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Do our Presidents have too much or not enough power? Why or why not?
The President of the United States has the primary duty of ensuring that all U.S. laws are carried out properly and that the federal government runs effectively. He or she does not have the power to introduce or enforce new legislation; this power belongs to Congress. However, he or she is elected "for the people, by the people" and has the power to veto any bill legislature approves. This is significant authority, but ultimately, Congress (elected Senate and House of epresentatives members) works as a unit to create and lobby for the laws that ultimately govern our society and can override a Presidential veto.
The President serves as Commander in Chief of the U.S. armed forces, oversees foreign policy, creates treaties with foreign nations and appoints ambassadors to the U.N. And other countries. This…
(2011, April 25). Multiple Inequities: A new law lessens, but doesn't end, the sentencing disparities for crack cocaine. New York Times. p. 24.
(2012, April 18). Abiding by the Fair Sentencing Act. New York Times. p. 26.
Beckmann, M.N., & Kumar, V. (2011). How presidents push, when presidents win: A model of positive presidential power in U.S. lawmaking. Journal Of Theoretical Politics, 23(1), 3-20. doi:10.1177/0951629810378545
Presidents also fulfill the role of leader of their political party. Although this power is not mentioned in the Constitution, presidents represent the best interests of their party and work to make sure that members of their political party get elected to positions within the government.
The role of the president has changed greatly since its inception. Some of these changes have been because of the personality of the president involved. Tenacious presidents like Abraham Lincoln greatly increased the war powers of the presidency during the Civil War. Franklin D. oosevelt took charge of the nation's finances during the Great Depression and launched the New Deal. The Vietnam Era brought a change as people reacted negatively to the powers of the president in running a war that Congress had not declared. Subsequent scandals like Watergate also had the effect of decreasing the powers of the presidency. The power spectrum bounced…
Crabb, C., Holt, P. (1989). Invitation to Struggle: Congress, the President, and Foreign Policy. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Quarterly.
Turner, M., Switzer, K., Redden, C., (1996). American Government: Principles and Practices. Columbus, OH: Glencoe/McGraw-Hill.
While the scope of modern presidential power far exceeds the very limited but potent powers that the President is given in Article II of the Constitution, it does not appear that those powers have increased dramatically over the last 20 years, especially when one compares the President's power with congressional power. It is important to keep in mind that most presidents have "used their implied and informal presidential powers to enhance their personal influence" (Annenberg Foundation, 2014). This began with Washington and, in many ways, it has grown over the course of history, resulting in an Executive Branch that is more powerful than anticipated at the time of the Constitution. However, while the President is, nominally, the head of the Executive Branch, it is critical to keep in mind that the Executive is extremely dependent upon the Congress. "Congress controls the purse strings for all the branches of…
Krinsky, A. (2013, July 9). A four-party system for the U.S. Retrieved September 16, 2014
from The Huffington Post website: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/alan-krinsky/a-fourparty-system-for-the-us_b_3531406.html
U.S. Const. amend. XXII.
Power of the American President [...] how the U.S. President derives most of his power from Formal Powers. The U.S. President is the Commander-in-Chief of the nation, and probably the most powerful leader in the world. The Formal Powers of the President are formidable and keep the President powerful, and yet not so powerful that he takes over the entire government. The Formal Powers give power, but keep the leader in check, which is a vital part of democracy.
The Formal Powers of the President are certainly important and formidable, for they give the person who is arguably the most powerful leader in the world some extraordinary authority and control. The President is the Commander-in-Chief of the armed forces, and can (as we recently saw with George W. Bush), command them into war, even without the support of allied nations or the United Nations. This is probably the…
S. interests in that part of the world. Then, on January 17, 1991, the U.S. launched the first attack, with more than 4,000 bombing runs. After 100 hours, Bush called off the offensive, saying he wanted to minimize U.S. casualties.
Though Bush was criticized for this withdrawal being premature, the U.S. made a retreat from Kuwait after the successful offensive, and Bush's approval ratings reached new highs.
Bush announced in early 1992, that he would run again for President, and his reelection looked probable. However, higher taxes and uncontrolled economic problems brought his term to an end in 1992, and Bush lost to Bill Clinton. Bush was running as a conservative, but so were oss Perot and Pat Buchanan (who ran against him for the epublican nomination).
In order to defeat Pat Buchanan's bid for the epublican nomination, Bush declared even more conservative stances. Though he defeated Pat Buchanan, oss…
Farnsworth, S.J. And Lichter, S.R. (2004), New presidents and network news: covering the first year in office of Ronald Reagan, Bill Clinton, and George W. Bush, Presidential Studies Quarterly, Vol. 34:3, 29 Jul 2004, 674.
Frye, T. (1999). Changes in Post-Communist Presidential Power: Political Economy Explanation. A paper prepared for Ohio State University. Retrieved November 19, 2008 at http://kellogg.nd.edu/events/pdfs/Frye.pdf
Kelley, C.S., and Marshall, B.W. (2006). The Last Mover Advantage: Presidential Powers and the Role of Signing Statements, Chicago, IL. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Midwest Political Science Association, Palmer House Hilton, Chicago, Illinois. Retrieved November 19, 2008 at http://www.allacademic.com/meta/p139737_index.html.
Mann, J. (2002). The ghost of the oval office, New York Times, October 4, 2002.
Presidential and Congressional Powers
In the simplest of terms, the differences in powers between Congress and the President is that Congress makes laws and the President enforces them. But, that description does a great injustice to the complexities of the roles of each. Congress is granted "all legislative powers" by Article I, Section 8 of the Constitution. Those powers include the making of laws, coining money, declaring war, regulating interstate and foreign commerce, and maintaining the military. The powers of the President (Executive Branch) are outlined in Article II of the Constitution. They include the power of appointment and removal, the creation of executive orders, limited legislative powers, veto power, pardoning power, power to make treaties, and military powers separate from those of Congress. Both sets of powers, in conjunction with the Judicial Branch, form a balance of powers within the Federal Government. It is the purpose of this paper…
Hamilton, J. & Madison, J. "The Federalist Papers" 52-67, 70-77. Online. Internet. Avail http://www.shadeslanding.com/firearms/federalist.Info Acc: Dec 13, 2002.
Neustadt, Richard. Presidential Power and the Modern Presidents. Seattle: Free Press, 1991.
Powers and ights of the Constitution
INSTITUTIONAL POWE: The Constitution gives the federal government the right to form a military service, including what is now the National Guard (Army National Guard, 2011), though it does so in cooperation with the states and localities to serve their interests as well. This section is important for a number of reasons, including the fact that it reinforces the differences between the state and the federal government without weakening the role of the states to protect and defend themselves. It also helps ensure that the troops and resources are readily available in each locality when urgent issues of various kinds result. They can be used for natural disasters, various forms of social control, helping in other times or need, as well as to address more complicated issues like war and terrorism. This latter issue has become most important recently as localities look to be…
Army National Guard (2011). Legal basis of the national guard. Viewable at http://www.arng.army.mil/aboutus/history/Pages/ConstitutionalCharteroftheGuard.aspx
Bancuk, L. (n.d.), Right to assemble. Learning to Give. http://learningtogive.org/papers/paper57.html
Crosses of Lafayette (2007). Private website. Viewable at http://lafayettecrosses.blogspot.com/ .
Cuban Missile Crisis (2011). Viewable at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cuban_Missile_Crisis .
While the president has the power to veto proposed bills and laws he does not have the right to declare war against the wishes of Congress. He has continued to assert however that Congress gave him permission to invade Iraq through other means including the bills about the war on terrorism (the UI to TrackBack this entry is:
http://thinkprogress.org/2005 / 12 / 20 / did-not-expand / trackback/).
