Prison Overcrowding Essays (Examples)

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Overcrowding in Prisons

Words: 1976 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54169893

Prison Overcrowding

Arguably the most pressing issue facing the field of corrections today is the problem of prison overcrowding. Overcrowding negatively impacts nearly every aspect of running a corrections facility, and even exacerbates problems when inmates are eventually released (Specter, 2010). Overcrowded prisons increase the likelihood of violence against both inmates and corrections officers, and there is evidence tying overcrowding to higher rates of suicide and homicide (Davies, 2004, & Camp, Gaes, Langan, & Saylor, 2003). The problem has only gotten worse over the last few decades, and there is no evidence that policymakers or administrators have plans to do anything soon (Giertz & Nardulli, 1985, & Taggart, 1996). After examining the relevant literature concerning the history, scope, and reasons behind prison overcrowding, it becomes clear that the solution to overcrowding and its attendant costs must come in the form of administrative/institutional reform coupled with a serious reconsideration of the…… [Read More]

References

Camp, S.D., Gaes, G.G., Langan, N.P., & Saylor, W.G. (2003). The influence of prisons on inmate misconduct: A multilevel investigation*. Justice Quarterly: JQ, 20(3), 501-533.

Davies, R. (2004). Deaths in UK prisons are due to overcrowding, says report. The Lancet,

363(9406), 378-378.

Giertz, J.F., & Nardulli, P.F. (1985). Prison overcrowding. Public Choice (Pre-1986), 46(1),
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Prison Funding Finding Funds for Fighting Crime

Words: 1904 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38932108

Prison Funding

Finding Funds for Fighting Crime: Financial Contingency planning for California's Prison System

Prisons have always been a controversial aspect of society, and far more so in the modern era of sociological and psychological inquiry into the nature of crime, punishment, and rehabilitation. Deciding precisely what function prisons are meant to serve and how they should go about serving it has been the cause of a great deal of social and political debate, and these issues are far from settled. There are those that argue for the reduction of prison terms and sentencing lengths and a move to more rehabilitative efforts rather than the punitive focus most prisons seem to hold today, while others insist that making prisons punitive and able to accommodate more inmates serves as a deterrent to crime and as a testament to the rules of justice. These abstract issues in and of themselves make the…… [Read More]

References

Gilroy, L., Summers, A., Randazzo, A. & Kenny, H. (2010). Public-Private Partnerships for Corrections in California. Accessed 12 February 2012.  http://reason.org/files/private_prisons_california.pdf 

Governor's Budget. (2012). Accessed 12 February 2012. http://www.ebudget.ca.gov/pdf/GovernorsBudget/5210.pdf

Skelton, G. (2011). Prison overcrowding and underfunding lead to more local burdens. LA Times. Accessed 12 February 2012.  http://articles.latimes.com/2011/oct/06/local/la-me-cap-prisons-20111006
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Prison Reform

Words: 1784 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26007776

Prison Reform

The United States criminal justice system houses the largest prison population in the world; both in terms of the total prison population as well as the proportion of prisoners to the total population (per capita). The United States has a bigger prison population than China and India despite having nowhere near the total population. It also holds a greater percentage of its population in incarceration than any other country in the world as well including such nations such as Russia, North Korea, or even Iran. The United States has about five percent of the world's population however it has about twenty-five percent of the world's prison population.

There are many stereotypes that uphold the image of the inmate, prisoner, or felon as a violent criminal, that must be locked away to keep the population safe. However, in many cases, the actual prison population is made up of a…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Chang, C. (2012, May 14). North Louisiana family is a major force in the state's vast prison. Retrieved from NOLA.

Greenwald, G. (2009). Drug Decriminalization in Portugal. Cato Institute.

Head, T. (N.d.). Key Facts About the War on Drugs. Retrieved April 8, 2013, from Civil Liberties: http://civilliberty.about.com/od/drugpolicy/p/War-on-Drugs-Facts.htm

Maag, C. (2012, August 28). In Missouri, debtors prison is alive and well. Retrieved from MSN Money: http://money.msn.com/politics/post.aspx?post=30ecee88-b6be-4387-a7d9-9f8e4d571886
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Overcrowding in American Jails When

Words: 3087 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89237121

Court records also stick on, whether the charges are dropped or followed by a conviction. People of color or ethnic minorities, such as African-Americans and Hispanics, have come to accept that they cannot avoid acquiring a criminal record. The 1990 Washington DC-based sentencing project found that one in every four African-Americans aged 20 to 29 was in prison, in jail or on probation or parole. A research conducted by the National Center on Institutions and Alternatives had a comparable finding. In a decade, the figure decreased to one out of three or 76% of 18-year-old African-Americans in the urban areas who can expect arrest and imprisonment before age 36. The racial gap became evident at the approach of the millennium. In 1926, 79% of inmates in state and federal prisons were whites and only 21% were lacks. ut in 1999, African-Americans made up 55-60% of new admissions. Including Latino inmates,…… [Read More]

Bibliography

1. Bates, D. (2006). Policy Makers Working to Find a Solution for Increased Incarceration. Falls Church News Press. http://www.fcnp.com/432/parole.htm

2. Beck, A.R.. (2001). Jail Bloating: a Common but Unnecessary Cause of Jail Overcrowding.  http://www.justiceconcepts.com/jail%20overcrowding.pdf 

3. ISECUREtrac. (2004). Reducing Prison Overcrowding. ISECUREtrac Corporation. http://www.isecuretrac.com/sa_po.asp

4. Joel, D. (1989). Time to Deal with America's Prison Crisis. The Heritage Foundation. http://www.heritage.otg/Research/Criminalbg735.cfm
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Prison Crowding

Words: 1287 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53618609

prison overcrowding and its effect on the criminal justice system. Prison overcrowding has skyrocketed in the United States in the last three decades, leading to a multitude of problems in the criminal justice system. Overcrowding costs taxpayers money, it leads to dysfunction within the penal population, and it creates dangers for prison staff. It is a result of many items in society and the criminal justice system, and it must change if America's prisons are to remain effective and viable.

Many people may not be aware just how much the prison population has grown in the last thirty years. One researcher notes, "From 300,000 prisoners in 1977, the prison population has risen steadily to over 1.5 million as of June 30, 2005, a 400% increase" (Pfaff, 2008). The two largest states housing prisoners, California and Texas, have seen stupendous growth in their prison populations, but not in their funding. Another…… [Read More]

References

Haney, C. (2006). Prison overcrowding: Harmful consequences and dysfunctional reactions. Retrieved 31 July 2009 from the Commission on Safety and Abuse in America's Prisons Web site: http://www.prisoncommission.org/statements/haney_craig.pdf. 1-17.

Jacobs, J.B. (2007). Finding alternatives to the carceral state. Social Research, 74(2), 695+.

Moore, S. (2009). The prison overcrowding fix. Retrieved 31 July 2009 from the New York Times Web site: http://www.nytimes.com/2009/02/11/us/11prisons.html.

Pfaff, J.F. (2008). The empirics of prison growth: A critical review and path forward. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 98(2), 547+
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Overcrowding Costs Crime Rates

Words: 1215 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28246801

American Corrections System

Prisons are so overcrowded within the states that typically "only one criminal is jailed for every one hundred violent crimes committed" (Economist, 1996). Many violent criminal offenders do not even serve out their entire terms; many serve half of their term and are released on an appeal or probation (Economist, 1996). These prisoners are often released to society only to commit another crime at a later date.

Statistics validate the fact the American Correctional System is currently overburdened. According to one report, "More than one million inmates were confined in American prisons in 1995 alone and the number has been steadily increasing over the last few years (Albion, 2003)." The ability of state and local correctional facilities to manage and keep pace with the upward spiral of people incarcerated and imprisoned within the U.S. also continues to decrease, as most prisons within America currently continue to operate…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Mackenzie, D. "Boot Camp Prisons and Recidivism in Eight States." Criminology, 33.3, 1995. 327-357.

Too Many Convicts." The Economist. August 10, 2002.

Stephan, J.J. "State Prison Expenditures, 1996," Bureau of Justice Statistics, Washington DC, 1999. NCJ172211.

Gottfredson, D.C. And Barton, W.H. "Deinstitutionalization of juvenile offenders," Criminology 31:4, 1993. 591-611.
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Overcrowding in Prisons Impacts on African-Americans the

Words: 2391 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73301417

Overcrowding in Prisons: Impacts on African-Americans

The overcrowded prisons in the United States are heavily populated by African-Americans, many of them incarcerated due to petty, non-violent crimes such as drug dealing. This paper points out that not only are today's prisons overcrowded, the fact of their being overcrowded negatively impacts the African-American community above and beyond the individuals who are locked up. This paper also points to the racist-themed legislation that has been an important reason why so many African-Americans are incarcerated -- and the paper points to the unjust sentencing laws that have unfairly targeted black men from the inner city.

Critical Analysis

hen overcrowding becomes an extremely serious human and ethical problem such that state or federal prison officials must find a temporary solution, one trend that has been implemented is to move inmates to other prisons in distant states. However, according to author Othello Harris, who is…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Dalrymple, Jane, and Burke, Beverley. (2006). Anti-Oppressive Practice: Social Care and the Law. New York: McGraw-Hill International.

Hallet, Michael A. (2006). Private Prisons in America: A Critical Race Perspective. Champaign,

IL: University of Illinois Press.

Harris, Othello, and Miller, Robin R. (2003). Impacts of Incarceration on the African-American
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Jail Memo To the County

Words: 666 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47346676



However, given that the problem of overcrowding is pervasive in the prison system in general, and not simply at these specific junctures of the judicial process, the choice between a low-use jail and a high-use jail would seem to be the real question. More and more prisoners who might once be shipped to the state penitentiary are now being confined to jails for more extended periods of time than ever before. Thus, to accommodate this problem, a high-use jail that has many of the monitoring and rehabilitative capacities of a prison system would be more useful to the community.

The purpose and function of a high-use jail low-use jail is designed for shorter-term inmates, while a high-use jail is designed to accommodate not simply more inmates, but a wider variety of inmates for longer durations of time. It has the ability to deal with more violent offenders, but also has…… [Read More]

Works Cited

What is the difference between jail and prison?" (2006). Public Health and Criminal

Justice. Operated by the CDC: Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Page last reviewed 18 Oct 2006. Retrieved 9 Mar 2007 at http://www.cdc.gov/nchstp/od/cccwg/difference.htm
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Prison Reform the United States

Words: 3176 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7254901

The average felony sentence imposed upon federal and state offenders in 1996 was 62 months, or just over 5 years. On average these prisoners actually serve 45% of a state sentence for a mean prison stint of 2 years and 4 months, and 85% of a federal sentence for a stint of 4 years and 5 months. Once they are released, the recidivism rates are high. According to Lin (2000), "incarceration, as it stands, does not prevent recidivism" (p. 4). In addition, even if the released prisoners do not commit another crime, it does not mean that they become self-supporting and contribute to their community as much as possible.

