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Pricing Strategies Price and Cost Variables Are

Words: 991 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23077255

Pricing Strategies

Price and cost variables are not fixed. At times, there are some fixed elements to these costs but in many instances these costs are subject to fluctuation. These fluctuations can derive from changes in buying power, changes in commodity prices and other considerations. Likewise, forces in the external environment can bring about changes in the prices the firm can charge. hen uncertain variables are fixed, the company can find that margins do not hold as expected, which can compromise profit. In addition, the price can be set on the basis of variables on the assumption that the costs are relatively fixed. hen these costs provide not to be fixed, the price does not deliver a strong enough margin. The impacts of these types of decisions can be far-reaching. Firms can decide to enter markets that are not profitable, and make decisions with respect to their product line-ups on…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

NetMBA.com (2010). Pricing strategy. NetMBA.com. Retrieved February 25, 2011 from  http://www.netmba.com/marketing/pricing/ 

Goetz,

J. (1985). The pricing decision: A service industry's experience. Journal of Small Business Management. Retrieved February 25, 2011 from  http://www.questia.com/googleScholar.qst?docId=5001688166 

Hurwich, M. (no date). The pricing decision -- who makes it and who makes it work? SPMG. Retrieved February 25, 2011 from http://www.pricingexperts.net/The_pricing_decision_who_makes_it.pdf
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Pricing Strategies Watch the GE

Words: 416 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78867979

How do the sites support the positioning and pricing of the three brands?

They are dramatically different, with the Monogram site being completely separate, supporting the premium positioning. The site is done to connote the premium position and the use of these appliances in custom homes. GE Profile is more mainstream and focuses on the stylish yet utilitarian aspects of their product line. The GE site itself is more focused on functionality of products. The differences in branding and website approach in terms of positioning and pricing a significantly different and support the unique value propositions of each product series clearly and very well.

As a consumer, how do you perceive GE's appliance pricing? Is it good or fair to consumers? Are you happy with its pricing decisions?

Given how expensive it is to produce high quality appliances and the costs consumers incur when appliances aren't working correctly, I think…… [Read More]

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Pricing Comparing the Pricing Strategies of Media

Words: 619 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81507688

Pricing

Comparing the Pricing Strategies of Media Distributors (NetFlix)

And Canned Food

Pricing strategies vary significantly by the type of product or service, its supply chain, timeliness of delivery and consumption constraints (as is the case with live events) and the value-based costing used as the basis of creating the product or service. All of these components must also be coordinated together to create a unified message to the market, strengthening the position of the product or service with the pricing strategy. Pricing is the most powerful marketing variable or strategy there is in defining a brand's value over time (Jarmon, 2009).

Analyzing the Pricing Strategies of Media Distribution and Canned Food

The pricing strategies for media distribution are significantly different than any other good as the value of the product (entertainment) has a much more rapid product lifecycle compared to durable goods or consumables. While a media distribution company…… [Read More]

References

Manu Carricano, Jean-Francois Trinquecoste, & Juan-Antonio Mondejar. (2010). The rise of the pricing function: origins and perspectives. The Journal of Product and Brand Management, 19(7), 468-476.

Alistair Davidson, & Mike Simonetto. (2005). Pricing strategy and execution: an overlooked way to increase revenues and profits. Strategy & Leadership, 33(6), 25-33.

Jarmon, R. (2009). Reputation's Effect on Pricing Power: The Importance of Strategy. Corporate Reputation Review, 12(3), 281-296.

Lieberman, W.. (2011). From yield management to price optimization: Lessons learned. Journal of Revenue and Pricing Management: Special Issue: 10th Anniversary Edition, 10(1), 40-43.
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Pricing Strategies There Are a Number of

Words: 1222 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47397217

Pricing Strategies

There are a number of factors that go into a firm's pricing strategy. The firm can consider the prices offered by competitors and the firm's own desired competitive position. It can base prices on the cost of production. The firm must consider the price elasticity of the demand for the good. The company can also choose from a number of different strategies, based on this demand curve: revenue maximization, profit maximization, cost leadership, penetration pricing and more. Other strategies include skimming and other forms of price discrimination (NetMBA.com, 2010). For example, if Brooks Brothers priced its goods differently for different marketing channels such as the Internet or a retail channel partner like Nordstrom, this would be a form of price discrimination.

These different pricing strategies are used to achieve different objectives. For a luxury brand like Brooks Brothers, the price will support the luxury brand image. Prices therefore…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

NetMBA.com (2010). Pricing strategy. NetMBA.com. Retrieved May 18, 2011 from  http://www.netmba.com/marketing/pricing/ 

Kapferer, J. & Bastien, V. (2009). The luxury strategy: Break the rules of marketing to build luxury brands. Philadelphia: Kogan Page Ltd.

Sbordone, A. (2002). Price and unit labor costs: A new test of price stickiness. Journal of Monetary Economics. Vol. 49 (2) 265-292.
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Pricing Management Determinants of Pricing Strategies in

Words: 645 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99939473

Pricing Management

Determinants of Pricing Strategies

In pricing a new, specialized electronic product, the product development, engineering, marketing, accounting and finance teams internally will rely on internal and external factors to initially set the price. Pricing objectives and the frameworks they require will determine the internal factors included and excluded from the long-term pricing strategy overall (Avlonitis, Indounas, 2005). The intent of this analysis is to evaluate the other internal factors that will affect the pricing of a new, specialized electronic product.

Analysis of Internal Factors Affecting Pricing

ased on personal experience managing high technology products and from anecdotal interviews with members of product marketing teams in high technology businesses, the decision of whether to choose a value-based vs. cost-based approach to pricing is foundational to how many other internal factors affect price (Wagner, 1981). Value-based pricing will have a direct effect on the price elasticity of demand for a…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Avlonitis, G.J. & Indounas, K.A. 2005, "Pricing objectives and pricing methods in the services sector," The Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 47-57.

