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prime minister in Japan has different powers from those of other countries. The prime minister in Japan has different roles from prime ministers in other parliamentary systems like Britain, France or Germany. The prime minister is the head of government of Japan. In Japan the prime minister ids not the president and not elected directly by the public. The prime minister is a member of the lower house of the Diet and is elected by the members of the party or even parties that are in control of the majority of the Diet. He is appointed by the emperor of Japan after being designated by the Diet from among the members. The person appointed must thereafter enjoy the confidence of the House of epresentatives for him or her to remain in office. The prime minister is the head of cabinet and appoints and dismisses the ministers of state. For one…… [Read More]
Briefing Note to Canadian Prime Minister Stephen Harper
Global Climate Change
The climate of Planet Earth is heating up, as we know through the empirical research conducted by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) over the past twenty or more years. The work of IPCC, a branch of the United Nations, involves competent scientists from more than 190 nations and has led to series of comprehensive reports that clearly indicate the atmosphere is heating up and the planet is being negatively affected.
To wit, the signs are very obvious, not just in scientific studies, but in some cases to the naked eye: the polar ice caps are shrinking; the sea levels are rising; air temperatures are rising; temperatures of sea water are rising (when water becomes warmer, water expands, which explains some of the rise of sea levels); permafrost is shrinking, including in the northern territories of Canada; because…… [Read More]
Canadian Prime Minister too Powerful?
Stephen Harper, the acting PM, has determined through his action a political direction that is not in accordance with the political tradition of the Canadian state and, moreover, has pushed his country on the international scene without view of the traditional means of conducting politics in Canada. The present research focuses on several key aspects concerning the political practices of the Prime Minister. They include the different approach undertaken by the PM in terms of foreign affairs and foreign politics, the different considerations related to internal politics and the relation with the Parliament and the other political parties. Finally, in order to prove that indeed the PM at this moment has too much power for its function and the traditional way in which politics is conducted in Canada, it is important to view the relationship the PM has with the Head of State, the Queen…… [Read More]
President, the Pope, and the Prime Minister
Describe the international political environment of the 1980s -- the "stage" on which these individuals were to play a critical role.
In the 1980s, the United States and Russia were still in the middle of the Cold ar. President Ronald Reagan made it clear that although things had cooled some between the United States and the U.S.S.R. thanks to efforts by the Nixon administration in the early 1970s, the country was still an enemy of the United States. In January 1980, he gave a speech in which he said:
From the time of the Russian revolution until the present, Soviet leaders have reiterated their determination that their goal must be the promotion of world revolution and a one world socialist or communist state…They have openly and publicly declared that the only morality they recognize is what will further their cause; meaning they reserve…… [Read More]
Advisor to the Prime Minister
The economists that support the ideologies of the economic globalization are of a strong assertion that this phenomenon has the power to shape and reshape progression in the economic activities and the economic globalization is hereby regarded positive stimulus that guard and ensure the enhanced excellence of life, a rapid increase in the economic activities but unfortunately this is not the case in all the situations. The unwanted by products of economic liberalization and economic globalization are hard felt in the developed countries like China.
The speaking volumes of inequality in china is also analyzed by the ratio of relative geographies and the ethnicities, the major portion forming the poor china population are widely distinguished in sects and ethnicities and are labeled by geographies. And due to the dispersed locations of the poor and rural china it becomes difficult for the state to get hold…… [Read More]
Stern Hu himself cannot actually exert much control from the Chinese prison where he is being held on charges of espionage. The Australian firm he worked for however, Rio Tinto, has been very vocal -- especially through Hu's former boss John Dougall -- in its attempts to get the federal government and Prime Minister Rudd in particular to act quickly to free Hu. This would require heavy Australian pressure on the Chinese government, adding tension to one of Australia's biggest trading relationships (a relationship which, ironically, Hu helped to create and solidify).
The Mass media in both countries has not been helpful here but instead has exacerbated the issue, making it largely one of nationality. Especially in China, where the government and culture is still largely under the control of the Communist Party, this creates a great deal additional emotion surrounding the issue, requiring foreign policy ministers on both sides…… [Read More]
Not long after the car bombing that claimed the life of Hariri and nine others, U.S. Secretary of State, Condaleeza Rice, issued a statement saying that the U.S. Ambassador to Syria had been recalled for consultations as a result of the assassination (the ashington Times, February 16, 2005, p. A01). Short of making a specific statement of accusation that Syria had been behind the murder, Rice called for an investigation of the murder (2005, A01). It is here, at this point, that question should follow: ho had the greatest interest in seeing Rafik Hariri eliminated from Lebanon and the Middle East scene? e must ask that question before we go any further, or perform review any additional information in order to keep an open mind as we process the reports that arose from the U.N. commissioned investigation of the events. At this it would serve anyone attempting to sort through…… [Read More]
In what concerns economy and taxation, Margaret Thatcher succeeded in signficicantly assisting the recovery of the ritish economy, and, by 1983, the country experienced economic growth and inflation and mortgage rates were at their lowest levels since 1970. However, the international public remembers her not for more than the things she has done to improve the ritish economy, as her 1976 speech about the Soviet Union impressed people everywhere. This particular speech gained her the nickname "Iron Lady" and she even came to relate to the name a few months after the incident.