.Lin (2000) argues that it is not clear that prisons, as institutions, have the capacity to provide the type of environment required for preparation of returning to the outside world. Prisons are not presently designed to be schools or factories, most…… [Read More]

References

Alexander, M. (2010) Is Mass Incarceration the New Jim Crow? NY: New Press

Durham, a.M. (1994) Crisis and reform: current issues in American punishment. Canada: Little Brown and Co.

Johnson, R. Hard Time: Understanding and Reforming the Prison

Katz, L., Levitt, S.D., & Shustorovich, E. (2003) Prison conditions, capital punishment and deterrence. American Law and Economics Review, 5(2):318-343,
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Dangers of Overcrowding in American Correctional System

Words: 3021 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31745295

Dangers of Overcrowding in American Correctional System

There are several central governments, state and local authority's correctional facilities in the United States. Over the past few decades, the rate of crime occurrence has significantly increased. Also, the correctional facilities have experienced growth in population. There are a huge number of inmates in the various correctional facilities as compared to those in 1990's. For instance, the ureau of Justice Statistics found the number of prisoners at 665,000 across the country; this is a 159% increase from the jail population of 1985. The correctional facilities have, suffered several setbacks due to the increase in the population.

The capacities of the correctional facilities in the United States are not sufficient to hold the large population of inmates; research from the report released in 2002 indicate that the facilities operate at 108% capacity from the 85% capacity held in 1983. This has made the…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Davis, R.K., Applegate, B.K., Otto, C.W., Surette, R. & McCarthy, B.J. (2004). Roles and Responsibilities: Analyzing Local Leaders'Views on Jail Crowding From a Systems

Perspective, Crime and Deliquency, (50) 1, 458-480

Steiner, B. (2009). Assessing Static and Dynamic Influences on Inmate Violence Levels, Crime & Delinquency, (55) 1, 134-158. DOI: 10.1177/0011128707307218

Martin, J.L., Lichtenstein, B., . Jenkot, R.B., & Forde, D.R. (2012). "They Can Take Us Over
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How International Organizations Impact Incarceration and Prison Management in Brazil

Words: 3190 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3422744

International Organizations Impact Incarceration and Prison Management in Brazil

People incarcerated in prisons from developing countries like Brazil face long years of confinement in dirty and cramped quarters. Some of the harsh conditions the prisons present include inadequate hygiene, insufficient food allocations, and no clothing or other basic amenities. Even as the conditions do not form a pattern across the continent, the prevalence hits higher concerns requiring intervention from international organizations. The interactions allow resident prison managers to address inadequacies through prison reform and increased attention towards human rights. Various barriers include state secrecy, absence of public interest, and weak civil society inhibiting collection of sustainable information on the deplorable prisons. The veil of ignorance on the kinds of prison conditions that fuel abuse and neglect of people incarcerated makes it imperative for investigation of prison trends. International organizations generate information regarding issues that affect the penal system of the…… [Read More]

References

Adetula, G. A, Adetula, A., & Fatusin, A. (2010). The prison subsystem culture: Its attitudinal effects on operatives, convicts and the free society. Ife Psychologia. 18(1): 232-251

Austin, J.E. (2008). Strategic Management In Developing Countries. New York: Simon and Schuster

Baer, L.D., & Ravneberg, B. (2008). The outside and inside in Norwegian and English prisons. Geografiska Annaler Series B: Human Geography, 90(2), 205-216.

Friedman, A., & Parenti, C., (2013). Capitalist Punishment: Prison Privatization and Human Rights. New York: SCB Distributors
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Overcrowded and Under-Funded Prisons According

Words: 3353 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55816431

In the American Disease: Origins of Narcotic Control, David Musto notes that throughout the twentieth century, America's drug wars have regularly scape-goated minority groups, like the Chinese with opium, marijuana among the Mexicans, and cocaine among the African-Americans (McCormick 2000).

The National Advisory Commission on Criminal Justice Standards and Goals reported in 1973 that "the prison, the reformatory and the jail have achieved only a shocking record a failure. There is overwhelming evidence that these institutions create crime rather than prevent it," yet during the next two decades both state and federal legislatures implemented increasingly stiffer penalties and mandatory minimums claiming that prisons were an effective tool for crime control, and longer prison terms would reduce crime by deterring or incapacitating criminals (McCormick 2000). However, at the end of this period, after the average prison sentence had tripled and the prison population at more than quadrupled, a National Academy of…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Demleitner, Nora V. (2005 October 01). Smart public policy: replacing imprisonment with targeted nonprison sentences and collateral sanctions. Stanford Law Review. Retrieved September 18, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.

Dickenson, Rachel. (1996 February 01). The prison population bomb.

American Demographics. Retrieved September 18, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.

Incarceration. (2005). The Sentencing Project. Retrieved September 18, 2006 at http://www.sentencingproject.org/issues_01.cfm
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Controlling the Prison Population According

Words: 1376 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78083676

S. pp). This is partly due to high recidivism because within three years of their release, two of every three prisoners are back behind bars (U.S. pp). Criminologists attribute the prison population growth to "get tough on crime" policies that have subjected hundreds of thousands of nonviolent drug and property offenders to long mandatory sentences (U.S. pp). Malcolm Young of the Sentencing Project, says, "e have to be concerned about an overloaded system which sentences many offenders quickly and is not dong a good job of sorting out people who should be incarcerated from people for whom other responses would produce better, less expensive results" (U.S. pp).

The rise in the prison population varies by state, yet since 1998, twelve states experienced stable or declining incarceration rates but crime rates in those states declined at the same rates as in the other thirty-eight (U.S. pp).

Young says, "e're working under…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Incarcerated America. April 2003. Accessed from the Human Rights Watch web site on May 04, 2005. http://www.hrw.org/backgrounder/usa/incarceration/

Mandatory Sentencing Laws Fuel Prison Overcrowding Crisis, Fill Prisons With Non-Violent Substance Abusers. Accessed from the Families Against Mandatory Minimums web site on May 05, 2005. http://famm.org/si_sbs_arizona_press_release_5_11_04.htm

McDonough, Siobhan. Crime rate down, but prison population on the rise.

Houston Chronicle. April 25, 2005. Accessed from the Houston Chronicle web site on May 05, 2005. http://www.chron.com/cs/CDA/ssistory.mpl/nation/3151865
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Criminal Justice & the Prison

Words: 791 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80238593

There are three basic types of research designs including: (1) experimental designs; (2) quasi-experimental designs; and (3) non-experimental designs. (Shadish, Cook and Campbell, 2002) the 'gold standard' is stated to be represented by "...experimental evaluations that make use of the random assignment of individuals to interventions and control groups..." (Mulhlhausen, 2009)

Mulhlhausen (2009) reports that randomized evaluations are of the nature that serve to "ensure that pre-progam differences between the intervention and control groups do not confound or obscure the true impact of the programs being evaluated." In addition, random assignment is stated to enable the evaluator in testing "for differences between the experimental and control groups that are due to the intervention and not to pre-intervention discrepancies between the groups. y drawing members of the interaction and comparison groups from the same source of eligible participants, these experimental evaluations are superior to other evaluations using weaker designs." (Mulhlhausen, 2009)…… [Read More]

Bibliography

David Weisburd, Cynthia M. Lum, and Anthony Petrosino, "Does Research Design Affect Study Outcomes in Criminal Justice?" Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Sciences, No. 578 (November 2001), pp. 50-70.

Nathan James, "Offender Reentry; Correctional Statistics, Reintegration into the Community, and Recidivism," CRS Report for Congress, April 21, 2009.

William R. Shadish, Thomas D. Cook, and Donald T. Campbell, Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Designs for Generalized Causal Inference (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2002).

Muhlhlausen, David B. (2009) Prisoner Reentry: A Limited Federal Government Role. The heritage foundation. 5 Nov 2009. Online available at: http://www.heritage.org/Research/Crime/tst110509a.cfm#_edn35
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The Case Against Prisons

Words: 628 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53408040

Discontinuing Prisons

Prisons have been used as institutions for punishing and rehabilitating offenders for a long period of time. These institutions have been used as facilities for detaining men against their will because of the illegal actions. The use of prisons as incarceration facilities to help in the fight against crime emerged in the most remote antiquity. While these institutions have played a major role over the years in fighting crime, the continued use of these facilities have attracted considerable concerns in the recent past. These concerns are not only attributable to the nature of the facilities but also fueled by their overall impact on prisoners and fighting crime. The case for discontinuing prisons has been supported by the negative effects of prison overcrowding, flaws in the American prison system, and the existence of alternative evidence-based practices or alternatives to prison for criminal supervision.

Negative Impacts of Prison Overcrowding

One…… [Read More]

References

Haney, C. (2006, January). The Wages of Prison Overcrowding: Harmful Psychological Consequences and Dysfunctional Correctional Reactions. Journal of Law & Policy, 22(1), 265-293.

Petersilia, J. (2011, October). Beyond the Prison Bubble. NIJ Journal, 268. Retrieved May 4, 2016, from http://www.nij.gov/journals/268/pages/prison-bubble.aspx
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Since the Middle of the 20th Century Prisons and Other Corrections Issues

Words: 977 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78984314

corrections models in the United States have changed significantly over the past several generations, from a rehabilitative toward a punitive paradigm. After World War Two, a strong sense of national security and prosperity prevailed in the United States, leading to a corrections system that was based more on rehabilitation than on punishment. During these idealistic times, criminals were believed to be "ill," and correctable via a treatment model ("History and Development of Corrections 1700-Present," n.d.). Trust in governmental institutions also helped politicians and the public alike agree that corrections should be built upon the theory that criminal behavior can be unlearned, or "corrected." The rehabilitation approach persisted well into the 1960s, as humanistic psychology informed corrections models. A humanistic worldview encouraged "deinstitutionalization" of corrections through the use of community-based services like halfway houses and probation ("History and Development of Corrections 1700-Present," n.d.). Sentencing policy during the middle of the 20th…… [Read More]

References

Christianson, S. (n.d.). Prisons: history. Retrieved online: http://law.jrank.org/pages/1786/Prisons-History.html

"History of American Corrections," (n.d.). In Corrections: A Text/Reader. Retrieved online: http://www.sagepub.com/upm-data/26034_1.pdf

"History and Development of Corrections 1700-Present," (n.d). Retrieved online: http://www.preceden.com/timelines/23091-history-and-development-of-corrections-1700-present

Mackenzie, D.L. (2001). Sentencing and corrections in the 21st century. Retrieved online: https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/189106-2.pdf
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Jail Time and Death Penalty Finding New

Words: 2882 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55231289

Jail Time and Death Penalty: Finding New Ways to Deter Criminal Behavior

Jail Time and Death Penalty: A Deterrent?