Casey, M.P. 1985, "International Transfer Pricing," Management Accounting, vol. 67, no. 4, pp. 31.

Lucke, D., Philipp, J.H.S. & Schumacher, D. 2005, "A Note on R&D and Price Elasticity of Demand," Jahrbucher fur Nationalokonomie und Statistik, vol. 225, no. 6, pp. 688-698.

Michalakelis, C., Dede, G., Varoutas, D. & Sphicopoulos, T. 2010, "Estimating diffusion and price elasticity with application to telecommunications," Netnomics: Economic Research and Electronic Networking, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 221-242.
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Pricing Strategies

Words: 3056 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 53473376

market structures and the pricing strategies which are specifically related to each of them. The introductory section of the paper gives an overview of the four major types of market structures and explains the main features which draw distinguishing lines between them. These major types of market structures are perfect competition, monopolistic competition, monopoly, and oligopoly. The second section discusses the pricing strategies which are used by competitors in each of these market structures in order to compete with the other competitors or operate in a profitable and competitive fashion. A case study has also been included which gives a real life example of the market structure and pricing strategies of a specific company. The paper concludes by giving summary and key findings from the whole discussion.

Introduction to Market Structures

Market structure refers to the number of competitors operating in a particular industry and the level or intensity of…… [Read More]

References

Boyes, W.J., & Melvin, M. (2012). Economics, 9th Edition. Mason, Ohio: South-Western Cengage Learning

Gitman, L.J. & McDaniel, C.D. (2009). The Future of Business: the Essentials, 4th Edition. Mason, OH: South-Western Cengage Learning

Hall, R.E., & Lieberman, M. (2010). Micro Economics: Principles and Applications, 5th Edition. Mason, OH: South-Western, Cengage Learning

Mankiw, N.G. (2011). Principles of Economics, 6th Edition. Mason, Ohio: Thomson South-Western
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Pricing Strategies for Products

Words: 2679 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24882707

Price Setting

Setting the right price is important for any product. There are many different approaches, based on the different variables that can be considered. For a new product in the marketplace, getting the price right is all the more difficult, because there is no prior data to help gauge the strength of the current brand, the price elasticity of demand or other factors that might come into play when pricing an established product. However, there is always an opportunity to adjust prices if the price of a good is not delivering the optimal financial results for the company. Thus, it requires management to have an understanding of pricing strategy in order to determine the most suitable price in the marketplace.

The most important thing to keep in mind is that price is one of the five Ps of marketing. Thus, the pricing strategy must be aligned with the other…… [Read More]

References

Kotler, P., Keller, K., Ang, S., Leong, S. & Tan, O. Marketing Management: An Asian Perspective, Sixth Edition.

NetMBA (2010). Pricing strategy. NetMBA.com. Retrieved February 25, 2016 from  http://www.netmba.com/marketing/pricing/
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Marketing Pricing Strategies the Pricing of a

Words: 1095 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16045130

Marketing

Pricing Strategies

The pricing of a product or service is an important aspect of the marketing mix. The pricing of a product will need to be set at a level that will support the firms' long-term profitability; even were there are short-term market penetration strategies or loss leading prices, the ultimate aim of the firm is for the generation of revenues and creation of profit. The pricing strategy chosen by a firm will depend on a number of factors; these will include the market conditions and strategies of the competing or complimentary products, as well as the level of differentiation and the market position that the firm us seeking to gain (Kotler and Keller, 2011). Two examples may be used to assess the way pricing strategies may be formulated; a media distributor and aspirin.

Media Distributor

A media distributor, such as NetFlix or Love Film, has a limited amount…… [Read More]

References

Drury, C, (2012), Management and Cost Accounting, Cengage Learning EMEA

Hooley G; Nicouland B; Piercy, N, (2011), Marketing Strategy and Competitive Positioning, Financial Times/Prentice Hall

Kotler Philip; Keller Kevin, (2011), Marketing Management (13th Edition), Prentice Hall.

Mintzberg Henry, Ahlstrand Bruce, Lampel Joseph B. (2008), Strategy Safari: The Complete Guide Through the Wilds of Strategic Management, Financial Times / Prentice Hall
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Market Structure and Pricing Strategies

Words: 3091 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 49191873

market structures in detail and analyses the pricing strategies that the firms have to undertake when they operate in different regimes. The case study on Toyota is considered next, which indicates that firms competing in various structures does not only have to focus on price and quantity ceteris paribus, they also have to consider external and internal variables that have a bearing on these decisions.

Introduction to Market Structures

Market structures are important parts of economic theory as they model market behavior that can help economists explain activities in industry with ease. Market structures, hence are basically models that define market behavior with respect to certain criteria so that it becomes simpler to compare events in real life to the postulated scenario as described in theory in order to be able to determine casualties and to define optimal strategies that firms operating in different market structures can use.

There are…… [Read More]

References

Bennett, D., Hagiwara, Y., & Kitamura, M. (2011, September 5). Toyota Bets on Japan. Bloomberg Businessweek, pp. 70-73,. Retrieved from http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?sid=fbe40510-c02e-4a4c-afc8-b21dbb1445c3%40sessionmgr11&vid=1&hid=10&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db=bth&AN=60477158

Cusumano, M.A. (2011). Technology Strategy and Management Reflections on the Toyota Debacle. Communications of the ACM, 54 (1), 33-35.