In the case of the invasion of Iraq the president was met with staunch opposition. In fact a federal lawsuit was filed in Boston stating the president did so without the approval of congress.
The constitution of the United States is worded in a way that prevents presidents from declaring war without the express approval and support of congress (13 February 2003 Suit questions Bush's war powers by David D. Haskell
United Press International (http://cndyorks.gn.apc.org/caab/articles/federallawsuit.htm)
Bush claims that the resolution about Iraq…
Congress Explicitly Said War Resolution Did Not Expand Executive Power
War powers act http://www.cs.indiana.edu/statecraft/warpow.html
13 February 2003 Suit questions Bush's war powers by David D. Haskell
He seems to draw easy causal connections between policy and personality that deny the exterior circumstances of history. For example, he suggests that Hoover's rigid personality made him unable to accept changes in classical economic theory during the beginning of the Great Depression, and to adopt a more Keynesian approach. Barber asserts that it was not the conventional wisdom of the time that hampered Hoover as much as his own character, despite the fact that few people really could assuredly state they had the 'answer' to the financial crisis at that time. The adaptive-negative aspects of Johnson's personality made that president similarly resistant to the idea of pulling out of Vietnam, and his egoism made him unwilling to be seen as 'losing' the war -- but what about the pressures of the Cold War during that era? Historians also might find some objection to Barber's psychoanalyzing so many major presidential…
Presidential Disaster Declaration Process
Preparedness and Mitigation from Disasters in the Twentieth Century
Numerous disasters have always brought intensive destruction to the environment and human lives over the years. The twentieth century, however, has experienced rather greater disasters, which have called for intervention through ensuring mitigation and preparedness. The presidential disaster declaration process is aimed at fulfilling the ambitions of preparing for disasters. These disasters include both the man-made and natural ones, ranging from the outbreak of fires, contagious diseases that need extreme control, earthquakes and hurricanes, the nightmare of global warming, political instability and many others. The essay evaluates analytically, the need for preparedness through the presidential disaster declaration process, which is a strategy to getting assistance. The evolution of the process in the twentieth century to strengthen hazard management is also discussed in the content.
I. What is the presidential disaster declaration (PDD) process?
Bellamy, J.S. (2009) Cleverland's Greatest Disasters!: 16 Tragic True Tales of Death and Destruction: New York: Gray and Company.
Ec-Council (2010) Disaster Recovery: New York, Cengage Learning.
Kapucu, N. & Alpaslan, Z. (2011) Managing Emergencies and Crises: MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishing.
Oliver, J. & Aldcroft, H.D. (2007) Economic Disasters of the Twentieth Century: New York: Edward Elgar Publishing.
PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS (1.5 pages requested)
My fellow Americans, the past two years have been tremendously challenging for all of us, as well as for me personally as your president. Tonight, I feel that I have to address a specific problem that has emerged since my election and that I fear is undermining the integrity of the constitutional form of government upon which all of us rely to guarantee the effectiveness of this great democratic republic.
As you know, the two-party political system and the bicameral nature of the American Congress is designed to guard against the usurpation of power by any one political party or group. However, in the last two years, a disturbing pattern has emerged in which some of the safeguards expressly designed and built into this system have been misused very deliberately and systematically for the purpose of achieving purely political goals and at great expense to,…
Finally, proponents of term limits point out that the aforementioned second-term problems were due to personality, leadership, and policy problems, not clout in Congress alone. In terms of change, the presence of term limits can 'cut' both ways: "On the one hand it is said that not having term limits makes needed change more difficult because of the power that long-time office holders amass. On the other hand, term limits can also be seen as an obstacle to long-term needed political change because it forces a change of leadership at a time when the leader's project might not be ready for such change" (ilpert 2009).
However, the system of checks and balances enshrined in the Constitution suggests that the Founding Fathers envisioned a limited form of government, without a powerful ruling political class, particularly at the executive level. Above all, ashington and his fellow Founding Fathers feared the establishment of…
22: Presidential term limits. (2002, November 27). Post Gazette. Retrieved April 16, 2009 at http://www.post-gazette.com/nation/20021127amendment_22p9.asp
Wilpert, Gregory. (2009, February 19). An important victory for Venezuela and for socialism.
NACLA. Retrieved April 16, 2009 at http://nacla.org/node/5526
The American President is said to be the most powerful man in the world, but it is also said that the President has limited influence over domestic policy. Even if the President is relatively weak in terms of domestic policy, he still has tremendous power, more than just about anyone else. This paper will analyze the different formal and informal ways in which the President exerts influence over domestic policy. The paper will then examine the question of whether or not the President's authority on domestic affairs is relatively weak. This is an interesting question because it is a question of relativity in which the comparable matters. Compared with the President's powers on foreign affairs, Presidential powers in the realm of domestic affairs are relatively weak. Compared with anybody else's powers, the powers of the President in the realm of domestic affairs is strong; nobody else has as…
Typically, applications for pardons are referred for review and non-binding recommendation by the Office of the Pardon Attorney, an official of the Department of Justice (Pardons and clemency in the United States http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pardon)."
Those who oppose the pardon power of the president point to the royal misuse of days gone by when the U.S. was still under English rule and pardoning power was abused by members of the royal family throughout history.
Those who support the power of a president to pardon believe it is an elected power with regard to the United States and as such the people have provided the power to their elected president to make pardons available to those he or she sees fit.
A pardon can be granted at any point following the commission of the crime including before a conviction has been handed down, but for the most part individual pardons are granted to…
Pardons and clemency in the United States (accessed 4-10-07)
PRESIDENTIAL PARDON POWER (accessed 4-10-07) http://commdocs.house.gov/committees/judiciary/hju71180.000/hju71180_0f.htm
Black, Eric (2001)Presidential pardoning power harks back to right of royalty; Presidential pardons were endorsed by the founding fathers and the U.S. Supreme Court.(NEWS)
The domino theory which presumed that the fall of a nation such as Vietnam would cause an entire region to topple to communist influence would underscore Cold War foreign policy for generations, with presidents culturally required to affirm a commitment to the goals of protecting American interests and opposing Russian aims that appeared to be contrary to these interests. Regarding Kennedy, "from his Vienna interview with Khrushchev, through the Berlin crisis during 1961, to the Cuban missile crisis and therafter -- this commitment evidently deepened with experience as Kennedy responded to events." (Neustadt, 170) This is to note that regardless of the perspective which he took into office with him, his increased exposure to the insights and knowledge of the presidency would drive him to view Cold War policy refinement as the highest of priorities.
Accordingly, this mounting knowledge that would show Kennedy to be as much shaped by the…
American Journal of International Law (2009). President issues an executive order banning torture and CIA prisons. The American Journal of International Law, Vol. 103, No. 2. Pp 331-334.
The article mentions that in line with President Obama's order to put an end to Guantanamo Bay detentions, there was an issue of executive orders. As empowered by the constitution, the orders reversed practices and policies from the Bush administration and the relationships with detention and interrogation of the terror suspects. The authors add that the order revoked Executive Order 13,440 that limited Common Article 3 application on Geneva Conventions. The order banned torture and humiliation and degrading treatment for persons under U.S. custody, control of detained persons from in armed conflicts, and limit U.S. interrogation techniques from the ones authorized through the Army Field Manual. Further, the order directed Central Intelligence Agency to end all detention facilities under its operations while…
Beckmann, M.N., McGann, A.J., (2008). Navigating the Legislative Divide Polarization, Presidents, and Policymaking in the United States. Journal of Theoretical Politics 20(2): 201 -- 220.
