Use our essay title generator to get ideas and recommendations instantly
Prescriptions are everywhere, and even adult prescriptions are easily accessed by youth abusing the wide variety of drugs. The 2003 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) found four percent of America's youth "ages 12 to 17 reported nonmedical use of prescription medications in the past month," (National Institute on Drug Abuse 1). Children given medications at a young age also have a greater chance of developing later addictions. The same NSDUH survey found that the "ates of abuse were highest among the 18-25 age group," at around six percent. What we do to our children affects them throughout the rest of their lives. Force feeding them into prescription addiction can potentially provide a horrible fight with addiction for a lifetime.
Addiction is a difficult battle to face, and a road which many are actually placed on through over-medication. It is a disease which "involves the repeated and excessive…
Belmonte, Joelle. "Drug Abuse and Addiction: Signs, Symptoms, Effects And What You Can Do." HelpGuide.org. 2009. Retrieved 29 Apr 2009 at http://www.helpguide.org/mental/drug_substance_abuse_addiction_signs_effects_treatment.htm .
National Drug Intelligence Center (NDIC). Information Brief: Prescription Drug Abuse and Youth. United States Department of Justice. 2009. Retrieved 29 Apr 2009 at http://www.usdoj.gov/ndic/pubs1/1765/index.htm#Prescription .
National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA). "Trends in Prescription Drug Use." Prescription Drugs: Abuse and Addiction. National Institute of Health. 2009. Retrieved 29 Apr 2009 at http://www.nida.nih.gov/ResearchReports/Prescription/prescription5.html .
Partnership for a Drug Free America. "Prescription Medicine Abuse: A Serious Problem." Understanding the Drug Problem. 2008. Retrieved 29 Apr 2009 at http://www.drugfree.org/portal/drugissue/features/prescription_medicine_misuse .
The ever-increasing cost of medication is a central concern in many forums. The media and the politicians have not failed to notice it either. Over 25 bills and numerous committees were set up to investigate the matter in 2017. While the issue of pricing has not attracted homogenous views, the efforts to increase competition on the market have drawn attention from across the divide. The FDA Reauthorization Act of 2017, which sailed through in both houses quite easily, identified quick route to allow some generics if it is determined by the secretary that the generic competition is not adequate (Mody and Blackwood, 2018). In the recent Health, Pensions, Labour and Education by the Senate hearing, members from both sides agreed with the need for competition and to thwart anti competition practices. They agreed that it was important to introduce generics and biosimilars to the market whenever it…
Benavides, L. R. (2018). 2017 Legislative Recap: Important Bills from Nevada\\\\'s 79th Legislative Session. In Nevada Law Journal Forum (Vol. 2, No. 1, p. 4).
Cox, C., Kamal, R., Jankiewicz, A. & Rousseau, D. (2016). Recent trends in prescription drug costs. JAMA, 315(13):1326.
Huelskoetter, T. (2018). State Policies to Address Prescription Drug Prices. Center for American Progress.
Mody, P.R. and Blackwood, K. (2018). 5 Health Care Policy Issues to Follow In 2018. Arnord & Porter. Retrieved from https://www.arnoldporter.com/en/perspectives/publications/2018/01/5-health-care-policy-issues-to-follow-in-2018 on 8 November 2018
OTC and Prescription Drugs
Curbing the Power of Drugs
Everyone knows about the enslaving effects of substance abuse and addiction. y now, everyone knows that addiction is a compulsive physical or psychological to take in more and more of a particular substance despite knowing its harm (Alta Mira 2013). Once the use of an addicting substance is begun and continued, it only takes some time to reach a point when quitting becomes difficult. If the use manages to quit, he soon falls back to it if the conditions that precipitated the addiction or dependence are not adequately addressed. oth prescription and non-prescription drugs are at least potentially addictive (Alta Mira).
Narcotics authorities enumerate the most widely known addictive drugs as nicotine, oxycontin, crack cocaine, heroin, metamphetamine, diazepam and Schedule I and II drugs (Alta Mira 2013). Schedule I and II drugs include hallucinogens, dissociative drugs and GH, opioids, and cannabinoids.…
Alta Mira. An Overview of Highly Addictive Drugs. Alta Mira Recovery Programs:
Alta Mira Recovery Center, 2013. Retrieved on September 26, 2013 from http://www.altamirarecovery.com/drug-addiction/most-addicive-drug
Saar, Natalie. Abuse of OTC Drugs. National Institute of Neurological Disorders: eHow,
2013. Retrieved on September 26, 2013 from http://www.ehow.com/about_6307246_abuse-otc-drugs.html
The FDA also, amongst others, has recommended that clinical trials used to support advertising claims be approved by the FDA and to institute stiff fines against those found gaily of deceptive tactics. (Turning Medicine Into Snake Oil...) There is little doubt from the research that pharmaceutical companies have to be made more accountable for their products and advertising promises.
Borden Anne. Vioxx Stroke isk could last for Years. 2007. etrieved June 1, 2007 at http://www.lawyersandsettlements.com/articles/00888/vioxx-stroke-risk.html
Deceptive Prescription Drug Marketing Tactics 'Common and Dangerous'. 2006.
etrieved June 1,2007, at http://www.uspirg.org/newsroom/health-care/health-care-news/deceptive-prescription-drug-marketing-tactics-common-and-dangerous
Introduction to the Health Care Industry: Health Expenditures and Services in the U.S. etrieved June 1, 2007, at http://www.plunkettresearch.com/HealthCare/HealthCareTrends/tabid/294/Default.aspx
O'Connor K. x for prescription drugs. etrieved June 1, 2007, at http://www.oconnorhealthanalyst.com/pgs/rx.html
Oxycontin Manufacturer Agrees to Plead Guilty and Pay Fine of $600,000,000.
etrieved June 1, 2007, at http://tyler.injuryboard.com/defective-products/oxycontin-manufacturer-agrees-to-plead-guilty-and-pay-fine-of-600000000.php?googleid=8636
Prescription Meds Changing Health Care. etrieved June 1, 2007, from Spending http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/medicalnews.php?newsid=60788…
Borden Anne. Vioxx Stroke Risk could last for Years. 2007. Retrieved June 1, 2007 at http://www.lawyersandsettlements.com/articles/00888/vioxx-stroke-risk.html
Deceptive Prescription Drug Marketing Tactics 'Common and Dangerous'. 2006.
Retrieved June 1,2007, at http://www.uspirg.org/newsroom/health-care/health-care-news/deceptive-prescription-drug-marketing-tactics-common-and-dangerous
Introduction to the Health Care Industry: Health Expenditures and Services in the U.S. Retrieved June 1, 2007, at http://www.plunkettresearch.com/HealthCare/HealthCareTrends/tabid/294/Default.aspx
The Act creates a positive balance between government interests to save money and the interests of Medicare recipients to receive a wide range of drugs for their specific needs. The current ban on government negotiations with pharmaceutical companies serves to protect Medicate recipients by using the positives of the free market, such as the experience and purchasing power of PBMs. hile there are serious potential problems with this approach, such as the potential for fraud between pharmaceutical companies and private interests, overall the ban on government negotiations with pharmaceutical companies provides a good balance between recipient and government interests.
American Legislative Exchange Council. Prescription Drugs. 19 October 2005. http://www.alec.org/2/4/talking-points/7.html
Barry, Patricia. New Salvos in the Prescription Drug ars: Class action suits are exposing schemes that gouge consumers. AARP Bulletin, January 2005.
19 October 2005. http://www.aarp.org/bulletin/prescription/a2005-01-06-salvos.html
Dealey, Sam. Drug Dealings: Democrats had it right before. National Review Online, May…
American Legislative Exchange Council. Prescription Drugs. 19 October 2005. http://www.alec.org/2/4/talking-points/7.html
Barry, Patricia. New Salvos in the Prescription Drug Wars: Class action suits are exposing schemes that gouge consumers. AARP Bulletin, January 2005.
19 October 2005. http://www.aarp.org/bulletin/prescription/a2005-01-06-salvos.html
Dealey, Sam. Drug Dealings: Democrats had it right before. National Review Online, May 05, 2004, 9:12 A.M. 19 October 2005. http://www.nationalreview.com/comment/dealey200405050912.asp
The author of this report has been asked to review the legal and ethical considerations in play given the test case scenario surrounding Pharmacare and Compcare. As is quickly apparent while reading the case study, the company engaged in a long and extensive list of ethical and/or legal violations as a means to maximize profit and minimize the legal and other red tape that seems to bother them even though it is there for a very good reason. The ethical issues involved will be touched upon and analyzed. There will also be an exploration and analysis of direct-to-consumer marketing of drugs, whether John is the "investor" of AD23, the arguments about John being a whistleblower and the associated protections he would have if he is and examples of intellectual property theft that have occurred in the last two years or so. While bad things do incidentally happen and…
Direct to Consumer Advertising
According to a report by the United States General Accounting Office, "spending on direct-to-consumer advertising of prescription drugs has tripled in recent years," (Collins et al. p. 4). Consequently, spending on prescription drugs has also risen. Although the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulates the content of prescription drug advertisements under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA), many critics of direct-to-consumer (DTC) promotion of prescription drugs contend that the advertisements can be misleading or even dangerous. Spending on DTC drug ads can also cut into costs that could be channeled into research and development, which is another reason why many consumer groups express concern over the proliferation of DTC ads for pharmaceuticals. The FDA changed their stance somewhat regarding DTC ads for prescription drugs in 1999, which is why DTC ads for pharmaceuticals have become commonplace, most notably on television (Palumbo and…
'A Brief History of Drug Advertising." NOW Science and Health on PBS.org. 7 Jan 2005. .