John Petersen (2011). Bernstein and Ricardo Report: Cheap Will Beat Cool in Vehicle Electrification. Retrieved from http://www.altenergystocks.com/archives/2011/11/bernstein_and_ricardo_report_cheap_will_beat_cool_in_vehicle_electrification.html

Lipsey, R.G., & Chrystal, K.A. (2007). Economics. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Retrieved from  http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=HgXWV8JMC10C&printsec=frontcover&dq=Economics+lipsey&hl=en&sa=X&ei=qPIuT9DdPM7wrQeQ_LzYDA&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=Economics%20lipsey&f=false
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Product Promotion and Pricing Strategies

Words: 1051 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 43235308

The company was in a difficult position during the previous year, losing significantly to discounter Target or to Wal-Mart and it even had to announce that it may leave the toy industry if things are not likely to improve during the next period of time. In order to "thin inventory," the company came up with heavy discount policies and gift cards to increase the volume of sales.

According to Dhruv Grewal, professor of marketing and retail at abson College, "it's time for Toys R Us to think outside the box." ut analysts say that Toys R Us may need more ideas, such as unique gift card options and co-op branding with other retailers to survive

Another type of policy used by toy retailers is to expand the categories so that people buy at one time, including books, music, video games and DVDs (as an advantageous package). This type of policy…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Wal-Mart doesn't plan to toy much with prices"  http://www.usatoday.com/money/industries/retail/2004-10-11-toy-2004_x.htm 

Grant, Lorrie. Wal-Mart doesn't plan to toy much with prices. On the Internet at www.usatoday.com/money/industries/retail/2004-10-11-toy-2004_x.htm.Last retrieved October 20
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Product Decisions Pricing Strategies and

Words: 1532 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 64310674

The ability to create a makeup palate that is suited to the consumer's specific beauty needs, to create a unique image of beauty that is healthy and an enhancement of one's natural beauty should be the focus of a redesigned Avon site.

Conclusion

Avon is a classic product in the United States -- someone in 'your' family may have sold Avon, long ago. Although door-to-door sales is no longer lucrative, and unlikely to be accepted in China for higher-end goods, selling the midpriced Avon in Chinese department stores is an ideal way to create a humanized brand image for Avon and to capitalize upon the mania for customization and goods tailored to 'your needs.' This is one way to use American individualism yet give it a Chinese spin by stressing the need for make up to suit one's skin tone and enhance but not alter one's appearance. The company website…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Avon brands. (2009). Avon. Website. Retrieved August 15, 2009 at  http://www.avoncompany.com/brands/color.html 

Avon China. (2009). Avon Website. Retrieved August 15, 2009 at  http://www.avon.com.cn/PRSuite/home_page.page 

Avon product history. (2009). essortment. Retrieved August 15, 2009 at http://www.essortment.com/all/avonproductshi_risn.htm

Changing Chinese buying habits. (2008, February 20). Export News. Retrieved August 15, 2009
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Pricing JC Penney

Words: 1058 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 62756786

Pricing

JC Penney is a major department store, doing billions of dollars in revenue per year. The industry, however, is mature and some would say stale. Younger consumers in particular are not attracted to the department store shopping experience, instead choosing anything but. JC Penney tapped former Apple executive on Johnson as its new CEO, and made big changes to its merchandising and especially to its pricing. One pricing strategy that Johnson instituted was to eliminate the traditional JC Penney sales and opt for lower prices across the board (D'Innocenzo, 2012). Analysts from his alma mater Harvard Business School lauded him as a genius for the simplified pricing program (Girard, 2012). Yet, Johnson couldn't wrap his head around the fact that the key purchase drivers in department store sales are nothing like the purchase drivers in consumer electronics, and the pricing strategy did not go nearly as well as planned.…… [Read More]

References

Berfield, S. & Maheshwari, S. (2012). JC Penney CEO Ron Johnson gets lesson in pricing. SF Gate. Retrieved April 19, 2014 from  http://www.sfgate.com/business/article/J-C-Penney-CEO-Ron-Johnson-gets-lesson-in-pricing-3589014.php 

D'Innocenzo, A.(2012). JC Penney slashing prices on all merchandise. USA Today. Retrieved April 19, 2014 from  http://usatoday30.usatoday.com/money/industries/retail/story/2012-01-25/penneys-price-overhaul/52787388/1 

Girard, K. (2012). Is JC Penney's makeover the future of retailing? Harvard Business School. Retrieved April 19, 2014 from  http://hbswk.hbs.edu/item/6944.html 

Passikoff, R. (2013). Ron Johnson ousted as JC Penney CEO. Forbes. Retrieved April 19, 2014 from  http://www.forbes.com/sites/marketshare/2013/04/09/ron-johnson-ousted-as-jcpenney-ceo/
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Pricing Misconception the Two Stores Whose Pricing

Words: 348 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80614659

Pricing Misconception

The two stores whose pricing strategy has been looked at here are GIM Computers and Ginstar Computers, both located Downtown Atlanta, with the varying prices for their computer related products. The computer related products were picked for this case study since their specifications are easier to match to the last detail hence an easier comparison of the prices.

The five products selected are Seagate 1TB hard disk,

Product

GIM Computers price ($)

Ginstar Computers price ($)

Seagate 1TB hard disk

Internal Floppy drive

External Floppy drive

Microsoft windows 7 professional

GIM Computers.com and Ginstar Computers Inc. website.

Customer-based pricing

From the pricing trend seen above, it is apparent that the two businesses are engage in the customer-based pricing strategy. They have the customer needs and way of thinking in mind and specifically employs the psychological pricing as a sub-set of customer-based pricing strategy. This is bearing the unusual…… [Read More]

References

Ginstar Computers Inc., (2012). Storewide Holiday Sale. Retrieved November 7, 2012 from  http://www.ginstar.com/home.aspx 

GIM Computers, (2012). Welcome To GIM Computers. Retrieved November 7, 2012 from  http://new.gimcomputers.com/index.php
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Pricing Structures the Company Has

Words: 782 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 28649819

This virtually means that the company's reputation could suffer demises.

