159+ documents containing “prison overcrowding”.
Prison overcrowding or typically, mass incarceration, is the most threatening issue in virtually every state and in many municipalities all over U.S.. It has been reported that the imprisonment rate in U.S. is seven times as much as in Europe and it is equivalently increasing with the increase in population. Inmate populations are escalating due to a great number of sentencing to jails and prisons and the number of repeat offenders returning there is growing too. The main point to ponder is where the actual problem lies and why only in U.S., the rate of sentencing to prisons is so high? Briefly, the problem lies within the entire system. The various components of the criminal justice system do not act independently of one another rather these are inter-related and the system is directly impacted by each component. In most of the states, a significant number of non-violent and juvenile activists….
Pettit, B., & Western, B. (January 01, 2004). Mass Imprisonment and the Life Course: Race and Class Inequality in U.S. Incarceration. American Sociological Review, 69, 2, 151.
The Philadelphia Inquirer. (July 24, 2009). "Editorial: Inequality under law." Philadelphia Newspapers, LLC. Pg. A18
This view stresses a sociological approach to crime, suggesting that the behavior of criminals is more easily adapted and changed when law enforcement agents understand the circumstances and immediate environment an offender lives in that may contribute to offensive behaviors, and to one's behavioral characteristics.
The purpose of the preliminary literature presented is to provide an overview of the historical foundations leading to prison overcrowding, an exploration of the populations of people incarcerated and empirical evidence that provides an explanation for overcrowding. By examining this evidence the researcher will find support for the hypothesis presented, develop appropriate research questions and present insight into the significance and importance of the study topic selected for this research. The preliminary research review will include an overview of texts, primary and secondary research articles and studies that explore prison overcrowding, criminal behavior and law enforcement policies and procedures during the last three decades. Much….
Alexander, Elizabeth. A troubling response to overcrowded prisons. Civil Rights Journal,
Clark, R.V. & Homeal, R. "A revised classification of situational crime prevention techniques," in S.P. Lab (ed.), Crime Prevention at the Crossroads, Cincinnati: Anderson (1997): 17-27.
Gottfredson, Stephen D. & McConville, S. America's Correctional Crisis: Prison
Populations and Public Policy. New York: Greenwood Press, (1994).
Two steps if taken, however, would almost halve our prison population. First, repeal state laws that now mandate the incarceration of drug offenders and develop instead many more public and private treatment centers to which nonviolent drug abusers can be referred. Second, stop using jails or prisons to house the mentally ill.
Tougher sentencing is being justified, in part, by the widespread belief that incarceration is the chief reason violent crime declined in U.S. cities during the 1990s. Rehabilitation is out; retribution is in. An ounce of prevention has given way to a pound of punishment. Furthermore, serious urban crime may be going down but the publicity about it in the mass media has not.
The largest single group in local jails comprises those incarcerated, directly or indirectly, because of alcohol, crack cocaine, marijuana, or heroin use. This situation testifies to the reality that not only is our national campaign against drug….
Barnes, Christopher. (March 8, 2004) "UConn Poll on Prison Overcrowding." Retrieved June 3, 2005 at http://www.news.uconn.edu/2004/mar2004/rel04028.htm.
Carr, Joyce. (July 13, 2001) "California bishops' report proposes prison reforms." National Catholic Reporter. Retrieved June 3, 2005 at http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1141/is_34_37/ai_76697370 .
Katz, Catherine. (November 2004). Prison Overcrowding. Valencia West Campus Library Tutorial Series. Retrieved June 4, 2005 at http://faculty.valenciacc.edu/ckatz/pathfinders/prison%20overcrowding.
Mandatory Sentencing Fuels Prison Overcrowding." (2005). Families Against Mandatory Minimums. Retrieved June 4, 2005 at http://crime.about.com/od/prison_families/a/famm040811.htm.
The need for less restrictive parole policies could help relieve prison overcrowding (Kunselman & Johnson, 2004). According to Hughes (2007), "On any given day, a large number of the admissions to America's prisons come from individuals who have failed to comply with the conditions of their parole or probation supervision. For years, the revocation and incarceration rate of probationers and parolees has had a significant impact on the growth of the prison population" (p. 100). During the 15-year period 1990 to 2005, American prisons experienced the fastest growing correctional population, with an average annual increase of 4.5%; of these, the number of probationers and parolees under supervision grew from 3.76 million in 1995 to 4.95 million in 2005, adding more than a million potential individuals for revocation and incarceration (Hughes).