Bridge, D., (2014). Presidential Power Denied: A New Model Of Veto Overrides Using Political. Congress & the Presidency; Vol 41, 2; ProQuest Central pg. 149.
Canes-Wrone, B. (2001). President's Legislative Influence from Public Appeals. American Journal of Political Science, Vol. 45, No. 2. pp. 313-329.
Cummins, J., (2010). State of the Union Addresses and the President's Legislative Success. Congress & the Presidency; 37, 2; ProQuest Central pg. 176.
It was soon after the September 11 terrorist attacks on the U.S.A. carried out by an Islamic militant outfit, Al-Qaeda that the impetus to the Bush administration to strengthen the existing Presidential powers came into being, and this has been taken by some persons as meaning that the President of the United States now enjoys much more powers than other post-Watergate Presidents, and by others that the President Bush today has managed to seize certain powers that have been traditionally shared with other parts of the Government. This is probably the reason that it is the general opinion of a large number of people that the President, because of the unique dominance of the Congress, has acquired an inordinate amount of power. The President therefore today has the right to take pre-emptive action against war or any other form of threat to the U.S.A. The Democrats, on the other hand,…
First Lady is to live in the spotlight. Like it or not, the First Lady is a role model for thousands of women, not just in the United States, but also worldwide. What she says, what she does, how she conducts herself in certain situations, even how she chooses to decorate the White House -- these things and more are all examined by the people and the press and given close scrutiny.
Three First Ladies who each had to deal with criticism, controversy, and pressure in their time are Eleanor Roosevelt, arbara ush, and Nancy Reagan. This paper will examine each of them in turn and compare and contrast their influence, impact, and character as First Lady.
Eleanor Roosevelt was a thoroughly modern woman for her time and refused to adopt the stereotypes and confining image of women as they were in her day. She was strong, outspoken (although painfully…
Biography of Nancy Reagan. Retrieved December 7, 2002. http://www.whitehouse.gov/history/firstladies/nr40.html
Bush, Barbara. A Memoir. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1994.
Roosevelt, Anna Eleanor. This Is My Story. New York and London: Harper & Brothers, 1937.
Eleanor Roosevelt. Retrieved from MSN Encarta Encyclopedia, December 7, 2002. http://encarta.msn.com/encnet/refpages/RefArticle.aspx?refid=761577012
Shakespeare structures his play King Lear, the first scene reveals how frustrated Lear is with his younger daughter Cordelia, who cannot find the words on command to express her love for him.
This sets Lear up to place his trust in her two older and conniving sister, Goneril and Regan.
In the second scene, a similar situation begins to develop for the Earl of Gloucester, who has two sons.
His situation is more complicated.
All three of King Lear's daughters are born legitimately (within marriage) to him.
However, the Earl has one legitimate and one illegitimate son.
The legitimate son, Edgar, stands to inherit his father's title and property.
Edmund, as a bastard son, is not likely to inherit anything.
The Earl has not denied Edmund's parentage, but Edmund is painfully aware, and resentful of, his second class status.
As Scene ii of Act I opens, Edmund is in his…
Because of the extreme conditions of the 1930s depression, the New Deal under Franklin Roosevelt went further in expanding the powers of the federal government than any previous administration in history, certainly far beyond the very limited role permitted to it by the conservative administrations of arren G. Harding, Calvin Coolidge and Herbert Hoover in 1921-33. It was the worst depression in U.S. history, and led not only to the complete collapse of all Street and the financial system, but of industrial production as well, which fell 85% in 1929-33, while the Gross National Project fell by half and in some cities like Chicago the unemployment rate rose as high as 50-60%. At the same time, the entire banking system collapsed by 1933, as did agricultural prices, and money stopped circulating. John Maynard Keynes and other economists blamed this severe contraction on low incomes, unequal distribution of wealth,…
Clarke, P. Keynes: The Rise, Fall and Return of the 20th Century's Most Influential Economist. Bloomsbury Press, 2009.
Fine, S. Sit-down: The General Motors Strike of 1936-37. University of Michigan Press, 1960.
Heinrichs, W. "Lyndon B. Johnson: Change and Continuity" in Warren I Cohen and Nancy Bernkopf Tucker (eds). Lyndon Johnson Confronts the World: American Foreign Policy, 1963-68. Cambridge, 1994: 9- 31.
Skidelsky, R. Keynes: The Return of the Master. Perseus Books Group, 2010.
The Presidents accused of scandals in the history of American politics have been known to make memorable apology speeches. Even though, the speech that the Presidents made were done by different people and in different times, marked similarities and patterns have been noted. The Lewinsky scandal was basically a political sex scandal that occurred in 1999. This scandal came out because the President was accused of having a sexual relationship with an intern in the White House, Monica Lewinsky. The Watergate scandal occurred in 1970 because five men were caught at the Democratic National Committee and further investigations led to President Nixon being found guilty of committing fraud. Another fraud that highlighted a President as the causative agent was the Iran Arms and Contra Aid Controversy. This scandal occurred when President Reagan was in the administration and the officials in charge were accused of selling arms to Iran…
Preserving the current form of government will ease Nepal's transition from a constitutional monarchy to a constitutional republic. If the nation were to suddenly switch voting procedures and governmental structures, the resulting confusion would threaten to undermine the fledgling system. Furthermore, a large number of Nepalese residents are either connected to or from India and are familiar with its parliamentary system.
A parliamentary system allows for a greater plurality of voices in the legislative branch of government. Nepal is an extraordinarily diverse country, with no one ethnic group comprising more than 15.5% of the nation's population (CIA). The recent political strife in Nepal is partly rooted in the strong Maoist presence there. Maoist demands for political representation in parliament was finally granted during the recent turmoil in 2007 (CIA). Nepal's main considerations when composing its new constitution and attendant form of government include maintaining political stability, permitting a plurality of…
CIA. "Nepal." The World Factbook. July 24, 2008.
Thus, these authors warn that the abuse of authority must be consistently checked and fought in order to keep it from expanding. This is currently being evidenced in our society. The Bush administration has repeated thwarted the power of Congress and the Supreme Court by attempting to pass laws that directly by-pass the national legislature and promoting a system that takes away presidential checks. The Bush administration repeated refuses to provide subpoenaed documents and to allow information access and disclosure. It is evident from their behavior that without such accurate disclosure the government is drifting closer and closer to the realities discussed within this book.
In the final analysis, Blair's new book is a haunting reminder of the world of 1984, and the contemporary establishment of his book, featuring a four-term Bush administration only highlights the urgency of the issues and themes he discusses within his book. The fact is…
Dawn Blair, America 2014 - an Orwellian Tale, Counsel Oaks Books, 2004
Orwell, George. 1984. New York: Signet, 1992. In addition, Fromm's Afterword was indispensable to this study.
Baruch, Elaine Hoffman. "The Golden Country: Sex and Love in 1984," in 1984 Revisited: Totalitarianism in Our Century. Harper & Row, 1983, pp. 47-56.
In this regard, throughout American history, the political pundits have argued about who was going to be the next president and why, but one of the foremost factors that has not been included in their analysis has been gender and race. Indeed, to date, it would have been completely accurate to predict that it was a foregone conclusion that the next president would be "a rich white guy." Today, though, for the first time in America's history, the electorate is faced with some new choices that may spell the end of the good ol' boy cabal that has always seemed to control the political process in one fashion or another. In fact, the United States may be fielding its first viable black and female candidates ever during the next presidential election, and it the question is no longer a matter of "is America ready for a black or female president?"…
Government preferable in a Presidential system? Why or why not?
