Prison Overcrowding Essays Examples

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Overcrowding in Prisons

Words: 1976 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54169893

Prison Overcrowding

Arguably the most pressing issue facing the field of corrections today is the problem of prison overcrowding. Overcrowding negatively impacts nearly every aspect of running a corrections facility, and even exacerbates problems when inmates are eventually released (Specter, 2010). Overcrowded prisons increase the likelihood of violence against both inmates and corrections officers, and there is evidence tying overcrowding to higher rates of suicide and homicide (Davies, 2004, & Camp, Gaes, Langan, & Saylor, 2003). The problem has only gotten worse over the last few decades, and there is no evidence that policymakers or administrators have plans to do anything soon (Giertz & Nardulli, 1985, & Taggart, 1996). After examining the relevant literature concerning the history, scope, and reasons behind prison overcrowding, it becomes clear that the solution to overcrowding and its attendant costs must come in the form of administrative/institutional reform coupled with a serious reconsideration of the current legal and prison system, particularly in relation to the suitable treatment of non-violent offenders.

While overcrowding has likely afflicted prisons throughout history, the issue did not become a crisis until the 1980s, when a series of new laws, including many related to drug offenses, dramatically expanded the number of…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Camp, S.D., Gaes, G.G., Langan, N.P., & Saylor, W.G. (2003). The influence of prisons on inmate misconduct: A multilevel investigation*. Justice Quarterly: JQ, 20(3), 501-533.

Davies, R. (2004). Deaths in UK prisons are due to overcrowding, says report. The Lancet,
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Prison Funding Finding Funds for Fighting Crime

Words: 1904 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38932108

Prison Funding

Finding Funds for Fighting Crime: Financial Contingency planning for California's Prison System

Prisons have always been a controversial aspect of society, and far more so in the modern era of sociological and psychological inquiry into the nature of crime, punishment, and rehabilitation. Deciding precisely what function prisons are meant to serve and how they should go about serving it has been the cause of a great deal of social and political debate, and these issues are far from settled. There are those that argue for the reduction of prison terms and sentencing lengths and a move to more rehabilitative efforts rather than the punitive focus most prisons seem to hold today, while others insist that making prisons punitive and able to accommodate more inmates serves as a deterrent to crime and as a testament to the rules of justice. These abstract issues in and of themselves make the prison issue highly contentious, before the many practical complications of prisons are even considered.

Funding prison systems creates a slew of other debates from a wide range of perspectives. Much like arguments about government funding for anything else, there are both pragmatic and ideological arguments that come into play when…… [Read More]

References:
Gilroy, L., Summers, A., Randazzo, A. & Kenny, H. (2010). Public-Private Partnerships for Corrections in California. Accessed 12 February 2012.  http://reason.org/files/private_prisons_california.pdf 

Governor's Budget. (2012). Accessed 12 February 2012. http://www.ebudget.ca.gov/pdf/GovernorsBudget/5210.pdf
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Prison Reform

Words: 1784 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26007776

Prison Reform

The United States criminal justice system houses the largest prison population in the world; both in terms of the total prison population as well as the proportion of prisoners to the total population (per capita). The United States has a bigger prison population than China and India despite having nowhere near the total population. It also holds a greater percentage of its population in incarceration than any other country in the world as well including such nations such as Russia, North Korea, or even Iran. The United States has about five percent of the world's population however it has about twenty-five percent of the world's prison population.

There are many stereotypes that uphold the image of the inmate, prisoner, or felon as a violent criminal, that must be locked away to keep the population safe. However, in many cases, the actual prison population is made up of a wide range of crimes and many of these crimes are non-violent. In fact, in the United States houses just a small percent of prison population who was convicted of a violent crime. Many people are imprisoned for seemingly minor offenses just as failure to pay child support, motor vehicle violations,…… [Read More]

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Overcrowding in American Jails When

Words: 3087 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89237121

Court records also stick on, whether the charges are dropped or followed by a conviction. People of color or ethnic minorities, such as African-Americans and Hispanics, have come to accept that they cannot avoid acquiring a criminal record. The 1990 Washington DC-based sentencing project found that one in every four African-Americans aged 20 to 29 was in prison, in jail or on probation or parole. A research conducted by the National Center on Institutions and Alternatives had a comparable finding. In a decade, the figure decreased to one out of three or 76% of 18-year-old African-Americans in the urban areas who can expect arrest and imprisonment before age 36. The racial gap became evident at the approach of the millennium. In 1926, 79% of inmates in state and federal prisons were whites and only 21% were Blacks. But in 1999, African-Americans made up 55-60% of new admissions. Including Latino inmates, records show that three out of four Americans sentenced to federal and state prisons belonged to minority groups. The new attitude on going tough with criminals actually referred to black criminals without the need to mention the race. Prisons and jails brimming with a million Black young men rather than…… [Read More]

References:
1. Bates, D. (2006). Policy Makers Working to Find a Solution for Increased Incarceration. Falls Church News Press. http://www.fcnp.com/432/parole.htm

2. Beck, A.R.. (2001). Jail Bloating: a Common but Unnecessary Cause of Jail Overcrowding.  http://www.justiceconcepts.com/jail%20overcrowding.pdf 
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Prison Crowding

Words: 1287 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53618609

prison overcrowding and its effect on the criminal justice system. Prison overcrowding has skyrocketed in the United States in the last three decades, leading to a multitude of problems in the criminal justice system. Overcrowding costs taxpayers money, it leads to dysfunction within the penal population, and it creates dangers for prison staff. It is a result of many items in society and the criminal justice system, and it must change if America's prisons are to remain effective and viable.

Many people may not be aware just how much the prison population has grown in the last thirty years. One researcher notes, "From 300,000 prisoners in 1977, the prison population has risen steadily to over 1.5 million as of June 30, 2005, a 400% increase" (Pfaff, 2008). The two largest states housing prisoners, California and Texas, have seen stupendous growth in their prison populations, but not in their funding. Another researcher notes, "Funding for prisoner services and programming did not remotely keep pace, which meant that many more prisoners had to make due on much less" (Haney, 2006, p. 1). Thus, prison growth is phenomenal, but the funds to maintain these prisons are not, and this places stresses on the…… [Read More]

Resources:
Haney, C. (2006). Prison overcrowding: Harmful consequences and dysfunctional reactions. Retrieved 31 July 2009 from the Commission on Safety and Abuse in America's Prisons Web site: http://www.prisoncommission.org/statements/haney_craig.pdf. 1-17.

