part of economics in that it requires fiscal resources to treat societal issues caused by alcoholism: domestic abuse, crime, traffic or driving issues, etc. The economic effects of alcohol are undebatable, and are pervasive in the overt and covert areas of the economy (short- and long-term) (Fogarty, 2006).

In the economic sphere of political and social policy, alcohol, like tobacco and gambling, are considered a "sin" tax that is ostensibly designed to reduce transactions for issues society considers dangerous or undesirable. However, when it comes to alcohol, many see that this type of a sumptuary…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Ensuring Solutions to Alcohol Problems. (2011). Ensuring Solutions. Retrieved from: http://www.ensuringsolutions.org/

Profit-Maximization in the Long Run. (2010). Welker'sWikinomics. Retrieved from: http://welkerswikinomics.wetpaint.com/page/Profit-Maximization+in+the+Long-run

Tobacco, Alcohol Industries Reject New Sin Tax Bill. (February 22, 2012). ABS/CBN News. Com. Retrieved from: http://www.abs-cbnnews.com/business/02/22/12/tobacco-alcohol-industries-reject-new-sin-tax-bill

Avorn, J. (2004). Powerful Medicines: The Benefits, Risks, and Costs of Prescription Drugs. New York: Random House.
View Full Essay

Psychology and Physiological Aspects of Substance Abuse

Words: 886 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55581396

danger signals of drug abuse and how can they be used to identify possible abusers?

There can be various danger signals that may indicate the possibility of substance abuse in individuals. These signals will obviously appear in a variety of contexts and situations but the following are generally accepted as the most common indicators.

One of the most common signs is a radical change in behavior, especially in a formal or work situation where the individual, for example, shows a marked change in work quality or production. This can also be related to changes in personality and is even seen in outbreaks of temper or depression. The drug user also tends to shirk responsibilities.

The deterioration of personal grooming and general physical appearance may also be another danger signal. Intravenous drug users often wear long sleeved garments even in very warm weather to hide signs of their addiction. There may…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Combating Drug abuse. September 15, 2005. http://www.gdcada.org/statistics/combating.htm

Hsu J.H. The Hopkins HIV Report. September 15, 2005. http://www.hopkins-aids.edu/publications/report/july02_5.html
View Full Essay

Narcotics Distribution Manufacturing and Abuse

Words: 2567 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59270786



Law enforcement and narcotics trafficking

In fact, one of the things that many Americans may fail to understand is that there is a relationship between the domestic narcotics industry and international terrorism. Illegal drug trafficking is an international crime problem, and it is rarer that criminal enterprises limit themselves to a single illegal activity. Many criminal enterprises involved in narcotics distribution are also involved in the trafficking of humans and weapons. Furthermore, much of America's narcotic supply comes from Afghanistan, where its production and distribution can provide revenue for terrorist organizations. "The specific dynamics of the linkage between narcotics and conflict remain poorly understood. Evolving theory on the link between organized crime and terrorism enhances and supplements the debate on economic incentives in civil war, proposing mechanisms whereby insurgent groups interact with narcotics production -- a crime -- rebellion nexus" (Cornell, 2007). This nexus is not yet fully understood and…… [Read More]

References

Cornell, S. (2007). Narcotics and armed conflict: Interactions and implications. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 30(3), 207-227.

Gorvin, I. (2008, May). Targeting blacks: drug law enforcement and race in the United States.

New York: Human Rights Watch Organization.

Hartney, E. (2012, February 6). How to prevent addiction in your kids. Retrieved February 22,
View Full Essay

Substance Abuse Is a Common Affliction Among

Words: 4221 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39159150

Substance abuse is a common affliction among the elderly population. Several factors may contribute to the prevalence of alcoholism and drug abuse among older adults, including loneliness, poor health, and depression. The most rapidly growing segment of the American population is the elderly, and whether or not alcohol can be considered beneficial or detrimental in this population depends on the doses being consumed (Ferreira and Weems, 2008). However, the population of older adults is increasing and so is the proportion of elderly individuals demonstrating alcohol abuse (Ferreira and Weems, 2008).