Telemarketing efforts are often constructed on impulse buys and psychological pricing, such as $19.99 instead of a round $20.00 or a "limited offer" deal in which the price is reduced from $30.00 to $19.99. This context makes the psychological pricing strategy suitable for the company.

4. Product-line Pricing

Advantages:

Sets a single unique price on all products coming from a product line, reducing as such the complexities which come from setting different prices and using differentiated strategies for each product category

Pushes towards the lowest retail price possible and generates as such customer satisfaction. Additionally, through increased consumer satisfaction, higher levels of volume sales are generated.

Disadvantages:

Damages the organizational productivity and profitability

Denies the existence of differences between the products

Forces down the quality of the items by strengthening on the importance of a low retail price

The prioritization…… [Read More]

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Pricing in Marketing in 2003

Words: 1392 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 55975530

" Green stated loss leaders in particular have a drastic effect on those brands that are deeply discounted in the process. According to Green, when consumers see such deep discounts on specific toy items, there is an assumption that such toys are "fads," or popular only in the short-term. Particularly, if other retailers respond to such deep pricing gashes, as did many retail toy outlets in response to Wal-Mart in 2003, this image of a temporary toy fad is increased. According to Green, such actions can actually cause a toy to 'die,' or become less popular, resulting in less sales for the toy manufacturer (Hotten, 47).

However, such critics fail to note the less partisan view of Wal-Mart's actions, which note the place of such actions in the global capitalist economy (Lohr, C5). As obert B. eich, former labor secretary, noted, Wal-Mart's actions and dealings in business represent the true…… [Read More]

References

Fox, Mark A. "Market Power in Retailing: The Case of Wal-Mart." Popular Music and Society 28.4 (2005): 501-505.

Gillooley, David. Retail Product Management: Buying and Merchandising. London: Routledge, 2001.

Grant, Lorrie. "Wal-Mart Doesn't Plan to Toy Much With Prices." USA Today 11 Oct. 2004: B8.

Hotten, Russel. "Tough Game for the Big Players in Toys." The Evening Standard 17 Dec. 2004: 46.
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Pricing and Distribution As an Extremely Important

Words: 951 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10871504

Pricing and Distribution:

As an extremely important decision for a company, pricing is the only element of the marketing mix that generates revenue. The positioning of a product in the market is dependent on its pricing since customers tend to greatly resist attempts to change price once it has been set up. As compared to other elements in the marketing mix, price is the variable with which a competitive response can be quickly implemented. On the contrary, distribution basically involves the process of getting the product from the manufacturer to the intended consumer.

How Pricing and Distribution Complement each other at Costco:

Costco is a company that has itself as a means with which brides and grooms can create an unforgettable wedding day through reasonable prices. In the past few years, the warehouse store sells all wedding-related accessories including engagement rings, invitations, flowers, and trips for honeymoon. While it's difficult…… [Read More]

References:

Berk, C.C. (2011, March 7). Here Comes the Bride, All Dressed by Costco. Retrieved January

17, 2012, from  http://www.cnbc.com/id/41950692 

Bertini, M. & Wathieu, L. (2010, May). How to Stop Consumers from Fixating on Price.

Harvard Business Review, 88. 48-91.
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Pricing Employee Empowerment Is a

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 39657681

The penetration pricing strategy is intended to be temporary, such that once the desired market effect has occurred -- the penetration has been made -- the price is then put to a more "normal" price.

An example of this in recent news is the introduction by Burger King of BK Smooth Roast Coffee. This new blend of coffee was developed to make Burger King more competitive in the fast food breakfast business, where it trails the market leaders badly. The new blend was offered with an introductory price of 25 cents (QSR eb.com, 2013). The objective of this pricing strategy was twofold. The first objective was penetration -- to get people to try the coffee in the hopes of winning over some converts. Ideally, the customer would come in daily during the promotion because this is the cheapest coffee around, and develop a habit.

The other objective is to bring…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Clow, J. (2012). What small businesses can learn from Google. USA Today. Retrieved March 9, 2013 from  http://usatoday30.usatoday.com/money/smallbusiness/story/2012-05-27/small-business-can-learn-from-google/55188670/1 

QSR Web. (2013). Burger King celebrates new coffee with 25-cent promotion. QSR Web. Retrieve March 9, 2013 from  http://www.qsrweb.com/article/208731/Burger-King-celebrates-new-coffee-with-25-cent-promotion
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Pricing Department and Strategic Profitability

Words: 851 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85596153

From a supply chain standpoint, pricing departments must also create a high level of communication and collaboration across a business as well. Their role is to be the orchestrators of internal effort to manage suppliers to pricing and margin levels, ensuring consistency and focus on share goals. This is one of the primary reasons pricing has now become a strategic initiative within many businesses. For change to occur in how companies do their pricing strategies, it often takes a senior executive to manage the change in processes and systems to ensure pricing becomes strategy and shifts away from being tactical in focus (Marn, oegner, Zawada, 26).

From the sell-side or the distribution and selling channels standpoint, pricing has never been more critically important to a company's profitability. The continued consolidation of industries and commoditization of products making tracking pricing elasticity by product category critical, especially when they are sold through…… [Read More]

References

Manu Carricano, Jean-Francois Trinquecoste, and Juan-Antonio Mondejar. "The rise of the pricing function: origins and perspectives. " the Journal of Product and Brand Management 19.7 (2010): 468.

Thomas H. Davenport. "Make Better Decisions. " Harvard Business Review 1 Nov. 2009

Vrinda Kadiyali, Pradeep Chintagunta, and Naufel Vilcassim. "Manufacturer-retailer channel interactions and implications for channel power: An empirical investigation of pricing in a local market. " Marketing Science 19.2 (2000): 127.