Jacobs, J.B. (2007). Finding alternatives to the carceral state. Social Research, 74(2), 695+.
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Overcrowding Costs Crime Rates

Words: 1215 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28246801

American Corrections System

Prisons are so overcrowded within the states that typically "only one criminal is jailed for every one hundred violent crimes committed" (Economist, 1996). Many violent criminal offenders do not even serve out their entire terms; many serve half of their term and are released on an appeal or probation (Economist, 1996). These prisoners are often released to society only to commit another crime at a later date.

Statistics validate the fact the American Correctional System is currently overburdened. According to one report, "More than one million inmates were confined in American prisons in 1995 alone and the number has been steadily increasing over the last few years (Albion, 2003)." The ability of state and local correctional facilities to manage and keep pace with the upward spiral of people incarcerated and imprisoned within the U.S. also continues to decrease, as most prisons within America currently continue to operate at levels above carrying capacity (Alexander, 1996). Many prisons house as many as 170% of the inmates they were designed to be able to manage, which creates security risks and hazards to inmates and their communities (Alexander, 1996). These statistics alone validate the need to re-evaluate the American prison system.…… [Read More]

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Overcrowding in Prisons Impacts on African-Americans the

Words: 2391 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73301417

Overcrowding in Prisons: Impacts on African-Americans

The overcrowded prisons in the United States are heavily populated by African-Americans, many of them incarcerated due to petty, non-violent crimes such as drug dealing. This paper points out that not only are today's prisons overcrowded, the fact of their being overcrowded negatively impacts the African-American community above and beyond the individuals who are locked up. This paper also points to the racist-themed legislation that has been an important reason why so many African-Americans are incarcerated -- and the paper points to the unjust sentencing laws that have unfairly targeted black men from the inner city.

Critical Analysis

When overcrowding becomes an extremely serious human and ethical problem such that state or federal prison officials must find a temporary solution, one trend that has been implemented is to move inmates to other prisons in distant states. However, according to author Othello Harris, who is also editor of the Journal of African-American Men, moving inmates to other states has the "…consequence of reducing the likelihood that prisoners will receive visits from their families and friends" (Harris, et al., 2003, 46). This of course impacts African-American families in a real way because decreased visitation availability takes…… [Read More]

Sources:
Dalrymple, Jane, and Burke, Beverley. (2006). Anti-Oppressive Practice: Social Care and the Law. New York: McGraw-Hill International.

Hallet, Michael A. (2006). Private Prisons in America: A Critical Race Perspective. Champaign,
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Prisons in Modern Turkey When

Words: 4177 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11667200

Initiated in october 2000 by around 800 detainees, leftwingers and political activists (Carrol, 2001), who were later followed by members of their families as well as human rights militants, the hunger strike changed into a huge protest movement. This was brutally supressed by the police and the miltary in December, when the operation "Back to Life" was launched. This operation was met with resistance from the prisoners and had extremely high costs in terms of human loss - 28 prisoners and 2 soldiers died in the events. In the end, the results of the operation were a success for the Turkish prison authorities - the prisoners were moved into the new facilities and most of the "schools of anarchy," as Turkish president Demirel called them, were closed

The prison population of Turkey was, at that time, of around 72.000 inmates, but the amnesty billed introduced by the government in late 2000 was designed to release almost half of them. Although met with reluctance and even turned down by the Turkish president, the bill was signed during the events of December 2000, which are still being a topic of criticism for Turkey, coming from almost all international bodies. The operation "Back…… [Read More]

References:
See, for example, www.kurdistan.org, accessed on Nov. 07th, 2006 Available at http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2005/61680.htm, accessed on Nov 07th, 2006

Quoted in Carrol, 2001
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Jail Memo To the County

Words: 666 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47346676



However, given that the problem of overcrowding is pervasive in the prison system in general, and not simply at these specific junctures of the judicial process, the choice between a low-use jail and a high-use jail would seem to be the real question. More and more prisoners who might once be shipped to the state penitentiary are now being confined to jails for more extended periods of time than ever before. Thus, to accommodate this problem, a high-use jail that has many of the monitoring and rehabilitative capacities of a prison system would be more useful to the community.

The purpose and function of a high-use jail low-use jail is designed for shorter-term inmates, while a high-use jail is designed to accommodate not simply more inmates, but a wider variety of inmates for longer durations of time. It has the ability to deal with more violent offenders, but also has more resources for the offenders, including access to exercise facilities or libraries in reward for good behavior, as well as access to vocational and educational counseling to help the prisoners, after their release. If overcrowding is increasingly problematic in the community of Utopia at least partially because of an increase…… [Read More]

Bibliography:
What is the difference between jail and prison?" (2006). Public Health and Criminal

Justice. Operated by the CDC: Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Page last reviewed 18 Oct 2006. Retrieved 9 Mar 2007 at http://www.cdc.gov/nchstp/od/cccwg/difference.htm
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Prison Reform the United States

Words: 3176 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7254901

The average felony sentence imposed upon federal and state offenders in 1996 was 62 months, or just over 5 years. On average these prisoners actually serve 45% of a state sentence for a mean prison stint of 2 years and 4 months, and 85% of a federal sentence for a stint of 4 years and 5 months. Once they are released, the recidivism rates are high. According to Lin (2000), "incarceration, as it stands, does not prevent recidivism" (p. 4). In addition, even if the released prisoners do not commit another crime, it does not mean that they become self-supporting and contribute to their community as much as possible.