Before it can be considered whether a divided government is preferable in a presidential system, divided government must be defined. A divided government refers to a government, in which the president is a member of one political party, and at least one chamber of Congress, whether the Senate or the House of Representatives, is controlled by the opposite political party. Divided government is a frequent historical occurrence in America, meant to dissuade radical changes in policy and to motivate politicians of both parties to compromise on proposed legislation. Divided government is natural in a presidential democracy, and is preferable to a one-party congress when balance and stability of government is the chief cause for concern, as it was for the founding fathers in the 18th century.
It is normal for presidential systems to become divided governments, particularly in the mid-term…
ush's presidential judicial appointments Web. Students read ush's appointments assess President made judicial appointments. Use http://www.usatoday./news/washington/2008-03-13-judges_N.
ush's judicial appointments
There is much controversy concerning the George W. ush Presidential administration and the judicial appointments it performed throughout its two terms. ush's inauguration influenced a great deal of people to express fear with regard to how the new President would mainly focus on nominating conservative jurists. ush apparently wanted to adopt a similar attitude to Reagan and even though he made fewer judicial appointments, he concentrated on appointing conservative jurists to lifetime posts, thus meaning that his actions would reflect on the American judicial system for decades consequent to his administration.
ush's nomination of John G. Roberts Jr. was an effective move from the President, as he chose someone whom he knew Senate was likely to confirm. Furthermore, ush intended to have power over the judiciary long after the end of…
Baker, Peter, "Bush Nominates Roberts as Chief Justice," Retrieved May 12, 2013, from the Washington Post Website: http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2005/09/05/AR2005090500173.html
Biskupic, Joan, "Bush's conservatism to live long in the U.S. courts," Retrieved May 12, 2013, from the U.S.A. today Website: http://usatoday30.usatoday.com/news/washington/2008-03-13-judges_N.htm
"Janice Rogers Brown," Retrieved May 12, 2013, from the People for the American Way Website: http://www.pfaw.org/issues/fair-and-just-courts/janice-rogers-brown
This created silent enemies whose sole purpose is to make that person look like a complete and total loser. Therefore, restoring the balance that was lost and feeling better about them while you are left feeling degraded and humiliated about what happened. On the other hand, the lesson is often learned the hard way and one can see that it does not pay often times to stick out in the crowd. There are those that thrive in the monotony of it all being predictable. If one follows the leader than no harm can come to them and balance is once again restored. It never works trying to appear better than those that you seek support from, they end up feeling as if you only want their support because you in fact think in some way you are better than they are. This is a sure way to keep people from…
"They were informed by the committee that they could assert a claim of 'executive privilege' as a justification for not answering questions and not providing the documents, but they had to do that by appearing and making that claim in front of the committee. They were not simply free to ignore a lawful subpoena to appear. In short, nobody was above the law." (Weiner). However, even though they were cited with contempt, Congress could not enforce those citations because the Attorney General refused to refer the citations to a grand jury.
The most remarkable aspect about this article is that it gives one example of how a corrupt presidential administration can abrogate the protections guaranteed in the constitution, to prevent over-concentrating power in one governmental branch.
Babington, Charles. "Stem Cell Bill Gets Bush's First Veto." WashingtonPost.com. 2006. The Washington Post Company. 6 March 2008 http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/07/19/AR2006071900524.html.
President Bush vetoed a bill…
Full creativity allows the production of greater wealth, for a stronger and more evolved society.
Further in defense of the moral systems or perceived lack thereof in terms of newly created wealth, D'Souza asserts that most wealth currently created is the result of personal effort, rather than means such as inheritance. The wealth can then indeed be seen as the reward for effort, rather than wealth as a result of luck in its pure sense. Morality's role should then not be concerned so much with justifying the accumulated wealth, but rather with using it wisely for the benefit of humanity, creativity, freedom and evolution.
Another characteristic of freedom, as seen above, is the recognition of new and revolutionary ideas, and implementing those when they are superior to the old. In terms of economy this is as true as in terms of morals. Those in power for example refuse to accept…
Television, the four powers of television are characterized as the power to entertain, the power to socialize and educate, the power to inform, and the power to create community and consensus. The four are not mutually exclusive and can be found operating in pairs or larger groupings on individual shows.
The power to entertain is understood by everyone and is the primary power for most people. The television networks have played to this power from the beginning, carrying over what they had been doing on radio into the new medium to create programs that would gather large audiences around comedies, dramas, variety shows, and the like. This primary power has continued into the cable era, with many cable networks imitating the broadcast networks in these terms by presenting movies, dramatic shows, and comedies or by shaping non-fictional programs so they entertain, seen in the many so-called reality shows that are…
The way in which Hitler took over Germany was very open, but yet it was not thwarted by others in the political realm. By the time they realized what was taking place, it was already done.
Hindenburg was still president of Germany at that time, but right before he died a law was passed that the presidency would be abolished with his death, and all power over the government and the country would go to the chancellor (Hitler) (Benderwky, 62). This was a very insidious way to get the remaining power that he was still lacking, and it provided him with completely political and legal control over Germany and its people. In 1934, Hitler told a reporter how people had laughed at him 15 years prior, when he stated that he would become ruler of Germany (McNab, 70). At that time, he said he would remain in power, and his…
Aigner, Dietrich. Hitler's ultimate aims -- A programme of world dominion? In Koch, H.W. Aspects of the Third Reich. London: MacMillan. 1985. Print.
Bendersky, Joseph W. A History of Nazi Germany: 1919 -- 1945. NY: Rowman & Littlefield. 2000. Print.
Maser, Werner. Hitler: Legend, Myth, Reality. London: Allen Lane. 1973. Print.
McNab, Chris. The Third Reich. NY: Amber Books Ltd. 2009. Print.
In that regard, one of the most dramatic uses of this tactic enabled the Bush administration to obtain congressional authority to initiate a war against Iraq based on what were later proven to be deliberate falsehoods (BBC/Curtis, 2004).
Ironically, the fictional and manipulative elevation of al-Qaeda and Osama bin Laden to such levels of importance in the ideological war against the West may have actually played a substantial role in increasing the importance, the influence, and the ability of each to attract more followers (BBC/Curtis, 2004). The U.S.-led war in Afghanistan also seems to have undermined the effort against al-Qaeda by helping to transform what had been an isolated civil war in that country into a region supporting bin Laden today (BBC/Curtis, 2004).
Al-Gama'a al-Islamiyya was originally an offshoot of the Muslim Brotherhood; it was the largest militant group in Egypt and once hoped to overthrow the Egyptian…
CIA. (1998). President's Daily Briefing -- "Bin Laden Preparing to Hijack U.S. Aircraft
and other Attacks" (December 4, 1998). Retrieved May 20, 2010 from:
Curtis a. (2004). BBC Documentary -- the Power of Nightmares: Part 3: The Shadows
Meanwhile in the journal Du Bois Review (Parker, et al., 2009, p. 194) the authors point to racism and patriotism as key themes for the 2008 Democratic primary election. "Race was a consistent narrative" used by those opposed to Obama, Parker explains (p. 194). Both Clinton and the Republicans "used racial references" to attack Obama, including the attacks on Obama "for his perceived inability to connect to 'real working Americans'" (p. 194).
The Republican sideshow called "Joe the plumber" attacked Obama with the charge that Obama was "seeking to take money from hardworking 'real Americans' to give it to 'those people'" (p. 194). Clinton questioned Obama's patriotism suggesting that he was not a "real" American. Parker notes that when Governor Dukakis ran for president as a Democrat, he was attacked but no one questioned whether he was "a real American as they did with Obama" (p. 195).