In many cases, tough, political stakeholders continue to demand mandatory minimum crime control legislation to develop political credibility or promote a….
Bracey, G.W. (2006). Locked up, locked out. Phi Delta Kappan, 88(3), 253.
Bureau of Justice Statistics Correctional Surveys (2008). U.S. Bureau of Justice. [Online]. Available: http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/glance/tables/corr2tab.htm .
Cochrane, J., Melville, G. & Marsh, I. (2004). Criminal justice: An introduction to philosophies, theories and practice. London: Routledge.
Cohen, M.A. (2005). The costs of crime and justice. New York: Routledge.
At the very least, many prisons have a justified reputation as themselves being violent places where the concentration of criminal personalities will tend to stimulate higher levels of gang affiliation, internal drug trade and abuse, and, in general, absorption in a culture where criminality is normal. The result is that many who enter young, with limited criminal experience or with more modest criminal proclivities may be exposed to the kinds of patterns and behaviors that will ultimately lead to a repetitive susceptibility to criminal behavior once released.
Another core issue related to overcrowding is the cost to society to feed, clothe and support the lives of those who are habitual offenders and products of the prison system. Public money is dedicated to the upkeep and incarceration of these individuals, calling into question the rationality of channeling such money into the support of incarcerating mid-level drug offenders, white collar criminals and other….
Prison overcrowding is indeed a grave problem that many states face. It is a phenomenon that both the international and national parties have faced for decades (Howard,1996). Overcrowded correction facilities may lead to the failures of programs in the prisons, violations of civil rights and also violence between inmates. Prison overcrowding may develop as a result of steady, regular, continuous increase and enlargement of prisoners which then develops to what is known as chronic overcrowding.
Overcrowding does not have a universal definition and this is due to the absence of a consented formula that could be used to create a tool and a measuring device that can be applied in a uniform manner to measure overcrowding. In determining overcrowding the courts does not rely on one indicator but deals with the facts of each case and also considers the interests of prison administration, economics, and individual's rights of the prisoners among….
Applegate, B.K., Surette, R., & McCarthy, B.J. (1999). Detention and desistance from crime: Evaluating the influence of a new generation jail on recidivism. Journal of Criminal Justice, 27, 539 -- "548.
The Pew Center on the States (2008). One in 100: Behind Bars in America 2008. Retrieved on May 23, 2011 at http://www.pewcenteronthestates.org/uploadedFiles/8015PCTS_Prison08_FINAL_2-1-1_FORWEB.pdf .
Austin, J. (2004). The proper and improper use of risk assessment in corrections. Federal Sentencing Reporter, 16, 3, 194 -- "199.
Cox, V., Paulus, P., & McCain, G. (1984). Prison crowding research: The relevance of prison housing standards and a general approach regarding crowding phenomena. American Psychologist, 39, 1148-1160.
Prison overcrowding is one of the major issues that have faced the criminal justice system for more than two decades now. It has grown to be an elusive phenomenon that has raised significant concerns of the local and international actors. The increasing population of the prisoners poses various challenges, including policy, financial, and health implications, thereby, the need for the adoption of responsive strategies to curb its effects. Among the policy, implications brought by the increasing population of prisoners include the need for the modification of the minimum penalties, expansion of the use of the residential reentry, and reinstating parole for the inmates. Therefore, the following essay presents an annotated bibliography that will be used for ensuring the success of the proposal.
Hough, J.M., Allen, R., & Solomon, E. (2008). Tackling prison overcrowding: Build more prisons? Sentence fewer offenders?. Bristol: Policy Press.
The authors of the book recognize the fact that overcrowding….