.Lin (2000) argues that it is not clear that prisons, as institutions, have the capacity to provide the type of environment required for preparation of returning to the outside world. Prisons are not presently designed to be schools or factories, most do not have any facility for providing advisors who can counsel or environments where family ties and support can be nurtured. The history of work, counseling, and family programs in prisons does not bode well for the future. The programs that do exist are difficult to evaluate, often operated arbitrarily,…… [Read More]

References:
Alexander, M. (2010) Is Mass Incarceration the New Jim Crow? NY: New Press

Durham, a.M. (1994) Crisis and reform: current issues in American punishment. Canada: Little Brown and Co.
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Dangers of Overcrowding in American Correctional System

Words: 3021 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31745295

Dangers of Overcrowding in American Correctional System

There are several central governments, state and local authority's correctional facilities in the United States. Over the past few decades, the rate of crime occurrence has significantly increased. Also, the correctional facilities have experienced growth in population. There are a huge number of inmates in the various correctional facilities as compared to those in 1990's. For instance, the Bureau of Justice Statistics found the number of prisoners at 665,000 across the country; this is a 159% increase from the jail population of 1985. The correctional facilities have, suffered several setbacks due to the increase in the population.

The capacities of the correctional facilities in the United States are not sufficient to hold the large population of inmates; research from the report released in 2002 indicate that the facilities operate at 108% capacity from the 85% capacity held in 1983. This has made the facilities have a negative reputation and other associated problems. The questions of whether, these facilities are helping the society and the inmates or making the situation worse than it is already, have not been overlooked (T. Franklin; C. Franklin, Cortney & Pratt, 2006). The United States has the world's third…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Davis, R.K., Applegate, B.K., Otto, C.W., Surette, R. & McCarthy, B.J. (2004). Roles and Responsibilities: Analyzing Local Leaders'Views on Jail Crowding From a Systems

Perspective, Crime and Deliquency, (50) 1, 458-480
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How International Organizations Impact Incarceration and Prison Management in Brazil

Words: 3190 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3422744

International Organizations Impact Incarceration and Prison Management in Brazil

People incarcerated in prisons from developing countries like Brazil face long years of confinement in dirty and cramped quarters. Some of the harsh conditions the prisons present include inadequate hygiene, insufficient food allocations, and no clothing or other basic amenities. Even as the conditions do not form a pattern across the continent, the prevalence hits higher concerns requiring intervention from international organizations. The interactions allow resident prison managers to address inadequacies through prison reform and increased attention towards human rights. Various barriers include state secrecy, absence of public interest, and weak civil society inhibiting collection of sustainable information on the deplorable prisons. The veil of ignorance on the kinds of prison conditions that fuel abuse and neglect of people incarcerated makes it imperative for investigation of prison trends. International organizations generate information regarding issues that affect the penal system of the continent.

The paper outlines various historical establishments of evolution of prisons in Brazil. The essay examines various areas that prisons in Brazil fail to address the minimal threshold for human rights provisions. The recognition that developing countries have profound diversity ensures an inclusion of common abuse themes for human rights…… [Read More]

Bibliography:
Adetula, G. A, Adetula, A., & Fatusin, A. (2010). The prison subsystem culture: Its attitudinal effects on operatives, convicts and the free society. Ife Psychologia. 18(1): 232-251

Austin, J.E. (2008). Strategic Management In Developing Countries. New York: Simon and Schuster
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Overcrowded and Under-Funded Prisons According

Words: 3353 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55816431

In the American Disease: Origins of Narcotic Control, David Musto notes that throughout the twentieth century, America's drug wars have regularly scape-goated minority groups, like the Chinese with opium, marijuana among the Mexicans, and cocaine among the African-Americans (McCormick 2000).

The National Advisory Commission on Criminal Justice Standards and Goals reported in 1973 that "the prison, the reformatory and the jail have achieved only a shocking record a failure. There is overwhelming evidence that these institutions create crime rather than prevent it," yet during the next two decades both state and federal legislatures implemented increasingly stiffer penalties and mandatory minimums claiming that prisons were an effective tool for crime control, and longer prison terms would reduce crime by deterring or incapacitating criminals (McCormick 2000). However, at the end of this period, after the average prison sentence had tripled and the prison population at more than quadrupled, a National Academy of Sciences report commissioned by the Reagan administration's Department of Justice asked: "What effect has increasing the prison population had on levels of violent crime? Apparently, very little" (McCormick 2000).

These decisions have resulted in filling U.S. prisons with large numbers of non-violent and drug offenders - over 50% in both…… [Read More]

Resources:
Demleitner, Nora V. (2005 October 01). Smart public policy: replacing imprisonment with targeted nonprison sentences and collateral sanctions. Stanford Law Review. Retrieved September 18, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.

Dickenson, Rachel. (1996 February 01). The prison population bomb.
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Controlling the Prison Population According

Words: 1376 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78083676

S. pp). This is partly due to high recidivism because within three years of their release, two of every three prisoners are back behind bars (U.S. pp). Criminologists attribute the prison population growth to "get tough on crime" policies that have subjected hundreds of thousands of nonviolent drug and property offenders to long mandatory sentences (U.S. pp). Malcolm Young of the Sentencing Project, says, "We have to be concerned about an overloaded system which sentences many offenders quickly and is not dong a good job of sorting out people who should be incarcerated from people for whom other responses would produce better, less expensive results" (U.S. pp).

The rise in the prison population varies by state, yet since 1998, twelve states experienced stable or declining incarceration rates but crime rates in those states declined at the same rates as in the other thirty-eight (U.S. pp).

Young says, "We're working under the burden of laws and practices that have developed over 30 years that have focused on punishment and prison as our primary response to crime" (McDonough pp). According to Young, the prison population could be lowered by introducing drug treatment programs that offer effective ways of changing behavior and by…… [Read More]

References:
Incarcerated America. April 2003. Accessed from the Human Rights Watch web site on May 04, 2005. http://www.hrw.org/backgrounder/usa/incarceration/

Mandatory Sentencing Laws Fuel Prison Overcrowding Crisis, Fill Prisons With Non-Violent Substance Abusers. Accessed from the Families Against Mandatory Minimums web site on May 05, 2005. http://famm.org/si_sbs_arizona_press_release_5_11_04.htm
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Criminal Justice & the Prison

Words: 791 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80238593

There are three basic types of research designs including: (1) experimental designs; (2) quasi-experimental designs; and (3) non-experimental designs. (Shadish, Cook and Campbell, 2002) the 'gold standard' is stated to be represented by "...experimental evaluations that make use of the random assignment of individuals to interventions and control groups..." (Mulhlhausen, 2009)