The authors present…
Alter, Jonathan. "Leading Democrats to Bill Clinton: Pipe Down." Newsweek. (2008).
Retrieved March 17, 2010, from http://www.newsweek.com.
Balz, Dan, and Johnson, Hanes. The Battle for American 2008: The Story of an Extraordinary
Election. New York: Viking, 2009.
agenda-setting function mass media work current presidential election. Consider essay: a) What issue(s) highlighted media ( candidates ) effect voters year? b) There emphasis independent voters swing states Ohio.
The role of the media in today's society is considered of utmost importance. It shapes opinions, if creates opinions, but most importantly it influences the way in which perceptions are created and decisions taken. This is why the media is viewed in a democratic society to be the fourth power in the state, after the executive, legislative, and judicial ones. This role is most obvious perhaps during election years and periods, regardless of the type of voting action. This is largely due to the fact that the media usually influences the agenda of the elections to take place.
The importance of the presidential elections is without any doubt. These are the times when the media exercises its biggest influence. The Watergate…
America.gov.. Third Parties in U.S. Elections. 2008 http://www.america.gov/st/usg-english/2008/September/20080926163103naneerg0.5847132.html
Driehaus, B. "Court Orders Ohio to Include Libertarian Party on Ballot." The New York Times. 2008. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/07/19/us/politics/19ohio.html?_r=1
McCombs, M. The Agenda-Setting Role of the Mass Media in the Shaping of Public Opinion. N.d. http://www.infoamerica.org/documentos_pdf/mccombs01.pdf
The Conservative Brawler. Agenda-Setting What is it, what role did it play in the 2008 presidential election and where is it going? Agenda-Setting in the Media. 2009. http://www.theconservativebrawler.com/2009/11/msm-agenda-setting-in-2008-election.html
Fred I. Greenstein, The Presidential Difference: Leadership Style from FDR to Barack Obama, Third Edition. Princeton University Press, 2009.
Fred I. Greenstein's central point The Presidential Difference is that in the modern U.S. political system since the Great Depression and Second World War, the presidents are now they key actors, far more so than the pre-1933 period when Congress was the most important branch of government. Because the role of the executive expanded exponentially in both foreign and domestic affairs, the leadership style of the presidents became a crucial factor in policymaking and policy failures. He analyzes the leadership style of the thirteen presidents from Franklin Roosevelt to Barack Obama, including their communication abilities (or lack thereof), personality and emotional makeup, cognitive/intellectual abilities, and organizational talents. If Roosevelt set the pattern and served as the template for the modern chief executive -- and there seems to be little doubt that…
Separation of Powers:
The United States Constitution protects the right to impeach public officials and provides the procedures and grounds for such measures. According to this constitution, civil servants in America shall be impeached for conviction of bribery, high crimes and misdemeanors, and treason. President Adam Johnson is one of the U.S. presidents who have been impeached while President ichard Nixon resigned before impeachment. President Bill Clinton faced impeachment during his tenure, which contributed to concerns that such an action could contribute to weakened presidency. The impeachment trials of these three presidents present some ethical dilemmas that were evident in the Senate's trial proceedings and political aspects. Moreover, these impeachment trials have certain similarities and differences that were fueled by the actions of the presidents in question.
Impeachment Trial of the Three Presidents:
President Adam Johnson was removed from office in May 1868 when the Senate voted unanimously to remove…
Brunner, B. (2007). A Short History of Impeachment. Retrieved September 10, 2013, from http://www.infoplease.com/spot/impeach.html
Linder, D.O. (n.d.). The Impeachment Trial of Andrew Johnson. Retrieved from University of Missouri-Kansas City -- UMKC School of Law website: http://law2.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/impeach/imp_account2.html
"The Clinton Impeachment." (n.d.). Bill of Rights Institute. Retrieved September 10, 2013, from http://billofrightsinstitute.org/resources/educator-resources/lessons-plans/presidents/clinton-impeachment/
Whittington, K.E. (2000, March). Bill Clinton was No Andrew Johnson: Comparing Two
(2) Blockade (Kennedy, .F., 1969), which would prevent the Soviet Union from carrying out its mission of establishing a Soviet missile base on the island of Cuba, and will send the message to the Soviet Union that they are attempting to cross the line where the United States can maintain a hands-off policy (Powell, Samantha, 2003, pp. 6-7). and, should the first two fail, (3) an air strike and invasion of the island wherein the United States will seize control of the island and work towards making it either a U.S. territory, or we will work to install a democratic government (Kennedy, .F., 1969).
These are the recommendations of this council.
Donald, .(dir) (2000), Thirteen Days (motion picture), Beacon Communications, USA.
Kennedy, .F., (1969) Thirteen Days: A Memoir of the Cuban Missile Crisis, W.W. Norton & Company, New York, New York.
Powaski, .E. (1998). The Cold War…
Donald, R.(dir) (2000), Thirteen Days (motion picture), Beacon Communications, USA.
Kennedy, R.F., (1969) Thirteen Days: A Memoir of the Cuban Missile Crisis, W.W. Norton & Company, New York, New York.
Powaski, R.E. (1998). The Cold War the United States and the Soviet Union, 1917-1991. New York: Oxford University Press. Retrieved September 24, 2007, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com /PM.qst?a=o&d=78888344' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
..and it is unlikely that the military will attempt to take over the executive branch by a coup." (2007) the media is not informing the citizens of what is occurring in many cases and a recent attempt to make a citizens arrest by over 8,000 individuals in Washington of President ush relating to war crimes resulted in many of those individuals being tasered and arrested.
SUMMARY and CONCLUSION
The future of the United States, according to what is known of the history of Rome, the predecessor upon which the U.S. originally based the form of its democratic government, appears to be bleak indeed. However, there is hope that the next presidential election will progress in a democratic manner and that the newly elected president will have the stamina and integrity required to see the United States return to the democracy upon which it was based and with the least pain…
Smitha, Frank E. (1998) From Republic to Emperor Augustus:. MacroHistory Online available at http://www.fsmitha.com/h1/ch18.htm
Urbinati, Nadia (2002) the Criticism of Intellectual Critics. Online available at http://logosonline.home.igc.org/urbinati.htm
Johnson, Chalmers (2007) Republic or Empire: A National Intelligence Estimate on the United States. Harper's Magazine. Jan 2007. Online available at http://www.harpers.org/archive/2007/01/0081346
Tomgram: Chalmers Johnson on the Fall of the Republic (2003) TomDispatch.com 9 Sept. 2003. Online available at http://www.tomdispatch.com/post/938/chalmers_johnson_on_the_fall_of_the_republic/
Malcolm Gladwell’s Blink: The Power of Thinking Without Thinking suggests that there is great power in the intuitive leaps or insights the human mind is capable of generating, that the “smallest components of our everyday lives—the content and origin of those instantaneous impressions and conclusions that spontaneously arise whenever we meet a new person or confront a complex situation or have to make a decision under conditions of stress” are often what matters more than logic (Gladwell, 2005, p.16). Even something as simple as an ordinary conversation can yield insights about something as complex as a marriage. Gladwell uses examples from history to show how insight into small details can have significant gains, such as the fact that World War II British code-breakers, even when they did not understand the code itself, could often find valuable interpretive clues simply by the cadence of a German’s speech.
Insight and leaps of…
Victory speech" offer close readings of presidential speeches given during times of crisis. Safire's essay analyzes Abraham Lincoln's "Gettysburg Address," which was delivered during a commemoration ceremony soon after one of the bloodiest battles of the Civil ar. ood's essay analyzes Barak Obama's victory speech after Obama won the presidency in 2008. Obama, the first African-American elected to the office of the presidency, took power during a time when America was at war and facing its deepest financial crisis since the Great Depression.