It is estimated that by 2030 the proportion of adults comprising the elderly population (65 years and older) will reach 20%, which marks double the current number (Duncan et al., 2010). Interestingly, substance abuse in general has shown increases in the elderly population, with a steady increase in primary substance abuse problems other than alcohol observed in the elderly population…… [Read More]

References

Atkinson, R.M. (1990). Aging and alcohol use disorders: diagnostic issues in the elderly. International Psychogeriatrics, 2(1), 55-72.

Bobo, J.K., Greek, A.A., Klepinger, DH, Herting, J.R. (2010). Alcohol use trajectories in two cohorts of U.S. women aged 50 to 65 at baseline. Journal of the American Geriatric Society, 58(12) 2735-80.

Chiu E. (2008). Alcohol for the older person -- friend or foe? Age and Ageing, 37(5), 493-4.

Duncan, D.F., Nicholson, T., White, J.B., Bradley, D.B., Bonaguro, J. (2010). The baby boomer effect: changing patterns of substance abuse among adults ages 55 and older. Journal of Aging and Social Policy, 22(3), 237-48.
View Full Essay

Solutions for the Alcohol Abuse Problem From

Words: 1091 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34552515

solutions for the alcohol abuse problem from economists' point-of-view. The second section of the paper addresses the situation of prescription drugs and how they can affect the demand and supply of other products and services. The paper continues with a section that explains the relationship between supply modification and elasticity of demand, and between demand modifications and elasticity of supply. There is also a section that discusses increasing-costs industries. Another section of the paper address the conditions required for competitive markets to be economically efficient.

There are several solutions that economists can offer when addressing the alcohol abuse problem. In this case, the problem is regarded as a negative externalities situation of the production and consumption of alcohol. The assumption in this case is that alcohol abuse is a negative externality because of its consequences, like drunk driving and the effects on consumers' health and on relationship with other individuals.…… [Read More]

Reference list:

1. Adam, G. (2009). Economic Theory: Supply and Demand. Retrieved January 31, 2012 from  http://www.science20.com/gerhard_adam/blog/economic_theory_%E2%80%93_supply_and_demand .

2. Perfect Competition (2011). Investopedia. Retrieved February 1, 2012 from  http://www.investopedia.com/terms/p/perfectcompetition.asp .

3. Hall, R. & Lierberman, M. (2007). Economics: Principles and Applications. Cengage Learning. Retrieved February 1, 2012 from http://books.google.ro/books?id=whLWKYNy0UoC&pg=PA220&dq=perfect+competition&hl=ro#.
View Full Essay

Illegal Drug Use Among Military

Words: 1051 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50241765



The first method, therefore, of curtailing use relates to the development of tougher measures for soldiers once they have failed a drug test. Prevention programs should be given a higher priority than is currently the case. ith stronger prevention programs, and if commanding officers are more willing to put troops who have failed drug tests into those programs, more soldiers can see their drug use curtailed.

The second method is related to the first -- prevention programs. If stress in its various forms is a major cause of illegal drug use among soldiers, then there needs to be more awareness of the issue in the military community, and more help available to soldiers before they start using. Training for all members of the military community would allow for the creation of an informal support grid for soldiers experiencing stress. Programs that give soldiers a place to turn to when they…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Gilmore, G. (2011). DoD urinalysis test (drug test). About.com. Retrieved September 7, 2011 from  http://usmilitary.about.com/od/theorderlyroom/l/bldrugtests2.htm 

Jacobson, I.; Ryan, M.; Hooper, T.; Smith, T.; Amoroso, P.; Boyko, E.; Gackstetter, G.; Wells, T. & Bell, N. (2008). Alcohol use and alcohol-related problems before and after military combat deployment. Journal of the American Medical Association. Vol. 300 (6) 663-675.

NIDA. (2011). Substance abuse among the military, veterans and their families. National Institute of Drug Abuse. Retrieved September 7, 2011 from http://www.nida.nih.gov/tib/vet.html

Zoroya, G. (2009). Army blasted for letting drug abusers slide. USA Today. Retrieved September 7, 2011 from http://www.usatoday.com/news/military/2009-05-20-drug_N.htm
View Full Essay

Substance Abuse in Primary Care

Words: 873 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6627574



Additional training in substance abuse can help to ensure that nurses are prepared to effectively deal with these types of situations. esearchers such as Jackson, Alford, Dube and Saitz assert that despite the widespread substance abuse problems in our nation, there is a considerable lack of training for primary healthcare providers in this area. Both psychotherapeutic (such as cognitive and behavioral strategies) and pharmacological (such as Buprenorphine, Methadone, LAAM and Naltrexone) interventions have shown to be successful at treating substance abuse. However, if the medical professionals making contact with these individuals are not properly trained to deal with these issues, nobody benefits.