Reducing Prison Overcrowding
Prison overcrowding is an unsettling national problem to the United States and Canada. The United States has the biggest prison population in the world and Canada's is the fourth. The race for limited resources has been consistently outpaced by the continuous increase in the prison population. This study explores the causes and factors of prison overcrowding and inexpensive ways of addressing or solving it. It uses the combined qualitative and quantitative methods of research in collecting the needed data. Tools in the research are monthly statistical report of prison system surveys with inmates, staff, and the stakeholders. California, Nebraska, Connecticut and the Carbon County presented their respective but inexpensive ways of reducing continuously increasing prison populations. California and Nebraska's approaches have demonstrated successes. California now implements its 5-yar plan, involving non-prison felonies, their automatic transfer to facilities other than in prison. The plan has realized a $459 savings.….
CCN (2011). Sentencing reform key to prisoner reduction plan. California Coast News:
California .Coast News.com. retrieved on August 27, 2014 from http://www.calcoastnews.com.2011.05.sentencing-reform-key-to-prisoner-reduction-plan
CT (2000). What is causing prison overcrowding? Department of Corrections: State of Connecticut. Retrieved on August 28, 2014 from http://www.ct.gov/opm/lib/cjppd/cjresearch/recidiimstudy/whatiscausingrisonovercrowding.pdf
John Howard (1996). Prison overcrowding. John Howard Society of Alberta. Retrieved on August 27, 2014 from http://www.johnhoward.ab.ca/pub.c42.htm
Mandatory Minimum Sentencing
Prison overcrowding and tax payer burdens are just two of the effects that must be addressed with mandatory sentencing reform. There must also be a consideration for balancing the deterrence factor with an offender's increased attempts to avoid detection and arrest if there is to be any measurable effect on societal burden and criminal justice through reform. Moreover, prisons are far from the ideal corrective and rehabilitative centers that they are purported as by proponents of mandatory minimum sentencing, and can either continue of worsen an individual's criminal tendencies. Without considering the effects that are seen with the current sentencing policy, it would be difficult to justify considering reform and even more difficult to enact reform. By reviewing the data and information on the effects of mandatory minimum sentencing, one can see the connections to the flaws in the system and the need for reform. The criminal….
Bernick, E., & Larkin, P. (2014). Reconsidering mandatory minimum sentences: The Arguments for and against potential reforms. The Heritage Foundation, Legal Memorandum 114. Retrieved from http://www.heritage.org/research/reports/2014/02/reconsidering-mandatory-minimum-sentences-the-arguments-for-and-against-potential-reforms
Canteen, C.L. (2005). Are drug offenses deterred due to the use of mandatory minimum sentencing guidelines? ProQuest Dissertations and Theses. Retrieved from
Prison Crowing Solutions
The over-crowding situation in California prisons has reached critical mass and the state is fairly short on options that are both possible and viable given public opinion and/or budget constraints. Even with that being the case, a solution has to be come to given the spiking crime rate and over-crowded prisons. All of those will be explored with some fleshing out of the topic as the paper goes along.
As noted by the assignment text, there are a good number of different public-private partnership types. They include public ownership and operation, quasi-public agency, operations assistance, contract operations and maintenance, contract operations and financing, design/build/operate, lease and operate, joint ownership and private ownership (American Water, 2013). The California prison system is very much system that involves a lot of interaction between the public and private sectors.
There are a number of solutions that can be used to make….
American Water. (2013, May 1). American Water Solutions. American Water Solutions. Retrieved May 1, 2013, from http://www.amwatersolutions.com/types-of-public-private-partnerships.aspx
CBS Chicago. (2013, March 22). School Closing Opponents Call Mayor A Racist Liar -- CBS Chicago. CBS Chicago. Retrieved May 1, 2013, from http://chicago.cbslocal.com/2013/03/22/school-closing-opponents-call-mayor-a-racist-liar/
Kumar, S. (2011, December 28). California home to 1/3 of nation's welfare recipients | california, nation, welfare - Appeal-Democrat. Homepage: Appeal-Democrat. Retrieved May 1, 2013, from http://www.appeal-democrat.com/articles/california-112566-nation-welfare.html
MSNBC. (2013, May 1). MSNBC -- " Lean Forward: The digital home of MSNBC TV. MSNBC -- " Lean Forward: The digital home of MSNBC TV. Retrieved May 1, 2013, from http://tv.msnbc.com/
Arguably the most pressing issue facing the field of corrections today is the problem of prison overcrowding. Overcrowding negatively impacts nearly every aspect of running a corrections facility, and even exacerbates problems when inmates are eventually released (Specter, 2010). Overcrowded prisons increase the likelihood of violence against both inmates and corrections officers, and there is evidence tying overcrowding to higher rates of suicide and homicide (Davies, 2004, & Camp, Gaes, Langan, & Saylor, 2003). The problem has only gotten worse over the last few decades, and there is no evidence that policymakers or administrators have plans to do anything soon (Giertz & Nardulli, 1985, & Taggart, 1996). After examining the relevant literature concerning the history, scope, and reasons behind prison overcrowding, it becomes clear that the solution to overcrowding and its attendant costs must come in the form of administrative/institutional reform coupled with a serious reconsideration of the current….