For years many law enforcement agencies have relied on the assumption that jail time or the death penalty serve as adequate deterrents to crime or criminal activity. However multiple studies confirm that jail time and the death penalty are not effective methods alone for deterring criminals. Because of this it is important that law enforcement agents, government officials and community members work together to uncover effective tools for deterring crime and discouraging criminals from repeating crimes after release.

Jail time and the death penalty do not deter crime. Early Gallup Polls conducted in the 1980s and 1990s show that while roughly two thirds of Americans and law enforcement agents support the death penalty, there is inadequate evidence supporting its use as an effective deterrent to crime (Akers & adelet, 1996). Many…… [Read More]

References:

Abraham, E., Boyle, J., Mullen, R. & ratelle, J. (1996). "California program reduces recidivism and saves tax dollars." Corrections Today, 58(5): 118.

Akers, R.L. & Radelet, M.L. (1996). "Deterrence and the death penalty: The views of the experts." Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 87(1): 15.

Clayton, S.L. (2005 -- Apri). "Jail inmates bake their way to successful reentry."

Corrections Today, 67(2):78.
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Prison Conditions in the United States and Russia

Words: 974 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98729681

Maximum security prisons have grown in recent decades and have implemented methods some may deem inhumane. A 2016 article discusses prison conditions in maximum security prisons and addresses specifically the topic of preservation of human dignity and disease prevention. The author mentions the Dudley Lee v. Minister of Correctional Services case that held "that prison authorities have a duty of care to prevent prisoners from being infected with HIV-related illnesses such as TB" (Torriente, Tadion, & Hsu, 2016). The applicant was sent to a maximum security prison in South Africa where he eventually was diagnosed three years later with TB. Another instance of the government and its failure to acknowledge the need to safeguard a prisoner's health is the . v. Secretary of State for the Home Department, ex-parte Glen Fielding. Here the case discusses of a prisoner in the United Kingdom asking for condoms and being denied unless given…… [Read More]

References

Engel, P. (2013). Here's What Life Is Like Inside Russia's Toughest Prison.Business Insider. Retrieved 16 April 2016, from http://www.businessinsider.com/inside-russias-black-dolphin-prison-2013-10?op=1

Torriente, A., Tadion, A., & Hsu, L. (2016). Opening the Door to Zero New HIV Infections in Closed Settings. Health and Human Rights Journal. Retrieved 16 April 2016, from http://www.hhrjournal.org/2016/02/opening-the-door-to-zero-new-hiv-infections-in-closed-settings/

Vasiliades, E. (2005). Solitary Confinement and International Human Rights: Why the U.S. Prison System Fails Global Standards. American University International Law Review, 21(1). Retrieved from http://digitalcommons.wcl.american.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1045&context=auilr
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Prison Term Policy

Words: 810 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12121537

Classical Criminology theories in examining a case that studies a bill which is meant to increase the maximum term for prisoners charged with armed robbery, by double.

The Enlightenment was the basis on which Classical Criminology theories came to be. The theories emphasize on the notion that people choose to end their own lives, and that people need to be punished to prevent them from committing crimes in the future. Classical theories are based on the assumption that people have their freedom, and committing an offense is by choice (The Classical School of Criminology & Its Influence Today). The theories are also based on the assumption that people try to look for pleasure and avoid painful experiences. The notion of hedonism was one of the major ideas, which means that people try to look for pleasure and avoid pain. The idea is used in classical theories to inform punishment. Every…… [Read More]

References

(2011). Legislative News, Studies and Analysis - National Conference of State Legislatures. Principles of Effective State Sentencing and Corrections Policy. Retrieved August 29, 2016, from http://www.ncsl.org/research/civil-and-criminal-justice/principles-of-sentencing-and-corrections-policy.aspx

South. (2010). Homepage - Times Free Press. Bill would keep armed robbers in prison longer - Times Free Press. Retrieved August 29, 2016, from http://www.timesfreepress.com/news/politics/state/story/2010/jun/08/bill-would-keep-armed-robbers-in-prison-longer/19461/

(n.d.). Study.com - Take Online Courses. Earn College Credit. Research Schools, Degrees & Careers. The Classical School of Criminology & Its Influence Today - Video & Lesson Transcript - Study.com. Retrieved August 29, 2016, from http://study.com/academy/lesson/the-classical-school-of-criminology-its-influence-today.html

Writer Thoughts
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Criminal Justice Prison Architecture

Words: 728 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6645815

Prison Architecture

Criminal Justice, Prison Architecture

The evolution of prison architecture is a reflection of societies changing attitudes toward crime and punishment. Prisons have progressed from simple places for incarceration where the primary purpose is to protect the public to instruments of punishment where the loss of freedom is penalty for breaking the law, to institutions for reform dedicated to mould the guilty to conform to society's norms. Initially imprisonment was a means of detaining debtors to ensure payment, the accused before trial, or the guilty before punishment. Courts imposed sentences including fines, personal mutilation such as flogging or branding, or death. In 18th-century England transportation to penal settlements in the Thirteen Colonies and later Australia, became an increasingly popular penalty because it removed the guilty from local society; length of sentence and destination reflected the severity with which the court viewed the offence. Eventually a new type of prison,…… [Read More]

References

Johnson, D. (2011) Prison architecture. The Canadian encyclopedia. Retreived October 16, 2011, from http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com/index.cfm?PgNm=TCE&Params=A1ARTA0009130

Lewis, J. (2009, june 10). Behind bars…sort of. The New York times magizine. New York Times. Retrieved October 16, 2011, from http://www.nytimes.com/2009/06/14/magazine/14prisons-t.html?pagewanted=all
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Analyzing Prison Condition in USA vs Russia

Words: 1387 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87208689

Prison Condition in USA vs. ussia

In assessing the human rights conditions of maximum security facilities, human rights groups look into 3 main areas: the duration of confinement; the conditions of confinement, and the criteria of eligibility. Each of these areas must be looked into individually and then considered in the context of the entire situation (Human ights Watch). Quite a number of concerns have been raised about the human rights conditions of the individuals held in prisons including: mistreatment of inmates / detainees by prison officials; unsafe conditions; and lack of sufficient legal protection (United States Department of State, n.d.). This paper also compares the situation of prison facilities in the United States and ussia.

Introduction

The Standard Minimum ules, or the SMs for the Treatment of Prisoners are one of the most important international agreements on how prisoners should be handled. The SMs were adopted in 1955 by…… [Read More]

References

Hounshell, B. (2010). What are Russian prisons like? Retrieved March 15, 2016 from http://foreignpolicy.com/2010/12/28/what-are-russian-prisons-like/

Human Rights Watch (n.d.). Supermax Prisons: an overview. Retrieved March 15, 2016 from https://www.hrw.org/reports/2000/supermax/Sprmx002.htm#TopOfPage

Markovic, V. (2000). Maximum Security Prisons: A Comparative Analysis. CRIME AND JUSTICE INTERNATIONAL, 16(39), 9-10.

Rosen, A. (2012). Inside Russia's Prison System. Retrieved March 15, 2016 from http://www.theatlantic.com/international/archive/2012/10/inside-russias-prison-system/263806/
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Analyzing Prison Life for Inmates

Words: 3314 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77684400

Prison Life for Inmates

Sending offenders to prison has been used as a way of dealing with prisoners for a long time. It was not always seen as a way of punishment; rather, it was used as detention pending the actual punishment of these offenders. The application of imprisonment has been around, perhaps, for as long as humanity has existed. In Old Testament times, prisons were used in Jerusalem. Some prominent personalities have been reported to have been born in prison environments. Others have been imprisoned. It is reported that Lord Krishna was born in prison at a place called Mathura. Shahjahan was imprisoned by his son at Agra. The ritish constructed the historic cell at Port lair for detaining for life those who revolted against their rule. Prisons have not always been viewed as a way of punishing offenders; rather they have been used to detain offenders before the…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Bradford, Andrew Ryan. "An Examination of The Prison Environment: An Analysis of Inmate Concerns Eight Environmental Dimensions." School of Graduate Studies (2006).

Burlington County. "Prison Museum." A National Historic Landmark Located in The Heart of Holly 2013.

Covert, H. "Ministry to The Incarcerated." Chicago: Loyopla Books, 1995.

Department of Corrections. Victims Services Programs. 2015. .
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Jails and Prisons the General Characteristics of

Words: 892 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28372795

Jails and Prisons

The general characteristics of prisons and jails are almost the same though they are considered as different entities in the criminal justice system. The main difference them is that whereas a prison holds convicted offenders who have sentences that are mostly beyond one year, offenders are locked in a jail either holding awaiting transportation to prison units or serving short-term sentences usually ranging from a few days to a year (Gaines and Miller, 2006). With reference to the United States of America criminal justice system the other difference is that prisons are under the jurisdiction of either federal or state while jails are controlled and used by local jurisdictions such as counties and cities. Due to the period of time that offenders take and the life they live in prisons, prisons have been considered to be total institutions. "A total institution can be defined as a place…… [Read More]

References

Alarid, W.L. et al. (2008). Community-based corrections, 7th ed. Thomson/Wadsworth:

Belmont, CA.

Davies, C. (1989). "Goffman's concept of the total institution: Criticisms and revisions" Human

Studies, 12(1-2): 77-95.
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Pocatello Prison Case Study

Words: 657 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95581698

Pocatello, Idaho New Women's Prisons

ISSUES, COST, ENEFITS

New Women's Prisons in Pocatello, Idaho

Approximately 8 years ago, former State Corrections Director Tom eauclair defended the need for three new prisons at the Pocatello Women's Correctional Center before the Joint-Finance Appropriations Committee (Russell, 2005). If lawmakers would approve the proposal, the additional 300 beds to the existing privately-run prison near oise, a new 400-bed prison for female inmates and a 1,500-bed new prison for male inmates. These additional structures would cost almost $160 million Director eauclair emphasized that these structures were needed in the five succeeding years in order to manage prisoners safely. He said that every State prison is overbooked, with the corrections department then having 360 more inmates than beds. At that time, the State had 6,502 inmates, which was an increase from 2,900 in 1994. Director eauclair said they expected the population to increase by 30 every…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Boone, R. (20100. Auditing agency: replace Pocatello Women's Correction Center.