Krishna, a., F. Feinberg, and Z. Zhang. "Should Price Increases Be Targeted?-Pricing Power and Selective vs. Across-the-Board Price Increases. " Management Science 53.9 (2007): 1407-1422.
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Pricing the Kindle Fire the Kindle Fire

Words: 577 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50287510

Pricing the Kindle Fire

The Kindle Fire, priced at $199, is just 39% of the price of it's most well-entrenched and popular competitor the Apple iPad2, which sells for $499. Amazon has pursued a market penetration strategy with this product, looking to create a content consumption platform for the future. Apple argues that the iPad2 is a content creation and consumption platform. The price differential of $300 is steep to pay for content creation capability, which is one of the factors in Amazon being so successful with its pricing strategy. Apple could further refine this pricing strategy however and further expand the market.

Defining Kindle Fire Pricing Strategy

The initial pricing elasticity of products that have a high degree of innovation associated with them tend to be more unitary or highly elastic, as demand often outstrips supply of these types of devices (Antonelli, 1989). This factor in pricing often leads…… [Read More]

References

Antonelli, C. (1989). The diffusion of information technology and the demand for telecommunication services. Telecommunications Policy, 13(3), 255-255.

Dong-Qing, Y., & Liu, J.J. (2005). Competitive pricing of mixed retail and e-tail distribution channels. Omega, 33(3), 235-247.

Dudick, T.S. (1989). Pricing strategies for manufacturers. Strategic Finance, 71(5), 30-30.

Neelamegham, R., & Chintagunta, P.K. (2004). Modeling and forecasting the sales of technology products. Quantitative Marketing and Economics, 2(3), 195-195.
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Pricing Decisions Coca Cola Product

Words: 1507 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55170084

Pricing Decisions
Describe the strategic implications that would need to be considered in setting a price for that product
The public company selected for this analysis is Coca Cola Company. The identified product of the company is the Coca-Cola 20 fl oz bottle, which can be typically obtained from a convenient store, vending machine as well as super market. There are strategic implications that would need to be taken into consideration in setting the price of this particular product, which include the following:
1. Competition in the market
Rivals in the market have a significant impact on pricing decisions. Imperatively, the comparative market shares of market rivals impacts whether an organization can set prices independently or whether such decisions take into account the direction taken by competitors. In this case, Coca Cola Company faces intense competition from brands such as Pepsi and Dr. Pepper who have also unveiled similar products.…… [Read More]

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Pricing Determining if Pricing Needs

Words: 686 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57929506

Value-based pricing is critically important in B2B marketing and selling scenarios as well, as the value delivered by enterprise software for example determines the percentage of maintenance paid every year (Hinterhuber, 2004). These maintenance payments yearly form the foundation of Oracle Corporations;' viability, in addition to many hundreds of other enterprise software companies. As a result of the critical role of value-based pricing in market positioning, companies have created pricing and revenue management enforcement strategies (oll, 2009) to ensure their resellers, channel partners, dealers and service organizations do not price below the minimum threshold and I so doing erode the market position as defined by the premium price.

Summary

Studies indicate that to the extent a company can successfully manage and fine tune value-based pricing over time is the extent to which they can experience revenue and profit growth even in the middle of a recession (Garrow, Ferguson, 2009). Value-based…… [Read More]

References

Dunleavy, H., and G. Phillips. 2009. The future of airline revenue management. Journal of Revenue and Pricing Management: Special Issue: 'AGIFORS Conference' 8, no. 4, (August 1): 388-395.

Garrow, L., and M. Ferguson. 2009. Staying ahead of the curve: Using revenue management to help survive an economic downturn. Journal of Revenue and Pricing Management: Special Issue: Distribution and Revenue Management 8, no. 2-3, (March 1): 279-286.

Andreas Hinterhuber. 2004. Towards value-based pricing - An integrative framework for decision making. Industrial Marketing Management 33, no. 8, (November 1): 765-778.

Michael V Marn, Eric V Roegner, and Craig C. Zawada. 2003. The power of pricing. The McKinsey Quarterly no. 1, (January 1): 26-39.
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Strategies for Success for a Small Company

Words: 1665 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 73664128

Small Business Growth

Achieving the desired organizational growth is a dream most organizations aspire to realize. Organizational growth entails an increase in the total productivity, sustainability, and competitiveness in the marketplace. Organizational behaviors such as the adoption of the desired culture, leadership style, and effective management of the employees ensure the realization of the desired organizational growth. However, environmental factors such as the adoption of the new technology, constantly changing consumer demands, and stiff competition make the realization process a challenge. Despite these, adoption of the most effective interventions often enables organizations to achieve their objectives (Neale & McElroy, 2004). Therefore, this research paper analyzes a case that involves a small business owner (Kelly) who plans to expand her business.

Analysis

Kelly should take some steps while organizing and prioritizing her business growth strategies. Mrs. Kelly should consider involving the employees of her business in the planning and prioritization of…… [Read More]

References

Arriola, L.R. (2012). Multi-ethnic coalitions in Africa: Business financing of opposition election campaigns. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Cinnamon, R., & Helweg-Larsen, B. (2006). How to understand business finance. London: Kogan Page.

Dlabay, L.R., & Burrow, J. (2007). Business finance. Mason, Ohio: South-Western.

Neale, B., & McElroy, T. (2004). Business finance: A value-based approach. Harlow [u.a.: Prentice Hall.
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Strategies for Success Walt Disney

Words: 672 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Marketing Plan Paper #: 47587945

Walt Disney's Marketing Mix/Strategies

Product and Service Strategy

The products offered by Walt Disney are much more tangible and services. These products have offered Walt Disney high awareness among many customers in the market. The products are designed to meet the specific needs and preferences of the customers in the diverse market. Walt Disney has gone ahead to customize all of its products under certain characteristics of the company. These characteristics help to differentiate and demarcate its products from those of other brands in the market (Deodhar, 2013).