The nickname suited Margaret Thatcher very well, given that whatever she did, she did it with an iron fist. Although she was extremely elegant and very candid, all her political actions were firm and strong. Moreover, she demonstrated her strength of mind consequent to the 1984 incident, when an Irish Republican Army bomb exploded in the hotel…… [Read More]
This was because of some of the reforms that he introduced for corporations, for public spending, environmental protection and transportation sectors. Since powerful LDP members had vested interests in these sectors, they did not approve of all the reforms and hence were wary of Koizumi and his brand of politics.
The articles about Koizumi and Abe suggest that Japan suffers from serious economic problems that the political system cannot resolve. Why not? What are the political obstacles to changing Japanese politics? How does it relate to the Johnson reading?
Japan has had enormous economic success over the decades but lately its problems are negating the effects of earlier successes. I cannot agree with the opinion that economic problems cannot be solved through political means. Even though other factors do play in, it is the political system that determines the path economy will take. By political system, we mean…… [Read More]
Margaret Thatcher has the distinction of being the longest serving Prime Minister of the United Kingdom in over 150 years. While she is credited with being instrumental in reinstating ritain as major economic power in the world, there are strong and ambivalent options about her tenure as Prime Minister. While many laud her for some of the economic policies that she implemented, others criticize her for these same policies. "Her harsh economic policies caused social friction and divided the nation." (Margaret Thatcher site). Thatcher was also England's first female Prime Minister.
Her influence was felt not only in the United Kingdom but also in other parts of the world through her effect on and participation in international politics. The following extract points to the effect that her policies and opinions had on global events.
She was the catalyst who set in motion a series of interconnected events that gave a…… [Read More]
In the event the intelligence detailed by the Israeli administration proves to be accurate with respect to nuclear weapons development, this office is reminded of the words of the late President John, F. Kennedy, spoken almost exactly 45 years ago to the day, on October 22, 1962, addressing the Soviet threat in Cuba:
We no longer live in a world where only the actual firing of weapons represents a sufficient challenge to a nation's security to constitute maximum peril. Nuclear weapons are so destructive and ballistic missiles are so swift that any substantially increased possibility of their use or any sudden change in their deployment may well be regarded as a definite threat to peace." (Sorensen, 1965)
Extraordinary risks to national security demand (and justify) extraordinary actions to prevent them from materializing. A military response will be required to participate with Israel in destroying Iranian nuclear facilities either in possession…… [Read More]
Japanese political history from the Meiji Restoration to Following the ousting of the Tokugawa shogun, the emperor embarked on his role as the "enlightened ruler" of Japan. From this point, known as the "Meiji Restoration," Japan began a transformation from an agriculturally based, feudalistic society to a nation that, by the 1912 death of the emperor, had a centralized government, developed infrastructure, well-educated general population, fast growing industrial sector, as well as a very powerful military.
Of course, one of the most striking developments of the period was Japan's "shaking off" of foreign influence in its trade and legal affairs, leading it to a full and independent standing in the world community. Arguably this transformation was only possible due to the nation's ability to transform itself from a fragmented nation, ruled by class distinction and feudalistic division, to a unified state -- represented by one national army and economic authority…… [Read More]
Indira Gandhi's assassination and the assassination itself. This paper delves into her early life to understand her political steps. Furthermore, it highlights the economic and political climate of India during her rule. Lastly the paper concludes whether Indira Gandhi can be understood within the context of a tragic heroine.
Indira Gandhi has been a controversial figure in the political history of India. Descending from the most important dynasty of India, Indira ruled India for a total of twelve years; a tenure that ended with her assassination. In retrospect, it is evident that her assassination was a direct result of the ways that she employed in running India's domestic policy. According to some, Indira Gandhi's life can be termed as a Greek tragedy and herself as the tragic heroine. According to Aristotle's description of a tragic hero which he gave in Poetics, a tragic hero is a person who falls from…… [Read More]
Robert Mugabe is a Zimbabwean groundbreaking political figure who became and still remains the President of Zimbabwe. He was one of the few figures in Africa who opposed white minority rule. Through his emerging political campaign, he became one of the leaders of the rebel groups and was consequently elected Prime Minister and head of government, in 1980. His tenure lasted until 1987 and then became Zimbabwe's initial executive head of state. He was re-elected several times even now and continues serving under this position. Additionally, Mugabe has led the Zimbabwe African National Union -- Patriotic Front ever since 1975. (Thesis) ecause of his long and successful political career, including his Marxist mentality, many would see Mugabe as a terrible dictator who led a semi-prosperous nation to near ruin. When looking at Mugabe as a dictator, it is important to see where it all originated to understand his motives and…… [Read More]
Justin Trudeau's election as Canadian Prime Minister represented a generational change in the country's politics. While there was a general belief that he was not ready to be Prime Minister, Trudeau used political skill and craftsmanship during the long election campaigns to defeat experience politicians. His election not only represents a generational change in Canadian politics but also has significant impacts on governance. In a recent phone call, he has indicated that he wants to re-establish the country with a new political system. This is influenced by the talks he has had regarding different kinds of political systems i.e. oligarchy, democracy, and the middle class. For Prime Minister Trudeau to choose the best system to rebuild the Canadian political system, an understanding of each of these systems is important.
One of the people who made significant contributions regarding oligarchy, democracy, and the middle constitution is Aristotle, a Greek…… [Read More]
Socially Innovative and Socially Responsible Commerce: Examination of Carbon Tax in Australia
In a November 8th 2011 report in the Australian Times it is reported that as the final hurdle to carbon emission tax was cleared by the Federal Government of Australia, "Prime Minister Julia Gillard avoided saying the passage of the controversial impost would mark a turning point in Labor's fortunes." It is related that a new polled demonstrated "a modest uptick in its primary support." (Australian Times, 2011) The new tax is geared toward a reduction in carbon emissions in theory however; it is likely that the carbon tax is in reality more focused on government receipts in terms of its revenue. This issue will be examined through the lens of theorists Senge (2000) and the Dynamics of Systems, Jenkins (2008) and value and identities, and einhocker (2006) theories and global commerce.