Collins, Susan, et. al. "Prescription Drugs: FDA Oversight of Direct-to-Consumer Advertising Has Limitations." United States General Accounting Office. Oct 2002. .
Deselle, Shane P. "Direct-to-Consumer Prescription Drug Advertising and Pharmacy Practice." Pharmaceutical Education. 27 July 2004. .
'Direct to Consumer Advertising for Prescription Drugs." American College of Physicians. 9 Oct 1998. .
History of Direct to Consumer Advertising of Prescription Drugs in the U.S.
Imagine this: you are at home watching television one evening after work. As you casually flip through the channels searching for something interesting to watch, you notice a multitude of advertisements for prescription drug products. This form of advertisement is known as direct-to-consumer advertising, and is now well-known to practically all American households. One needs only to watch virtually any commercial television program or to browse through any consumer-directed magazine to view advertisements for a variety of prescription drugs. In regard to broadcast media, this is a relatively new phenomenon because, for many years, pharmaceutical manufacturers had to follow certain requirements. These requirements consisted of the inclusion of a substantial amount of material about the drug product's side effects, contraindications, and effectiveness.
Recent changes in 1999 under the guidance of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) altered the…
Jackson, Charles O. (1970). "Food and Drug Legislation in the New Deal." Princeton University
Palumbo, Francis B. "The Development of Direct-to-Consumer Prescription Drug Advertising
Regulation." Food and Drug Law Journal 57.3 (2002). 423-443.
Knowledge of the program's existence within a state can also hopefully act as a deterrent for an addicted 'doctor-shopper.'
Article Relevance: Doctors are growing increasingly cautious about prescribing pain medication. This is unfortunate, given the fact that not treating pain can be equally dangerous as over-treating pain. States' lack of sharing of information in the name of state's rights and patient privacy is interfering with doctors' abilities to provide appropriate care. Currently, 41 states have used federal funding to monitor and share information about the use of prescription drugs across state lines. Doctors in non-participating states, however, can still use other states' data about patients when making decisions about prescribing drugs. Doctors all states should consult records if they have any question about a patient's honesty: this can either flag a potential addict, or set their mind at ease when they write a prescription for a patient who says that…
One problem for law enforcement is the lack of a consistent medical and legal bookkeeping strategy for individuals being prescribed addictive prescription painkillers. Prescription drug addicts will often go from doctor to doctor, crossing state lines to get their 'fix' and often succeed in persuading unsuspecting doctors to give them more opiates. The 2005 National All Schedules Prescription Electronic Reporting allocated $50 million to states to create a program that will allow doctors interstate access to patient records, to make sure that the patient is not 'doctor swapping.' Although the program is still under-funded, and many states, including Vermont, are not actively participating in the program, it is hoped it will cut down on the number of patients using doctors to provide them with their 'fix.'
Author's Points: A coherent system across all 50 states is required for doctors to have the security of knowing that they have a full and complete picture of a patient's medical history before prescribing a potentially addictive opiate painkiller. Knowledge of the program's existence within a state can also hopefully act as a deterrent for an addicted 'doctor-shopper.'
Article Relevance: Doctors are growing increasingly cautious about prescribing pain medication. This is unfortunate, given the fact that not treating pain can be equally dangerous as over-treating pain. States' lack of sharing of information in the name of state's rights and patient privacy is interfering with doctors' abilities to provide appropriate care. Currently, 41 states have used federal funding to monitor and share information about the use of prescription drugs across state lines. Doctors in non-participating states, however, can still use other states' data about patients when making decisions about prescribing drugs. Doctors all states should consult records if they have any question about a patient's honesty: this can either flag a potential addict, or set their mind at ease when they write a prescription for a patient who says that he or she is in pain.
Drug addiction is a human issue that cultivates biological, psychological, and social consequences, among others. The manifestation of addiction itself is characterized by physical dependence, and is defined by the uncontrollable, compulsive urge to seek and use drugs despite harmful repercussions (Fernandez, odriguez & Villa, 2011). Philologically, drug use affects the reward center, where dopamine receptors are over-stimulated. Ultimately, the repetition of drug use is encouraged to achieve the same, heightened, pleasure response (U.S. DHHS, 2007). Psychological responses to drug use may reflect motivations caused by positive pleasure, anxiety, or protection. The bodily effects of drugs often reflect the drug's class: stimulants, depressants, narcotics, hallucinogen, and cannabis. Each class represents various drugs and causes distinct biochemical responses. In addition to illicit drugs, prescription drugs are also highly abused and are categorized within the drug classes. Drug addiction does not discriminate between gender, race, sexual orientation or creed, and…
Connecticut Department of Mental Health and Addiction Services (CDMHAS). (n.d.). Drugs with addictive potential. Retrieved 08 March 2012 from: http://www.ctclearinghouse.org/topics/customer-files/Drugs-with-Addictive-Potential-071105.pdf
Coon, D., & Mitterer, J. (2009). Psychology: A journey. (1st ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
Fernandez, G., Rodriguez, O., & Villa, R. (2011). Neuropsychology and drug addiction. Papeles del Psicologo, 32(2), 159-165.
Hyman, S., & Malenka, R. (2001). Addiction and the brain: The neurobiology of compulsion and its persistence. Neuroscience, 2, 695-703.
Brick and Cutter's Way can be categorized as both thrillers and films noir due to the fact that the narratives of these films revolve around an investigation into the mysterious deaths of young women at the hands of power-hungry men. While the investigation in Brick is fueled by a desire to expose a drug trafficking ring at a high school, thus making drugs a central issue, drugs in Cutter's Way are not a factor that contributed to the deaths of the individuals Cutter was looking into. However, that is not to say that drugs to not play a major role, as Cutter is heavily addicted to alcohol, which causes him to be discredited despite the fact that he is able to solve not only the crime at hand, but also reveal why his father was targeted by the same murderer years before.
On the other hand, Cabin in the Woods,…
While it is definitely true that these companies spend a great deal of money on research and development, for which they certainly deserve and in fact need to be compensated (not to mention their right to make a profit, and the fact that profit potential is a major driver in innovation), the amount of profit and compensation that comes solely from the United States is inordinate when compared to that provided by other countries. Nearly half of all revenue going to pharmaceutical companies every year comes from United States' consumers (Sawkar, 2005). The argument that drug reimportation would damage companies' innovation and profit potentials implies that it is the United States' sole responsibility to provide funds for these goals; if reimportation were allowed then prices would even out, meaning other countries would start paying a fair share towards research and development costs while the United States would experience a savings.…
Choudhry, N.K., & Detsky, A.S. (2005). A perspective on U.S. drug reimportation. The Journal of the American Medical Association, 293(3). Retrieved from http://jama.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/full/293/3/358
Sawkar, M. (2005, March). High U.S. drug prices: Causes and cures. Paper presented for The Drug Reimportation Debate. Retrieved from www.sawkar.net/blog/high_drug_prices.doc
Wu, M.Y, Kennedy, J., Cohen, L.J., & Wang, C.C. (2009). Coverage of atypical antipsychotics among Medicare drug plans in the state of Washington: Changes between 2007 and 2008. Primary Care Companion Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 11 (6), 316- 321.
"As a case in point we may take the known fact of the prevalence of reefer and dope addiction in Negro areas. This is essentially explained in terms of poverty, slum living, and broken families, yet it would be easy to show the lack of drug addiction among other ethnic groups where the same conditions apply." Inciardi 248()
Legalizing drugs has been deemed to have many socio-economic effects. A study that was conducted by Jeffrey a. Miron, who was a Harvard economist estimated that by legalizing drugs, this would inject about $76.8 billion in to the U.S. every year. 44.1 billion dollars would come from savings made from the law enforcement measures and 32.7 billion would be from tax revenue. This revenue can be thought to be broken down as follows: 6.7 billion dollars from marijuana, 22.5 billion from heroin and cocaine and the rest from the other…
Blumenson, Eric, and Eva S. Nilsen. How to Construct an Underclass, or How the War on Drugs Became a War on Education. Massachusetts: Drug Policy Forum of Massachusetts, 2002. Print.
Campos, Isaac. "Degeneration and the Origins of Mexico's War on Drugs." Mexican Studies/Estudios Mexicanos 26.2 (2010): 379-408. Print.
Chabat, Jorge. "Mexico's War on Drugs: No Margin for Maneuver." Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 582.ArticleType: research-article / Issue Title: Cross-National Drug Policy / Full publication date: Jul., 2002 / Copyright © 2002 American Academy of Political and Social Science (2002): 134-48. Print.
Council on Hemispheric Affairs. "Low Taxation Perpetuates Insecurity in Central America." 2011. May 5th 2012. .
In jails, not one of the violent criminals was under the influence of heroin at the time their crime was committed. Twenty-one percent of state inmates incarcerated for violent crime were under the influence of alcohol alone at the time they committed their crime. The number of those under the influence of marijuana alone was too small to be recorded statistically. (National 1998) These facts indicate that it is not the drug users that are committing the crimes, but the people who deal with drugs. If there was no money to be gained from dealing with drugs, these criminals would have to find legitimate jobs and the police would only have to worry about traffic.