Camp, S.D., Gaes, G.G., Langan, N.P., & Saylor, W.G. (2003). The influence of prisons on inmate misconduct: A multilevel investigation*. Justice Quarterly: JQ, 20(3), 501-533.
Davies, R. (2004). Deaths in UK prisons are due to overcrowding, says report. The Lancet,
Giertz, J.F., & Nardulli, P.F. (1985). Prison overcrowding. Public Choice (Pre-1986), 46(1),
Court records also stick on, whether the charges are dropped or followed by a conviction. People of color or ethnic minorities, such as African-Americans and Hispanics, have come to accept that they cannot avoid acquiring a criminal record. The 1990 Washington DC-based sentencing project found that one in every four African-Americans aged 20 to 29 was in prison, in jail or on probation or parole. A research conducted by the National Center on Institutions and Alternatives had a comparable finding. In a decade, the figure decreased to one out of three or 76% of 18-year-old African-Americans in the urban areas who can expect arrest and imprisonment before age 36. The racial gap became evident at the approach of the millennium. In 1926, 79% of inmates in state and federal prisons were whites and only 21% were lacks. ut in 1999, African-Americans made up 55-60% of new admissions. Including Latino….
1. Bates, D. (2006). Policy Makers Working to Find a Solution for Increased Incarceration. Falls Church News Press. http://www.fcnp.com/432/parole.htm
2. Beck, A.R.. (2001). Jail Bloating: a Common but Unnecessary Cause of Jail Overcrowding. http://www.justiceconcepts.com/jail%20overcrowding.pdf
3. ISECUREtrac. (2004). Reducing Prison Overcrowding. ISECUREtrac Corporation. http://www.isecuretrac.com/sa_po.asp
4. Joel, D. (1989). Time to Deal with America's Prison Crisis. The Heritage Foundation. http://www.heritage.otg/Research/Criminalbg735.cfm
prison overcrowding and its effect on the criminal justice system. Prison overcrowding has skyrocketed in the United States in the last three decades, leading to a multitude of problems in the criminal justice system. Overcrowding costs taxpayers money, it leads to dysfunction within the penal population, and it creates dangers for prison staff. It is a result of many items in society and the criminal justice system, and it must change if America's prisons are to remain effective and viable.
Many people may not be aware just how much the prison population has grown in the last thirty years. One researcher notes, "From 300,000 prisoners in 1977, the prison population has risen steadily to over 1.5 million as of June 30, 2005, a 400% increase" (Pfaff, 2008). The two largest states housing prisoners, California and Texas, have seen stupendous growth in their prison populations, but not in their funding. Another….
Haney, C. (2006). Prison overcrowding: Harmful consequences and dysfunctional reactions. Retrieved 31 July 2009 from the Commission on Safety and Abuse in America's Prisons Web site: http://www.prisoncommission.org/statements/haney_craig.pdf . 1-17.
Jacobs, J.B. (2007). Finding alternatives to the carceral state. Social Research, 74(2), 695+.
Moore, S. (2009). The prison overcrowding fix. Retrieved 31 July 2009 from the New York Times Web site: http://www.nytimes.com/2009/02/11/us/11prisons.html .