Mulhlhausen (2009) reports that randomized evaluations are of the nature that serve to "ensure that pre-progam differences between the intervention and control groups do not confound or obscure the true impact of the programs being evaluated." In addition, random assignment is stated to enable the evaluator in testing "for differences between the experimental and control groups that are due to the intervention and not to pre-intervention discrepancies between the groups. By drawing members of the interaction and comparison groups from the same source of eligible participants, these experimental evaluations are superior to other evaluations using weaker designs." (Mulhlhausen, 2009)

IV. Limitations of Current Program Assessment

Noted as limitations of current program assessment in prison are factors such as: (1) overstating of program effectiveness (Weisburd, Lum and Petrosino (2001); and (2) too little evaluation (James, 2009). Weisburd holds that there is "...a moral imperative upon researchers to conduct randomized experiments.…… [Read More]

Sources:
David Weisburd, Cynthia M. Lum, and Anthony Petrosino, "Does Research Design Affect Study Outcomes in Criminal Justice?" Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Sciences, No. 578 (November 2001), pp. 50-70.

Nathan James, "Offender Reentry; Correctional Statistics, Reintegration into the Community, and Recidivism," CRS Report for Congress, April 21, 2009.
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The Case Against Prisons

Words: 628 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53408040

Discontinuing Prisons

Prisons have been used as institutions for punishing and rehabilitating offenders for a long period of time. These institutions have been used as facilities for detaining men against their will because of the illegal actions. The use of prisons as incarceration facilities to help in the fight against crime emerged in the most remote antiquity. While these institutions have played a major role over the years in fighting crime, the continued use of these facilities have attracted considerable concerns in the recent past. These concerns are not only attributable to the nature of the facilities but also fueled by their overall impact on prisoners and fighting crime. The case for discontinuing prisons has been supported by the negative effects of prison overcrowding, flaws in the American prison system, and the existence of alternative evidence-based practices or alternatives to prison for criminal supervision.

Negative Impacts of Prison Overcrowding

One of the major reasons that have been utilized in the case against prisons is the negative impacts of prison overcrowding and other flaws in the American prison system. With the highest incarceration rates per capita across the globe, prison overcrowding is one of the major issues facing American prison officers.…… [Read More]

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Since the Middle of the 20th Century Prisons and Other Corrections Issues

Words: 977 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78984314

corrections models in the United States have changed significantly over the past several generations, from a rehabilitative toward a punitive paradigm. After World War Two, a strong sense of national security and prosperity prevailed in the United States, leading to a corrections system that was based more on rehabilitation than on punishment. During these idealistic times, criminals were believed to be "ill," and correctable via a treatment model ("History and Development of Corrections 1700-Present," n.d.). Trust in governmental institutions also helped politicians and the public alike agree that corrections should be built upon the theory that criminal behavior can be unlearned, or "corrected." The rehabilitation approach persisted well into the 1960s, as humanistic psychology informed corrections models. A humanistic worldview encouraged "deinstitutionalization" of corrections through the use of community-based services like halfway houses and probation ("History and Development of Corrections 1700-Present," n.d.). Sentencing policy during the middle of the 20th century was more likely to include mandatory maximums than minimums, with "indeterminate" sentencing trending in criminal justice (Mackenzie, 2001). Judges enjoyed a high level of discretion when issuing sentences. Programs to help inmates, such as vocational training and reintegration assistance, were established even if they were "often poorly implemented and…… [Read More]

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Jail Time and Death Penalty Finding New

Words: 2882 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55231289

Jail Time and Death Penalty: Finding New Ways to Deter Criminal Behavior

Jail Time and Death Penalty: A Deterrent?

For years many law enforcement agencies have relied on the assumption that jail time or the death penalty serve as adequate deterrents to crime or criminal activity. However multiple studies confirm that jail time and the death penalty are not effective methods alone for deterring criminals. Because of this it is important that law enforcement agents, government officials and community members work together to uncover effective tools for deterring crime and discouraging criminals from repeating crimes after release.

Jail time and the death penalty do not deter crime. Early Gallup Polls conducted in the 1980s and 1990s show that while roughly two thirds of Americans and law enforcement agents support the death penalty, there is inadequate evidence supporting its use as an effective deterrent to crime (Akers & Radelet, 1996). Many assume that the death penalty is legitimate under the assumption that people who commit a crime should pay on a level similar to that of the crime they commit. However, much of capital punishment support rests on the notion that capital punishment is an effective deterrent for crime (Pierce &…… [Read More]

Bibliography:
Abraham, E., Boyle, J., Mullen, R. & ratelle, J. (1996). "California program reduces recidivism and saves tax dollars." Corrections Today, 58(5): 118.

Akers, R.L. & Radelet, M.L. (1996). "Deterrence and the death penalty: The views of the experts." Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 87(1): 15.
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Prison Conditions in the United States and Russia

Words: 974 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98729681

Maximum security prisons have grown in recent decades and have implemented methods some may deem inhumane. A 2016 article discusses prison conditions in maximum security prisons and addresses specifically the topic of preservation of human dignity and disease prevention. The author mentions the Dudley Lee v. Minister of Correctional Services case that held "that prison authorities have a duty of care to prevent prisoners from being infected with HIV-related illnesses such as TB" (Torriente, Tadion, & Hsu, 2016). The applicant was sent to a maximum security prison in South Africa where he eventually was diagnosed three years later with TB. Another instance of the government and its failure to acknowledge the need to safeguard a prisoner's health is the R. v. Secretary of State for the Home Department, ex-parte Glen Fielding. Here the case discusses of a prisoner in the United Kingdom asking for condoms and being denied unless given a prescription. The government in that case, did not want to encourage homosexuality.