The efforts to target youth with drug education in the ar on Drugs has fallen far short of its original goals. The ONDCP is budgeting less than 12% of the $100 million it was planning…
Drug Enforcement Division. City of Orlando Police Investigations, Orlando Police Department Website. 6 November, 2006 http://www.cityoforlando.net/police/investigations/ded.htm
Madigan, Lisa, "Strategies for Fighting Meth: Law Enforcement Strategies." Illinois Attorney General. 6 November, 2006 http://www.illinoisattorneygeneral.gov/methnet/fightmeth/law.html#content
National Center on Addition and substance Abuse at Columbia University (CASA) Behind Bars: Substance Abuse and America's Prison Population. New York: Columbia University, 1998.
McCaffrey, Barry R.. The National Drug Control Strategy, 1998: A Ten-Year Plan. Washington, DC: Office of National Drug Control Policy, 1998. p. 58.
Drug Abuse in Long Island, New York
With more than seven and a half million residents, Long Island, New York is a major center of commerce and education, but like many other densely populated large urban centers, this city also has a significant drug abuse problem. To determine the facts about the problem, this paper reviews the relevant literature to provide epidemiological evidence concerning the incidence of drug abuse in Long Island, and what community-based resources are available to its resident. Finally, a review of a recent research study article concerning these issues is followed by a summary of the research and important findings concerning drug abuse in Long Island in the conclusion.
eview and Analysis
Epidemiological evidence concerning drug abuse in Long Island
Like many other major American urban centers, all types of drugs are abuse in Long Island, but heroin abuse in particular has become a serious problem…
About Long Island Addiction Resources. (2017). Long Island Addiction Resources. Retrieved from http://liaddictionresources.com/.
About Long Island Center for Recovery. (2017). Long Island Center for Recovery. Retrieved from http://www.longislandcenterrecovery.com/ .
About Outreach House. (2017). Outreach House. Retrieved from http://www.opiny.org/ outreach-treatment/adolescent-residential-svcs/brentwood-long-island.
About Seafield Center Alcohol and Substance Abuse Treatment. (2017). Seafield Center Alcohol and Substance Abuse Treatment. Retrieved from http://www.seafieldcenter.com/ about_us.
In some cases, these issues or problems stem from different cultural views and beliefs. While at other times, these issues will affect someone who lives in an environment with: parental drug/alcohol related problems, disruptions to the family, social deprivations, the lack of economic opportunities, physical/sexual abuse, peer pressure and stress. The question I will try to determine is whether or not ethnicity and economic factors play a major influence in determining who will be the most likely to abuse drugs and alcohol?
This will highlight the primary reasons as to why someone will begin using these stimulants on a regular basis. Once this is determined, one can provide specific insights that will illustrate the root causes of the problem and their lasting effect on society.
Describe the data collection method (Research Method)
The basic approach that will be used for collecting and analyzing the data is evaluation research. This is…
Newspapers and magazines, if they picked up the story, could spread a large amount of information very rapidly, and whether this information was accurate or not it would still cause problems for the drug company that marketed the particular drug (Hilgartner & osk, 1988).
The media, however, is not the only problem where panic resulting from a drug is concerned. Attorneys could also add to the concern by advertising for lawsuits regarding a specific drug. Some of this is already seen with Paxil and other antidepressants, but even a new drug could easily be the object of paranoia if enough attorneys felt that class actions lawsuits were necessary to get the attention of individuals within the medical community. This much of an uproar would also get the attention of the media which would then become involved through the aforementioned news programs and other venues.
If one wanted to generate public…
Goode, Erich. (19900. "The American drug panic of the 1980s: social construction or objective threat?" The International 3 rournal of the Addictions, 25(9): 1083-98
Haines, Herbert H. (1979). "Cognitive claims-making, enclosure, and the depoliticization of social problems." The Sociological Quarterly, 20 (Winter): 119-30
Hilgartner, Stephen, & Bosk, Charles L. (1988). "The rise and fall of social problems: a public arenas model." American Journal of Sociology, 94 (July): 53-78
Levine, Harry G. & Reinarman, Craig. (1988). "The politics of America's latest drug scare." In R. Curry (ed.), Freedom at Risk: Secrecy, Censorship, and Repression in the 1980s. Philadelphia. Temple University Press, pp. 251-8
Rise of Illicit Drug Use Amongst Teenagers
According to recent surveys, there has been a rise in the use of illicit drugs amongst teenagers. One particular drug that has seen a steady increase in use is Ecstasy, while in other studies researchers have seen drugs become more available in a variety of markets, like the Internet, in order to cover a wider area for distribution.
Teenagers have been a prime source for these Internet-dealers, and while certain drugs have seen a drop in their use, it is only because they have been replaced by more illicit and easier to obtain drugs. Contrary to popular belief, teenage drug use is on the rise, and appears to only be heading on the up and up.
In a study conducted last year by the University of Michigan's Institute for Social Research, out of 44,000 students, "the proportions of eighth-, 10th-, and 12th-graders who…
Teenage Marijuana Use Declines While Ecstasy Use Increases
AORN Journal. Issue February 2001. Association of periOperative Registered Nurses.
Annual Survey Reports Trends in Drug Use by Teenagers
AORN Journal. Issue February 2002. Association of periOperative Registered Nurses.
drives under the influence of alcohol, it is a criminal offense abbreviated as driving under the influence (DUI). However alcohol is but one of the many substances that can interfere with one's driving capability. DUI charges can also be pressed against individuals who are driving under the influence of other kinds of drugs, including illegal drugs and even prescription medication. Taking drugs and driving at the same time, whether the drugs are just prescription muscle relaxers or medicinal marijuana is illegal and a DUI offense. The argument that one took drugs because of doctor's orders is not a defense to DUI charges. Various drugs have different effects on drivers. The drugs that impair concentration, judgment, alertness and/or motor skills are regarded as dangerous and in several cases even more dangerous than alcohol. Driving while having a blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of more than 0.08% or higher is illegal in the…
African-Americans, Substance Abuse and Spirituality - Minority Nurse. (2013, March 29). Retrieved from http://minoritynurse.com/african-americans-substance-abuse-and-spirituality/
Cohagan, A., Worthington, R., & Krause, R. (2013, July 3). Alcohol and Substance Abuse Evaluation . Retrieved from http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/805084-overview#aw2aab6b3
FindLaw. (n.d.). Driving Under the Influence of Drugs - FindLaw. Retrieved from http://dui.findlaw.com/dui-charges/driving-under-the-influence-of - drugs.html
MedlinePlus. (n.d.). Steroids: MedlinePlus. Retrieved from http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/steroids.html
Decriminalization of drugs is an ineffective legal policy that has harmed millions of Americans. Since Nixon's declaration of "war" on drugs, American policy towards mind-altering substances has been as violent and futile as the term "war on drugs" would suggest. Drug use is not qualitatively different from alcohol use. The prohibition of alcohol failed miserably in the early 20th century, leading also to a proliferation in profitable black market businesses that fueled organized crime. The same pattern has been occurring with mind-altering substances of all types. Drug cartels have blossomed throughout the Americas, and the global black marketplace is teeming with criminal behaviors that are linked to protecting the lucrative but illegal drug trade. If trading in drugs were akin to trading in alcohol, then drug cartels would no longer need the massive stashes of weapons used to protect their property. The war on drugs has ruined far more…
Sledge, M. (2013). The drug war and mass incarceration by the numbers. The Huffington Post. Retrieved online: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/04/08/drug-war-mass-incarceration_n_3034310.html
This week, Columbian drug smugglers surgically opened six Labrador retriever and Rottweiler puppies and stuffed packets of heroin inside their bellies. Countless human beings have willingly stuck packages of illegal substances into any available bodily orifice or swallowed unknown quantities only to pass them out later. These instances indicate the grimly extreme lengths drug smugglers are willing to go in order to circumvent American drug prohibition laws. Drug trafficking is one of the world's most dangerous businesses; trafficking is intimately connected to crimes ranging from theft to murder to terrorism. In an article in Canadian paper the National Post, Ted Carpenter notes that both leftist and rightist paramilitary groups have "been financed largely by that country's cocaine trade." Carpenter continues to state, "The harsh reality is that terrorist groups have been enriched by prohibitionist drug policies that drive up drug costs ... hat anti-drug crusaders refuse to acknowledge…
Carpenter, Ted Galen. (4 Jan 2005). "Drug Prohibition is a terrorist's best friend." National Post.
'Heroine found hidden in puppies' bellies." (5 Jan 2005). MSNBC.com. < http://msnbc.msn.com/id/6791103/ >.
Ostrowski, James (1989). "Thinking About Drug Legalization." CATO Institute. < http://www.cato.org/pubs/pas/pa121es.html >.
'Speaking Out Against Drug Legalization." United States Drug Enforcement Agency. < http://www.usdoj.gov/dea/demand/speakout/ >.
Drugs and Behavior
What are drugs exactly and what are some ways drug users get away with illegal usage?
Defining drugs use is a surprisingly difficult proposition. The definition as stated in the session II review is as follows: "any substance taken into the body that alters the function or structure of the body organs ... that changes body state or mental function." But this definition might not only apply to the substances that we would normally consider to be a "drug," but also to substances like chocolate. For example, chocolate has properties that have been shown to change body state and mental function by making a user feel happier for example. Furthermore, drugs can also be naturally occurring substances such as marijuana or mushrooms and thus cannot be further classified in regards to being synthetic substances. There are also countless useful drugs that significantly improve an individual's well-being. Thus…
OHSINC. (N.d.). How to Beat a Drug Test. Retrieved from OHSINC: http://www.ohsinc.com/info/how-to-cheat-a-drug-test/
The Economist. (2015, July 16). President Obama for the prisoners. Retrieved from The Economist: http://www.economist.com/blogs/democracyinamerica/2015/07/criminal-justice-reform
The White House. (N.d.). Prescription Drug Abuse. Retrieved from Office of National Drug Control Policy: https://www.whitehouse.gov/ondcp/prescription-drug-abuse
Article 1: McCauley, J.L., Back, S.E. & Brady, K.T. (2013). Pilot of a brief, web-based educational intervention targeting safe storage and disposal of prescription opioids. Addictive Behaviors 38(2013): 2230-2235.