Carbon Tax in Australia: An Overview…… [Read More]
Economics - Country Analysis
Country Overview and Current Events (News)
Ethiopia, traditionally known as Abyssinia, is a landlocked Sub-Saharan country located at the Horn of Africa in East Africa, bordering Somalia, Kenya, Eritrea, Djibouti, Sudan, and the newly-created South Sudan. It covers approximately 1,126,829km2 of land; about the size of the state of Texas, and was, until the split of Sudan, the second-largest country in Africa. Being landlocked, Ethiopia largely relies on the port of Djibouti, to which it is connected by both rail and road. Economic elements such as this, together with the country's history, population, geography and economic performance have been explored in the subsequent sections of this text.
Population: the U.S. Census Bureau, in June 2013, estimated Ethiopia's population to be 93,877,025; a figure that makes the country the second-most populous in Africa, after Nigeria (orld Bank, Index Mundi). Ethiopia's population has been on a steady increase…… [Read More]
The resolution of this policy counsel meeting is the endorsement of a refinement of Australia's terror policy with respect both to the preservation of constitutional rights and in terms of approach its relationship to the United States with balance and diplomacy. Recognizing the severity the security threat but simultaneously recognizing the need to refine policies so as to diminish the tendency toward inflaming the political and ideological anger of the developing world, Australia must spend the coming decades finding ways to quell such hostility. This will mean a closer consideration of the economic, political and trade policies that often have run aground of the interests of the developing world. Likewise, it means that Australia must function as a continued partner to the U.S. But also as a voice of conscience with respect to the discretionary use of military force or diplomatic finesse.
Aly, a. (2007). Australian Muslim…… [Read More]
The U.S. Debate over Membership in the League of Nations
After the end of orld ar I, the world was weary of war and the ravages that it had taken on the European continent and it would seem reasonable to suggest that policymakers on both sides of the Atlantic would be eager to form some type of league to resolve future conflicts. According to Margulies (1998), "Following the signing of the Treaty of Versailles at the Paris Peace Conference in June 1919, where he played a major role in negotiating that treaty, which established the League of Nations, President oodrow ilson turned his attention to persuading the U.S. Senate to ratify the new treaty" (273). The Senate of the 66th Congress was almost equally divided between the Republican Party with 49 and the Democrats who fielded 47 senators (Marguilies). Although the president could rely on the majority of the Democrats…… [Read More]
At present, the conflict continues. In September 2011, Palestinian officials petitioned the United Nations in a unilateral bid for statehood. However, their efforts failed as they were summarily unsuccessfully in securing the nine votes needed in the 15 member Security Council to garner approval (Haaretz, 2011). Moreover, the United States has already indicated a veto of the proposal once it is made. In addition, Britain made it known that they would abstain from the decision according to UK Foreign Secretary William Hague. The dissent posited by President Obama and the UK's Foreign Secretary is reportedly reflected of the sentimentality of many world leaders who maintain sensibilities regarding Netanyahu and the fluctuating position of the Israeli government on the international stage.
However, although unsuccessful in September, the Palestinian Authority was granted full membership at the cultural agency of the United Nations', and are seeking membership of the World Health…… [Read More]
There are many interesting political actors in the world today, some who challenge conventional thinking and others who reiterate the status quo. Though former Prime Minister Tony Blair is not always thought of as the most popular of public figures, in large part due to his involvement of the UK in the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq he is a formidable political activist, for change. Tony Blair is clearly one of the most influential political leaders of the modern era. He demonstrates significant and sound reasoning in areas where many politicians and others seek to either look the other way or follow the popular reasoning of others. Blair became a political activist in the Labour party at a relatively young age and much that he went through within his early life molded his later opinions and strategies for change, especially with regard to environmental change and sustainable living and…… [Read More]
Censorship and Freedom of the Press
In 2009, Frank ainimarama, the self-appointed Prime Minister of Fiji said that freedom of speech causes trouble and is to blame for his country's political turmoil (AC News, 2009). This is only a small portion of controversial remarks and actions made by ainimarama surrounding the announcement made by President Iloilo stating the abrogation of Fiji's constitution, the dismissal of the judiciary, and the deferral of democratic elections until 2014 (Puppet show, 2009). Iloilo's decision, given its relationship to ainimarama's interim regime, which took power in a coup in 2006, being declared illegal by ruling of the Court of Appeals demanding that a neutral leader replace ainimarama immediately with dissolution of the existing government and elections to commence as soon as possible (Puppet show).
ainimarama expressed his grievance towards this decision by the Court and did not hesitate to ignore it as he showed up…… [Read More]
Nearly all failing schools fit this description (Six Secrets of School Success 2000)." If a country is to overcome educational problems, they must take into account the mentality that poverty creates and how that mentality deteriorates the wherewithal to do well in school.