The article continues by explaining the update to the United Nations rule update concerning prisoner rights. "On December 17, 2015, at its 70th Session, the UN General Assembly adopted a revised version of the SMR, referred to…… [Read More]

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Criminal Justice Prison Architecture

Words: 728 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6645815

Prison Architecture

Criminal Justice, Prison Architecture

The evolution of prison architecture is a reflection of societies changing attitudes toward crime and punishment. Prisons have progressed from simple places for incarceration where the primary purpose is to protect the public to instruments of punishment where the loss of freedom is penalty for breaking the law, to institutions for reform dedicated to mould the guilty to conform to society's norms. Initially imprisonment was a means of detaining debtors to ensure payment, the accused before trial, or the guilty before punishment. Courts imposed sentences including fines, personal mutilation such as flogging or branding, or death. In 18th-century England transportation to penal settlements in the Thirteen Colonies and later Australia, became an increasingly popular penalty because it removed the guilty from local society; length of sentence and destination reflected the severity with which the court viewed the offence. Eventually a new type of prison, the penitentiary, came into being. Buildings were designed to be supervised by paid staff. They established labor programs designed to teach work habits and help maintain the institution. Inmates were sorted by sex, age and the level of criminality. It was expected that penitentiaries would act as deterrents to crime…… [Read More]

References:
Johnson, D. (2011) Prison architecture. The Canadian encyclopedia. Retreived October 16, 2011, from http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com/index.cfm?PgNm=TCE&Params=A1ARTA0009130

Lewis, J. (2009, june 10). Behind bars…sort of. The New York times magizine. New York Times. Retrieved October 16, 2011, from http://www.nytimes.com/2009/06/14/magazine/14prisons-t.html?pagewanted=all
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Analyzing Prison Condition in USA vs Russia

Words: 1387 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87208689

Prison Condition in USA vs. Russia

In assessing the human rights conditions of maximum security facilities, human rights groups look into 3 main areas: the duration of confinement; the conditions of confinement, and the criteria of eligibility. Each of these areas must be looked into individually and then considered in the context of the entire situation (Human Rights Watch). Quite a number of concerns have been raised about the human rights conditions of the individuals held in prisons including: mistreatment of inmates / detainees by prison officials; unsafe conditions; and lack of sufficient legal protection (United States Department of State, n.d.). This paper also compares the situation of prison facilities in the United States and Russia.

Introduction

The Standard Minimum Rules, or the SMRs for the Treatment of Prisoners are one of the most important international agreements on how prisoners should be handled. The SMRs were adopted in 1955 by a special United Nations congress (United States Department of State, 2012). However, studies have shown that most of the prison systems all around the globe do not treat prisoners at the standards recommended by the SMR agreement. In many nations, there is blatant disregard of international treaties on the treatment…… [Read More]

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Analyzing Prison Life for Inmates

Words: 3314 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77684400

Prison Life for Inmates

Sending offenders to prison has been used as a way of dealing with prisoners for a long time. It was not always seen as a way of punishment; rather, it was used as detention pending the actual punishment of these offenders. The application of imprisonment has been around, perhaps, for as long as humanity has existed. In Old Testament times, prisons were used in Jerusalem. Some prominent personalities have been reported to have been born in prison environments. Others have been imprisoned. It is reported that Lord Krishna was born in prison at a place called Mathura. Shahjahan was imprisoned by his son at Agra. The British constructed the historic cell at Port Blair for detaining for life those who revolted against their rule. Prisons have not always been viewed as a way of punishing offenders; rather they have been used to detain offenders before the actual punishment. In the recent past, imprisonment has been largely perceived as a way of reforming the inmates and not necessarily punishing them. Mahatma Gandhi once said acts of crime are a result of a diseased mind. He proposed that the prisons that host the offenders must be crafted as…… [Read More]

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Jails and Prisons the General Characteristics of

Words: 892 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28372795

Jails and Prisons

The general characteristics of prisons and jails are almost the same though they are considered as different entities in the criminal justice system. The main difference them is that whereas a prison holds convicted offenders who have sentences that are mostly beyond one year, offenders are locked in a jail either holding awaiting transportation to prison units or serving short-term sentences usually ranging from a few days to a year (Gaines and Miller, 2006). With reference to the United States of America criminal justice system the other difference is that prisons are under the jurisdiction of either federal or state while jails are controlled and used by local jurisdictions such as counties and cities. Due to the period of time that offenders take and the life they live in prisons, prisons have been considered to be total institutions. "A total institution can be defined as a place of residence and work where a large number of like-situated individuals cut off from the wider society for an appreciable period of time together lead an enclosed formally administered round of life" (Davies, 1989). This definition fits the exact set up and conditions in a prison which makes prisons to…… [Read More]

Sources:
Alarid, W.L. et al. (2008). Community-based corrections, 7th ed. Thomson/Wadsworth:

Belmont, CA.
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Pocatello Prison Case Study

Words: 657 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95581698

Pocatello, Idaho New Women's Prisons

ISSUES, COST, BENEFITS

New Women's Prisons in Pocatello, Idaho

Approximately 8 years ago, former State Corrections Director Tom Beauclair defended the need for three new prisons at the Pocatello Women's Correctional Center before the Joint-Finance Appropriations Committee (Russell, 2005). If lawmakers would approve the proposal, the additional 300 beds to the existing privately-run prison near Boise, a new 400-bed prison for female inmates and a 1,500-bed new prison for male inmates. These additional structures would cost almost $160 million Director Beauclair emphasized that these structures were needed in the five succeeding years in order to manage prisoners safely. He said that every State prison is overbooked, with the corrections department then having 360 more inmates than beds. At that time, the State had 6,502 inmates, which was an increase from 2,900 in 1994. Director Beauclair said they expected the population to increase by 30 every month the following year. He argued against overcrowding their prisons in order to save but warned against the adverse consequences of overcrowding. He explained that wardens did not have a separate place for those who severely misbehaved or attacked other inmates or the guards. He added that the prison staff,…… [Read More]

Bibliography:
Idaho State Journal: The Associated Press. Retrieved on May 26, 2013 from  http://www.idahostatejournal.com/news/local/article_dd40c684-0aec-11df-b882-001cc4c002e0.html ?