Idaho State Journal: The Associated Press. Retrieved on May 26, 2013 from  http://www.idahostatejournal.com/news/local/article_dd40c684-0aec-11df-b882-001cc4c002e0.html ?

Russell, B.Z. (2005). Idaho wants new prisons. The Spokesman-Review: The

Spokesman. Retrieved on May 26, 2013 from http://www.spokesman.com/stories/2005/jun/16/idaho-wants-new-prisons
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Gangs in Prison Although the United States

Words: 2107 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77613374

Gangs in Prison

Although the United States prison system remains extremely dangerous due to overcrowding, guard and administrator abuse, and widespread detention and isolation practices that would be considered torture by the United Nations, they also serve as fertile breeding grounds for dangerous gangs, and in fact, American prisons have given rise to some of the most dangerous prison and street gangs of the twenty and twenty-first century. Of these, five stand out for their violence and resilience. The Aryan Brotherhood, the Black Guerilla Family, the Folk Nation, the Mexican Mafia, and MS-13 have all made a name for themselves in the prison system due to their violence, and although some have declined in scope and power as a result of concerted law enforcement efforts, all of these gangs remain a threat to security and safety, both for prison employees and the general public. By examining the foundations and spread…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Allender, D.M. Department of Justice, FBI. (2001). FBI law enforcement bulletin: Gangs in middle america. Washington, DC: FBI.

Department of Justice, Criminal Division. (2011). Prison gangs. Department of Justice.

Retrieved from http://www.justice.gov/criminal/ocgs/gangs/prison.html

Department of Justice, FBI. (2008). The MS-13 threat. Washington, DC: FBI. Retrieved from http://www.fbi.gov/news/stories/2008/january/ms13_011408
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Privatizing Prison Administration

Words: 713 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16040271

Privatizing Prison Administration

Description of the Financing System.

Description of How the Current System orks. The financial costs associated with maintaining America's prison system are staggering. Just to stay even with an inmate population that grows by 50,000 to 80,000 a year, approximately, 1,000 new jails and prisons have been built since 1980, and about one new 1,000 bed facility must be added every week for the next ten years (Mccormick 2000). The cost of imprisoning adult offenders ranges from $25,000 to $70,000 a year, and the total costs associated with constructing each new prison cell has soared to $100,000; as a result, the annual budget for constructing and maintaining prisons has jumped in the last two decades from $7 billion to almost $40 billion dollars (Schlosser 1999).

According to Stephen Donziger (1997), "prisons are the largest public works program in America, providing housing, food, (and only sometimes) education, mental…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Campbell, Allison, Andrew Coyle and Rodney Neufeld (Eds.). Capitalist Punishment: Prison

Privatization & Human Rights. Atlanta: Clarity Press, 2003.

Mccormick, Patrick T. (2000). Just Punishment and America's Prison Experiment. Theological Studies, 61(3):508.

Schlosser, Kathryn Casa. (July 2, 1999). Prisons: The New Growth Industry. National Catholic Reporter, 16.
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How the Politics of Reform Impact Prisons

Words: 641 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61990333

judicial reform is based on the idea that a total or partial political reformation of the judiciary can be performed as a stage in a much grander reform concept that includes both the legal and the executive branches of government. When judicial reform is effected, the aim is to end corruption in the judicial system -- whether the issue is bribery or cronyism or any other form of corruption. Prison control, such as the concept of the Panopticon is about instilling social values in the prisoners by giving them the sense that they are always being observed and therefore should act accordingly. While this concept does not necessarily gel with the concept of reform, as in the idea to reform prison conditions so that prisoners are more comfortable and so that the penal system (like the judicial system) is cleansed of corruption, it does offer a kind of reformation strategy…… [Read More]

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Role and Evolution of the American Prison

Words: 3536 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27365626

ole and Evolution of the American Prison System

Explain the Primary ole and Evolution of the American Prison System and Determine if Incarceration educes Crime

The United States constitution is the fundamental foundation of the American criminal justice system. Given that the document is now over two hundred years old, it constantly experiences numerous amendments and interpretations. As a result, the criminal justice system over the years experienced alterations in order to reflect the needs and beliefs of each subsequent generation. The configuration of the modern prison system has its basis in the late 1700's and early 1800s. The development of the modern prison system aims at protecting innocent members of the society from criminals. The prison systems also deter criminals from committing more crimes through detaining and rehabilitating them. However, more and more deluge of white-collar crimes and other crimes, burdens the American criminal justice system and the prison…… [Read More]

References

Barnes E. Harry. (1921). The Historical of the Prison System in America. Journal of the American Institute of Criminal Law and Criminology. Vol. 12, No. 1, May, 1921

Craig Haney. (1998). The Past & Future of U.S. Prison Policy Twenty-Five Years after the Stanford Prison Experiment. American Psychological Association July 1998 Vol. 53, No. 7, 709-727

Dina R. Rose & Todd R. Clear (2006). Incarceration, Social, Capital, & Crime: Implications for Social Disorganization Theory. Volume 36, Issue 3, pages 441-480.

Escresa - Guillermo, Laarni (2011) Reexamining the Role of Incarceration and Stigma in Criminal Law. Law and economics, criminal law, stigma, social norms, behavioral economics.
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Juvenile Total Institutions Total Institutions Prisons Jails

Words: 1797 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65920440

Juvenile Total Institutions

Total Institutions ( prisons/jails) juveniles. A. Discuss history B. Goals C. programming youth held . D. Issues/Problems Present facilities Below Guideline paper. 1. Students expected draw information class material scholarly sources journal articles, government websites, NPO websites.

Bortner and Williams (1997)

define a total institution as a physical location such as a prison or a reformatory where all the total needs of the residents are met. The needs of the individuals are mostly physical such as health, clothing, nutrition, shelter, etc. For juveniles, total institutions must be able to meet their educational and psychological needs as the youth. For an institution to quality as a total institution, the totality of the care that is provided in the institutions must be reflected in the round the clock confinement of the residents including holidays and weekends Shoemaker, 2009.

Goffman (1961)

argues that in many different ways, correctional institutions also…… [Read More]

References

ABA Division for Public Education. The History of Juvenile Justice. In ABA Division for Public Education (Ed.), Dialogue on Youth and Justice (pp. 1-8). Chicago, IL: American bar association.

Austin, J., Johnson, K.D., & Weitzer, R. (2005). Alternatives to the Secure Detention and Confinement of Juvenile Offenders (pp. 41). Rockville, MD: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, U.S. Dept of Justice.

Bortner, M.A., & Williams, L. (1997). Youth in Prison. New York: Rutledge.

Commonwealth v. Fisher, No. 213 48 (1905).
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Performance Management in Prisons

Words: 2476 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61412476

Performance-Based Standards

Accreditation plan for the American Correctional Association

The accreditation of the correctional facilities is aimed at ensuring the well-being of the inmates but also is targeted at benefiting the employees, the victims, the courts as well as the legislators of a state. The standards that are set do allow the protection of the judicial system from embarrassment as well as allowing the correctional institutions to have and retain the autonomy from outside interventions.

Goals and functions of functional areas

Safety; this involves provision of conditions that are humane, protection of the inmates from rape and possible assault, giving of nutritious food as well as medical care, giving the inmates a hygienic living environment and recreation activities. This will ensure the inmates are safe from ill health or physical harm while within the walls of the facility as well as being safe from abusive guards.

Security; this functional are…… [Read More]

References

American Correctional Association, (2014). Public Correctional Policy on Standards and Accreditation. Retrieved March 7, 2014 from https://www.aca.org/government/policyresolution/view.asp?ID=44

David Ronald R., (2006). Evaluating American Correctional Association Accreditation of Adult Correctional Institutions. Retrieved March 7, 2014 from https://www.google.co.ke/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=5&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0CEgQFjAE&url=https%3A%2F%2Fdspace.uta.edu%2Fbitstream%2Fhandle%2F10106%2F478%2Fumi-uta-1244.pdf%3Fsequence%3D1&ei=r3YcU97SBubb7Aa2hIHAAQ&usg=AFQjCNGeh6YJwRQeOzwduuSGkhI3J9IXMg&sig2=jVsH_ysiTj7ZUyDagJDjSA&bvm=bv.62578216,d.bGE

Flynn E.E., (1977). The Correctional Facility: The Environment Today and in the Future. Library Trends. Summer edition.

Manitoba Laws, (1999). The Correctional Services Act. Retrieved March 7, 2014 from   https://web2.gov.mb.ca/laws/statutes/ccsm/c230e.php
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Annotated Bibliography for Prisons Conditions

Words: 1321 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36753201

Aleinikoff, . (2014). Between National and Postnational: Membership in the United States. Palgrave Macmillan UK, 110-129. http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/9780230554795

his paper focuses on the 'postnational viewpoint' to the American notion of sovereignty and membership. he author defines what postnational viewpoint is and explains it means the view that a universal model of membership is replacing national citizenship and is doing so because it is anchored within deterritorialized concepts of persons' rights. Essentially this means there is a respect for global human rights norms leading to a "deterritorialized membership." his is important to consider when comparing the states of prisons in Russia and the United States because the rights of prisoners may reach a form of universal expression in that everyone gets treated in a way that people deem appropriate regardless of location.

Kennedy, S., Sharapova, S., Beasley, D., & Hsia, J. (2016). Cigarette Smoking Among Inmates by Race/Ethnicity: Impact of Excluding African-American…… [Read More]

This article shares the extent of prison conditions in an American prison named Pelican Bay State Prison in California. July 1, 2011, prisoners there started a sustained hunger strike. The reason being the majority of them were kept in complete solitary confinement, experiencing conditions considered torturous like extreme sensory deprivation for over five years. Some were kept in isolation for two decades. They asked for basic things during their strike like a phone call once a week, warm clothes to go outside in, supply of decent food, and a chance at escaping solitary confinement. {risons like this show how bad the American prison system can be.