In this article, McCauley, Back & Brady (2013) report on the results of an open pilot trial focusing on increasing patient knowledge of safe use of prescription opioids. Participants were 62 outpatients at a chronic pain management clinic or dental clinic who were prescribed opioids. All participants received informed consent and then completed the Script Safety intervention, which is an online information service containing information specific to the medication each participant was taking. Telephone interviews were conducted one week and one month following the intervention to assess knowledge retention and comprehension, misuse behaviors, and overall satisfaction. Results showed that satisfaction rates were high, knowledge comprehension and retention rates were also high, and that some self-reported misuse behaviors had decreased at the…
Does research evidence suggest that current policies on drugs and crime are still appropriate?
While "tough" policies designed to curb drug use and distribution are attractive politically, and look good on paper, research shows that such policies are no longer appropriate. Instead of responding to drug use as a public health problem, governments like that of the United States and the United Kingdom still regards criminalization as "the sine qua non-of responsible policy-making," (Downes and Morgan, 2007, p. 212). Unfortunately, the criminalization approach happens to also be irresponsible policy making based on emotion rather than fact. Governments with criminalization policies like the United States and Great Britain show a disturbing "state of denial" about the way criminalization creates and enhances organized crime, and may have even exacerbated some types of substance abuse (Downes and Morgan, 2007, p. 212).
Drug use patterns have also changed dramatically, requiring an intelligent…
Downes, D. And Morgan, R. (1992, 1997, 2002, and 2007) in M. Maguire, M. Morgan and R. Reiner (eds) The Oxford Handbook of Criminology. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
South, N. (2007) 'Drugs, Alcohol and Crime' in M. Maguire, R. Morgan, and R. Reiner (eds) The Oxford Handbook of Criminology (4th edn). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Economists are concerned with the impact that the sale of drugs has on both individual and economic freedoms and frame their argument from this perspective. Others argue that reliance on the criminal justice system has not produced significant results and that it is time to reframe the argument to focus on the education, prevention, and treatment of drugs.
From the economic perspective, there are apparent differences between government prohibition and legalization of drugs. It has been estimated that total government expenditures devoted to the enforcement of drug laws is well in excess of $26 billion. These figures are also significant in state and local law enforcement agencies with drug related incidents making up one fifth of the total investigative resources and drug enforcement activities. Approximately 25% of the total prison population, municipal, state and federal, is made up of drug law violators. In fact, ten percent of all arrests are…
Millhorn, M., Monoghan, M., Montero, D., Reyes, M., Roman, T., Tollasken, R., & Walls, B. (2009). North Americans' attitudes toward illegal drugs. Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment, 19(2), 125-141.
Miron, J.A. (2001). The economics of drug prohibition and drug legalization. Social Research, 68(3), 835-855.
National Institute on Drug Abuse (1998). The economic cost of alcohol and drug abuse in the United States. National Institute of Health Publication, 98-4327.
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. (2009, April). National household survey on drug abuse main findings, 1998.
Substance use is frequently associated with child abuse and domestic violence. It also is a leading contributor to marital dissatisfaction, family breakups and rejection of family members. The importance of the family in understanding alcohol and drug use and abuse is underlined by these highly destructive consequences of alcohol and drug dependency on the abuser and the family. (Lala; Straussner; Fewell, 17)
Peer Group plays an important part in resolving the problem as they are able to take the drug or alcohol abuser more into confidence compared to others since most people associate themselves with their respective peer group in terms of habits, tastes and concerns. It has been demonstrated that a drug abuser will definitely abide by a member of the peer group to which he belongs and obey requests of abstinence more than anyone else. Educational system also plays an important role in tackling the prevalence of the…
Ammerman, Robert T; Ammerman, Peggy J. Ott; Tarter, Ralph E. (1999) "Prevention and Societal Impact of Drug and Alcohol Abuse" Routledge.
Lala, Shulamith; Straussner, Ashenberg; Fewell, Christine Huff. (2006) "Impact of Substance
Abuse on Children and Families: Research" Haworth Press.
Laufer, William S. The Legacy of Anomie Theory: Advances in Criminological Theory.
One example of the kind of policy change that is being suggested by some in the particular war on Meth is the reduction of the ability of meth makers, especially large scale makers to realize the supplies of a small number of raw materials used to make the drug pseudoephedrine is quaaludes, as this drug was successfully removed from the radar screen by the banning of the chemicals used to make it, and this may be an option for all synthetic drugs.
Boulard, Garry. "The Meth Menace: Battling the Fast-Paced Spread of Methamphetamine May Mean Attacking It from Several Fronts." State Legislatures May 2005: 14.
Boyum, David, and Mark A.R. Kleiman. "Breaking the Drug-Crime Link." Public Interest Summer 2003: 19.
Organized Crime." The Columbia Encyclopedia. 6th ed. 2004.
Hanson, Gayle M.B. "Drug Crime Doesn't Pay, or Does It?." Insight on the News 19 June 1995: 16.…
Boulard, Garry. "The Meth Menace: Battling the Fast-Paced Spread of Methamphetamine May Mean Attacking It from Several Fronts." State Legislatures May 2005: 14.
Boyum, David, and Mark A.R. Kleiman. "Breaking the Drug-Crime Link." Public Interest Summer 2003: 19.
Organized Crime." The Columbia Encyclopedia. 6th ed. 2004.
Hanson, Gayle M.B. "Drug Crime Doesn't Pay, or Does It?." Insight on the News 19 June 1995: 16.
14). Soon, Congress passed the Marijuana Tax Act, which was signed into law in 1937. Like the Harrison Act, the Marijuana Tax Act placed marijuana into the same category as the cocaine and opium drugs. It was now illegal to import marijuana into the United States (McWilliams, 1991). However, this law was ineffective in curbing marijuana use (Brecher, 1986, p. 14).
By the early 1940s narcotic addiction had significantly reduced in the United States (Harrison, Backenheimer and Inciardi, 1999). However, this was not the result of legislative initiatives. Instead, it was because World War II was cutting off the "supplies of opium from Asia and interrupt the trafficking routes from Europe" (Inciardi, 1992, p. 24).
Several other legislative efforts in the supply reduction department served to establish more severe penalties for violations of drug laws, and tighten controls and restrictions over legally manufactured narcotic drugs (Harrison, Backenheimer and Inciardi, 1999).…
1999). Recreational Drug Information. History of Drug Use U.S. Retrieved from the Internet at www.a1b2c3.com/drugs/.
Brecher, E. (1986). Drug Laws and Drug Law Enforcement: A Review and Evaluation Based on 111 Years of Experience,' Drugs and Society 1:1.
Drucker, Ernest. (1999). Harm Reduction: A Public Health Strategy. Current Issues in Public Health, 1: pp. 64-70.
Drug Policy Alliance. (February 17, 2005). Harm Reduction: Options that Work. Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.drugpolicy.org/news/021705harm.cfm .
Vancomycin should be given for at least 60 minutes. The initial dosage for pediatrics with renal impairment is not less than 15 mg/kg per day or 15 times the GF in mL/min. Premature infants should have longer dosing intervals. PO administration should be 40 mg/kg/day in 3-4 divided doses for 7-10 days. The maximum is 2,000 mg/day, which may be diluted in 1 oz of water or administered through an NG tube (PD).
Vancomycin is contraindicated to patients with hypersensitivity to vancomycin (Drug.com, 2012). Commercially prepared frozen Vancomycyn Hydrochloride injections in 5% dextrose may also be contraindicated to those with known allergic reaction to corn or corn products (Drug.com).
The patient should inform the doctor or pharmacist of all prescription and non-prescription or herbal products currently used (Medicine Net, 2012; Levinson, 2012). Aminoglycosides, amphotericin B, other antibiotics, and live bacterial vaccines are special mentions. If treatment requires…
Reference: PDR Network LLC.
Retrieved on April 20, 2012 from http://www.pdr.net/drugpages/concisemonograph.aspx?concise=688
In most cases, recreational drug use is seen as a victimless crime and a harmless activity. This attitude changes in the workplace if the drug use impairs performance to the detriment of other workers or if the work involves public safety, in which case tolerance for drug use drops significantly. Another reason why tolerance for some drug use is so high is because the attitude is a reaction to the apocalyptic warnings emanating from law enforcement and government, given that people know that mild marijuana use, for instance, is not the mind- and life-bending experience often claimed. Many do not see the problem as being as dire as it is made out to be, and so they do not see it in the way earlier generations did.
Casey J. Dickinson notes the increasing use of pre-testing for applicants as a way not assuring that the person hired does not use…
Dickinson, Casey J. "New Vision Gets Results Before Employers Hire." The Central New York Businesss Journal (10 Dec 2004), 5.
Finkel, Kevin W. "Water Intoxication Presenting as a Suspected Contaminated Urine Sample for Drug Testing." Southern Medical Journal, Volume 97, Number 6 (June 2004), 611-613.