Russell, B.Z. (2005). Idaho wants new prisons. The Spokesman-Review: The

Spokesman. Retrieved on May 26, 2013 from http://www.spokesman.com/stories/2005/jun/16/idaho-wants-new-prisons
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Gangs in Prison Although the United States

Words: 2107 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77613374

Gangs in Prison

Although the United States prison system remains extremely dangerous due to overcrowding, guard and administrator abuse, and widespread detention and isolation practices that would be considered torture by the United Nations, they also serve as fertile breeding grounds for dangerous gangs, and in fact, American prisons have given rise to some of the most dangerous prison and street gangs of the twenty and twenty-first century. Of these, five stand out for their violence and resilience. The Aryan Brotherhood, the Black Guerilla Family, the Folk Nation, the Mexican Mafia, and MS-13 have all made a name for themselves in the prison system due to their violence, and although some have declined in scope and power as a result of concerted law enforcement efforts, all of these gangs remain a threat to security and safety, both for prison employees and the general public. By examining the foundations and spread of these gangs individually and in conjunction, one is able to see impact of these groups on the correctional system.

The Aryan Brotherhood was founded in 1967 in the San Quentin State Correctional Facility in California, and although the precise founders are not known, the gang was undoubtedly begun by…… [Read More]

Resources:
Allender, D.M. Department of Justice, FBI. (2001). FBI law enforcement bulletin: Gangs in middle america. Washington, DC: FBI.

Department of Justice, Criminal Division. (2011). Prison gangs. Department of Justice.
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Privatizing Prison Administration

Words: 713 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16040271

Privatizing Prison Administration

Description of the Financing System.

Description of How the Current System Works. The financial costs associated with maintaining America's prison system are staggering. Just to stay even with an inmate population that grows by 50,000 to 80,000 a year, approximately, 1,000 new jails and prisons have been built since 1980, and about one new 1,000 bed facility must be added every week for the next ten years (Mccormick 2000). The cost of imprisoning adult offenders ranges from $25,000 to $70,000 a year, and the total costs associated with constructing each new prison cell has soared to $100,000; as a result, the annual budget for constructing and maintaining prisons has jumped in the last two decades from $7 billion to almost $40 billion dollars (Schlosser 1999).

According to Stephen Donziger (1997), "prisons are the largest public works program in America, providing housing, food, (and only sometimes) education, mental health services, and drug treatment" (24). Since 1980, the costs associated with crime control have increased at twice the rate of defense spending, and spending on corrections on the state level has increased faster than any other spending category (Mccormick 2000). Despite these enormous investments, prisons in America remain highly…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Campbell, Allison, Andrew Coyle and Rodney Neufeld (Eds.). Capitalist Punishment: Prison

Privatization & Human Rights. Atlanta: Clarity Press, 2003.
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How the Politics of Reform Impact Prisons

Words: 641 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61990333

judicial reform is based on the idea that a total or partial political reformation of the judiciary can be performed as a stage in a much grander reform concept that includes both the legal and the executive branches of government. When judicial reform is effected, the aim is to end corruption in the judicial system -- whether the issue is bribery or cronyism or any other form of corruption. Prison control, such as the concept of the Panopticon is about instilling social values in the prisoners by giving them the sense that they are always being observed and therefore should act accordingly. While this concept does not necessarily gel with the concept of reform, as in the idea to reform prison conditions so that prisoners are more comfortable and so that the penal system (like the judicial system) is cleansed of corruption, it does offer a kind of reformation strategy via the concept of social engineering.

The impact of Ruiz v. Estelle on a Texas penitentiary actually helped to escalate violence between inmates and guards. It was a sweeping case of reform that ushered in a new type of control within the prison which had a very negative affect on…… [Read More]

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Role and Evolution of the American Prison

Words: 3536 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27365626

Role and Evolution of the American Prison System

Explain the Primary Role and Evolution of the American Prison System and Determine if Incarceration Reduces Crime

The United States constitution is the fundamental foundation of the American criminal justice system. Given that the document is now over two hundred years old, it constantly experiences numerous amendments and interpretations. As a result, the criminal justice system over the years experienced alterations in order to reflect the needs and beliefs of each subsequent generation. The configuration of the modern prison system has its basis in the late 1700's and early 1800s. The development of the modern prison system aims at protecting innocent members of the society from criminals. The prison systems also deter criminals from committing more crimes through detaining and rehabilitating them. However, more and more deluge of white-collar crimes and other crimes, burdens the American criminal justice system and the prison system. Given the rise in crimes in the society, the effectiveness of incarceration is open to discussion. It is as a result the purpose of this paper to highlight the evolution and the major role of the modern prison system in America. The paper also highlights incarceration in the American…… [Read More]

References:
Barnes E. Harry. (1921). The Historical of the Prison System in America. Journal of the American Institute of Criminal Law and Criminology. Vol. 12, No. 1, May, 1921

Craig Haney. (1998). The Past & Future of U.S. Prison Policy Twenty-Five Years after the Stanford Prison Experiment. American Psychological Association July 1998 Vol. 53, No. 7, 709-727
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Juvenile Total Institutions Total Institutions Prisons Jails

Words: 1797 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65920440

Juvenile Total Institutions

Total Institutions ( prisons/jails) juveniles. A. Discuss history B. Goals C. programming youth held . D. Issues/Problems Present facilities Below Guideline paper. 1. Students expected draw information class material scholarly sources journal articles, government websites, NPO websites.

Bortner and Williams (1997)

define a total institution as a physical location such as a prison or a reformatory where all the total needs of the residents are met. The needs of the individuals are mostly physical such as health, clothing, nutrition, shelter, etc. For juveniles, total institutions must be able to meet their educational and psychological needs as the youth. For an institution to quality as a total institution, the totality of the care that is provided in the institutions must be reflected in the round the clock confinement of the residents including holidays and weekends Shoemaker, 2009.

Goffman (1961)

argues that in many different ways, correctional institutions also serve as total institutions because they meet the physical, emotional and psychological needs of the residents. In addition to this, residents are supervised and accounted for during each period of the day or night.

For many years, there has been a fine line between the juvenile and adult justice systems…… [Read More]

Resources:
ABA Division for Public Education. The History of Juvenile Justice. In ABA Division for Public Education (Ed.), Dialogue on Youth and Justice (pp. 1-8). Chicago, IL: American bar association.