Sarang, A., Platt, L., Vyshemirskaya, I., & Rhodes, T. (2016). Prisons as a source of tuberculosis in Russia. International Journal of Prisoner Health, 12(1), 45-56. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/ijph-07-2014-0022

This study examines the poor conditions of Russian prisons that leads to a prevalence of tuberculosis. They analyze the poor prevention, treatment, and management of tuberculosis through collecting data from qualitative interviews with participants that are former medical specialists and prisoners in the region of Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia. They also show aside from poor management of tuberculosis infection; HIV infection are poorly managed revealing a poor prison health system in Russia. The study highlights the need for reform of the health system as well as the most common serious infections in Russian prisons. The most common being Tuberculosis and HIV.
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Women at Five State Prison

Words: 10602 Length: 30 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80834550

5%, compared to 4.8% for males). (Chesney-Lind, 1998, p. 66)

The author also re-confirms the fact that data regarding of female inmate's indicate that as cited the passage of increased penalties for drug offenses has certainly been a major factor in this increase. Again, it is also important to see that implementation of these stricter sentencing reform initiatives which supposedly were devoted to reducing class and race disparities in male sentencing, pay very little attention to gender and the particular needs of women have been grievously overlooked. (Chesney-Lind, 1998; Aday, 2003)

The advent of mandatory sentencing schemes and strict punishment for drug offenses has been devastating to women. Many states have adopted harsh mandatory sentencing schemes. The Federal Sentencing Guidelines, which eliminated gender and family responsibility as factors for consideration at the time of sentencing, were adopted. (5) the policy of eliminating gender and family responsibility, combined with heightened penalties…… [Read More]

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Creation of a New Criminology Bill

Words: 995 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89043350

Prison Term Policy ecommendation

Bills are passed or rejected all the time, and some that are passed do not provide any real benefit. The goal is to lower the number of bills that are not beneficial, and raise the number of bills that actually make a difference in society. One of the ways to pass better bills is to carefully consider criminology and the statistics regarding it (Barak, 1998). When a bill offers exactly what it claims to, and when that offering is needed by society, the bill can have a higher degree of expected success and can provide more of what society needs. Addressed here is a bill that is focused on armed robbery and prison terms. The objectives and goals of the bill will be discussed, along with possible solutions for the bill and whether it should or should not be approved in its current form.

Objectives of…… [Read More]

References

Barak, G. (ed.). (1998). Integrative criminology (International Library of Criminology, Criminal Justice & Penology.). Aldershot, UK: Ashgate/Dartmouth.

Deflem, M. (ed.) (2006). Sociological theory and criminological research: Views from Europe and the United States. NY: Elsevier.
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U S Corrections Systems the Current U S Prison

Words: 640 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59811484

U.S. Corrections Systems

The current U.S. prison system has several purposes, including retribution, incapacitation, deterrence, and rehabilitation. (Legal Encyclopedia, 2011). Although the current model is attempting a greater emphasis upon rehabilitation, this objective has met varying successes and failures. One of the most legitimate criticisms against prison rehabilitation programs is the fact that the treatment involved is compulsory or coercive. This factor then led to the likelihood of returning to criminal activity once the prisoner is released.

According to the Legal Encyclopedia (2011), there have been advances in rehabilitation programs that have in fact proved to reduce recidivism. The success of these programs are based upon their focus on offenders' needs and on improving their cognitive and social skills. ecidivism resulting from these programs amounted to 30% or more.

Because of the high costs of maintaining and constructing prisons, the rehabilitation purpose has enjoyed increased attention over recent years. Simply…… [Read More]

References

Gest, T. (2010). Covering Sentencing. Covering Crime and Justice. Retrieved from: http://www.justicejournalism.org/crimeguide/chapter14/chapter14_pg05.html

Legal Encyclopedia (2011). Prisons and Jails: Development of Prisons and Jails in the United States. Retrieved from: http://law.jrank.org/pages/18929/Prisons-Jails.html
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Community Corrections One of the

Words: 608 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7339379



If a Community Corrections participant is questioned by police for any crime whatsoever they can be violated simply for being questioned. If their officer decides not to violate them they still have to report the questioning within 12 hours of its occurrence or face violation.

Following several months on the program the participant is moved to phase two at which time he or she is allowed one pass a week. The pass must be pre-approved and under no circumstances can the participant be out after 9 p.m.

Following several months on that program without incident the participant can move to the curfew phases. This is a time period in which the participant has graduated curfews of 7 p.m. And 9 p.m. For the remainder of time in the program (Evans, 1996).

Throughout the program probation officers do surprise house checks to be sure the participant in indeed in the house…… [Read More]

REFERENCE

Evans, Donald (1996) Defining community corrections.

Corrections Today.
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Laws That Have Been Changed

Words: 3389 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52087883

Written into the legal changes would be protocols for review of cases to re-determine parole eligibility in certain cases but especially those where the latter crimes were non-violent and relatively minor offences. Because of this review aspect the legal and physical changes of this alternative is the most effective in both the short-term and long-term, of dealing with prison overcrowding. This alternative was chosen, not because it is the least costly, as it will likely be one of the most costly solutions, but because it has the greatest possibility for making real change in the overcrowding problem and rebalancing the system to create sustainability in the future. The implementation of this change will begin with resources as reviewing many cases, will require thousands of man hours in and out of courtrooms and likely develop into a monumental task for already overburdened public prosecutors, defenders and judges. Changing the legal precedence…… [Read More]

References

Appleman, L. (2010). The plea jury. Indiana Law Journal, 85(3), 731-776. Retrieved from. http://web.ebscohost.com.wf2dnvr15.webfeat.org/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=4&hid=108&sid=47f5bf92-4378-496c-a8a0-0fbebcc7710f%40sessionmgr114

Benefield, N.A. (2007, October 24). Private prisons increase capacity, save money, and improve services. Testimony to the Pennsylvania House Labor Relations Committee. In J. Haley (Ed.). Prisons: Current controversies. San Diego: Greenhaven Press.

Blodgett, N. (1987). Alternate sentencing. ABA Journal, 73(1), 32. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.

Clark, C.S. (1994, February 4). Prison overcrowding. Will building more prisons cut the crime rate? CQ Researcher, 4(5), 97-120. Retrieved from    http://library.cqpress.com/cqresearcher/
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Santos Reyes Is Sentenced to

Words: 1612 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62453996

The significant increase in prison terms has created unsafe, unhealthy, and potentially dangerous conditions for violent and non-violent criminals alike, frequently affecting the potential to rehabilitate felons. The Law has led to various unusual circumstances that have attracted national attention, especially those cases that send third-time offenders to prison for 25 years or more for simple, non-violent, victimless crimes, such as in the case of Santos Reyes in 1998. Despite the controversy and negative consequences, the Supreme Court upheld the Three Strikes Law, saying that it stopped short of constituting "cruel and unusual punishment."

The Three Strikes Law had the intention of limiting recidivism. However, numerous studies suggest that declines in recidivism have been negligible. This is another unintended consequence of the Three Strikes Law; the general failure to curb third offenses. Violent crimes have dropped in urban areas in California, but those declines are in line with declines in…… [Read More]

PA: Mason Crest Publishers.

Tyler, T. (1997). Three Strikes and You're Out, but Why? The Psychology of Public Support

for Rule Breakers. Law & Society Review, vol. 31, 2, pp. 23-246.
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Rtf Rich Text Format File Extension Reflection

Words: 555 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 714552

rtf (ich Text Format) file extension eflection Paper 4 (Module/Week 7) After completing reading study week, alternative methods incarceration.

Alternative methods of incarceration: How would you reduce cost and overcrowding while maintaining a system of justice?

Concerns about prison overcrowding and the spiraling costs of incarcerating inmates, some of whom may have committed nonviolent offenses, have precipitated many states to consider alternative methods of punishment. For example, in New York, "the Nathaniel Project provides 24 months of extra-intensive supervision for felon-indicted individuals who are seriously and persistently mentally ill. The program offers comprehensive mental health and integrated substance abuse treatment, rehabilitation, case management, court advocacy and reporting, and monitored linkages to housing and social services" (Alternatives to incarceration program, 2012, NYS). Although inmates may not be legally 'insane' and are considered responsible for their actions, this program treats some of the root causes that can cause inmates to turn to…… [Read More]

References

Adult drug court programs. (2012). New Jersey Courts. Retrieved:

http://www.judiciary.state.nj.us/criminal/crdrgct.htm

Alternatives to incarceration programs. (2012). New York State. Division of Criminal Justice.

 http://www.criminaljustice.ny.gov/opca/ati_description.htm
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Convicted Felons Return to the

Words: 2672 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20169695



Productivity-Education/Craft/Trade -- a key to being able to stop the return to the penal system is to provide training necessary to allow the individual to find work after leaving prison. Not only is it extremely tough to get a job as a convicted felon, but the skills necessary to get a job that will afford a decent living are tough to get in prison. Earning a degree either online or through continuing education; earning a trade certificate (automotive, plumbing, wood working, etc.) will provide an occupation for the felon after leaving prison, and a focus for their energy and attention while in prison.

Consequences -- Many rehabilitation programs fail because the consequences are unrealistic. Allow people to be human, while still requiring that in order to receive the gift from society of living in society, there are consequences if the rules are broken (Clear, et.al., 2011).

How then, can Maslow's…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Facts About the U.S. Prison System." (October 2007). Retrieved from: http://webb.senate.gov/pdf/prisonstwopager.html.

Project Return -- Breaking the Cycle of Crime. (2009). Retrieved from: http://www.projectreturn.com/index.php?name=results_and_impacts

Total U.S. Correctional Population. (2010, December 11). Retrieved from:

Office of Justice Programs: http://bjs.ojp.usdoj.gov/index.cfm?ty=tp&tid=11
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Probable Efficacy of Alternatives to Incarceration

Words: 647 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64094127

Alternatives to Prison

Over the last 30 years, the prison population in the United States has increased exponentially. For instance, California's prison population has increase eightfold, from 20,000 prisoners in the early 1970's to more that 160,000 in the early 2000's. (Haney) In Texas, from just 1992 to 1997 the prison population doubled, adding an additional 70,000 prisoners. (Haney) Because of the massive overpopulation in America's prisons, there have been advances in alternatives which allow for sentences other than incarceration.

Since many of those incarcerated in prisons are there for non-violent offenses, there are some who advocate that non-violent criminals be allowed alternatives to prison. The benefits of such alternatives are that they give courts more options, they save taxpayers money, strengthen families and communities, reduce crime, and are supported by the public. ("Alternatives to Incarceration Fact Sheet.")