Although poverty is the issue that affects most underachieving schools, the idea of the super head was conceived as the answer to poorly performing schools. According to Marshall (2001), recruiting exceptional headmasters to improve schools was begun with what was once known as the Hammersmith County School (Marshall, 2001). The local authority school was located in the London Borough of Hammersmith and Fulham (Marshall, 2001). The neighboring schools were grant maintained and church schools (Marshall, 2001). The Hammersmith School was being closed because of poor results and OFSTED reports (Marshall, 2001). However, instead of closing the school the administration decided to reopen it and called it the…… [Read More]
The Kurds were seen as either "proper Turkish citizens" by the way they conducted themselves with dignity, or they were seen as "outlaws characterized by tribalism, religious reactionism, or banditry" (Yegen, p. 599). In other words, the Turkish government tried to take away the Kurds' ethnic identities; the Turks attempted to "assimilate" the Kurds into the nation of Turkey by referring to them as Turkish citizens -- and many Kurds have simply agreed to become Turks over the last 80 years or so. Meanwhile in the 1950s Kurds in Turkey "…were no longer in a position to produce major trouble for the state," and Kurds began moving into big cities in the western sections of Turkey (Yegen, p. 604). The "assimilation" strategies of the Turkish government towards the Kurds lightened up from the 1950s regarding forcible settlement practices, but then when the Kurds began to resist Turkish authority in the…… [Read More]
submitted, the Ivory Coast is set to swear in Alassane Ouattara as the country's new president (CNN, 2011, 1), ending over six months of internal turmoil that threatened to lead the country into outright civil war, and challenged the international community's ability and willingness to respond. Ouattara had been unable to take the presidency despite winning last November because losing incumbent Laurent Gbagbo refused to cede power (Ibid). On April 11th, 2011, pro-Ouattara forces arrested Gbagbo after an assault on his residence in the capital Abidjan with the assistance of French forces (Harding, 2011).
The standoff was challenging for the international community. The issue was domestic in nature, but stability both in the country and the region has been difficult to achieve. The prospect of a prolonged civil war was real, and this would not only have destroyed the Ivory Coast but would also have had a debilitating effect on…… [Read More]
Big Businesses in Australia Use Highly Paid Lobbyists or Circumvent egulations
In its relations with government, big business in Australia usually gets its own way either through the influence of highly paid lobbyists or through the capacity to circumvent regulations.
In the recent few years, the Australia government has promoted an economic liberalization task through a deregulation and privatization process. Deregulation of the media sector is now on the agenda. In 2006 Senator Coonan, Minister for Communication, Information Technology and the Arts launched a government structure for modern deregulation of the media sector (Arup, 2006). Included within the deregulation structure is a suggestion to relax the present media ownership regulation. This document will temporarily summarize the present Big business ownership in Australia and talk about the reasons for such control. This will be followed by a research of the different justifications for and against deregulation.
Arguments for deregulation consist of…… [Read More]
Vermont's Junior Senator, Bernard Sanders introduced to the Senate the Stop Outsourcing Security Act S. 2398. The Stop Outsourcing Security Act will help solve the lack of oversight of contractors in Iraq by requiring that by June 2008, "the President shall submit to each specified congressional committee a report on the status of planning for the transition away from the use of private contractors for mission critical or emergency essential functions by January 1, 2009, in all conflict zones in which Congress has authorized the use of force" (s 2398). This bill will examine contractor activities and ensure that renewals will only happen if the president certifies that contractors have undergone background checks and are clear of any crimes that could lead to additional problems with their work in the future. It will also allow congress to have access to information of private military companies including, the number of persons…… [Read More]
For example, he says, "Whatever the dangers of the action we take, the dangers of inaction are far, far greater" (Blair One). Bush's remarks are far harsher and already allude to many of the controversial actions Bush will take to "win the war on terror." He says, "Our response involves far more than instant retaliation and isolated strikes. Americans should not expect one battle, but a lengthy campaign, unlike any other we have ever seen. It may include dramatic strikes, visible on TV, and covert operations, secret even in success" (Bush).
While both men advocate quick retribution and continued action against terrorists, Blair's speech seems far more balanced and humane. He says, "This is the moment to bring the faiths closer together in understanding of our common values and heritage, a source of unity and strength" (Blair Two). Bush attempts to bring the American people together as well, but uses…… [Read More]
As previously mentioned, Cameron and many others have posited a new Bill of ights and the abandonment of the Human ights Act which many have argued does not provide clear articulation for the rights and responsibilities of Britain's citizenry, and fails to address issues specific to counter-terrorism. Erdos, in his 2009 article, "Ideology, Power Orientation and Policy Drag: Explaining the Elite Politics of Britain's Bill of ights Debate" posits that the formalized legal strength of the Bill of rights is contingent particularly on the legalities and the legal status of the rights it establishes; especially as it relates to whether the rights are considered 'supreme' against other law, and the magnitude and degree to which judicial decision and the instrument made under it are established against repeal (Erdos, 2009).
Britain is said to have a history of distrust with regard to a Bill of ights particularly as it relates to…… [Read More]
musical style epitomized the 1920s? Jazz
What did John Steinbeck describe in he Grapes of Wrath? he dust bowl and its impact on agricultural families during the great depression.
National Industrial Recovery Act? An act created by President Roosevelt to stimulate the economy by allowing the government to regulate particular industries.
What did the Civilian Conservation Corps do? Created jobs on state and national lands to stimulate the economy.
What did Eleanor Roosevelt see as her primary role as First Lady? o be an advocate for civil rights
Which of the following was not true concerning the election of 1936? Incomplete Question
Which of the following pieces of legislation was an attempt at campaign reform in the late 1930s? Incomplete Question
he National Resources Planning Board facilitated? he National Resources Planning Board facilitated creating and implementing employment for young men during the great depression.