Safire analyzes the Gettysburg Address to encourage the reader reconsider the speech in a new way, given that the Address has become a kind of cliche, rather than a living, breathing document that inspires people. Safire notes the number of times the word 'dedicate' is articulated in the speech, and the determination and self-sacrifice called upon by Lincoln. He analyzes how the speech is broken down, paragraph…
Safire, William. "A spirit reborn." The New York Times. September 9, 2002. [March 24, 2011]
Wood, Victor. "A spirit reborn." The New Yorker. November 17, 2008. [March 24,
Segregation, denial of voting rights, and systemic terrorization were part of the everyday life of many African-Americans. Following the Civil Rights Movement, African-Americans had the same legal rights as other Americans. The years following the Civil Rights Movement have seen those legal rights bloom into actual rights. In approximately 50 years, the United States has gone from a country that was sharply divided along racial lines, to a country where the most influential members of the President's cabinet are African-Americans. Furthermore, the wealthiest, and perhaps most influential, entertainer, Oprah infrey, is an African-American.
hile there is some surface validity to the idea that American policy is dominated by a power elite, there is too much evidence that contradicts the idea of a true power elite. First, there has been a major revolution in American society in the last 50 years. The country has gone from an almost apartheid-like system…
Abraham Lincoln." WhiteHouse.gov. 2005. The White House. 9 Mar. 2005 http://www.whitehouse.gov/history/presidents/al16.html .
Andrew Jackson." WhiteHouse.gov. 2005. The White House. 9 Mar. 2005 http://www.whitehouse.gov/history/presidents/aj7.html .
Gates, Bill and Melinda French Gates. "Letter from Bill and Melinda French Gates." Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. 2005. Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. 9 Mar. 2005. http://www.gatesfoundation.org/AboutUs/LetterfromBillMelindaFrenchGates/default.htm .
Lyndon Johnson." WhiteHouse.gov. 2005. The White House. 9 Mar. 2005 http://www.whitehouse.gov/history/presidents/lj36.html .
Woodrow Wilson used the radio to appeal to the American public directly to support the nation's entry into the then-unpopular World War I. Franklin Roosevelt, of course, was the master of the fireside chat, and even after his demise, the rapid rise of the Soviet power and the Cold War enabled Harry Truman to "scare hell" out of the country by using the media.
Popular, collective fear of the Soviets tipped the balance even farther in favor of the powers of the chief executive. The Johnson Administration refused to spend the funds allocated to crucial agricultural programs, to bully Congress into accepting its deficit spending for the Great Society and the Vietnam War (87). These examples, along with the escalation of the Vietnam War, show how Democratic presidents were often just as guilty as Republican presidents of abusing the office's authority. In recent memory, the Clinton Administration went to court…
In most occasions however, the consent of the Congress is rather difficult to acquire and this often leads to frictions in the relations between the two parties. So tense are these relationships that the President perceives his meeting with the Congress as the most demanding and largest milestone in his path. "The President often sees Congress as an obstacle to be overcome, and always has to calculate how his proposals will play out with Congress. He cannot dictate to Congress what he wants, and faces a huge task in communicating with Congress because of its size and diversity" (Hamilton, 2004).
The frictions which occur between Congress and President have had a historical positive side in the meaning that they forced Presidents to forward flawless action plans, based on real facts, resource estimations and expected outcomes. Today however, the general perception is that these tensions are a means of stalling and…
Hamilton, L., 2004, Congress and the President, Center on Congress, http://www.centeroncongress.org/radio_commentaries/congress_president.php last accessed on August 12, 2009
2009, United States Government, MSN Encarta, http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_1741500781_3/united_states_government.html last accessed on August 10, 2009
The Constitution of the United States of America, Cornell University Law School, http://www.law.cornell.edu/constitution/constitution.overview.html last accessed on August 10, 2009
At the same time it was the fatal mistake that provoked and legitimized resistance to the revolutionary presidency." The Watergate scandal and the events leading to it were, from the perspective of the components mentioned above, the manifestation of both an imperial presidency visible in the way in which Nixon tackled the issue of Vietnam, and a revolutionary presidency, as the resignation of the president marked the beginning of a new period in the history of the presidential administrations.
The example of the Vietnam War is probably one of the most representatives for the issue under discussion, the idea of imperial presidency. In this sense, the author considers the right of Nixon to wage war against the authorization of the Congress. The main justification for the continuation of the war in Vietnam was the title of the president as Commander in Chief
Overall, the perspective offered by the book is…
McDonald, Forrest. The American Presidency: An Intellectual History. Lawrance: University Press of Kansas, 1994.
Rudalevige, Andrew. The New Imperial Presidency: Renewing Presidential Power after Watergate. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2005.
Schlesinger, Arthur Jr. The Imperial Presidency. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1973
Arthur Jr. Schlesinger, the Imperial Presidency. (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1973), 299
How Presidents can influence the policymaking process to suit their needs
constitution has created the executive branch and the executive power vested in the hands of the president. In fact, the president cannot act in isolation in running the executive branch. The president depends on the executive office staff and agencies like office of management and council of economic advisors and the policy development offices like the National Security Council. Further, the president selects individual cabinet members who lead the cabinet departments and other non-cabinet-level agencies. All these are mandated to interpret and implement laws passed by congress. All these departments act as advisors, formulating policies, and identifying issues for presidential consideration. In theory, all these divisions of the executive branch function in furthering the goals set by the president.
The presidents are the heads of the federal executive branch. As strong as this might sound,…
Shull, S.A. (2012). Presidential policymaking: An end-of-century assessment. Armonk, NY [u.a.: Sharpe.
Mitchell, D. (2010). Making foreign policy: Presidential management of the decision-making process. Aldershot: Ashgate.
Riley, D.D., & Brophy-Baermann, B.E. (2006). Bureaucracy and the policy process: Keeping the promises. Lanham, Md: Rowman & Littlefield.
Schraeder, P.J. (2008). United States foreign policy toward Africa: Incrementalism, crisis and change. Cambridge u.a: Cambridge Univ. Press.
Presidential power is thus a matter of persuasion of the public and the other branches and actors within the government. Today in particular, because of the ability of the President to invoke the information of the intelligence agencies, information which the President has special authority over, he can persuade members Congress that if they do not do his bidding, they are jeopardizing America. hen the presidential office was first created, the federal army and navy were far smaller than today -- and only Congress has the power to declare war. Yet many undeclared wars have been waged subsequently, and Congress has ceded some of its powers of controlling these institutions, from the Gulf of Tonkin resolution during Vietnam, to being persuaded by faulty intelligence it is assured it is true, as in Iraq. Presidents like Gerald Ford have limited the prosecutorial abilities of the nation by bestowing pardons, even changed…
Neustadt, Richard E. Presidential Power and the Modern President. New York: Free Press,
electoral participation of American citizens and it looks at some of the factors that determine their voting behavior or patterns, also mentioned is how campaigned strategies are employed by candidates shaped by this knowledge.
he second section looks at the powers of the presidents and how different presidents have exercised powers given to them by the electorate, this part also points out how limits have been placed on the powers and if at all they have been effective.