One type of alternative to prison is what is referred to as…… [Read More]

References

"Alternatives to Incarceration Fact Sheet." Families Against Mandatory Minimums (FAMM). Retrieved from http://www.famm.org/Repository/Files/Alternatives%20in%20a%20Nutshell%

207.30.09%5B1%5DFINAL.PDF

Blaum, Paul. (1996) "Correctional boot camps are effective." Public Information. Retrieved from  http://www.psu.edu/ur/archives/intercom_1996/June20/CURRENT/ research1.html

Haney, Craig. "Prison Overcrowding: Harmful Consequences and Dysfunctional Reactions." Prison Commission Testimony. Retrieved from http://www.prisoncommission.org/statements/haney_craig.pdf
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Felons and the Community Analysis

Words: 2941 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70941405

, et al., 2012).

Systems approaches look towards the functional integration of different stakeholders and their goals towards a specific issue or path. What implications might a proposed solution have and to what groups? What is the functional relationship between groups of stakeholders and how can that be maximized. For returning felons, this approach looks at ways to construct programs that are utilitarian in context (the greatest good for the greatest number) (Teaskey, 1976).

Ecological PA supports a more holistic viewpoint and focuses on the nature of the internal and external environments. In other words, PA must interact with the political executive, social political interest groups, commercial and economic organizations, and the citizenry. This approach takes the approach that solutions may only be found by looking at the issue as a sub-set of a larger set of societal issues. Ecological PA cannot solve the incarceration problem, but can look toward…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Project Return - Breaking the Cycle of Crime. (2009, April). Retrieved from projectreturn.com: http://www.projectreturn.com/index.php?name=results_and_impacts

Public Administration. (2012, July 31). Retrieved from publicadministrationtheone.blogspot.com:  http://publicadministrationtheone.blogspot.com/2012/07/organisations-theories-systems.html 

Beck, a., & Shipley, B. (1989). Recidivism of Prisoners Released. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice.

Benincasa, R. (2012, May 29). 6 Leadership Styles and When You Should Use Them. Retrieved from Fast Company:  http://www.fastcompany.com/1838481/6-leadership-styles-and-when-you-should-use-them
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Criminal Justice Corrections Officers and

Words: 1818 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1796391

The swing back and forth between rehabilitation and "lock them up and throw away the key" makes corrections officers' jobs more difficult than they might otherwise be. Police and corrections personnel must bend to winds of change that bring little regard for their own personal and familial welfare. Much has been said about the prisoners, and the effects of those prisoners on the larger society, but little account has been taken of the effects of constantly changing policies and objectives on those who must work in the nation's prisons. Certainly, their needs and quality of life bears on the future rehabilitation or punishment of wrongdoers. The needs of corrections personnel and police are directly related to the overall problem of how we deal with crime in America.

eferences

Blumstein, a. (2004). 3 estoring ationality in Punishment Policy. In the Future of Imprisonment, Tonry, M. (Ed.) (pp. 61-78). New York: Oxford…… [Read More]

References

Blumstein, a. (2004). 3 Restoring Rationality in Punishment Policy. In the Future of Imprisonment, Tonry, M. (Ed.) (pp. 61-78). New York: Oxford University Press.

Bunzel, S.M. (1995). The Probation Officer and the Federal Sentencing Guidelines: Strange Philosophical Bedfellows. Yale Law Journal, 104(4), 933-966.

Cochrane, J., Melville, G., & Marsh, I. (2004). Criminal Justice: An Introduction to Philosophies, Theories and Practice. London: Routledge.

Diiulio, J.J. (1991). No Escape: The Future of American Corrections. New York: Basic Books.
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Better ways to house long term prisoners

Words: 1083 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37322340

Confinement

There is little argument, at least in general, that people that commit wrongful acts and crimes should be punished for what they have done. One of the common methods used to punish people for committed crimes is confinement in jail and/or prison. However, there are many people that suggest or assert that confinement has wide-ranging and long-lasting effects on the people that are subjected to it. They assert that this happens to the point that the method is counterproductive and just makes a bad situation worse in terms of whether the person will recidivate, how/when they will transition back to life outside of prison and mental health concerns in general. hile people that do wrong should obviously be punished to some degree, the possible and perceived effects on confinement should give people pause before they act like they know what the best answer and methods happen to be.

Analysis…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Gawande, Atul. "Is Long-Term Solitary Confinement Torture?."The New Yorker, 2009, http://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2009/03/30/hellhole.

Kerman, Piper. Orange Is The New Black. New York, Spiegel & Grau, 2010,.

Travis, Jeremy et al. The Growth Of Incarceration In The United States: Exploring Causes And Consequences. National Academies Press, 2014,.
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Parole and Probation as Alternatives to Incarceration

Words: 1255 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21655238

Community Corrections as a Social Service

With around 2 million Americans incarcerated in the nation's prisons and jails at a cost of tens of billions of dollars each year, policymakers are scrambling for alternative solutions and many have identified community corrections as a viable option. Using parole and probations programs, community corrections provide a valuable social service to the country by giving juvenile and adult offenders the opportunity to rejoin mainstream society in meaningful and productive ways that reduce recidivism rates and restore the integrity of the family unit. This paper reviews the relevant literature concerning these programs to demonstrate that community corrections represents an important social service that should be expanded to reduce prison and jail overcrowding rates and provide offenders with the chance they need to rebuild their lives. Finally, a summary of the research and important findings concerning community corrections as a social service are presented in…… [Read More]

References

ACA accreditation. (2017). American Correctional Association. Retrieved from https://www.aca.org/ACA_Prod_IMIS/ACA_Member/Standards___Accreditation/About_Us/ACA_Member/Standards_and_Accreditation/SAC_AboutUs.aspx?hkey=bdf577fe-be9e-4c22-aa60-dc30dfa3adcbl.

Black's law dictionary. (1990). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Company.

Corrections and reentry. (2014). National Institute of Justice. Retrieved from https://www.crimesolutions.gov/TopicDetails.aspx?ID=28.

Evans, D. G. (1996, October). Defining community corrections. Corrections Today, 58(6), 124-129.
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Legalization Debate on Marijuana There

Words: 1589 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9163297

Despite the fact that certain parties (as in Chicago) may be arguing that the war on drugs cost billions a year, it must not be forgotten that the war on drugs also yields revenue for the government, and that legalizing drugs would cost more than it saved. "Marijuana... harms society by causing lost productivity in business...and by contributing to illnesses and injuries that put further strain on the health care system." (National Drug Council) if drugs were legalized, they would increase health costs, especially among poor and black communities (which are more likely to take drugs and to be on federal support) and from there on the medical support system and taxpayers of the country. Additionally, such use would negatively effect businesses and families, and the loss in taxes from income earned could be significant.

In conclusion, marijuana restrictions should in no way be relaxed, because marijuana is a serious…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Hager, Paul. "Marijuana Myths http://www.cs.indiana.edu/hyplan/hagerp/myths.html

Maginnis, Robert L. "Legalization of Drugs: the Myths and the Facts http:www.sarnia.com/groups/antidrugs/argument/myths.html

National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws http://www.norml.org

Office of the National Drug Control Policy http://www.whitehousedrugpolicy.gov/
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the drug war is a logical fallacy

Words: 2048 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38528914

California Proposition 64, the California Marijuana Legalization Initiative, would legalize marijuana/cannabis for adults over the age of 21. The legalization measure only applies to the state of California, as federal law continues on its war on drugs/prohibition path. Proposition 64 was on the ballot in the November 8, 2016 federal election. Prior to passing this Proposition, cannabis was illegal, and possession of cannabis was punishable by law. This proposition would not only decriminalize but fully legalize, which means that individuals 21 years of age or older can and should grow their own or purchase from a local and licensed distributor rather than using the black market. In addition to legalization, which impacts the criminal justice system and the powers of law enforcement, the California Proposition 64 created a tax and regulate method of controlling cannabis. There are two new taxes created with the new law. Those two taxes include a…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Branson, R. War on drugs a trillion-dollar failure. CNN. 7 Dec, 2012. Retrieved online: http://www.cnn.com/2012/12/06/opinion/branson-end-war-on-drugs/

"California Proposition 64, Marijuana Legalization (2016)" Ballotpedia. Retrieved online: https://ballotpedia.org/California_Proposition_64,_Marijuana_Legalization_(2016)

CAMH. Cannabis policy framework. Retrieved online: https://moodle.yorku.ca/moodle/pluginfile.php/2205714/mod_resource/content/1/CAMH%20Cannabis%20Policy%20Framework.pdf

Ingraham, C. (2015). Marijuana may be even safer than previously thought, researchers say. The Washington Post, 23 Feb, 2015. Retrieved online: https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/wonk/wp/2015/02/23/marijuana-may-be-even-safer-than-previously-thought-researchers-say/?utm_term=.a66100be88db
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Criminal Justice Bootcamp Programs for

Words: 5841 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21697054

The sources provided background and reviews of published literature: Holmstrom (1996); Marcus-Mendoza (1995); and Osler (1991). Finally, three reports took on a narrower focus in investigating boot camps: Clark and Kellam (2001); Mueller (1996); and Souryal, Layton & MacKenzie (1994).

Burns and Vito (1995) examined the effectiveness of Alabama boot camps. In Alabama, overcrowded prisons brought on interest at the state level for prison boot camps. State prison boot camps incorporated marching, discipline, physical training, work, classes, and drug and alcohol abuse treatment in three phases. In the first phase, inmates confront their crime and take responsibility for it, ridding themselves of excuses. In the second phase, inmates focus on "self-discovery" by learning about themselves, goal planning, and improving themselves for future release. In the third phase, pre-release, inmates focus on problem solving as the key to their own future success as a lawful citizen upon release. Entry and participation…… [Read More]

References

Ashcroft, J., Daniels, D.J., & Hart, S.V. (2003, June). Correctional boot camps: Lessons from a decade of research. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Justice: National Institute of Justice, Office of Justice Programs.

Burns, J.C., & Vito, G.F. (1995, March). An impact analysis of the Alabama boot camp program. Federal Probation, 59(1), 63-67.

Burton Jr., V.S., & Marquart, J.W. (1993, September). A study of attitudinal change among boot camp participants. Federal Probation, 57(3), 46-52.

Christenberry, N.J., Burns, J.L., & Dickinson, G.B. (1994, September). Gains in educational achievement by inmates during the Arkansas Prison Boot Camp program. Journal of Correvtional Education, 45(3), 128-132.
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New Viewpoints in Regards to Supporting the

Words: 1591 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35469760

New viewpoints in regards to supporting the future development of corrections are being established because of past and present inclinations. The matters and concerns that have something to do with the corrections part of the criminal justice system are having prisons that are clearly overcrowded and not having enough in the budget to make some adjustments. If these concerns and issues are not talked about or even looked into, it is a strong possibility that they will continue to have some kind of an effect on operations in the near future of corrections. Community and restorative justice programs are options being looked at when it comes to the future of corrections as legislators, activists and administrators, debate philosophies to speak about these concerns and issues brought about from past and present trends.