What feature of the Agricultural Adjustment…… [Read More]
Portugal 16th Century to Present
Portugal: 16th Century to Present
Portugal: 16th Century to Present
Portugal is a country a part of the continent of Europe. It is on the western coast of Europe sharing a boundary with Spain and the Atlantic Ocean. Portugal's independence and king (now there is a president and a prime minister) received formal recognition since the 12th century AD. The language is Portuguese and the people identify as Portuguese or of the Portuguese epublic (epublica Portuguesa). It is a mostly Catholic country and with mostly female citizens. There are nearly 11 million people living in Portugal according to the Central Intelligence Agency (2012). The capital city is Lisbon and most of the population lives in urban areas rather than rural areas. There are archipelagos, Azores, and Madeira, which are additionally a part of Portugal. The paper will provide insight into the country of Portugal,…… [Read More]
Again, the press is not aware of all that goes on in the White House behind closed doors. Just because the matter was not publicly mentioned again in a direct fashion, does not mean that it was dropped. My team and I have continually discussed the best course of action for fostering trade with Tunisia and setting a much stronger precedent in the Middle East. The WSJ has actually zeroed in on the connection between this injection of fiscal support to Tunisia and our intentions to foster free trade with the entire Middle East.
The WSJ thinks that we should strike a trade deal with Tunisia and to also designate as a strategic economic nation. I and the entire White House is flattered that the Wall Street Journal would give us such obvious and prosaic advice on plans that we've already come up with ourselves. Of course the U.S. is…… [Read More]
The UK needs to build good economic relationships with emerging markets even more than with its EU neighbors. China is already highly competitive in manufacturing and is gaining competitiveness in high-technology manufacturing. India is a leader in Information Technology and, being an English speaking country, also has the ability to be globally competitive in Professional Services. Latin American and Southeast Asian economies, such as Brazil or Indonesia, will become increasingly competitive in agriculture and energy. The WTO and various other bilateral free trade agreements are reducing the barriers to these types of goods, making them increasingly attractive to the European consumer.
Considering the competition for European markets, the EU's greatest value and likely greatest priority will be the protection of European markets, not the opening of global markets. The UK, because of its focus on global finance and professional services, has little to gain from the protection of its own…… [Read More]
Hughes proceeded to institute a system of "Confusing Military Structures," the www.CDNMilitary.casitecontinues. Battlefront unites were "constantly formed, disbanded, reformed and disbanded again"; and as though that wasn't enough, the Ross Rifle issue was another problem that Hughes' legacy is left with, according to the site. One army driver is quoted as saying, "To hell with the [Ross Rifle]. I'll take a club." In fact, Ross did not fully understand why soldiers objected to the use of the Ross Rifle, the military eb site claims, because even though Hughes "dressed up like a military officer while being Minister of the Militia," he was "nothing more than a civilian...and never did have to use the rifle in combat" (www.CDNMilitary.ca).
And the Ross Rifle wasn't the only snag in Hughes' pursuit of innovative wartime materials and technologies, the CNDMilitary site claims. Indeed, the "MacAdam shield-shovel" - termed a "Canadian-designed miracle" by Hughes, who…… [Read More]
The Majlis al-Shura is appointed every four years while the Majlis al-Ummah members are elected every four years. The Majlis al-Shura serves in a monarch while the Majlis al-Ummah serves in a democracy. The running of Majlis al-Shura requires expertise in various fields.The council members are therefore some of the most educated people in the country. On the contrary, Majlis al-Ummah deals with issues that are mubar and do not necessarily need experts to make conclusions. These decisions by the Majlis al-Ummah are referred to as 'mashura'.The opinion of the majority are taken as the binding opinion since mubah issue have no wrong or rights. The other difference that exits between Majlis al-Shura and Majlis al-Ummah is that Majlis al-Shura has more members (150 members) when compared to Majlis al-Ummah (60 members). Majlis al-Shura also appears to be more of a political council that is mandated to run the country's…… [Read More]
Judiciary Branch of Government in the United Kingdom
The Judiciary Branch of Government
Structure of the U.S. And UK Judiciary Branch
A Comparative Case Study
The structure of the judiciary branch of the government in the United States and the United Kingdom are quite different and the student which studies judiciary structure will readily agree with the statement of fact that textbooks in relation to the American government and politics pay substantial attention to the role of the judiciary; many textbooks on the government and politics of the United Kingdom have -- at least until recently -- virtually ignored the role of judges in the UK which leaves one asking exactly why that this is the case. . The purpose of this work is to research and examine the lack of information and attention to the role and function of the judicial branch of the UK government and to compare…… [Read More]
fallacies and it is important to detect fallacious arguments and then form decisions. Below is an analysis of three such fallacies which have been described and examples are described to show why it is important to detect them.
This fallacy is on the principle that in the case there is a lack of evidence to prove it to be true, it is considered naturally to be false. An atheist might claim that as a creationist cannot prove that God exists therefore God does not exist. Similarly a creationist can say that because the atheist cannot prove that God does not exist, hence God exists. Basically this fallacy deals with the burden of proof and in the absence of any proof it labels the opposite to be absolutely true. This fallacy is used in the judicial systems that are based on the principle of "innocent until proven guilty."…… [Read More]
Second orld ar, Japan was a traditional absolute monarchy but since the adoption of a new constitution in 1946, Japan has become a constitutional monarchy in which the emperor serves as symbolic head of state and the legislature or Diet is parliamentary in nature. The Constitution of Japan expressly outlines the role of the emperor as "symbol of the state and of the unity of the people," (cited by Michigan State University 1). The Emperor serves in ceremonial functions such as the awarding of special honors and providing the ceremonial appointments of the Prime Minister and Supreme Court judges. Emperor Akihito is the reigning monarch; successors are hereditary.