Pricing Strategy

Prices of goods and services offered by Walt Disney are not low. Nonetheless, when one makes a comparison of the prices of products and services of Walt Disney and those of other competitor brands, he or she will realize that the prices are fair, with consideration of the quality and quantity of the products produced by Walt Disney. Pricing is…… [Read More]

References

Deodhar, S. Y. (2013). Why I Am Paying More: Price Theory and Market Structure Made Simple. University Press,

Hubbard, R G, and Anthony P. O. (2006). Microeconomics. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall, 2006. Print.

McDaniel, C., D, Joseph F. H, and Charles L. (2014). Marketing 8. Harvard .University Press,

Salinger, Bob, & Len Testa. (2011). The Unofficial Guide to Walt Disney World 2011. New York: New York Press
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Strategies for Success Wal Mart and Amazon

Words: 689 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Paper #: 23614313

AMAZON'S AND WAL-MAT'S DISTIBUTION CHANNELS

Understanding Amazon's and Wal-Mart's Distribution Channels

It is common knowledge that a change in the business strategy has a serious implication on the performance and success of a company in any industry. For example, Amazon Company is popular for the sophisticated e-commerce and most of its customers shop their products from the company online. However, if the company creates many stores in the different parts of the world to improve the speed of service delivery, its sales volumes will have negligible changes. Wal-Mart is the largest retailer, and it has many stores in different countries (Nardini & Abbott 2001. If Wal-Mart resolves to invest in e-commerce, the company will experience changes in sales volumes.

The resolution by both the Amazon and Wal-Mart to improve on the distribution channels has different implications on the business practices. Notably, the Wal-Mart has already established the stores in different…… [Read More]

References

Amit, R., & Zott, C. (2012). Creating Value through Business Model Innovation. MIT Sloan Management Review, 53(3), 41-49

Nardini, B., & Abbott, J. (2001). Issues in Vendor/Library Relations-Will Amazon Wal-Mart the Book Vendors? Against The Grain, 13(1), Article 27: 72-74
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Strategies for Market Entry

Words: 1533 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 28827134

Company International Expansion

Potential Countries for Expansion

Canada

United Kingdom

China

Country for Expansion

Expansion Advice

Potential Countries for Expansion

In this case, we will discuss the potential for the expansion of XYZ company, based in the U.S., to another country for business. At the beginning, we choose three possible countries where the business can set up expansion projects and then compare the various business, economic, political and legal aspects to choose the best destination for expansion. In the second part, we would also weight the possible modes of market entry and subsequent expansion. For the first part, we choose three potential countries for expansion -- Canada, the United Kingdom, and China.

Canada

There has been a modest growth in the overall apparel market since the dollar value was unfavorable and the market was affected by retail competition. Expanding online options also gave rise to price wars. There has been…… [Read More]

References

Euromonitor.com. (2016). Apparel and Footwear in Canada. [online] Available at:  http://www.euromonitor.com/apparel-and-footwear-in-canada/report  [Accessed 11 Mar. 2016].

Euromonitor.com. (2016). Apparel and Footwear in China. [online] Available at:  http://www.euromonitor.com/apparel-and-footwear-in-china/report  [Accessed 11 Mar. 2016].

Retail sales value monthly in textile, c. (2016). Clothing retail store sales value Great Britain 2013-2015 -- Statistic. [online] Statista. Available at:  http://www.statista.com/statistics/288014/retail-sales-value-monthly-for-clothing-footwear-textile-stores-great-britain  / [Accessed 11 Mar. 2016].

Sun, B. (2010). Concerns of Enterprises' Expansion. IJBA, 1(1).
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Price Reduction Strategy

Words: 527 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 1252941

Pricing Strategy

Price eduction Strategy

What are the implications for revenue and profits of implementing the price cut?

The implications for revenue and profits are dependent on the demands and supply of the product. If there is not enough demand for the product, a reduction in the price of the product by 10% is unlikely to boost the demand of the product. On the other hand, if there is sufficient demand of the product, a 10% reduction in the price of the product will have direct effect on the revenue and profits of the company. The reasoning behind is that the price elasticity of the product is 2.5%, higher than 1. Therefore, a reduction of 10% in the price will have about 2.5 times effect in the demand of the product. As far as meeting the target by the marketing managers, the managers would find it easier to meet its…… [Read More]

References

Kotler, P. (1991). Marketing Management. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.

McConnell, B. (2001). Economics-Principles, Problems and Polices. New York: McGraw-Hill.
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Strategy Management Business

Words: 1233 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 22616689

Strategy Management

Current Situation

Home Depot is a "category killer" retailer, selling supplies for home and garden. Home Depot operates with a cost leadership strategy, as it seeks to use its buying power in particular to offer customers a low price. Home Depot also incorporates a service element to its business model, something it hopes will give it a competitive advantage. Home Depot is currently undergoing a change in terms of its structure and culture, and this has caused some disruption. That said, Home Depot is the second-largest retailer in America behind Wal-Mart and has experienced strong sales improvements during the Nardelli years.

The competitive situation is intense. Home Depot is a dominant competitor in the industry, but faces strong competition from Lowe's, which is almost the same size. These two competitors operate as something of a duopoly, although in other businesses there are specialist firms that are strong competitors.…… [Read More]

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Pricing Method in Any Market There Is

Words: 1066 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64499983

Pricing Method

In any market, there is bound to be a strategy that is used to decide on the prices that the commodities or the services that the potential clients will be in need of. Since the goods or the services availed are always targeted at making a profit at the end o the day, pricing is one of the most fundamental focuses that the entrepreneurs have to keenly look at in order to strike a balance between making profit and retaining clients for the item offered.