Fitzpatrick, Jr., John J. "State Labor Legislation Enacted in 2006: Minimum Wages, Workplace Security, Prevailing Wages, Equal Employment Opportunity, Wages Paid, Time off, Drug and Alcohol Testing, Child Labor, Human Trafficking, and Immigrant Protections Were among the Most Active Areas in Which Legislation Was Enacted or Revised during the Year." Monthly Labor Review, Volume 130, Issue 1 (2007). March 16, 2008. http://www.questia.com/read/5020677401?title=State%20Labor%20Legislation%20Enacted%20in%202006%3a%20Minimum%20Wages%2c%20Workplace%20Security%2c%20Prevailing%20Wages%2c%20Equal%20Employment%20Opportunity%2c%20Wages%20Paid%2c%20Time%20off%2c%20Drug%20and%20Alcohol%20Testing%2c%20Child%20Labor%2c%20Human%20Trafficking%2c%20and%20Immigrant%20Protections%20Were%20among%20the%20Most%20Active%20Areas%20in%20Which%20Legislation%20Was%20Enacted%20or%20Revised%20during%20the%20Year .
French, Michael T., M. Christopher Roebuck, and Pierre Kebreau Alexandre. "To Test or Not to Test: Do Workplace Drug Testing Programs Discourage Employee Drug Use?" Social Science Research (March 2004), 45-63.
Drug Use in Adolescents
The author of this report has been charged with writing a brief scholarly report with a few key components. The author of this report has been asked to select a topic of interest. That selected topic shall be substance and drug abuse in adolescents. As part of this scholarly report, there will be three major components. The first will be a description of the area of interest and why the author of this report is interested in it. Second, there will be a brief literature review with scholarly sources that cover that same topic. Finally, there will be a reflection and reaction to the literature review including whether there was agreement, how the author of this report perceives the involved paradigm(s) and so forth. While many kids avoid the pitfalls and negative outcomes of drug use and abuse, many fall prey sometimes or many times and…
Jaynes, S. (2014). Using Social Disorganization Theory to Guide Substance Abuse
Prevention among Adolescents: Implications for Educators. Journal Of At-Risk
Issues, 18(1), 35-40.
Lanza, H.I., Grella, C.E., & Chung, P.J. (2014). Does Adolescent Weight Status
Patients have a right to know if their doctor's decision to prescribe a certain medication has been influenced by free lunches or other perks, rather than that doctor's objective overview of prescribing information.
In fact, the real ethical issue presented in the underlying case is not that the doctors are accepting gifts from the pharmaceutical companies. Drug companies did decide to some degree of self-limit in their gifts to physicians. However, whether or not the drug companies offer gifts may not be the real ethical issue. The criteria for acceptability or unacceptability of gifts should actually rest on physician response, rather than an arbitrary financial limit of gifts for physicians. In other words, some of the currently prohibited practices, such as taking the physicians golfing, seem like a smart business practice for the sales people. The doctors, however, should have to maintain a database for patients to access, where they…
Drugs on the Economy
History of drugs in the United States
How drugs affect the United States Economy both positively and negatively
How decriminalization of drugs like marijuana stand to lessen the burden on tax-payers
Wonder drugs like morphine, heroine, and cocaine to mention but a few pose a lot of problems to the entire American society. Americans have had to grapple with the deleterious effects of drug abuse and addiction. estrictions were imposed at the beginning of the 20th Century through domestic and overseas law enforcement to contain the drugs epidemic. Such enforcements were initiated to limit opium and cocoa crops (Drug Enforcement Administration, 2012). This term paper seeks to give a brief history of drugs in the United States of America and subsequently outline how drug use affects the American economy both positively and negatively. The paper also endeavors to list how decriminalization of drugs like marijuana stands…
Bureau of Justice Statistics. (2011). Prisoners in 2010 (revised). Retrieved June 22, 2012 from http://bjs.ojp.usdoj.gov/index.cfm?ty=pbdetail&iid=2230
Drug Enforcement Administration. (2012). Illegal drugs in America: A modern
History. Retrieved June 22, from http://www.deamuseum.org /museum_ida.html
Easton, S. (2009). Legalize Marijuana for Tax Revenue. Retrieved June 22, from http://www.businessweek.com/debateroom/archives/2010/03/legalize_mariju.html
Whereas the harms associated with some illicit (and prescription) drugs is cumulative, some of the most popular recreational drugs such as ecstasy actually destroy neurons each and every time they are used.
Each time you take ecstasy, for example, neurons dedicated to respond to the neurotransmitter dopamine lose their ability to do so. As a result, ecstasy use in particular is known to interfere with the natural neurotransmitter reuptake mechanism. This impairs your ability to maintain a healthy mental frame of mind because dopamine reception and reuptake is fundamentally important to perceiving pleasure and to experiencing happiness. Ultimately this is a major cause of clinical depression in young people, requiring life-long treatment with antidepressant medications which are associated with negative side effects of their own. Suicide is also directly attributable to the psychological effects of clinical depression. Therefore, if you hope to achieve your academic potential and to avoid causing…
The first method, therefore, of curtailing use relates to the development of tougher measures for soldiers once they have failed a drug test. Prevention programs should be given a higher priority than is currently the case. ith stronger prevention programs, and if commanding officers are more willing to put troops who have failed drug tests into those programs, more soldiers can see their drug use curtailed.
The second method is related to the first -- prevention programs. If stress in its various forms is a major cause of illegal drug use among soldiers, then there needs to be more awareness of the issue in the military community, and more help available to soldiers before they start using. Training for all members of the military community would allow for the creation of an informal support grid for soldiers experiencing stress. Programs that give soldiers a place to turn to when they…
Gilmore, G. (2011). DoD urinalysis test (drug test). About.com. Retrieved September 7, 2011 from http://usmilitary.about.com/od/theorderlyroom/l/bldrugtests2.htm
Jacobson, I.; Ryan, M.; Hooper, T.; Smith, T.; Amoroso, P.; Boyko, E.; Gackstetter, G.; Wells, T. & Bell, N. (2008). Alcohol use and alcohol-related problems before and after military combat deployment. Journal of the American Medical Association. Vol. 300 (6) 663-675.
NIDA. (2011). Substance abuse among the military, veterans and their families. National Institute of Drug Abuse. Retrieved September 7, 2011 from http://www.nida.nih.gov/tib/vet.html
Zoroya, G. (2009). Army blasted for letting drug abusers slide. USA Today. Retrieved September 7, 2011 from http://www.usatoday.com/news/military/2009-05-20-drug_N.htm
Teen Drug Abuse - Prescription or Not
Differences between nonalcoholic offspring of alcoholics (family history positive, FHP) and matched offspring of nonalcoholics (family history negative, FHN) have been identified on a variety of behavioral, cognitive, and neurological measures. Compared to FHN teens, FHP adolescents and young adults demonstrate more disturbed school careers, impulsivity, rebelliousness, and nonconformity (National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2006); poorer neuropsychological performance (Worden & Slater, 2009); and significantly lower amplitude in P300 brain waves, which are believed to measure selective attention (Cicero, et al. 2005). Further, following ingestion of alcohol, sons of alcoholics report less body sway and less subjective intoxication (Grant, et al., 2005), higher levels of flushing (McBride, 2011), and decreased P300 amplitudes when performing difficult tasks (Foster, et al., 2009).
Not all individuals with a family history of alcohol dependence become alcohol and/or drug abusers, however, and genetics alone cannot account for…
Ajzen, I. (2010). The theory of planned behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50(2), 179-211.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC]. (2006). Youth risk behavior surveillance -- United States, 2005. MMWR 2006, 55.
Cicero, T.J., Inciardi, J.A., & Munoz, A. (2005). Trends in abuse of OxyContin and other opioid analgesics in the United States: 2002-2004. The Journal of Pain, 6, 662-672.
Drug Enforcement Administration. (2005). Prescription pain medications: Frequently asked questions and answers for health care professionals and law enforcement personnel. Journal of Pain and Palliative Care Pharmacotherapy, 19(1), 71-104.
Female Substance Abusers and Addicts
Heroin is a highly addictive substance which is characterized by a rush of biophysiological symptoms such as a rush or feeling of euphoria, heaviness in one's extremities and a certain element of dry mouth (rehab-international.org). When it comes to heroin and gender, either gender can become addicted to it in a brief amount of time: "Addiction to heroin is characterized by the compulsion to use heroin despite an onset of negative consequences and despite the user's best attempts at stopping via willpower alone" (rehab-international.org). For women, one of the more common traits of heroin abuse is rather detrimental: the acquired tolerance means that greater doses of heroin have to be taken in order to get the original effects of the drug. When women are under the influence of the drug, they may engage in unsafe sexual activity, actions which can lead to STDs, unintended pregnancies…
Anderson, T. (2000). Drug Use and Gender . udel.edu, 286-292.
Beckerleg, S.'Women heroin users: Exploring the limitations of the structural violence approach,'
International Journal of Drug Policy, vol:16 2005, p183 -190
Cicero, T., Ellis, M., & Surratt, H. (2014). The Changing Face of Heroin Use in the United States. JAMA Psychiatry, 821-826.
S. Food and Drug Administration, because they were in wide use before the 1938 Act (grandfathered in, as it were). (Dunn 1938)
The problem was that Act contained a definition for a "new drug" (one in need of prior approval to market), as any drug "the composition of which is such that such drug is not generally recognized, among experts qualified by scientific training and experience to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of drugs, as safe and effective for use under the conditions prescribed, recommended, or suggested in the labeling." FDCA § 201(p) (1). The manufacturers set out to establish then, that anything GRAS/GRAE therefore was not a new drug, and needed no FDA blessing.