Therefore, Japan possesses a similar system to the one used by Britain and its commonwealth countries. The current system of Japanese government was actually established during the Allied occupation of Japan in 1946 ("Government" 1). According to the Consulate-General of Japan in…… [Read More]
" The bill then goes on a calendar, so it can be debated, discussed, or amended. The bill then goes to the floor of the house where it is read, discussed, and voted on. If it passes by a two-thirds margin, it goes on to the Senate, where it goes through the same process. If it makes it this far, it is "enrolled," signed by the Speaker of the House and the Vice-President, and then it goes to the president for signature ("Ben's Guide"). Both legislative branches seem to have similar means of passing bills, Canada's follows about the same procedure in a different order.
In Canada, Canadians elect a Parliament, and the most the members can sit on Parliament is five years. The Parliament is made up of the House of Commons and the Senate. The leaders of the two bodies are the Speaker of the House and the…… [Read More]
Meech Lake Accords
In order to properly examine the Meech Lake Accords and their significance, we must look first at why the Accords were necessary and what led up to them. Until 1982, Canada had been governed by the ritish North America Act, passed by the ritish Parliament in 1867. This act provided for the unification of the Canadian provinces into the Dominion of Canada, and set out the powers of the provincial legislatures. All powers not designated to the provinces were given to the Dominion. Later interpretations by the ritish Privy Council extended property rights in the provinces and developed the doctrine of emergency powers to aid the Dominion in time of war.
Ever since the Statute of Westminster 1931, the ritish government had been willing to give up control of Canada, but Canadian federal and provincial governments were unable to agree on a new formula to allow amendments.…… [Read More]
' Indians across the political spectrum, especially the country's powerful nuclear weapons establishment, are critical of the NPT, arguing that it unfairly warps international hierarchies to the disadvantage of the non-nuclear-weapon states" (1998:15). In its efforts to balance the pressures from the international community with its own self-interests in formulating foreign policies, the position adopted by India has been starkly different than other countries. In this regard, Karp concludes that, "Most states party to the NPT accept the unfairness of the treaty as a tradeoff that serves their own and global interests. India's leaders insist that fair and genuine nuclear disarmament must start with the nuclear-weapon states themselves, a demand formalized by former Prime Minister ajiv Gandhi in his 1990 global nuclear disarmament initiative" (Karp 1998:14).
As a result of these events, the 20th century witnessed the formation of various positions in Indian foreign policy that would endure throughout the…… [Read More]
The Constitution is based on several key principals the most notable would include: separation of powers as well as checks and balances. Separation of powers is when there are clearly defined powers that are given to the various branches of: the government, the federal government and the states. Checks and balances is when one branch of the government will have the power to the check the authority of another branch. (Wood) for example, the Constitution would specifically spell out various powers of the executive branch. During the course of exercising these different powers, a citizen brings a lawsuit against the government in the judicial branch. Where, they claim that the actions that the executive branch is taking are unconstitutional. In this particular case, the executive branch would work off of the powers given to them in the Constitution. When they begin to overstep these boundaries, another branch of the government…… [Read More]
Ngo Dinh Diem
orn in the year 1901 to an aristocratic family, Ngo Dinh Diem rose to become the Prime Minister of South Vietnam in the year 1954. This paper looks in detail at the events during the life of Ngo Dinh Diem, his era of governance and the events that took place in the aftermath of his assassination. Catholic missionaries converted his predecessors into Christianity several years back in the 17th century. Much like his pervious family generations, he too was educated in French Catholic schools. Following his successful graduation he was trained as an administrator who worked in conjunction with the French authorities based in Vietnam. At a very young age of twenty-five, he became a provincial governor. This was his foray into a long political career, which marked dramatic incidents both in his personal life and the history of Vietnam.
At a time when communism was rising…… [Read More]
Finally, the free reign style sees that the manager allows the staff members to make most of the decisions, with his responsibility revolving around the final outcome.
All the achievements of Dr. Manmohan Singh point out to the fact that he has managed to successfully implement all leadership styles when the situations arose and required a specific approach. Otherwise put, it becomes obvious that when he possessed all the information and a decision had to be taken rapidly, he implemented an autocratic leadership style. Then, when he needed additional data, he listened to those around him and based his decisions on what others had to say. Finally, whenever he was facing tough situations and could not resolve all problems on his own, and most importantly, when he was surrounded by capable and trustworthy staff members, Dr. Manmohan Singh implemented the free reign style by delegating responsibilities to his subalterns.
eferences:…… [Read More]
British Parliamentary System of Government with the United States Federal System of Government
The British Parliamentary system of government is one of the oldest political systems in the world that has evolved over a period of centuries. The British model has influenced the system of governments in many countries of the world including the United States. On the other hand, the U.S. system of government is a Federal system that came into existence when the United States (the former American colonies) rebelled against British rule and declared its independence in the latter part of the eighteenth century, followed by the adoption of its own constitution in 1787. Although having some similarities with the British System of government, the U.S. system of government is unique in several aspects, having its own characteristics. In this paper we shall look at some key features of the two systems of government and compare and…… [Read More]
Lebanon's politics today, and how Lebanese politics has evolved over time to become what it is today. Lebanese politics is extremely complicated, and revolves around several different political parties that essentially are formed around religious beliefs. One common element of Lebanese politics is violence, from civil war to Syrian occupation over Lebanon's history. Today, Lebanese politics is complex and volatile, a combination that is not healthy for the country or her people.