In the case scenario below, the pricing methods that should b used in determining the prices of canned vegetables and Aspirin are looked at, the various methods that can be used and how different the pricing methods are as well discussed.

Pricing method for canned vegetables

Taking into account that almost each food outlet has canned vegetables, with several alternatives floated by each…… [Read More]

References

Scott Allen, (2012). Pricing Methods: Four Models for calculating your Pricing. Retrieved November 27, 2012 from  http://entrepreneurs.about.com/od/salesmarketing/a/pricingstrategy_2.htm 

Commonwealth of Australia, (2009). Policies, Procedures and Methods Used in the Recommendations for Pricing of Pharmaceutical Products 2009. Retrieved November 27, 2012 from  http://www.health.gov.au/internet/publications/publishing.nsf/Content/health-pbs-pbpa-pricing-policiesdoc~pricing-methods
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Strategy From the Viewpoint of

Words: 1965 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Chapter Paper #: 4587773

Just as Sarbanes-Oxley legislation created significant opportunities for management consultancies, the same holds true for sustainability requirements in European nations.

In conclusion, all management consultancies are attempting to position themselves as trusted advisors to firms looking to stabilizing existing sales while growing into emerging markets. Of the five included in this analysis, all also have social media channels that are well-populated with content meant to convey their thought leadership in specific areas as well. Yet in the area of equating strategies to IT investments, the majority take the approach that more IT spending is potentially the path out of strategies not performing well. Only the Boston Consulting Group takes a more strategic view of systematic change to businesses, choosing to layer in TI after the frameworks have been created. Their legacy strengths in the BCG and Growth/Share Matrices could be the impetus for this approach. Despite that fact, Boston Consulting…… [Read More]

References

Greiner, L., Motamedi, K., & Jamieson, D.. (2011). New consultant roles and processes in a 24/7 world. Organizational Dynamics, 40(3), 165.

Mors, M.. (2010). Innovation in a global consulting firm: when the problem is too much diversity. Strategic Management Journal, 31(8), 841.

Klaasjan Visscher, & J. Irene A Visscher-Voerman. (2010). Organizational design approaches in management consulting. Management Decision, 48(5), 713-731.
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Strategy and Decision-Making

Words: 1589 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 87554391

Strategy & Decision Making

Vision

Wal-Mart has become a global corporation. The company's primary vision focuses on a more global presence and promotion of the organization's ethical culture across global stakeholders. The company's concept of a vision statement focusing on a culture of ethics is vital in globalization. The company has embraced diversity and culture in their global operations thus leading to a competitive advantage and good reputation. By promoting a culture of ethics, Sam Walton has assisted stakeholders and customers to make informed decisions thus doing the right thing (Griffin, 2012).

Wal-Mart's mission statement focuses on quality customer service, striving for excellence and respect for individuals. Therefore, based on their core beliefs and values, the mission of the company emphasizes on the provision of daily low prices and exceptional services to customers. The company has managed to uphold their business for long because the top executives and managers work…… [Read More]

References

Griffin, R.W. (2012). Fundamentals of management. Mason, OH: South-Western Cengage

Learning

Hitt, M.A., Ireland, R.D., & Hoskisson, R.E. (2009). Strategic management: Competitiveness and globalization. Mason, OH: South-Western

Husted, B., & Allen, D.B. (2011). Corporate social strategy: Stakeholder engagement and competitive advantage. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press
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Strategy Analysis of the Ideal

Words: 1130 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 64596151

These new customers of the optimal industry are looking for their own long-term competitive advantage through better alignment and direction of their own resources.

Differences between competitors are significant and aligned more on quality and customization of products than on price or aggressive discounting and the use of promotions. As a result, price elasticity is a permanent factor of the market and also signals the use of more effective means of differentiation, including the delivery of exceptional levels of service and greater levels of product customization expertise.

Supplier Power

In the optimal industry there are also an abundance of suppliers, each with highly differentiated and highly efficient supply chains of their own, all ensuring perfectly filled orders. The supply chain then is the greatest competitive differentiator of the industry from the manufacturing and fulfillment perspective.

The highly unique approach to service that is provided by suppliers also focuses on the…… [Read More]

References

Porter (1990) - Competitive Advantage of Nations. Harvard Business Review. March, April, 1990 Edition of Harvard Business Review. Dr. Michael Porter.

Figure 1:

Porters' Five Forces Model
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Mochalicious Branding Pricing and Distribution

Words: 1117 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 49294620

Distribution Channel Analysis Identifying Wholesalers, Distributors, Retailers, and e-Commerce

ingle or multiple channels of distribution can be utilized including the direct channel of the Internet using the company's e-Commerce website as well as the direct channel of sales teams. Multiple teams that specialize in different products of customer segments may also be utilized. Direct channels include catalogue sales and retail sales as well as the use of a wholesaler or distributor, which is described as a company "that buys products in bulk from many manufacturers and then resells in smaller volumes to retailers. The Value-Added reseller will work with end-users to make provision of custom solutions that including "multiple products and services from different manufacturers." (VanAucken, 2013) a consultant can be used to develop relationshi8ps with companies and make provision of various services types. A dealer may purchase inventory from a manufacturer or distributor and then resell is to an…… [Read More]

Sources

Cooper, L. (2013) Five Strategies for a Successful Global Brand. 1 Jul 2010, Marketing Week. Retrieved from:  http://www.marketingweek.co.uk/five-strategies-for-a-successful-global-brand/3015220.article 

VanAuken, B. (2013) Building a Global Brand. Brand Strategy Insider. Retrieved from:  http://www.brandingstrategyinsider.com/2007/01/building_a_glob.html#.UZq2RaLMDHR
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Royal Clothing Marketing Plan and Price Strategy

Words: 1514 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Marketing Plan Paper #: 92764857

Marketing Plan

oyal line clothing Marketing Plan

oyal line clothing is a company that undertaking production and distribution of casual clothing for both men and women. The company's clothing lineup is ideal for individuals with a passion for outdoor activity as well as those aspiring to embrace this type of life style. Manufacture of the clothing lineup is undertaken in such a way to afford the users a feel for their love and passion for outdoor activities. This is by making logos on the clothing for different sporting and outdoor activities. This labeling creates an opportunity for royal line clothing to capture interest of many outdoor enthusiasts thus widening the potential customer base.

oyal line clothing understands that casual clothing line up needs to deliver to the potential and existing clientele a feel of the outdoors. This is achieved by picking colors for the clothing closely related to nature. The…… [Read More]

References

Fleisher, C.S., & Bensoussan, B.E. (2007). Business and Competitive Analysis Methods: Effective Application of New and Classic Methods. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Financial Times Prentice Hall.