Austin, J., Johnson, K.D., & Weitzer, R. (2005). Alternatives to the Secure Detention and Confinement of Juvenile Offenders (pp. 41). Rockville, MD: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, U.S. Dept of Justice.
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Performance Management in Prisons

Words: 2476 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61412476

Performance-Based Standards

Accreditation plan for the American Correctional Association

The accreditation of the correctional facilities is aimed at ensuring the well-being of the inmates but also is targeted at benefiting the employees, the victims, the courts as well as the legislators of a state. The standards that are set do allow the protection of the judicial system from embarrassment as well as allowing the correctional institutions to have and retain the autonomy from outside interventions.

Goals and functions of functional areas

Safety; this involves provision of conditions that are humane, protection of the inmates from rape and possible assault, giving of nutritious food as well as medical care, giving the inmates a hygienic living environment and recreation activities. This will ensure the inmates are safe from ill health or physical harm while within the walls of the facility as well as being safe from abusive guards.

Security; this functional are include the physical security of the inmate, protection from death and general control over who gets into the facility and with what. This ensures that there is no threat to the inmates he employees within the facility. In this same vain, the control of movement for security reasons will ensure…… [Read More]

Bibliography:
American Correctional Association, (2014). Public Correctional Policy on Standards and Accreditation. Retrieved March 7, 2014 from https://www.aca.org/government/policyresolution/view.asp?ID=44

David Ronald R., (2006). Evaluating American Correctional Association Accreditation of Adult Correctional Institutions. Retrieved March 7, 2014 from https://www.google.co.ke/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=5&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0CEgQFjAE&url=https%3A%2F%2Fdspace.uta.edu%2Fbitstream%2Fhandle%2F10106%2F478%2Fumi-uta-1244.pdf%3Fsequence%3D1&ei=r3YcU97SBubb7Aa2hIHAAQ&usg=AFQjCNGeh6YJwRQeOzwduuSGkhI3J9IXMg&sig2=jVsH_ysiTj7ZUyDagJDjSA&bvm=bv.62578216,d.bGE
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Annotated Bibliography for Prisons Conditions

Words: 1321 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36753201

Aleinikoff, T. (2014). Between National and Postnational: Membership in the United States. Palgrave Macmillan UK, 110-129. http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/9780230554795

This paper focuses on the 'postnational viewpoint' to the American notion of sovereignty and membership. The author defines what postnational viewpoint is and explains it means the view that a universal model of membership is replacing national citizenship and is doing so because it is anchored within deterritorialized concepts of persons' rights. Essentially this means there is a respect for global human rights norms leading to a "deterritorialized membership." This is important to consider when comparing the states of prisons in Russia and the United States because the rights of prisoners may reach a form of universal expression in that everyone gets treated in a way that people deem appropriate regardless of location.

Kennedy, S., Sharapova, S., Beasley, D., & Hsia, J. (2016). Cigarette Smoking Among Inmates by Race/Ethnicity: Impact of Excluding African-American Young Adult Men from National Prevalence Estimates. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 18(suppl 1), S73-S78. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ntr/ntv157

This article details the prevalence of cigarette smoking among incarcerated adults citing the quantity being twice as much as the non-incarcerated population. Interestingly, whites were shown in the study to smoke more than their black…… [Read More]

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Women at Five State Prison

Words: 10602 Length: 30 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80834550

5%, compared to 4.8% for males). (Chesney-Lind, 1998, p. 66)

The author also re-confirms the fact that data regarding of female inmate's indicate that as cited the passage of increased penalties for drug offenses has certainly been a major factor in this increase. Again, it is also important to see that implementation of these stricter sentencing reform initiatives which supposedly were devoted to reducing class and race disparities in male sentencing, pay very little attention to gender and the particular needs of women have been grievously overlooked. (Chesney-Lind, 1998; Aday, 2003)

The advent of mandatory sentencing schemes and strict punishment for drug offenses has been devastating to women. Many states have adopted harsh mandatory sentencing schemes. The Federal Sentencing Guidelines, which eliminated gender and family responsibility as factors for consideration at the time of sentencing, were adopted. (5) the policy of eliminating gender and family responsibility, combined with heightened penalties for drug related violations, has caused the level of women's incarceration to spiral upward. For the year 1999, 1 in 109 women were under correctional supervision. (6) in 1997, African-American women had an incarceration rate of 200 per 100,000 compared to 25 per 100,000 for non-Hispanic white women. (Jacobs, 2004,…… [Read More]

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Creation of a New Criminology Bill

Words: 995 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89043350

Prison Term Policy Recommendation

Bills are passed or rejected all the time, and some that are passed do not provide any real benefit. The goal is to lower the number of bills that are not beneficial, and raise the number of bills that actually make a difference in society. One of the ways to pass better bills is to carefully consider criminology and the statistics regarding it (Barak, 1998). When a bill offers exactly what it claims to, and when that offering is needed by society, the bill can have a higher degree of expected success and can provide more of what society needs. Addressed here is a bill that is focused on armed robbery and prison terms. The objectives and goals of the bill will be discussed, along with possible solutions for the bill and whether it should or should not be approved in its current form.

Objectives of the Bill

The main objective of the bill is to keep violent criminals (armed robbers) in prison for a longer period of time. By doubling the prison sentence for a crime, a person who commits that crime will remain off the streets and unable to commit future crimes many more…… [Read More]

Bibliography:
Barak, G. (ed.). (1998). Integrative criminology (International Library of Criminology, Criminal Justice & Penology.). Aldershot, UK: Ashgate/Dartmouth.

Deflem, M. (ed.) (2006). Sociological theory and criminological research: Views from Europe and the United States. NY: Elsevier.
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U S Corrections Systems the Current U S Prison

Words: 640 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59811484

U.S. Corrections Systems

The current U.S. prison system has several purposes, including retribution, incapacitation, deterrence, and rehabilitation. (Legal Encyclopedia, 2011). Although the current model is attempting a greater emphasis upon rehabilitation, this objective has met varying successes and failures. One of the most legitimate criticisms against prison rehabilitation programs is the fact that the treatment involved is compulsory or coercive. This factor then led to the likelihood of returning to criminal activity once the prisoner is released.