Modern Lebanon came to be in 1920, when the League of Nation mandated France to create Lebanon and Syria. Lebanon is made up of what used to be the province of Mount Lebanon, along with the provinces of north Lebanon, south Lebanon, and the Biqa, which was historically part of Syria. This set the stage for ongoing conflict between Lebanon and Syria. By 1926, the State of Lebanon had formed, and they had enacted a Constitution. In 1940,…… [Read More]
Much like the announced plans by President-elect Barack Obama to launch the most massive public works program since orld ar II by investing in the nation's highways and bridges, the same approach was used by the newly installed Israeli government to stimulate the economy. This approach, though, was considered a comprise approach since there were vastly differing views on what issues should be made priorities following the Oslo Peace Accords (Alterman 141). According to this author, "The shift of priorities was visible on the ground within a year or two: major highways and interchanges, long-neglected by the Likud governments, were upgraded. Environmental projects received public funds. Even the long-neglected rail system received a boost, which though modest was nevertheless its largest since pre-State British Mandate times" (Alterman 141). Despite this shift in priorities over the years, Israeli expansion and Palestinian statehood remain at the forefront of the ongoing and convoluted…… [Read More]
During the investigative process, this researcher documents the formulation and thinking of the citizenship education programme in a typical Singapore secondary school.
Singapore, a contemporary strategic island known as one of the world's busiest economic powerhouse seaports, also currently constitutes a major global banking, petroleum, and ship building center. During the past few decades, Singapore, considered a "melting pot of cultures" moved to the top of considerations for international travelers. "A bridge and causeway connect Singapore to the Malaysia mainland…." (Singapore, 2008) Due to problems evolving from the aggressive current patterns of the Strait of Singapore, however, vital, on-going land reclamation projects routinely occur.
Regional fishermen and pirates originally claimed Singapore, at one time part of the Sumatran Empire of Srivijaya. During the 16th century, European control of the Malaysian area began. In 1819, Britain founded Singapore as a British trading colony, and consequently built one of Britain's most vital…… [Read More]
Preserving the current form of government will ease Nepal's transition from a constitutional monarchy to a constitutional republic. If the nation were to suddenly switch voting procedures and governmental structures, the resulting confusion would threaten to undermine the fledgling system. Furthermore, a large number of Nepalese residents are either connected to or from India and are familiar with its parliamentary system.
A parliamentary system allows for a greater plurality of voices in the legislative branch of government. Nepal is an extraordinarily diverse country, with no one ethnic group comprising more than 15.5% of the nation's population (CIA). The recent political strife in Nepal is partly rooted in the strong Maoist presence there. Maoist demands for political representation in parliament was finally granted during the recent turmoil in 2007 (CIA). Nepal's main considerations when composing its new constitution and attendant form of government include maintaining political stability, permitting a plurality of…… [Read More]
Separation of Powers
Doctrine of Separation of powers in Australia
The concept of separation of powers has been in operation and application in many countries. This has always helped them in ensuring efficient governance and effective working of each arm of the government without interfering with the other organs of the government. Factually, the different arms of the governments cannot operate independent of each other, yet they must keep a safe distance that will enable them operate effectively and carry out their daily activities. This doctrine of separation of powers classifies the institutions of government into 3 major branches classified as the legislative, the Executive and the judicial branch. Separation of powers in Australia
The Australian system is referred to as the Westminster system which is a system that was adopted from England and still has the Queen as the overall head who resides in England but represented locally by…… [Read More]
An Analysis of Relations between United Arab Emirates and Japan
In an era when American influence in the world is waning, the bipolarity of the Cold War years is being replaced by regional partnerships that are mutually beneficial for all stakeholders. Indeed, one important international partnership that has emerged over the past half century has been between the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and Japan, with both countries expanding their diplomatic presence in each other’s capitals and investing heavily in exports, most especially oil and gas to Japan with the UAE importing electronics, vehicles and various types of machinery from Japan. Moreover, international analysts predict that this strategic partnership will continue to expand for the foreseeable future. The purpose of this research proposal was to provide an overview of the history of the relations between Japan and the UAE. A discussion concerning the origins of this modern relationship is followed by…… [Read More]
On October 6, 1973, Israel was attacked by the combined forces of Egypt and Syria. It was Yom Kipper, the most sacred day in the Jewish calendar. Egypt began as Israel had, with an air attack. On the ground, Israel was outnumbered six to one, fielding only about 200,000 soldiers against a combined force of over 1,150,000 Arab troops. Once again, the Soviet Union was involved, sending over 1,000 tons of weapons and ammunition to Egypt and Syria during the early days of the war. The United States was forced to intervene. On October 13, President Richard Nixon ordered an airlift of military supplies, enabling Israel to sustain its forces. After initial success, the war had gone against the Arabs and eventually Egyptian President Anwar Sadat appealed to the Soviet Union to save them. Following negotiations in Moscow on October 21, U.S. Secretary of State, Henry Kissinger flew to Tel…… [Read More]
Leaders exist throughout the ages and play pivotal roles in how humanity grows and develops. Some leaders change a nation, while others set the stage for the future leaders to take the reign. Abraham Lincoln was the 16th President of the United States of America. He transformed a country engulfed in slavery and brought about a new age of living to Americans. Indira Gandhi was one of the first female Prime Ministers of the world. She exerted dominance and charisma while attempting to progress India. Lincoln took on the transformational leadership style while Gandhi took on the charismatic leadership style. Both achieved the status of being noteworthy for their ability to inspire.