Normative theory vs. findings of empirical research
First of all it's important to note that the normative theory is vital on understanding the political behavior of the American public and when regarding citizenship norms to participation they refer to voting in elections, being active in politics, political associations and the selection of products for ethical, political or environmental reasons. he normative theory of the ideal citizen and the findings of empirical research…
The president's power has been developed overtime by the congress that has the ability to expand these powers for the purpose of managing the economy and protecting the country in times of war. The presidential powers can also be extended through legislative actions as well as through the concept of inherent powers that are inferred from the country's constitution
Limitations of presidential powers
Most notably in the 20th century the congress used the powers it had to limit those powers bestowed on the president and good example of this was the War power act of 1973, which saw the presidential powers being limited as he was now required to notify the congress before sending American troops to combat, further more he was also required to seek approval for continued deployment after a sixty days period had elapsed while the troops were still in combat. However this hasn't been effective as consecutive presidents have refused to adopt the war power resolution citing that it is against the powers constitutionally bestowed to the President and thus not binding.
The US constitution is a supreme law guiding the conducts of government, people, and organizations in the United States. The U.S. constitution comprises of seven articles that delineates the form of government. However, before the constitution came into force in 1789, there were philosophical thinking that influenced the compilation of the American constitution.
The objective of this essay is to discuss the philosophical influences on the U.S. Constitution.
John Locke was an English Philosopher and his thinking had the great impact on the American constitution. John Locke believed that all people has alienated rights and they are created equal. John Locke was political philosopher was the early proponent of social contract theory believing that there were certain inalienable rights that people should enjoy. Locke believed that it was people who created the government, and people could overthrow the government if they failed to protect their rights. In his philosophical thinking,…
urthermore, voter turnout for election 2004 exceeded voter turnout for 2000 by approximately 8%. However, many of those voters can be attributed to efforts of special interest groups, which appealed to voters in the extremes of both parties. If the Democrats plan to win future elections, they have to capture undecided voters in the swing states. The Democrats are not going to win the votes of the undecided by appealing to the far left of the Democratic Party.
Perhaps the best recent example of a moderate Democrat is Bill Clinton. Clinton was the last successful Democratic Presidential. In addition to being a political moderate, and despite the fact that Clinton was also better-educated than the average American and less overtly religious than Kerry, Clinton was seen as more in-touch with the average person. Some Democratic Party centrists have complained that Kerry's loss was due to him straying from the winning…
Fineman, Howard and Weston Kosova. 2004. Wanted: Better Donkeys. Newsweek. 15 November, 26.
Zakaria, Fareed. 2004. Writing Prose for a New Team. Newsweek, 15 November, 33.
Will, George F. 2004. The Deflation of Politics. Newsweek, 8 November, 64.
ar Powers Act of 1973 was an important piece of legislation during the Vietnam ar. The intention, per the wording of the act itself, was "to fulfill the intent of the framers of the Constitution of the United States and insure that the collective judgment of both the Congress and the President will apply to the introduction of United States Armed Forces into hostilities, or into situations where imminent involvement in hostilities is clearly indicate by the circumstances, and to the continued use of such forces in hostilities in such situations" (ar). The Act required that if armed forces were sent into a nation, Congress had to be informed within 48 hours. Additionally, armed forces could not remain within a nation for more than 60 days without a declaration of war.
Those in support of the law promised the American citizens that the Act would prevent "another Vietnam" and restore…
Carter, Stephen L. "The Constitutionality of the War Powers Resolution." Virginia Law Review.
Grimmett, Richard. War Powers Resolution Presidential Compliance. Washington, D.C.:
Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress, 2008. Print.
role of government in the current debates surrounding the enactment of universal healthcare and the illicit drug war along the Mexican border, it is critical to look to the powers granted by the Constitution. Yet, the Constitution has always meant different things to different people throughout American history. As any law student will tell you, one of the major conflicts surrounding the Constitution is the concept of Originalism. This legal understanding holds that if the Constitution is to mean anything, the courts must interpret it through the lens of the men who put the ink to the paper and established the government (calia, 1998). Yet, significant flaws exist in this theory as the Founders themselves were not of one mind but were a diverse and politically combative group to the point of fighting duels with one another (e.g. Hamilton's murder at the hands of Burr). To return to these modern…
Baker, P. 2010. Obama Making Plans to Use Executive Power. New York Times. 12 Feb 2010.
Fiegerman, S. 2011. Congress Approval Rating Hits All Time Low. The Street. 21 Dec 2011.
Immigration Policy Center, 2009. Enforcing Immigration Laws. American Immigration Council. Last Accessed 12 Jan 2012. URL: http://www.immigrationpolicy.org/just-facts/enforcing-immigration-laws-repairing-our-broken-immigration-system
Matthews, M. 2012. How Obama Sucker Punched Republicans on the Budget. Forbes. 12 Jan 2012. URL: http://www.forbes.com/sites/merrillmatthews/2012/01/12/how-obama-sucker-punched-republicans-on-the-budget/
Function of the American Government
The American government has had a long-standing checks-and-balances efficiency within its three-branch system. Because of the separate governable powers within the legislative, executive, and judicial branches of the United States, American law has been approved after many constant revisions and discussions. It is extremely commendable that the legislative branch takes into account the representation of both "state" and "people." This is not to say, of course, that the government system of the United States is utterly perfect; the executive branch certainly holds a bit more power within the government than one would like.
One major positive effect of the passing of laws is the representation included within those laws. Long before the House-and-Senate solution of Congress, there was always the problem of representation amongst the population of the respective states. State borders vary in land mass and population; how does one reconcile a largely-populated state…
Dahl, Robert. (1977). "On Removing Certain Impediments to Democracy in the United States." Political Science Quarterly 92(1), pp. 1-20. The Academy of Political Science.
Lieberman, Robert. (2011). "Why the Rich are Getting Richer: American Politics and the Second Gilded Age." Foreign Affairs.
Putnam, Robert D. (1996). "The Strange Disappearance of Civic America." The American Prospect 24, pp. 34-48.
Short Answer Questions -- Part Two
The Constitution delineates the powers related to the different branches of government, the judicial, legislative and executive. This breakdown is outlined in Article II. In Section 2, the President is appointed the Commander-in-Chief of the Army and Navy. The President also has the power to make treaties, appoint ambassadors, other public ministers, judges of the Supreme Court, with the advice of the Senate. The President may appoint lower officials without the Senate's approval, and the President may fill vacancies during recess of the Senate. The President also has the power of veto over laws presented to him by Congress.
The President also has powers that have been granted by Congress. As head of the executive branch, the President has extensive power within that branch to guide funding and projects, and to make appointments. The President can utilize what are known as executive orders, which apply to people working within…
Covington, M. (2012). Executive legislation and the expansion of Presidential power. Vanderbilt Undergraduate Research Journal. Vol. 8 (2012) 1-8.
Marshall, W. (2008). Eleven reasons why Presidential power inevitably expands and why it matters. Boston University Law Review. Vol. 88 (2008) 505-522
Peters, G. (2013). The American Presidency Project / Executive Orders. American Presidency Project. Retrieved December 2, 2014 from http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/data/orders.php
US Constitution, Article II. Retrieved December 2, 2014 from http://www.law.cornell.edu/constitution/articleii
Significant relationship has been shown to exist between the success of a president and failure both coming from the nature of the strategies used in the making of critical policies. According to Thomas Patterson, several factors affect the presidential leadership in the United States of America and other countries. These factors are critical towards the realization of success by the president and the country, basing the success to be the fulfillment of the policies and strategies laid out for the people. This study has analyzed the various factors that affect the presidency and its leadership as stated by Thomas Patterson. Further, the study has proceeded to lay out where these factors affect the nature of leadership, together with the possibly important factors that are relevant to the leadership of any president in the world (Nye 78).