The "get tough" approach against crime, long ago, was once preferred by the national political climate. It was…… [Read More]

References:

Appelbaum, P.S. (2011). Law & psychiatry: Lost in the crowd: Prison mental health care, overcrowding, and the courts. Psychiatric Services, 62(10), 1121-3.

Pearl, N. (2009). A task force to reduce prison overcrowding: Implications for criminal justice policy, planning and research methods courses. Journal of Criminal Justice Education, 11(1), 111-121.

Pontell, H.N. (2004). Incarceration as a deviant form of social control: Jail overcrowding in california. Crime and Delinquency, 40(1), 18.

Specter, D. (2010). Everything revolves around overcrowding: The state of california's prisons. Federal Sentencing Reporter, 22(3), 194-199.
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Role of Civil Sanctions in

Words: 2951 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39123081

If police officers are not sufficiently deterred by the prospect of evidence being suppressed at a hearing where a person's liberty is in jeopardy, it is a fortiori that they will not be deterred by the possibility of suppression at a civil forfeiture hearing where only the person's property is in jeopardy.

Law enforcement officials have much to gain in the outcome of the issues raised in Scott, and will likely bring challenges to the exclusionary rule in civil forfeiture. While the court's trend is moving away from applying the exclusionary rule in civil contexts, law enforcement agencies are increasingly relying on civil tools to attack crime. At the forefront of this movement is the use of civil forfeiture to seize the fruits and instrumentalities of the narcotics trade. Civil forfeiture statutes allow law enforcement officers to seize privately held assets that have been used in a crime, a practice…… [Read More]

References

Crandley, Mark J (2001) a Plymouth, a parolee, and the police: the case for the exclusionary rule in civil forfeiture after Pennsylvania Board of Probation and Parole v. Scott.

Albany Law Review

Bilionis, Louis D. (1998) Process, the Constitution, and substantive criminal law.

Michigan Law Review
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Corrections Alternatives to Incarceration Using

Words: 2057 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77653604

Successful achievement of program requirements will often lead to a dropping or reduction of the charges while failure may bring back or enhance the penalties that are involved. Charges dismissed because of a diversion program will still lead to additional criminal history points under the U.S. Sentencing Guidelines if there was a finding of guilt by a court or the defendant pleaded guilty or otherwise admitted guilt in open court, provided that the deferred disposition was not a juvenile matter (Diversion Programs: An Overview, 1999).

Conclusion

Alternative to Incarceration Programs (ATIs) are part of the mix of factors that have allowed the City to reduce crime, reduce jail and prison populations, and help individuals and neighborhoods across the City. As an alternative to sentencing someone to jail or prison, ATIs permit a judge to sentence someone to a program where they obtain treatment, education and employment training in the community,…… [Read More]

References

Alternative to Incarceration Programs: Cut Crime, Cut Costs, Help People and Communities. (n.d.). Retrieved May 15, 2010, from Web site:

http://www.cases.org/Papers/ATIs.htm

Electronic Monitoring of Offenders in the Community. (n.d.). Retrieved May 15, 2010, from Michigan Department of Corrections Web site:

http://www.michigan.gov/corrections/0,1607,7-119-1435-5032 -- ,00.html
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Politician to Use in His

Words: 2585 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12519940

While it is true that American prisons and jails are overcrowded the answer is not to let out the violent offenders. These offenders need to receive nationally standardized sentencing and the sentences need to be longer than they currently are.

This five point plan proposes that the nation take the average sentence for each violent offense and double it. If the average sentence across the nation for robbery is three to six years, it will be changed to six to 12 years.

Third -- the third part of this five point plan to combat the emerging problem of violent crime in America will be to refuse early release. There is not a problem with allowing inmates to achieve the status of trustee however they should not be able to receive two for one days of jail credit with that status.

Jail and prison are boring. The time moves very slowly…… [Read More]

References

Barrios, Jarrett, (2006)Mass. voters give mandate for smart-on-crime policies.(Editorial)

The Boston Herald

Brack, Andy (2006) State looking at ways to take bites out of crime (accessed 6-26-07) http://www.statehousereport.com/columns/06.1015.crime.htm

____(2007) EDITORIAL: U.S. Statistics Show Violent Crime Making a Comeback
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Correctional Issue of Drugs

Words: 1348 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68200432

Drugs in Federal Corrections

Corrections issues

One of the issue faced by the criminal justice system is offenders with drug problems. esearch has indicated that almost 70% of criminals entering the correctional institutions have injected drugs 12 months prior to their incarceration (uiz, Douglas, Edens, Nikolova, & Lilienfeld, 2012). These patterns of drug abuse clearly demonstrate that many prisoners begin their prison terms with drug problems. If the problem is not recognized early, it results in demand for drugs within the correctional facility. This demand creates problems and challenges for prison administrators. Prisoners use of drugs results to increased safety risks, violence, corruption, and occupational health. There is also a risk of the prisoners resulting to extreme measures in order for them to access the drugs. They may commit acts of violence, or use threats. The issue of drug results in an increased risk of contracting diseases like HIV /…… [Read More]

References

Chak, E., Talal, A.H., Sherman, K.E., Schiff, E.R., & Saab, S. (2011). Hepatitis C virus infection in USA: an estimate of true prevalence. Liver international, 31(8), 1090-1101.

Exum, J.J. (2010). Sentencing, Drugs, And Prisons: A Lesson From Ohio. U. Tol. L. Rev., 42, 881.

MacDonald, M., Greifinger, R., & Kane, D. (2012). The impact of overcrowding. International Journal of Prisoner Health, 8(1).

Ruiz, M.A., Douglas, K.S., Edens, J.F., Nikolova, N.L., & Lilienfeld, S.O. (2012). Co-occurring mental health and substance use problems in offenders: Implications for risk assessment. Psychological assessment, 24(1), 77.
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Classical Argument Drug Prohibition Has

Words: 1767 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53741639

Most Americans value freedoms and liberties such as those protected in the United States Constitution. Those freedoms and liberties are violated when governments prevent access to drugs, which is why legalization may eventually happen on a state-by-state basis.

Marijuana has promising applications in health care, which is why states like California have recently permitted the sale and distribution of the drug to patients with prescriptions. The trend is spreading, and several other states also permit marijuana to be used for medical purposes. As more and more states follow suit, drugs will be effectively decriminalized. Law enforcement can divert its attention to violent crime, leaving ordinary citizens alone and leaving addicts in the care of trained psychological professionals. Consumers will purchase their pot from licensed dealers who they can trust, who carefully cultivate their strains to suit certain medical conditions, and who do not use chemical pesticides or any poison to…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Cermak, Timmen L. Marijuana: What's a Parent to Believe? Center City, MN: Hazelden, 2003.

Gerber, Rudolph J. Legalizing Marijuana: Drug Policy Reform and Prohibition Politics. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2004.

Jones, Paul and Mortin, John. Marijuana: Early Experiences with Four States' Laws that Allow Use for Medical Purposes. United States General Accounting Office, 2002.

Kleiman, Mark. Marijuana: Costs of Abuse, Costs of Control. Greenwood Press, 1989.
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Global Criminology and Criminal Justice

Words: 1990 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72819348

Scandinavian prison models are considered to be amongst the most effective in the world. The penal system here, unlike is the case in other parts of the world -- including the U.S. -- is regarded humane and is designed in such a way that prisoners live more or less like regular citizens. With sunbathing facilities, vocational courses, and other amenities being a standard in most settings (unlike is the case in most Western prison settings), some prison systems like those in Norway could be mistaken for plush retirement community centers. How effective such incarceration facilities are in the control of crime is a valid topic for examination and analysis. This is more so the case given that from a "common sense" perspective, prisons conditions should be harsh enough to discourage inmates from committing the same crimes that landed them there in the first place. This seems to be the basic…… [Read More]

References

Delgado, B. (2007). Gangs, Prisons, Parole, and the Politics Behind them. New York, NY: Xulon Press

Grant, S. M. (2012). A Concise History of the United States of America. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

Lappi-Seppala, T. (2012). Penal Policies in the Nordic countries 1960-2010. Scandinavian Studies in Criminology and Crime Prevention, 13, sup.1,

Mauer, M. (2003). Comparative international rates of incarceration: An examination of causes and trends: Presented to the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights. Washington, DC: The Sentencing Project.
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Most Significant Problem Facing the Criminal Justice System

Words: 882 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31146808

Criminal Justice System Today

Most Significant Problem Facing the Criminal Justice System

What is the most significant problem facing the criminal justice system today?

The urgency needed in addressing crime issues is a factor that is widely acceptable, the public view crime and fear of crime as among the most vital issues. A number of communities have been converted into war zones with a ring of gunshots being the order of the day and night. The society struggle everyday to bring order but, this is challenged by criminal behaviors that do not adhere to traditional standards. On the other hand are the policy makers and administrators in the criminal justice systems trying to unravel the complex nature of crime. There have been significant changes in how policing, adjudication, sentencing, imprisonment, and community corrections are approached. The existence of pressure from the public and ever changing policies creates the need understand…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Green, B. (2011). "Criminal Justice - What's Ahead? Roadblocks and New Directions."

Criminal Justice, Volume 25, Number 4.

Leipold, A.D. (1995). Why grand juries do not (and cannot) protect the accused, 80 Cornell.

Rev. 260
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shaming as an alternative'sentencing

Words: 1270 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65226422

Nathaniel Hawthorne's The Scarlett Letter explores the method of public shaming as a form of legitimate legal sentencing. In the novel, Hester Prynne has an affair with Reverend Dimmesdale. Even though her husband has practically abandoned her and lives in another country, she is punished for what was in Puritan America considered a crime. The punishment reflects Puritanical values related to female sexuality, and reveals ways a patriarchal society controls women's choices by monitoring and controlling their private lives. Given private and domestic spheres were the only realms women had any degree of power, the control over women's sexuality in The Scarlett Letter shows how patriarchy becomes entrenched and immutable. Moreover, the use of public shaming to sentence Prynne serves an overarching function of social control. Religion, a core theme in The Scarlett Letter, is the vehicle of that social control and the law is also used to enforce and…… [Read More]

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Death Penalty the Debate Over

Words: 605 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35530873

hile we experience many freedoms, one of those is not taking the life of another person. There must be retribution and many believe that the punishment should fir the crime.