Gibson, & Eric. (2006). Sell What You Sow. The Grower's Guide to Successful Produce Marketing. Auburn, CA: New World Publishing.

Kotler, P. (2000). Marketing Management Analysis, Planning, Implementation and control. New Jersey:: Prentice Hall.
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Marketing Strategies Competing in Today's Economy Demands

Words: 1142 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36410647

Marketing Strategies

Competing in today's economy, demands that a business find ways to break out a commodity status to meet customer needs more than competing firms do. A sound marketing strategy requires effective planning; this helps a business to capitalize the opportunities present in the market and leverage their strengths. Service businesses and firms encounter a number of unique cost considerations that need to be addressed when formulating service pricing strategy. Service pricing is not often finalized until after provision of the service; hence the consumer faces a lot of price uncertainty. Product line pricing tends to be more complicated. The opportunity for illegal pricing is greater in services than in goods.

The overall profitability of a business can be assed by examining change and firm or business profitability. An enterprise gross margin can be used to measure the contribution of the enterprise to a business. The sum of business…… [Read More]

References

Ferell, O.M. (2010). Marketing Strategy. Atlanta: Cengage.

LUIS, E.D. (2011). Contemporary Business. New York: Wiley and Sons.
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Cookie Craze Preliminary Pricing There Are a

Words: 752 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23464549

Cookie Craze

Preliminary Pricing

There are a number of different approaches to the issue of preliminary pricing, and which one the company chooses depends on the strategy that the firm has. Some of the different strategic options include maximizing profit, maximize volume, maximize margin, cost recovery and survival. Preliminary pricing strategies usually fall into two types. The first is to maximize volume. This strategy is known as penetration pricing, and holds that the company should set prices below the existing competitors in the market in order to build market share rapidly. The company may even take a loss on this type of pricing until it is able to build economies of scale in production.

The other strategic option is to establish the product as a premium offering. The cookies at Cookie Craze are the best cookies anybody on planet Earth has ever tasted, and as such cannot be given away…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

NetMBA. (2010). Pricing strategies. NetMBA.com. Retrieved March 30, 2012 from  http://www.netmba.com/marketing/pricing/
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Sony Psp Pricing the Strategy

Words: 1022 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 88668972

From this standpoint, Sony was successful in using pricing as a significant messaging part of their product mix.

When analyzing the pricing strategies Sony has relied on since the introduction of the PSP3 globally, the observations of Porter (1999) on the implications of price as competitive advantage within his Determinants of National Competitive Advantage (sometimes called the Porter Diamond) illustrates how Sony is using price to attempt to create equilibrium across Factor Conditions and Demand Conditions (pg. 78). The approach Sony takes to first ascertain the demand curve by geography first, and second, to create unique and differentiated market positions second, align with the approach Porter (1999) advocates in using as he calls it, the Diamond of National Advantage" to attain demand equilibrium and in balance. Porter advocates innovation and human productivity as the two most potent differentiation strategies for entire industries and their strongest industries, hence the title of…… [Read More]

References

CRM Buyer (2005) - Searching for Blue Ocean Strategies. Louis Columbus. CRMBuyer.com. September 23, 2005. Accessed from the Internet on October 29, 2007 from location:  http://www.crmbuyer.com/story/46292.html 

Kotler, P, & Keller, K (2006). A Framework for Marketing Management.Upper Saddle River: Pearson Prentice Hall. Pages 217-236.

McKinsey (2003) - Marn, Michael; Roegner, Eric; Zawada, Craig. "The Power of Pricing," 2003 Number 1. Boston, MA McKinsey Quarterly. Pages 27-36.

Porter, Michael (1999) "The Competitive Advantage of Nations" March - April, 1999. Boston, MA. Harvard Business Review. Page 73-91.
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Capital Asset Pricing Model and Arbitrage Pricing

Words: 3670 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4448460

Capital Asset Pricing Model and Arbitrage Pricing Theory:

Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) is an arithmetical theory that describes the relationship between risk and return in a balanced market. The Capital Assets Pricing Model was autonomously and simultaneously developed by William Sharpe, Jan Mossin, and John Litner. The researches of these founders were published in three different and highly respected journal articles between 1964 and 1966. Since its inception, the model has been used in various applications that range from public utility rates to corporate capital budgeting. However, the initial introduction of the model was characterized by suspicious view from the investment community. This was largely because CAPM apparently indicated that professional investment management was hugely a waste of time. Due to its implementation problems and shortcomings associated with its relation to Arbitrage Pricing Theory, Capital Asset Pricing Model has continued to face constant academic attacks.

Overview of Capital Asset…… [Read More]

References:

Banz, R.W (1981), 'The Relationship Between Return And Market Value of Common Stocks,'

Journal of Financial Economics, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 3-18.

Cooper, R.A. & Cousins, J.K (n.d.), Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM), Reference for Business, viewed 11 January 2012,

Donovan, E. & Weinraub, H (2007), Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) vs. Arbitrage Pricing