Patterson Thomas has discussed factors affecting presidential leadership. These factors make…
Cohen, Jeffrey E. Going Local: Presidential Leadership in the Post-Broadcast Age. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010. Print.
Neustadt, Richard E. Presidential Power: The Politics of Leadership. New York: Wiley, 1980. Print.
Nye, Joseph S. Presidential Leadership and the Creation of the American Era., 2013. Print.
Patterson, Thomas E. We the People: A Concise Introduction to American Politics. McGraw-Hill, 2012. Print
A long passage is quoted here by way of showing what all these various writers are concerned about: (Kane, 2003)May 2002 brought the odd spectacle of ex-President Jimmy Carter standing shoulder to shoulder in Havana with one of the U.S. government's oldest enemies, Cuban president Fidel Castro. Carter, on a mission to convey a message of friendship to the Cuban people and to seek some common ground between Cuba and the United States, made a point of meeting and encouraging local democratic, religious, and human rights activists. In a televised address, he endorsed the rights of dissidents and urged democracy on the island nation (Sullivan 2002). He also advocated an end to the U.S. embargo on Cuba (a call immediately echoed at home by 20 Democratic and 20 epublican representatives in Congress).
President George W. Bush's administration responded angrily to Carter's latest adventure as international arbiter. A senior state department…
http://www.questia.com /PM.qst?a=o&d=5000729437' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
However, the prerogatives of the presidential office give him this possibility. In this sense, his quality as commander in chef of the armed forces enables him to wage war without the approval of the Congress. Also, the first war in Iraq represented a good precedent for the authority of the President to go to war. Finally, another element that were used as justification for the intervention in Iraq without congressional approval is the Congress's resolution discussing the intervention against terrorism. In this sense, "the President is authorized to use all necessary and appropriate force against those nations, organizations, or persons he determines planned, authorized, committed, or aided the terrorist attacks that occurred on September 11, 2001, or harbored such organizations or persons, in order to prevent any future acts of international terrorism against the United States by such nations, organizations or persons" (Authorizing Use of Force 09-14-01, 2001). Therefore, these…
Authorizing Use of Force 09-14-01. U.S. Government info. 2001. 25 February 2008. http://usgovinfo.about.com/library/bills/blsjres23.htm
Ehrhart, W.D. "The Authority to Declare War." Intervention Magazine. 2003. 25 February 2008. http://www.interventionmag.com/cms/index.php?name=News&file=article&sid=335
Lithwick, Dahlia. "What War Powers Does the President Have?" Slate. 2001. 25 February 2008. http://www.slate.com/id/1008290
War Power Resolution. Findlaw.com 2008. 25 February 2008 http://caselaw.lp.findlaw.com/casecode/uscodes/50/chapters/33/sections/section_1541.html
Both ashington and Adams proposed a rather strong federal government with powerful executive powers reserved for the president, though in keeping with Constitutional values and law. Of the first three presidents, Adams was perhaps more concerned with using the powers of the presidency, mainly to prevent legislation being based on fleeting public passions. However, the third president Thomas Jefferson interpreted the executive role as being more egalitarian than many other politicians at the time. Jefferson's ideal presidency was one that sought continual approval of the people: a more directly democratic vision than the federalists would have posed.
Bailey, J.D. "Democratic energy: Thomas Jefferson and the development of presidential power." Dissertation. Retrieved Feb 24, 2008 at http://escholarship.bc.edu/dissertations/AAI3103238/
United States House of Representatives. 110th Congress, 2nd session. Retrieved Feb 24, 2008 at http://www.house.gov/
US Senate. Retrieved Feb 24, 2008 at http://www.senate.gov
Bailey, J.D. "Democratic energy: Thomas Jefferson and the development of presidential power." Dissertation. Retrieved Feb 24, 2008 at http://escholarship.bc.edu/dissertations/AAI3103238/
United States House of Representatives. 110th Congress, 2nd session. Retrieved Feb 24, 2008 at http://www.house.gov/
US Senate. Retrieved Feb 24, 2008 at http://www.senate.gov
Also unlike the president, it is entitled to be part of the political party. This is an important aspect because its adherence to the party ensures its support for the political figure and for the measures to be taken throughout the mandate. This enables the administration to avoid potential situations when political support lacks.
Political accountability rests in the power of the Parliament to hold accountable the Government. In this sense, similar to the other cases, the Parliament plays a crucial role in the life of the executive branch. Given the fact that the Executive is represented by the major parties in the Parliament, the interpellations of the Government are often settled. In any case, the strong relation between the executive, the political parties, and the parliament enable a strong relation and commitment on the lines of the ruling parties.
Efficiency of the systems
It is rather difficult to consider…
French Constitution. Accessed 10 June 2010 from http://www.assemblee-nationale.fr/english/8ab.asp
Gregg, G.L. The Presidential Republic: Executive Representation and Deliberative Democracy. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 1997.
Hoffmann, V., Hellmut Wollmann (eds). State and local government reforms in France and Germany: divergence and convergence, Wiesbaden: VS Verlag, 2006.
Newton, K., Jan W. van Deth Foundations of comparative politics: democracies of the modern world. Cambridge University Press, Cambrige, 2005.
Executive ranch Authority to Conduct Foreign Affairs
Executive Power is vested in the President of the United States by Article II of the Constitution. Article II, Section 1, Clause 1 of the American Constitution, called the 'Executive Vesting Clause' has been the constant focus of constitutional analysis, even at the time of its ratification. James Madison and Alexander Hamilton famously debated this clause in 1793, on the specific issue of residual authority given to the President above and beyond powers as enumerated in the Constitution. The power and authority of the President affects not only the President himself, and the two arms of the Congress, but also the freedoms and rights of U.S. citizens. The precise delineation of executive power has been the subject of notable Supreme Court cases particularly with respect to foreign affairs and war. In the United States now, due to the 'War on Terror', issues of…
Article II, Section 2 of the United States Constitution
Article I, Section 8 of the United States Constitution
Binder, Sarah A. ( Spring 2001).The Senate as a Black Hole: Lessons Learned from the Judicial Appointment Experience. The Booking Review 19.
Bliss, Howard and Johnson, M. Glen. (1975). Beyond the Water's Edge: America's Foreign Policies. (Philadelphia, J.B. Lippincott Company).
The United States Supreme Court is the backbone of the country since it acts as the premise of governance and supreme law of the land. The Constitution has established a unique form of government in which governance is by the people and for the people. As a living document, the U.S. Constitution changes as the country develops and changes. However, the development of the nation's constitution was influenced by several historical and/or philosophical influences. One of the historical influences upon the American Constitution was the Articles of Confederation, which was adopted by Continental Congress. These articles influenced the establishment of the Constitution through prompting discussion on the proper scope of governmental power in the aftermath of the Confederation. The Articles of Confederation influenced the constitutional section on separation of powers because of discussions on governmental power. There was no distinct executive branch under the Articles of Confederation (Halvorson, n.d.).…
"Civil Rights: The Struggle for Political Equality." (n.d.). HCC Learning Web. Retrieved from Houston Community College website: http://learning.hccs.edu/faculty/tom.haymes/govt2302/content-module-6-civil-rights/module-6.1-civil-rights-the-struggle-for-political-rights
Halvorson, S.D. (n.d.). Historical Context for the Constitution and the Bill of Rights. Retrieved from Columbia College website: http://www.college.columbia.edu/core/content/american-revolution-and-founding-texts/context-1
"Landmark Cases." (n.d.). Gibbons v. Ogden (1824). Retrieved April 21, 2016, from https://www.pbs.org/wnet/supremecourt/antebellum/landmark_gibbons.html
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