Pfaff, J.F. (2008). The empirics of prison growth: A critical review and path forward. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 98(2), 547+
Overcrowding in Prisons: Impacts on African-Americans
The overcrowded prisons in the United States are heavily populated by African-Americans, many of them incarcerated due to petty, non-violent crimes such as drug dealing. This paper points out that not only are today's prisons overcrowded, the fact of their being overcrowded negatively impacts the African-American community above and beyond the individuals who are locked up. This paper also points to the racist-themed legislation that has been an important reason why so many African-Americans are incarcerated -- and the paper points to the unjust sentencing laws that have unfairly targeted black men from the inner city.
hen overcrowding becomes an extremely serious human and ethical problem such that state or federal prison officials must find a temporary solution, one trend that has been implemented is to move inmates to other prisons in distant states. However, according to author Othello Harris, who is also editor of….
Dalrymple, Jane, and Burke, Beverley. (2006). Anti-Oppressive Practice: Social Care and the Law. New York: McGraw-Hill International.
Hallet, Michael A. (2006). Private Prisons in America: A Critical Race Perspective. Champaign,
IL: University of Illinois Press.
Harris, Othello, and Miller, Robin R. (2003). Impacts of Incarceration on the African-American
However, given that the problem of overcrowding is pervasive in the prison system in general, and not simply at these specific junctures of the judicial process, the choice between a low-use jail and a high-use jail would seem to be the real question. More and more prisoners who might once be shipped to the state penitentiary are now being confined to jails for more extended periods of time than ever before. Thus, to accommodate this problem, a high-use jail that has many of the monitoring and rehabilitative capacities of a prison system would be more useful to the community.
The purpose and function of a high-use jail low-use jail is designed for shorter-term inmates, while a high-use jail is designed to accommodate not simply more inmates, but a wider variety of inmates for longer durations of time. It has the ability to deal with more violent offenders, but also has more….
Prison overcrowding or typically, mass incarceration, is the most threatening issue in virtually every state and in many municipalities all over U.S.. It has been reported that the imprisonment…Read Full Paper ❯
This view stresses a sociological approach to crime, suggesting that the behavior of criminals is more easily adapted and changed when law enforcement agents understand the circumstances and immediate…Read Full Paper ❯
'" Two steps if taken, however, would almost halve our prison population. First, repeal state laws that now mandate the incarceration of drug offenders and develop instead many more public…Read Full Paper ❯
The need for less restrictive parole policies could help relieve prison overcrowding (Kunselman & Johnson, 2004). According to Hughes (2007), "On any given day, a large number of the…Read Full Paper ❯
At the very least, many prisons have a justified reputation as themselves being violent places where the concentration of criminal personalities will tend to stimulate higher levels of gang…Read Full Paper ❯
Prison overcrowding is indeed a grave problem that many states face. It is a phenomenon that both the international and national parties have faced for decades (Howard,1996). Overcrowded correction…Read Full Paper ❯
Prison overcrowding is one of the major issues that have faced the criminal justice system for more than two decades now. It has grown to be an elusive phenomenon…Read Full Paper ❯
Reducing Prison Overcrowding Prison overcrowding is an unsettling national problem to the United States and Canada. The United States has the biggest prison population in the world and Canada's is…Read Full Paper ❯
Mandatory Minimum Sentencing Abstract (Incomplete) Prison overcrowding and tax payer burdens are just two of the effects that must be addressed with mandatory sentencing reform. There must also be a consideration…Read Full Paper ❯
Prison Over-Crowding Prison Crowing Solutions The over-crowding situation in California prisons has reached critical mass and the state is fairly short on options that are both possible and viable given public…Read Full Paper ❯
Prison Overcrowding Arguably the most pressing issue facing the field of corrections today is the problem of prison overcrowding. Overcrowding negatively impacts nearly every aspect of running a corrections facility,…Read Full Paper ❯
Court records also stick on, whether the charges are dropped or followed by a conviction. People of color or ethnic minorities, such as African-Americans and Hispanics, have come…Read Full Paper ❯
prison overcrowding and its effect on the criminal justice system. Prison overcrowding has skyrocketed in the United States in the last three decades, leading to a multitude of…Read Full Paper ❯
Overcrowding in Prisons: Impacts on African-Americans The overcrowded prisons in the United States are heavily populated by African-Americans, many of them incarcerated due to petty, non-violent crimes such as drug…Read Full Paper ❯
However, given that the problem of overcrowding is pervasive in the prison system in general, and not simply at these specific junctures of the judicial process, the choice between…Read Full Paper ❯