The benefits of the death penalty are great. Perhaps the greatest argument in its favor is the fact that it is the greatest deterrent on earth. Life in prison is simply not enough these days with prison life often being better than what some indigent, innocent people experience on the outside. Those guilty of murder should not be afforded three meals a day, health insurance, or shelter from the weather. Not in a prison paid for by tax dollars. To expect tax-paying citizens to pay to keep a murderer alive is ridiculous but it is done every day. In a day when the country's deficit is greater than it has ever been, those tax dollars could be put to better…… [Read More]

Work Cited

Berns, Walter. "For Capital Punishment." White, James. Contemporary Moral Problems. New York: West Publishing Company. 1991.
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Philosophy the Death Penalty the

Words: 1769 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36037376

For a punishment to be fair and equal, it should be implemented in every case, but as the author notes, each case is different, the circumstances and the way they are tried is different, and so, there are irregularities in the way the punishment is handed down.

The argument against abolishing the death penalty is strong and conclusive. The death penalty is a deterrent to crime, and it is a just punishment for some of the most heinous and premeditated crimes. It sends a strong message to the criminal world that violence will not be tolerated, and a majority of the American population supports it. The death penalty should not be used in every violent crime situation, but there are many situations where it is extremely appropriate. Life imprisonment, even without parole, is not nearly as much of a deterrent as death, and in addition, the death penalty ensures that…… [Read More]

References

Bellisle, Martha. "Darren Mack Pleads Guilty." Reno Gazette Journal. 5 Nov. 2007. 9 Nov. 2007.

A van den Haag, Ernest. "Should the Death Penalty Be Abolished?" "No." Taking Side, Issue 14. 277-303.
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Analyzing Capital Punishment Issues

Words: 3245 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92392684

Capital Punishment

Solitary confinement represents one among the best means of keeping modern-day prisoners from communication and conflict, but has the most injurious effects on their health. Individuals imprisoned in conditions of solitary confinement demonstrate more psychotic behavior compared to normal prisoners; this includes higher rate of suicides (Thesis Statement). After a prisoner loses his/her mental capacity of understanding the reason for his/her imprisonment or punishment, subjecting him/her to solitary confinement is pointless. If one loses one's ability of understanding punishment, the consequences associated with one's actions become irrelevant and have no value. Thus, solitary confinement is crueler than capital punishment.

Lately, the subject of whether or not solitary confinement constitutes greater torture for prisoners than capital punishment (or death penalty), is gaining popularity (Writer Thoughts). The debate has reached a juncture where the favored option is capital punishment.

Solitary Confinement/Capital Punishment Background

During the early part of the 19th…… [Read More]

References

Berke, Jeremy. "Famous U.S. Judge Admits There's a Punishment That's Just as Bad as the Death Penalty -- If Not Worse." Business Insider. N.p., 19 Jan. 2016. Web. 3 Mar. 2016. .

Biggs, Brooke. "Solitary Confinement: A Brief History." Mother Jones. N.p., 2 Mar. 2009. Web. 3 Mar. 2016. .

"Introduction to the Death Penalty." Death Penalty Information Center. N.p., n.d. Web. 3 Mar. 2016. .

Keim, Brandon. "The Horrible Psychology of Solitary Confinement." Wired. N.p., 10 July 2013. Web. 2 Mar. 2016. .
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Inmates and Guards Hassine Year

Words: 980 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94456642



However, if a prisoner refuses to snitch once an offense has been found by a prison guard, guards can sentence the refusing inmate to a long stint in solitary confinement, or even take away his prison job, despite reforms. This pressure by guards can lead inmates to endangering themselves, by becoming a snitch.

Even transferring to protective custody does not assure protection against retaliation for snitching (Kupers 1997).

Once a snitch has agreed to give information, even those that seem to be giving it willingly, this information is often unreliable. As noted earlier, it is not uncommon for a snitch to exaggerate information in order to garner favor with guards, for their own selfish purposes. Some prisoners may even instigate criminal activity in order to have information to report. In some instances, the urban code that prevents many from snitching is often employed by snitches as well, in the form…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Briggs, Chad, Sundt, Jody, and Castellano, Thomas. "The Effect of Supermaximum Security Prisons on Aggregate Levels of Institutional Violence." Criminology, 41(4). Retrieved March 16, 2008. Available: ProQuest.

Hassine, Victor. Year. "Relationships Between Inmates and Guards." Pp. 162-164 in Book, edited by Editor. Place of publication: Publisher.

Kupers, Terry a. "Men, Prison, and the American Dream." Tikkun, 21:1. Retrieved March 16, 2008. Available: General OneFile.

Poole, Eric & Regoil, Robert. "Alienation in Prison." Criminology, 19:2. Retrieved March 16, 2008. Available: ProQuest.
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Bjs Incarceration Rates in the

Words: 594 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32918519

S. Census Bureau, as the collection agent, drew a sample of jail facilities (934) in 875 jurisdictions based on information from the 2005 Census of Jail Inmates. Local jail jurisdictions included counties (parishes in Louisiana) or municipal governments that administered one or more local jails. The 2009 ASJ sample included all jails with certainty that were operated jointly by two or more jurisdictions, or multi-jurisdictional jails." (p. 1)

In spite of the impression that reigns in discussions over prison overcrowding and the emphasis on incarceration in the United States administration of justice, recent patterns show incarceration rates are actually trending downward. According to a press release from Kara McCarthy (2011), "the U.S. local jail inmate population has declined for the second consecutive year, the Justice Department's Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) announced today. The jail population declined by 2.4% in the 12 months ending June 30, 2010." (McCarthy, p. 1)…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS). (2009). Annual Survey of Jails. Bureau of Justice Statistics.

McCarthy, K. (2011). U.S. Jail Population Continues to Decline. Bureau of Justice Statistics.

Minton, T.D. (2011). Jail Inmates at Midyear 2010 -- Statistical Table. Bureau of Justice Statistics.
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How People Influence Criminal Justice Policies

Words: 668 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34610976

Criminal Justice DQ

Criminal Justice Discussion Questions

The first change was the dramatic increment of offender populations that brought up variations in correctional and sentencing philosophies. The increase was unprecedented following a period loaded with relative stability. Such an increase with correctional populations was not entirely limited to prisons and jails. The second reason was that the scope number of people held in parole and probation grew substantially. The third change was limited expansion of prison capacity that affected all Federal and State prisons (Alarid, 2014). Besides, it formed a critical element in appreciating the individuals held in prison, community service, probation, or parole. The changes in these numbers over time differed based on jurisdiction and policy of the federal government. From the developments, technology has developed a great impact towards correctional activities in 21st century. The immediate effect of the concept is the application of computers aimed at collecting…… [Read More]

References

Alarid, L. (2014). Community-Based Corrections. New York: Cengage Learning.

Petersilia, J., & Reitz, K.R. (2012). The Oxford Handbook of Sentencing and Corrections. New York: Oxford University Press.

Stemen, D. (2007). Policies of Imprisonment: Sentencing and Corrections Policy Innovation in the United States, 1970 -- 2002. New York: ProQuest.

Stinchcomb, J.B. (2011). Corrections: Foundations for the Future. New York: Taylor & Francis.
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US Supreme Court and the Rights of Inmates

Words: 534 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73047895

U.S. Supreme Court and the Rights of Inmates

The objective of this study is to identify the constitutional amendments that deal directly with the rights of correctional inmates. For each amendment, this work will describe the rights of inmates and correctional procedures that evolved to protect those rights. Lastly, this work will explain the role of the U.S. Supreme Court in interpreting correctional law, inmates' rights and correctional procedures.

Four Amendments That Address Rights of Prisoners

The primary areas of constitutions rights for inmates incarcerated in U.S. prisons are derived from four constitutional amendments. Those four amendments include the following:

(1) First Amendment -- This amendment governs to what extent authorities restrict the rights of inmates in regards to religion, speech press, and in general, the right to communicate with persons outside the jail. (Thigpen, Hutchinson, Persons and Holland, 2007)

(2) Fourth Amendment -- due process and equal protection. This…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Thigpen, ML,. Hutchinson, VA, Persons, V. And Holland, F. (2007) Jails and the Cosntittuion: An Overview. U.S. Department of Justice. Retrieved from:  http://static.nicic.gov/Library/022570.pdf 

Chung, V. (2000) Prison Overcrowding: Standards in Determining Eighth Amendment Violations. Fordham Law Review. Vol. 68, Iss.6. Art. 9. Retrieved from: http://ir.lawnet.fordham.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=3653&context=flr
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Criminal Justice Day Fines Why

Words: 617 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9784454

The traditional backup sanction for nonpayment of a fine has been the use of jail as an alternative sentence. Yet, because jail space is a scarce resource in most jurisdictions, it is important to have statutory authority for other sanctions that can be used when an offender does not pay the fine (Bureau of Justice Assistance, 1996).

There are three types of sanctions that can be used as backups when an offender fails to pay the fine that has been imposed: community-based sanctions, civil mechanisms, and incarceration. The following are examples of community-based sanctions that can be used in the event of nonpayment: (1) Community Service, (2) Day eporting Centers, (3) Home Confinement, and (4) Halfway Houses/Work elease Centers (Bureau of Justice Assistance, 1996).

Civil mechanisms that can be used include garnishment of wages, interception of income tax refunds, driver's license suspensions, denial of automobile registration renewals, or the use…… [Read More]

References

Bureau of Justice Assistance. (1996). How to Use Structured Fines (Day Fines) as an Intermediate Sanction. Retrieved from U.S. Department of Justice Web site:

http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles/156242.pdf

Pennsylvania Department of Corrections. (2003). Day Fines. Retrieved from Web site:

http://www.cor.state.pa.us/stats/lib/stats/Day_Fines.pdf
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Criminal Justice Policies in America

Words: 796 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45495703

positives and negatives of the criminal justice policy of surveillance in the age of homeland security is that it provides protection for citizens, but it also raises questions about privacy rights and causes citizens to be fearful that the government is spying on them. Thus there are both positives and negatives to the policy. This affects courts, corrections and juvenile justice in the sense that each has to be aware of rights of persons. The president's stance on this issue is that it is necessary to help combat the enemy. These policing concepts fit in with the concept of social justice because they promote safety and they help stakeholders to feel more secure (Friedman, Miles, 2002). This is imperative for promoting a society that rests on justice and tries to incorporate a framework for safety that protects citizens but also discourages criminal behavior by showing a strong framework for monitoring…… [Read More]

References

Macleod, S. (2007). Maslow's hierarchy of needs. Retrieved from http://www.simplypsychology.org/maslow.html