As a primary care nurse, it is also important to know the best treatment centers for referral in the community. While most communities have Alcoholics Anonymous and other twelve step programs readily available, knowing where to refer a client for in-patient treatment is critical as well. Some in-patient…… [Read More]

References

Jackson AH, Alford DP, Dube CE, Saitz R. Internal medicine residency training for unhealthy alcohol and other drug use: recommendations for curriculum. BMC Med Educ. 2010 Mar 20;10(1):22.

Rieckmann TR, Fuller BE, Saedi GA, McCarty D. Adoption of practice guidelines and assessment tools in substance abuse treatment. Subst Abuse Treat Prev Policy. 2010 Mar 26;5(1):4
View Full Essay

Substance Abuse Amongst the Elderly

Words: 629 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60854075



Q4. Participants at treatment facilities might be disproportionately affluent and white, given that historically, individuals of color suffering from addictions have more often been relegated to prisons, rather than received support and assistance. Public as well as private treatment facilities may need to be compared, to ensure a more representative sampling.

Part B:

Article:

Benshoff, John J., Laura K. Harrawood, & Darwin Shane Koch. (2003, April-June). Substance

abuse and the elderly: unique issues and concerns. Journal of Rehabilitation. 69.

In this study, the authors used a literature review format to examine a variety of previous studies of substance abuse amongst the elderly. In general, while individuals tend to age out of illicit drug use, alcohol abuse remains a risk throughout an individual's lifespan, given the lack of social and cultural taboos. Broad-ranging studies have found that alcohol abuse amongst the elderly is a silent epidemic, and both late and early-onset…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Teenage Substance Abuse Substance Abuse

Words: 5378 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9674352

Help her to realize that having a child may interfere with her future career, but that many mothers have successful home and job lives. There are an infinite number of options, and a determined teenager can find a way to success. Do not skirt around the issues of danger, however, as teenagers are more likely to miscarry or have other complications with their pregnancy such as premature labor and low birth weight of the child. Teenage mothers are more likely to need bedrest during the late stages of pregnancy, and a cesarian section during birthing, and the child is at greater risk for any number of complications.

Of course, while supporting a pregnant teen is vital, the key to solving the problems faced by teenagers dealing with pregnancy is to stop it before it happens.

Provide accurate and unashamed information about sex and pregnancy to children and teenagers, and encourage…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Adolescent Anger and Aggression." Psychiatric Institute of Washington. 2001. http://www.psychinstitute.com/mental_illness/adol_anger.html

Combat Teenage Sexual Abuse." NSPCC. 2001. http://www.nspcc.org.uk/html/home/informationresources/combatteenagesexualabuse.htm

Getting a Sexually Transmitted Disease." Frequently Asked Questions. American Social Health Association. http://www.iwannaknow.org/faqs/getting.html

Lamprecht, Catherine. "Talking to your Child about STDs." KidsHealth. Nemours Foundation. 2001. http://kidshealth.org/PageManager.jsp?dn=KidsHealth&lic=1&ps=107&cat_id=171&article_set=23006
View Full Essay

Women and Drugs

Words: 3809 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82766704

Female Substance Abusers and Addicts

Heroin is a highly addictive substance which is characterized by a rush of biophysiological symptoms such as a rush or feeling of euphoria, heaviness in one's extremities and a certain element of dry mouth (rehab-international.org). When it comes to heroin and gender, either gender can become addicted to it in a brief amount of time: "Addiction to heroin is characterized by the compulsion to use heroin despite an onset of negative consequences and despite the user's best attempts at stopping via willpower alone" (rehab-international.org). For women, one of the more common traits of heroin abuse is rather detrimental: the acquired tolerance means that greater doses of heroin have to be taken in order to get the original effects of the drug. When women are under the influence of the drug, they may engage in unsafe sexual activity, actions which can lead to STDs, unintended pregnancies…… [Read More]

References

Anderson, T. (2000). Drug Use and Gender . udel.edu, 286-292.