Many medicines are ancient, and the active ingredients of many drugs on were first introduced before 1938. To make matters worse, between 1938 and 1962, the FDA considered drugs that were identical, related, or similar…
Health Care Drugs
There are many ethical and moral decisions to be made with drugs are available in health care facility. As department manager, a set of procedures and protocols regarding the handling, storing and monitoring of drugs is necessary to ensure the safety of the patients and employees. Within this set of procedures, generic drugs, controlled drugs, and all charting is necessary so that all drugs can be documented in order to keep track of everything and to keep all employees honest (Pamela Anderson, 2010). This is because no medicine is without side effects and some are worse than others."In any situation where care-workers are responsible for the looking after and giving of medicines to other people, be they young or old, healthy or sick, it is important to follow a set of general principles to ensure that this is done safely. In some ways this is similar to…
About the Prescription Drug Monitoring Program. (2010). Retrieved May 12, 2012, from http://drugcontrol.flgov.com/pdmp/about.html
Pamela Anderson. (2010). Medication Errors: Don't let them happen to you. Retrieved May 12, 2012, from American Nurse Today: http://www.americannursetoday.com/article.aspx?id=6356&fid=6276
The Handling of Medicine in Social Care. (n.d.). Retrieved May 12, 2012, from http://www.rpharms.com/support-pdfs/handlingmedsocialcare.pdf
Future egulatory Improvements (FDA)
The Prescription Drug User Fee Act allows the FDA to collect fees from drug manufacturers to fund the new drug approval process. The new drug approval process is costly for both drug companies and for the FDA. The latter is funded primarily through the federal government, so this law allowed the FDA to be more self-funded. Theoretically, this would also allow it to charge fees that reflected the costs associated with conducting new drug approvals. The legislation also contained a provision that requires the FDA to conduct its approvals at a certain speed. Essentially, the bill came about because there was the risk that the FDA was going to be very slow in approving new drugs, because it was short on money. The FDA in particular was concerned at the pace Congress was providing it with more funding, during the eagan years. This was resulting in…
Berndt, E., Gottschalk, A., Philipson, T. & Strobeck, M. (2004). Assessing the impact of the Prescription Drug User Fee Acts (PDUFAs) on the FDA approval process. NBER Working Paper No. 10822.
Kronquist, A. (2011). The Prescription Drug User Fee Act: History and Reauthorization issues for 2012. Heritage Foundation. Retrieved March 31, 2015 from http://www.heritage.org/research/reports/2011/12/the-prescription-drug-user-fee-act-history-and-reauthorization-issues-for-2012
Direct to Consumer Advertising
HISTRY F DRUG ADVERTISING
THE DTC ADVERTISING PHENMENN
DECEPTIVE ADVERTISING - A WLF IN SHEEP'S CLTHING
CAUSE F DEATH
UTILIZATIN, PRICING, AND DEMGRAPHICS
LEGISLATIN, PLITICS AND PATENTS
LEGISLATIVE INITIATIVES REGARDING DTC
RECALLED and/or DEADLY DRUGS
In order to provide the most efficient method of evaluation, the study will utilize existing stores of qualitative and quantitative data from reliable sources, such as U.S. Government statistical references, University studies, and the studies and publications of non-profit and consumer oriented organizations. Every attempt will be made to avoid sources of information sponsored by or directly influenced by the pharmaceutical industry.
Existing data regarding the history, levels, content and growth of direct-to-consumer advertising will be examined. In addition, the industry's composition prior to and after the proliferation of direct-to-consumer advertising will be examined, with regard to market share, type of substances sold, benefits of substances sold, and…
On January 9, 2002, Dr. Darlene Jody, Vice President of Medical Marketing for Bristol-Myers Squibb, issued a manufacturer's "Important Drug Warning Including Black Box Information." The Important Drug Warning advises healthcare practitioners that "cases of life-threatening hepatic failure have been reported in patients treated with SERZONE." The manufacturer's Warning indicates that numerous persons have or will suffer liver failure, death or transplantation. The manufacturer's Warning also indicates that the current estimate of the rate of liver failure associated with Serzone use is "about 3-4 times the estimated background rate of liver failure." A new Warning is being added to the Serzone prescribing information, advising that "patients should be advised to be alert for signs and symptoms of liver dysfunction (jaundice, anorexia, gastrointestinal complaints, malaise, etc.) and to report them to their doctor immediately if they occur." According to Warnings, Serzone should be promptly discontinued if signs or symptoms suggest liver failure.
Vioxx belongs to a class of drugs known as COX-2 inhibitors. When the drugs were introduced a few years ago, COX-2 inhibitors were thought to be safer and more effective than other drugs such as Aspirin and Ibuprofen. However, several studies have questioned the cardiovascular safety of Vioxx. Studies indicate that people taking Vioxx have four times the risk of a heart attack.
In May 2002, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) published a Talk Paper about new label warnings for the popular arthritis and pain drug know as Vioxx (rofecoxib). The new label warnings are based on the results of the Vioxx Gastrointestinal Outcomes Research (VIGOR). According to the FDA, recent studies demonstrate that Vioxx is associated with a higher rate of serious cardiovascular thromboembolic adverse events (such as heart attacks, angina pectoris, and peripheral vascular events). Based on the recent study, the FDA agreed with the Arthritis Advisory Committee recommendations February 8, 2001 that the label for Vioxx include gastrointestinal and cardiovascular warning information. Serious side effects attributed to Vioxx are heart attacks, seizures, strokes, or liver/kidney problems. http://www.recalleddrugs.com
These four dimensions are the tools for developing the company's marketing strategy and deciding which product line to cultivate, preserve, yield, or get rid of. Strong products should be grown or maintained. eak or unprofitable lines should be sold or discontinued as soon as possible. "Four basic factors are critical in the decision to manage individual product lines.
Cost to produce
Total sales volume" (Berry, 2012).
Going through the process of developing a marketing plan will help CVS to figure out how they are going to draw people into their stores and sell them things beyond discounted generic drugs. A provides the market with a source of discounted drugs among other products. This market need is important today as many Americans are faced with the dilemma of using their limited income on food or meds. A pharmacy should seek to fulfill the following benefits that are…
Berry, T. 2012. "Add competitive analysis to your marketing plan." Web. 2 April 2012.
Available from: http://articles.mplans.com/include-competitive-analysis-in-your-plan/
Berry, T. 2012. "Product marketing." Web. 2 April 2012. Available at:
The abbreviated approval process authorized by Hatch-Waxman lets generic drug manufacturers use the same clinical data that the original manufacturer used to obtain FDA approval, thereby avoiding these expenses. In this regard, Greene emphasizes that, "Whereas the pioneer drug manufacturer must incur great expense and undergo rigorous scrutiny when it files an new drug application (NDA) to secure FDA approval, a generic manufacturer may file an Abbreviated New Drug Application (ANDA) in which it may take advantage of the NDA holder's time and expense" (2005, p. 310).
The impact of the Hatch-Waxman Act on generic drug availability has been enormous. For instance, in 1984, generic drug prescriptions represented less than 20% of all prescription drugs marketed in the United States; however, due in large part to the Hatch-Waxman Act, by 1996, the market share for generic drugs had increased to 43% and by 2006, as many as 63% of…
Abramson, R.G., Harrington, C.A., Missmar, R., Li, S.P. & Mendelson, D.N. (2004). Generic
drug cost containment in Medicaid: Lessons from five state MAC programs. Health Care
Financing Review, 25(3), 25-26.
Buehler, G. (2002, September-October). Generic drugs: What you need to know. FDA
Third Class Of Drugs
In the United States, all pharmaceutical products: from Advil to Zoloft, are sold either as over-the-counter remedies or as prescription drugs. Over-the-counter remedies like Advil, aspirin, and Tylenol, can be purchased by any consumer at any store that chooses to sell them. Therefore, an eight-year-old can go into a convenience store and buy a bottle of aspirin. On the other hand, if an eighty-year-old man wanted to try Viagra, he would need to consult a physician and retrieve a prescription, and from there he would need to buy the drug from a licensed pharmacist. The two-class division evolved from a series of acts and resolutions passed in conjunction with the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The most significant landmark in the creation of a specific prescription-only class of drugs was the Durham-Humphrey Amendment, passed in 1951. The Amendment, which revised a 1938 congressional act called the…
Chan, Kwai-Cheung "Value of a Pharmacist-Controlled Class Has Yet to be Demonstrated." U.S. General Accounting Office. Aug 1995. Online at < http://www.gao.gov/archive/1995/pe95012.pdf >.
Hoffman, William. "The Pharmacist as Statesman." The Doric Column. 3 April 2001. Online at < http://mbbnet.umn.edu/doric/humphrey.html >.
Hoffman, William. "Indispensable." Reprinted with permission from Minnesota Medicine, August 1995. Online at < http://mbbnet.umn.edu/hoff/hoff_pharm.html >.
Labbe, Carl R. "Do We Need a Third Class of Drugs?" The Phar Side: ASU Pharmacy Newsletter. Issue 26. Online at < http://www.asu.edu/health/pharside%2026.htm >.
The structure of yetta is similar to that of GLP-1 and performs the same functions. oth promote decreased appetite (Wilson).