Public Leader Overview
According to modern leadership theory, Lincoln was a transformational leader thanks in part to his followers. They felt a sense of respect, loyalty, and trust towards Lincoln when he became president. Furthermore, Lincoln persevered amidst…… [Read More]
In April 2nd 1982, the then Argentinian government sent soldiers to take over the disputed Falklands Islands. The reason for this is that the South American country regarded the group of islands as part of its territory. However, the British, who already occupied the islands, also regarded the Falklands as their territory. Over the next one month, both countries made serious attempts to store the conflict from escalating. Alexander Haig, who was the then United States Secretary of State was right in the middle of the diplomatic negotiations to try and stop the conflicting from escalating. He and his team travelled frantically between the London and Buenos Aires to meet and negotiate with the leaders of the two countries, Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher of the United Kingdom and President Leopoldo Galtieri of Argentina. Nevertheless, the countless hours of negotiations and the frantic efforts of the Alexander Haig and his…… [Read More]
S. resident George W. Bush. Thus, when the blast in Bali, at the
southern point of Indonesia, directed the fury of 9/11 at a popular
attraction to Australian holiday-makers, Australia became a nation
motivated in foreign policy by the apparent threat of global terrorism.
This would be demonstrated by its unwavering willingness to follow the
United States even into its poorly-informed and ill-advised invasion of
Iraq, providing combat troops and civilian military aid. During the lead-
up to this war, in fact, John Howard would perhaps have been noted as only
second to Britain's rime Minister Tony Blair in the ranking of Iraq War
cheerleaders, appearing frequently in the media in order to endorse the
alleged provocations made by the U.S. and later proved false. Howard
echoed well the terms which Bush used to prompt war, remarking in a
February 2002 appearance that the Australian government was firm in
"backing…… [Read More]
Energy costs increased substantially and the yen's exchange rate was shifted to a floating rate. The eventual recession reduced expectations of future growth and reduced private investment. Economic growth went down from 10% to 3.6% during the period 1974-79 and to 4.4% in the decade of the 80s. ut despite the oil crisis and its consequences, Japan's major export industries stayed competitive through its cost-cutting policy and increasing efficiency. It reduced industrial energy demands and allowed the automobile industry, along with other industries, to improve. y the late 70s, the computer, semiconductor and other technology and information-intensive industries entered a period of rapid growth. During this high-growth era, exports continued to support Japan's robust economic growth in the 70s and in the 80s. However, the problems encountered on account of its growing balance of payments surplus urged for the opening of domestic markets and a stronger focus on domestic demands…… [Read More]
There is a definite chance that both parties could resolve the prolonged conflict successfully if they find and act on ways to be in command of their shared lack of trust. On the other hand, if the conflict is seen in terms of a neoliberal point-of-view, Israel's military efficiency and powerfulness is a great threat for Israelis. To cut a long story short, the main goal on which all the main five parties agree is the achievement of peace between Israelis and Palestinians but it is only possible if they give up their most preferred results; Israel giving up its favorite result of unrestricted occupation of Palestinian land and Palestine holding back its preferred outcome of unconditional withdrawal. The conflict could be resolved if both parties could also find some common solutions for complex and convoluted detachable issues including "the degree of sovereignty of a Palestinian state, the distribution of…… [Read More]
Margaret Thatcher was the Prime Minister of England from 1979 to 1990. She was the longest-serving prime minister of England in the 20th century, and she was the only woman to ever be prime minister in England. She was elected to a third term in 1987 but her popularity decreased dramatically and by 1990; she was forced to resign due to the lack of support for her policies. This paper is an in-depth review of the film about her life, "The Iron Lady."
The Iron Lady - Background
In December, 2011, a film about the life and times of Margaret Thatcher was released by 20th Century Fox of the UK and The einstein Company in the United States. Phyllida Lloyd was the director; Damian Jones produced the film, and the screenplay was written by Abi Morgan. The woman that played Thatcher in Thatcher's younger years was Alexandra Roach.…… [Read More]
The study will be delving into: What ASEAN constitutes and what remains beyond its scope? The aim of this study will be handing out a wide-ranging presentation of the present stance of ASEAN and its accomplishments till date, along with its challenges. The paper is intended as a suggestion for a master-plan that can be employed as a future pathway where ASEAN political-security support must be going towards in the forthcoming years.
To start with let us have a brief introduction of the organization. The creators of the Association of South East Asian Nations - ASEAN, visualized it as ultimately assembling all the nations of the region and managing them to lend a hand in assuring the peace, permanence and growth of the area. While the area was in a state of turmoil, a lot of nations were under pressure for the existence of the nation or autonomy. First…… [Read More]
Furthermore, Peterson, a correspondent for the Post Gazette, recently reported that, "Mr. udd has been seen as intent on balancing Australia's relations with China and those with the United States, a longtime ally and major trading partner. But he has argued recently that China should, to reflect the changing world economic order, have greater voting rights within the IMF and a greater say in how its funds are spent" (2009, 2). Based on China's role as Australia's largest trading partner and its proximity, Australia's current Minister for Foreign Affairs is using the Group of Twenty (G20) forum to advance these goals. In this regard, Peterson adds that, "Canberra's key ambitions heading into the G-20 summit go beyond the trilateral Australia-China-U.S. relationship. Mr. udd -- currently co-chair of the G-20's working group on IMF reform -- is arguing for a clear role for China in the management of the global economy"…… [Read More]