Beckerleg, S.'Women heroin users: Exploring the limitations of the structural violence approach,'

International Journal of Drug Policy, vol:16 2005, p183 -190

Cicero, T., Ellis, M., & Surratt, H. (2014). The Changing Face of Heroin Use in the United States. JAMA Psychiatry, 821-826.
View Full Essay

Methamphetamine Abuse in the U S

Words: 1674 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25504188

The second largest category of economic expense arose from crime and criminal justice expenses. The costs were for arresting and incarcerating drug offenders and also the cost of non-drug crimes due to the abuse of the drug like thefts as a means of supporting the habit. The abuse of the drug was also found to contribute significantly to loss of productivity and the expense of moving children to foster homes away from their methamphetamine addicted parents. The other economic cost was due to the production cost of methamphetamine which required the use of toxic chemicals. This would be as a result of injury incurred by emergency personnel as well as other victims and also the efforts applied in cleaning up the hazardous wastes that come about due to the production process. These estimates are based on the effect of production and abuse of the methamphetamine on the society and also…… [Read More]

Works Cited

"About $23 Billion in 2005, Study Estimates." Science Daily. 7 Feb. 2009. 17 May. 2010.



"Georgia 2009, Factsheet." U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration. Dec. 2008. 17 May.

2010.
View Full Essay

Substance Abuse and Cognitive Therapy

Words: 1740 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99772242

Cross-cultural evidence shows that drinking abuse will be low in any group in which drinking "customs, values and sanctions are clear, agreed upon by all, consistent with other customs of the group and characterized by prescriptions for moderate drinking and proscriptions against immoderate drinking" (1995). Prohibition in America has obviously proven unsuccessful as it has in other locations as well, the approach that is taken today is a prohibitionist impulse in the "controversial control-of-consumption approach" (1995). When it comes to alcohol and drugs in the United States, there is a desire for policymakers (and others) to manipulate and control the behavior of others (something endemic to humans) (1995).

THE PROBLEM OF THERAPY

Healthcare professionals who treat substance abusing clients must recognize the powerful nature of these drugs and the controlling effects they have on people's lives. The fact that tens of millions of Americans continue to engage in substance abusing…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Food and Drug Law in

Words: 1160 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77408681

S. Food and Drug Administration, because they were in wide use before the 1938 Act (grandfathered in, as it were). (Dunn 1938)

The problem was that Act contained a definition for a "new drug" (one in need of prior approval to market), as any drug "the composition of which is such that such drug is not generally recognized, among experts qualified by scientific training and experience to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of drugs, as safe and effective for use under the conditions prescribed, recommended, or suggested in the labeling." FDCA § 201(p) (1). The manufacturers set out to establish then, that anything GRAS/GRAE therefore was not a new drug, and needed no FDA blessing.

Many medicines are ancient, and the active ingredients of many drugs on were first introduced before 1938. To make matters worse, between 1938 and 1962, the FDA considered drugs that were identical, related, or similar…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Substance Abuse in the Elderly

Words: 4246 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50685726

Substance / Alcohol Abuse among the Elderly

Substance/alcohol abuse among the elderly 60 years and older

Alcohol and substance abuse among the elderly is a significant social problem, not only because people in this age group tend to have very permissive attitudes towards social drug and alcohol usage but also because the stressors that accompany aging may result in increases in drug or alcohol usage to problematic levels. While people may begin experiencing age-related problems in their 40s and 50s, it is not generally until their 60s that most people begin to experience significant physical or emotional challenges related to age. These challenges are often accompanied by major life changes, such as retirement, the death of a spouse or friends, relocation, and diminished physical and intellectual capabilities. These changes may mean a lack of access to the coping mechanisms that have traditionally served the individual, leading to a rise in…… [Read More]

References

Center for Substance Abuse Treatment. (2012). Substance abuse among older adults: Treatment improvement protocol (TIP) series, No. 26. HHS Publication No. (SMA) 12-3918. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration.

Finkelstein, E., Prabhu, M., & Chen, H. (2007). Increased prevalence of falls among elderly individuals with mental health and substance abuse conditions. The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 15(7), 611-619.

Folkman, S., Bernstein, L, & Lazarus, R.S. (1987). Stress processes and the misuse of drugs in older adults. Psychology and Aging, 2(4), 366-374.