Dr. Wysham was an observer at a study conducted on 20 Rockwood diabetic patients who were taking conventional diabetic medication for their uncontrolled blood sugar (Wilson 2005). She was not informed about their glucose levels for several months after the tests began. About two-thirds of the respondents were given different injectible doses of yetta to incorporate into their medication plan, while the rest were given placebos. All of them were instructed and trained to do the injections at certain times twice daily for a month. Then they were subjected to a physical exam. Dr. Wysham closely monitored their liver, kidney, blood counts, and other functions. She observed that the patients consistently lose weight while taking yetta. The average respondent-patient lost 15 pounds in the duration of the study, 5 lost…
Business Editors (2005). Understand the impact of regulatory reform and raised drug
Safety awareness on off-label drug use. 2 pages. Business Wire: Gale Group
2007). Januvia approved in the European Union for the treatment of type-2 diabetes. 4 pages.
2007). Late breaking data released at ADA showed that the investigational use of Januvia and Metformin as initial combination therapy provided significant glucose lowering efficacy over 54 weeks in patients with type 2 diabetes. 8
Consumers have the right to determine if the drugs are safe, which they often do because regulations in Canada pertaining to safety and drug tampering are just as strict as similar rules in the U.S. All 18 Canadian sites investigated by the General Accounting Office, wrote the journal Community Action in 2004, required consumers to supply a physician-written prescription before filling orders. That was the case for five of 29 U.S. pharmacies; no other foreign pharmacies did. Thus, consumers have the right to choice, and to find the best bargain, just as they might in any other commodity. (Bast, 2005) Viewed as such, importation is just another form of free trade and a "beneficial outcome of changing technology, free trade, and globalization. Free trade benefits everyone, and governments ought not cave in to special pleading by interest groups seeking to avoid competition or limit consumer choice."(Bast, 2004) Opponents counter that…
Colabrese, Inez. "Online Pharmacies." CBS News Report. Broadcast Basler, Barbara (2006) "U.S. Steps Back on Drug Seizures." 2006 AARP Bulletin.
Bast, Joseph. "The Pros and Cons of Importing Drugs from Canada." April 19, 2004.
The Heartland Institute Special Report.
Canadian internet pharmacies have strict standards, U.S. auditors reports." (25 Jul 2005)
Sub: comment on John's claim as a whistle blower against PharmaCAE and the ethical and legal implications of the case
As a member of Dewey, Chetum, and Howe you asked me to find out suitable ethical and legal implications that John's case could bring for the firm and for John himself. Detailed in the report are the issues regarding:
The Ethical issues relating to marketing and advertising, intellectual property, and regulation of product safety in relation to PharmaCAE
Business ethics can be defined as the art, system, method and the discipline that is applied to along with ethical principles to solve complex business issues and dilemmas. It defines the actions that are taken that tries to reach a balance between the organization achieving its business and economic obligations and social obligations (Moon, 2001).
One of the ethics that is applicable in this case is related to the advertisement…
Accessdata.fda.gov,. (2015). CFR - Code of Federal Regulations Title 21. Retrieved 6 June 2015, from http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cfcfr/CFRSearch.cfm?fr=201.56
Accessdata.fda.gov,. (2015). CFR - Code of Federal Regulations Title 21. Retrieved 6 June 2015, from
.....prescription process can incur high costs in the healthcare industry due to poor risk management. Lack of continued assessment, technological upgrades, and information sessions can lead to an increased rate of data entry errors. Data entry errors may result in patient deaths, and lawsuits that lessen the financial success of any hospital/clinic. However, there is opportunity to reduce data entry errors in order to minimize negative outcomes related to prescription errors and patient satisfaction. The recommendation for minimizing negative outcomes is to incorporate a cloud service that allows for integration of existing electronic prescription records, allowing optimization of prescriptions from doctor/nurse to pharmacy to patient, thus minimizing potential data entry error. The impact the cloud service application can have on healthcare can be great. Costs may be reduced and legal ramifications from human error can be avoided by exemplifying the risk management essentials of assessment, technological upgrades, and training.
Initial product formulation utilizes knowledge acquired from pre-formulation outcomes to derive proper dose, dosage form, and type of administration for the proposed marketed use. A pilot batch of Clinical Trial Materials (CTM) may be produced after the new drug has completed these initial tests.
Upon completion of preclinical testing, the drug sponsor files an Investigational New Drug Application (IND) with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), after they have obtained prerequisite approval from the Institutional eview Board (IB). The purpose of the investigation is to assure that the new drug is safe and meets stated objectives for human consumption. Among other things, all formulations must meet FDA Current Good Manufacturing Practice guidelines before human testing can begin. Ordinarily, the FDA has 30 days to respond to the application. After the drug receives this initial approval clinical trials may begin within 30 days.
Clinical trials proceed in four phases, with…
Friedhoff, Lawrence, Lawrence T., and M.d. New Drugs: An Insider's Guide to the FDA'New Drug Approval Process for Scientists, Investors and Patients. New York: PSPG Publishing, 2009. Print.
"How Drugs are Developed and Approved." U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Last updated 04/23/2010: Web. 17 Jan 2011. .
Janodia, MD. "Drug Development Process: A Review." Pharmaceutical News 12/25/2007: Web. 17 Jan 2011. .
Mathieu, Mark, and Christopher-Paul Milne. New Drug Development: A Regulatory Overview. 8th. MA: Barnett Educational Services Chi, 2008. Print.
War on drugs is one of the biggest human rights and social justice atrocities currently in the United States. There are actually no winners in the war on drugs, not unless leaders of drug smuggling operations can be considered "winners." Law enforcement loses because their precious resources are being diverted from serious crimes to drug crimes. Ordinary citizens lose because police officers are overly concerned with non-violent drug possession and even distribution cases than they are with actual societal harm. Drug use causes no more harm than alcohol use, and it makes no sense to retain drug prohibition when harm reduction seems to call for more open approaches to drug regulation.
As Benavie (2009) points out, the damage caused by the war on drugs includes an uptake in violence because of the operations of organized crime, contaminated drugs like the recent fentanyl crisis leading to preventable deaths, property crimes due…
Benavie, A. (2009). Drugs: America's holy war. In Charon, J. M., & Vigilant, L. G. (2012). Social problems: readings with four questions. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Cengage Learning.
Industry and egulatory Strategy
The generic drug industry provides the public with pharmaceutical alternatives to branded big name prescription drugs. "In 2010 alone, the use of FDA-approved generics saved $158 billion, an average of $3 billion every week."(Generic Pharmaceutical Association. 2011. P.1). With the continuing increase in health care expenditures and health insurance premiums for business and consumers; in 2011 premiums increased by nine percent (Abelson, eed. September 27, 2011. P.1), and "with so many people relying on prescriptions, the cost implications loom large for the American public, health insurers, and government payers" (Kaiser.edu.org. N.D.P.1). Generic drugs must play a more prominent role in the U.S. health care profile, as such as CEO of the Generic Pharmaceutical Association (GPA), the organizations legislative push is toward patent reform which would call for generic drug competition within seven years of the name brand drug introduction. In so doing pharmaceutical prices would fall…
Abelson, Reed. (September 27, 2011). Health Insurance Costs Rising Sharply This Year,
Study Shows. The New York Times. Retrieved December, 12, 2011 from http://www.nytimes.com/2011/09/28/business/health-insurance-costs-rise-sharply-this-year-study-shows.html?pagewanted=all
Bio Job Blog.com. (February 1, 2010). Why Generic Drug Companies Will Dominate
Future Pharmaceutical Markets. Bio Job Blog.com. Retrieved December 12, 2011 from http://www.biojobblog.com/2010/02/articles/biobusiness/why-generic-drug-companies-will-dominate-future-pharmaceutical-markets/
There are a number of different instruments that are used to diagnose substance disorders. One of these NIAMED, which has an online screening tool, the NIDA Drug Screening Tool. This test is used for screening. The patient is surveyed with respect to his/her use of various drugs, both illegal and prescription, with the focus on non-FDA approved uses of the latter. The tool was launched in 2009 as an aid to help physicians quickly and easily screen their patients for drug abuse risk (NIAMED, 2009).
This test is typically administered online, but it can be administered in offline format. The test is a survey. The results are provided at the end of the survey when the test is administered online. The test is one of the more basic tests, in that it is a single source, single method test that only focuses on frequency of usage and on…
Brown, R., Leonard, T., Saunders, L, & Papasouliotis, O. (1997). A two-item screening test for alcohol and other drug problems. Journal of Family Practice. 44 (2) 151-160.
NIAMED (2009). NIDA launches drug use screening tools for physicians. National Institutes of Health. Retrieved May 9, 2016 from https://www.nih.gov/news-events/news-releases/nida-launches-drug-use-screening-tools-physicians
NIDA Drug Screening Tool. (2016). Retrieved May 9, 2016 from https://www.drugabuse.gov/nmassist/
Rahdert, E. & Czechowicz, D. (1995). Adolescent drug abuse: Clinical assessment and therapeutic interventions. NIDA Research Monograph. Retrieved May 9, 2016 from http://digisrv-2.biblio.etc.tu-bs.de:8081/docportal/servlets/MCRFileNodeServlet/DocPortal_derivate_00001904/Monograph156.pdf#page=152
drug use and abuse in the United States and presents differing approaches that are used (or proposed) to get a handle on the problem. There is no doubt that the drug abuse issue is not new and it is not being reduced by any significant amount. This paper presents statistics and scholarly research articles that delve into various aspects of the drug abuse issue in the United States, with particular emphasis on drugs that are abused in eastern Kentucky and generally in the Appalachian communities.