Garland, E.L., Schwarz, N.R., Kelly, A., Whitt, A., & Howard, M.O. (2012). Mindfulness-oriented recovery enhancement for alcohol dependence: Therapeutic mechanisms and intervention acceptability work. Journal of Social Work Practice in the Addictions, 12, 242-263. doi:10.1080/1533256X.2012.702638
View Full Essay

Direct to Consumer Advertising History of Drug

Words: 16271 Length: 59 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71118969

Direct to Consumer Advertising

HISTRY F DRUG ADVERTISING

THE DTC ADVERTISING PHENMENN

CREATING DEMAND

DECEPTIVE ADVERTISING - A WLF IN SHEEP'S CLTHING

CAUSE F DEATH

PRFIT

UTILIZATIN, PRICING, AND DEMGRAPHICS

LEGISLATIN, PLITICS AND PATENTS

LEGISLATIVE INITIATIVES REGARDING DTC

RECALLED and/or DEADLY DRUGS

In order to provide the most efficient method of evaluation, the study will utilize existing stores of qualitative and quantitative data from reliable sources, such as U.S. Government statistical references, University studies, and the studies and publications of non-profit and consumer oriented organizations. Every attempt will be made to avoid sources of information sponsored by or directly influenced by the pharmaceutical industry.

Existing data regarding the history, levels, content and growth of direct-to-consumer advertising will be examined. In addition, the industry's composition prior to and after the proliferation of direct-to-consumer advertising will be examined, with regard to market share, type of substances sold, benefits of substances sold, and…… [Read More]

On January 9, 2002, Dr. Darlene Jody, Vice President of Medical Marketing for Bristol-Myers Squibb, issued a manufacturer's "Important Drug Warning Including Black Box Information." The Important Drug Warning advises healthcare practitioners that "cases of life-threatening hepatic failure have been reported in patients treated with SERZONE." The manufacturer's Warning indicates that numerous persons have or will suffer liver failure, death or transplantation. The manufacturer's Warning also indicates that the current estimate of the rate of liver failure associated with Serzone use is "about 3-4 times the estimated background rate of liver failure." A new Warning is being added to the Serzone prescribing information, advising that "patients should be advised to be alert for signs and symptoms of liver dysfunction (jaundice, anorexia, gastrointestinal complaints, malaise, etc.) and to report them to their doctor immediately if they occur." According to Warnings, Serzone should be promptly discontinued if signs or symptoms suggest liver failure.

Vioxx belongs to a class of drugs known as COX-2 inhibitors. When the drugs were introduced a few years ago, COX-2 inhibitors were thought to be safer and more effective than other drugs such as Aspirin and Ibuprofen. However, several studies have questioned the cardiovascular safety of Vioxx. Studies indicate that people taking Vioxx have four times the risk of a heart attack.

In May 2002, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) published a Talk Paper about new label warnings for the popular arthritis and pain drug know as Vioxx (rofecoxib). The new label warnings are based on the results of the Vioxx Gastrointestinal Outcomes Research (VIGOR). According to the FDA, recent studies demonstrate that Vioxx is associated with a higher rate of serious cardiovascular thromboembolic adverse events (such as heart attacks, angina pectoris, and peripheral vascular events). Based on the recent study, the FDA agreed with the Arthritis Advisory Committee recommendations February 8, 2001 that the label for Vioxx include gastrointestinal and cardiovascular warning information. Serious side effects attributed to Vioxx are heart attacks, seizures, strokes, or liver/kidney problems. http://www.recalleddrugs.com
View Full Essay

Label Drug Use Useless Costly

Words: 3084 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33447573

The structure of yetta is similar to that of GLP-1 and performs the same functions. oth promote decreased appetite (Wilson).

Dr. Wysham was an observer at a study conducted on 20 Rockwood diabetic patients who were taking conventional diabetic medication for their uncontrolled blood sugar (Wilson 2005). She was not informed about their glucose levels for several months after the tests began. About two-thirds of the respondents were given different injectible doses of yetta to incorporate into their medication plan, while the rest were given placebos. All of them were instructed and trained to do the injections at certain times twice daily for a month. Then they were subjected to a physical exam. Dr. Wysham closely monitored their liver, kidney, blood counts, and other functions. She observed that the patients consistently lose weight while taking yetta. The average respondent-patient lost 15 pounds in the duration of the study, 5 lost…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Business Editors (2005). Understand the impact of regulatory reform and raised drug

Safety awareness on off-label drug use. 2 pages. Business Wire: Gale Group

2007). Januvia approved in the European Union for the treatment of type-2 diabetes. 4 pages.