History of Drug Use & Availability
The history of illegal drug use in the United States goes back to the 19th Century, according to the U.S. Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA). The DEA has a Museum in Arlington, Virginia, that illustrates the history of drug discoveries, drug use, and drug abuse through the years. The DEA reports that morphine, heroin, and cocaine were "discovered" in the…
Bureau of Justice Statistics. (2008). Drugs and Crime Facts / Drug Use / Youth. Retrieved November 30, 2012, from http://bjs.ojp.usdog.gov.
Drug Enforcement Agency. (2012). Illegal Drugs in America: A Modern History. Retrieved November 30, 2012, from http://www.deamuseum.org .
Grant, Judith. (2007). Rural women's stories of recovery from addition. Addiction Research and Theory, 15(5), 521-541.
Havens, Jennifer R., Oser, Carrie B., and Leukefeld, Carl G. (2011). Injection risk behaviors
An addiction can be considered a physical and psychological incapability to avoid the consumption of drugs, chemicals, substances, or even taking part in an activity even when doing so causes both physical and psychological harm (Nutt, 2018). The Addiction term is not only applicable when it comes to cocaine and heroin use. Any person who cannot function normally without taking some specific chemical or drug is considered to be substance dependent (Nutt, 2018). The obsession with some activities such as working, eating, and gambling is considered an addiction (Clark & Limbrick-Oldfield, 2013). This type of addiction is commonly referred to as behavioral addiction. As stated by Robbins and Clark (2015) behavioral addictions have gradually become a recognized psychiatric disorder. Recently pathological gambling has been allocated to the DSM-5 category (American Psychiatric Association, 2013).
There are several other disorders that have been suggested as being part of the behavioral addiction category…
According to these authors, the fatal tragedy could easily have been avoided by taking more time for more focused and carefully planned clinical trials. According to this view, it was unethical to test Tysabri in the way it has been done, and furthermore irresponsible to enter it into the market before all side-effects were ascertained.
3. Interested parties: The interested parties in this case include Walter Smith, Anita's widower, as well as Cambridge biotechnology and Elan Corp. From Smith's point-of-view, the companies are at fault for causing harm to his wife, and potential harm to many others using the drug. His current assertions regarding the reentry of the drug into the market appear to be well thought out and mature, focusing on the future benefit of patients rather than on his own need for revenge.
From the point-of-view of the companies, the drug is developed to help those suffering from…
Prescription Drug Abuse
The overall point of conversation when speaking of prescription drugs in the public and political sphere has usually focused on cost and/or ease of access among all Americans. The overall points of conversation relating to drug has often centered on drugs like heroin, cocaine, crack and marijuana. However, as time and trends have shifted, the primary focus of both overall topics has centered on the use and abuse of prescription drugs, usually certain classes of drugs such as sedatives, opiates and anti-anxiety drugs. Common drugs focused on include Xanax, any narcotic-based painkiller such as Oxycontin and sedatives or muscle relaxers such as Valium and Soma. While prescription drugs are very important to have at the ready, the likelihood and propensity towards abuse of the drugs and other legal behavior is significant and this is even true among people who obtain the drugs legally at the onset.
Doyon, S., Klein-Schwartz, W., Anderson, B.A., & Welsh, C. (2013). A Novel Approach
to Informing the Public about the Risks of Overdose and Nonmedical Use of Prescription Medications. American Journal on Addictions, 22(2), 108-112.
Garcia, A.M. (2013). State Laws Regulating Prescribing of Controlled Substances:
Inhalants refer to the ordinary household products that are sniffed or inhaled by individuals so as to get high. There are many household products that are misused as inhalants. Some of these products include gasoline, hair spray, fabric protector, air conditioner fluid, nail polish remover, and correction fluid, propellants in aerosol, cleaning fluids and cooking spray. These products are mainly bagged, sniffed, snorted so as one to get high. They can be sniffed directly from the containers. In most cases when an individual is under the influence of such inhalants one is likely to engage in anti-social or criminal behavior (Ksir, 2002). This report endeavors to explain the theoretical and empirical literature regarding theories of drug information and addiction.
The intoxicating inhalants that have volatile vapors are ingested through the trachea and nose. However, some inhalants are used for medical reasons as in the case of nitrous oxide. The inhalation…
Dick, DM & Bierut, LJ (2006). "The Genetics of Alcohol Dependency." Current Psychiatric Reports 8 (2): 151 -- 7
Ksir, Oakley Ray; Charles (2002). Drugs, society, and human behavior (9th Ed.). Boston
Morse, RM & Flavin, DK (August 26, 1992). "The definition of alcoholism, The Joint Committee of the National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence and the American Society of Addiction Medicine to Study the Definition and Criteria for the Diagnosis of Alcoholism." The Journal of the American Medical Association 268 (8): 1012 -- 4
That compared with 19% for alcohol and a secondary drug; 12% for alcohol alone; 3% for smoked cocaine; 2.4% for methamphetamines; and 2.3% for heroin (Abrams).
It is estimated that by 2010 there will be 35 million teens in America (Levinson). This is a significant demographic to be concerned about. There would also be an increased chance of illicit drugs falling into the hands of children, just like cigarettes and alcohol now that are prohibited from being sold to kids. A greater availability, in general, would increase the likelihood of children being able to obtain them (Messerli).
Harm reduction is one of the primary benefits of legalizing illicit drugs; however, opponents feel that this theory is fatally flawed. Although the suffering of drug users should be reduced, their destructive habits shouldn't be tolerated. "Harm eduction advocates forget the thousands of impressionable teenagers for whom the law is a reminder that…
Abrams, J. "Report: Teen Use of Pot Will Jump with Legalization - Move to Harder Drugs Follows, Group Says." Seattle Times 13 Jul, 1999: A5. ProQuest. ProQuest. University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ. December 5, 2006 http://proquest.umi.com .
An Unethical Reason for Legalizing Drugs." Business Week (3678) 24 Apr. 2000: 6. Academic OneFile. Thomson Gale. University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ. December 5, 2006 http://find.galegroup.com .
Burden, K. "What's the Fuss About Legalizing Drugs? Many People Advocating a "Harm Reduction" Approach to Illegal Drugs are Well-Meaning but Misguided." Presbyterian Record 70(10) Nov. 1996: 10-11. Academic OneFile. Thomson Gale. University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ. December 5, 2006
akalar, JD, 'Marijuana as Medicine: a Plea for Reconsideration', 1876
Journal of the America Medical Association, June 21, 1995 - Vol. 273, No. 23, at http://www.calyx.com/~olsen/MEDICAL/lester.html
Policy Analysis: Thinking About Drug Legalization," at http://www.cato.org/pubs/pas/pa121.html
Alternatives to the War on Drugs," at http://www.geocities.com/CapitolHill/4727/alt-wod-faq.html
Frequently Asked Questions," at http://www.paranoia.com/drugs/marijuana/hemp/FAQ-alt.hemp
Americans for Compassionate Use," at http://www.acu.org/~acu/
Ethan a. Nadelmann, "Thinking seriously about alternatives to the drug prohibition," Daedalus v.123:3, at http://www.calyx.com/~mariolap/debate/ethan1.html
NASRO Issue rief, Spring 1995 vol. 1, no.1,"Rethinking the War on Drugs and Crime: New Approaches to Local Polic." http://www.dscc.org/cwa/report.html
Policy Analysis: Thinking About Drug Legalization," at http://www.cato.org/pubs/pas/pa121.html
Fish, Jefferson M, Ed. How to Legalize Drugs. Northvale, NJ: Jason Aronson Inc.. July 1998, 675 pages., pp. 161
Lester Grinspoon, MD, James . akalar, JD, 'Marijuana as Medicine: a Plea for Reconsideration', 1876 Journal of the America Medical Association, June 21, 1995 -- Vol. 273, No. 23, at http://www.calyx.com/~olsen/MEDICAL/lester.html
Alternatives to the War…
Fish, Jefferson M, Ed. "How to Legalize Drugs." Northvale, NJ: Jason Aronson Inc.. July 1998, 675 pages;
Lee P. Brown, "Eight Myths About Drugs," Vital Speeches of the Day, City News Publishing Co. 15 July 1994;
Lester Grinspoon, MD, James B. Bakalar, JD, 'Marijuana as Medicine: a Plea for Reconsideration', 1876
Journal of the America Medical Association, June 21, 1995 - Vol. 273, No. 23, at http://www.calyx.com/~olsen/MEDICAL/lester.html
Paxil tying drug readings: (Using readings support analysis)… the articles: "The
In order to properly analyze the drug known as Paxil, one must give prudent consideration to a number of factors. The first of these, of course, is the fact that by the very definition of this narcotic, it is a mind altering substance that is able to readily induce changes in one's brain or psychological state that often time have effects upon the physical body as well. Additionally, it should be noted that the very nature of this particular narcotic is quite different from other narcotics, in particular those which are used for recreational purposes -- namely mind altering substances such as alcohol and marijuana. It is quite possible for users to view occasions to engage in either of these substances as opportunities for fun and pleasure, particularly marijuana. However, although there may be medicinal purposes of…
Becker, Howard S. "Becoming a Marihuana User." The American Journal of Sociology. 59, no.3 (1953): 235-242.
DeGrandpre, Richard. The Cult of Pharmacology: How America Became the World's Most Troubled Drug Culture. Durham: Duke University Press, 2006.
Hacking, Ian. "Making Up People." The London Review of Books. 28, no. 16 (2006)