2007). Late breaking data released at ADA showed that the investigational use of Januvia and Metformin as initial combination therapy provided significant glucose lowering efficacy over 54 weeks in patients with type 2 diabetes. 8
View Full Essay

LGBT Illicit Drug Use

Words: 2288 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48429078

LGBT Drinking & Drug Use

This report will center on a particular concern and challenge that is facing the lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) community as a whole. The affliction is certainly not limited to the LGBT community but this report shall focus on the unique traits and patterns that occur within that community. Of course, that affliction would be the excessive use of alcohol and/or drugs among people that identify with one or more of the LGBT groups. To be sure, the abuse of alcohol, methamphetamine, MDMA/Ecstasy, prescription pills in general and other drugs is a plague that affects many communities and cultures and the LGBT culture is certainly on different. What follows in this report will be a fairly concise yet thorough literature review on the subject. While drug abuse and misuse is not unique to the LGBT community is not unique to the LGBT community, it…… [Read More]

References

Bowers, Pamela Hancock, N. Eugene Walls, and Hope Wisneski. "The Relationship Between

Smoking And Other Drug Use Among Sexual Minority Youth." Journal Of Gay & Lesbian Social Services 27.1 (2015): 86-99. SocINDEX with Full Text. Web. 30 Sept.

2015.

Goldbach, Jeremy, Benjamin W. Fisher, and Shannon Dunlap. "Traumatic Experiences And Drug Use By LGB Adolescents: A Critical Review Of Minority Stress." Journal Of Social Work Practice In The Addictions 15.1 (2015): 90-113. SocINDEX with Full Text.
View Full Essay

Short Answer Questions on Drugs

Words: 1208 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68309460

economic impact of drug use in the United States might initially seem easy to measure. A legal trial is an expensive proceeding: police officers, prosecutors or public defenders, judges, stenographers, and bailiffs are employees of the state, and even if jurors are barely remunerated, defense attorneys are lavishly remunerated. To prosecute someone for dealing marijuana is an expensive undertaking, and to do so under a "three strikes" law, where the crime is suddenly elevated to a horrific felony with extreme penalties, is even more expensive. The greater expense comes with convictions: America has the largest imprisoned population in the world, with more people behind bars in this country than comprise the entire populations of other sovereign nations. Imprisonment is not a cheap proposition. We can then consider the further economic impact, legally and morally speaking, of drug use in the current extensive misuse of civil forfeiture laws. Ostensibly designed to…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Solutions to Dealing With Alcohol Abuse

Words: 1718 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69871526

Alcohol Abuse

This topic will be alcohol abuse. The dimensions that will be covered are, in order, a brief history, current trends or issues, societal concerns or issues related to the topic, the significance or relevance of the topic to the counseling profession and any future implications that exist when it comes to the subject. While alcohol is usually legal and illicit/prescription drugs are very much dominating the discussion about drug abuse today, alcohol has been and remains a major concern and deserves its own focus, interventions and sociological discussion.

Alcohol has been around for a very long time and it has created its share of questions and issues in American society during pretty much all of its existence. In terms of history, the major even surrounding alcohol was the temporary prohibition of alcohol across the land. However, this ban was indeed temporary and was eventually lifted. Even with that,…… [Read More]

References

Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome in Critically III Patients: Identification, Assessment, and Management. (2016). Critical Care Nurse, 36(1), 28-39 12p. doi:10.4037/ccn2016420

Columbia University. (2010). Behind Bars II: Substance Abuse and America's Prison Population. National Center On Addiction & Substance Abuse at Columbia University,

Gebara, C. P., Ferri, C. P., LourenAo, L. M., Vieira, M. T., Bhona, F. C., & Noto, A. R. (2015). Patterns of domestic violence and alcohol consumption among women and the effectiveness of a brief intervention in a household setting: a protocol study. BMC Women's Health, 15(1), 1-8 8p. doi:10.1186/s12905-015-0236-8

Kiernan, C., Ni Fhearail, A., & Coyne, I. (2012). Nurses' role in managing alcohol misuse among adolescents. British Journal of Nursing, 21(8), 474-478 5p.