According to the Legal Encyclopedia (2011), there have been advances in rehabilitation programs that have in fact proved to reduce recidivism. The success of these programs are based upon their focus on offenders' needs and on improving their cognitive and social skills. Recidivism resulting from these programs amounted to 30% or more.

Because of the high costs of maintaining and constructing prisons, the rehabilitation purpose has enjoyed increased attention over recent years. Simply removing an offender from society is no longer financially viable in the United States. Hence, there is a current movement towards rehabilitation, not only within the prison system itself, but also within the community. This is especially the case for low-risk offenders such as substance abusers, whose incarceration only drives…… [Read More]

References:
Gest, T. (2010). Covering Sentencing. Covering Crime and Justice. Retrieved from: http://www.justicejournalism.org/crimeguide/chapter14/chapter14_pg05.html

Legal Encyclopedia (2011). Prisons and Jails: Development of Prisons and Jails in the United States. Retrieved from: http://law.jrank.org/pages/18929/Prisons-Jails.html
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Community Corrections One of the

Words: 608 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7339379



If a Community Corrections participant is questioned by police for any crime whatsoever they can be violated simply for being questioned. If their officer decides not to violate them they still have to report the questioning within 12 hours of its occurrence or face violation.

Following several months on the program the participant is moved to phase two at which time he or she is allowed one pass a week. The pass must be pre-approved and under no circumstances can the participant be out after 9 p.m.

Following several months on that program without incident the participant can move to the curfew phases. This is a time period in which the participant has graduated curfews of 7 p.m. And 9 p.m. For the remainder of time in the program (Evans, 1996).

Throughout the program probation officers do surprise house checks to be sure the participant in indeed in the house when he or she is supposed to be.

The participants are also given random drug tests and they are expected to pay monthly fees to the state. Many programs order participants to obtain their GED within the first six months or go back to jail. They are expected to work…… [Read More]

Sources:
REFERENCE

Evans, Donald (1996) Defining community corrections.

Corrections Today.
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Laws That Have Been Changed

Words: 3389 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52087883

Written into the legal changes would be protocols for review of cases to re-determine parole eligibility in certain cases but especially those where the latter crimes were non-violent and relatively minor offences. Because of this review aspect the legal and physical changes of this alternative is the most effective in both the short-term and long-term, of dealing with prison overcrowding. This alternative was chosen, not because it is the least costly, as it will likely be one of the most costly solutions, but because it has the greatest possibility for making real change in the overcrowding problem and rebalancing the system to create sustainability in the future. The implementation of this change will begin with resources as reviewing many cases, will require thousands of man hours in and out of courtrooms and likely develop into a monumental task for already overburdened public prosecutors, defenders and judges. Changing the legal precedence will not likely be easy, especially reselling ideology to the public who will necessarily see the change as a reversal of a "bill of goods" they have been sold for decades, i.e. that the "tough on crime" response is the only real solution to criminal behaviors. Yet, in the long…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Appleman, L. (2010). The plea jury. Indiana Law Journal, 85(3), 731-776. Retrieved from. http://web.ebscohost.com.wf2dnvr15.webfeat.org/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=4&hid=108&sid=47f5bf92-4378-496c-a8a0-0fbebcc7710f%40sessionmgr114

Benefield, N.A. (2007, October 24). Private prisons increase capacity, save money, and improve services. Testimony to the Pennsylvania House Labor Relations Committee. In J. Haley (Ed.). Prisons: Current controversies. San Diego: Greenhaven Press.
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Santos Reyes Is Sentenced to

Words: 1612 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62453996

The significant increase in prison terms has created unsafe, unhealthy, and potentially dangerous conditions for violent and non-violent criminals alike, frequently affecting the potential to rehabilitate felons. The Law has led to various unusual circumstances that have attracted national attention, especially those cases that send third-time offenders to prison for 25 years or more for simple, non-violent, victimless crimes, such as in the case of Santos Reyes in 1998. Despite the controversy and negative consequences, the Supreme Court upheld the Three Strikes Law, saying that it stopped short of constituting "cruel and unusual punishment."

The Three Strikes Law had the intention of limiting recidivism. However, numerous studies suggest that declines in recidivism have been negligible. This is another unintended consequence of the Three Strikes Law; the general failure to curb third offenses. Violent crimes have dropped in urban areas in California, but those declines are in line with declines in surrounding states, indicating no impact made by the Three Strikes Law (Beale, 2010). The results of other states that have similar multiple offender penalties demonstrate a mixture of results that fail to conclude the efficacy of the Three Strikes policy.

Beale, S. (2010). The Story of Ewing v. California: Three…… [Read More]

Resources:
Tyler, T. (1997). Three Strikes and You're Out, but Why? The Psychology of Public Support

for Rule Breakers. Law & Society Review, vol. 31, 2, pp. 23-246.
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Contemporary Issues in Criminal Justice

Words: 1153 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94234711

growth and use of the First, Fourth, Fifth, Sixth, and Eighth Amendments to the Constitution using the modern day criminal justice system.

According to Webster's dictionary of Law, Judicial Activism is defined as: "The practice in the judiciary of protecting or expanding individual rights through decisions that depart from established precedent or are independent of or in opposition to supposed constitutional or legislative intent compare judicial restraint." Over the past 4 decades, since the practice of judicial activism has been created by then NAACP lead attorney Thurgood Marshall in order to forward the progress of civil rights legislation, liberal political interests have pursued a practice of judicial activism in order to expand the powers of the government into the lives of U.S. citizens by bypassing the legislative limits defined in the constitution. Through this practice, small minorities of political interests have hijacked a political system which was purposefully designed to include checks and balances in order to prevent exactly what judicial activists have been able to accomplish.

For example, the first amendment is written in three clauses. Typically called the free speech amendment, the first amendment states:

Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the…… [Read More]

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Corrections Current Trends Innovations and

Words: 3072 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52475571

356).

To date, there has been a great deal of reluctance to adopt a harm reduction approach in the United States for two fundamental reasons:

The first reason stems from the argument that if harm were reduced for users the result would be an increase in the prevalence of drug use and, therefore, increased harm to society in terms of health care costs and violent crime. Those taking this position present as supporting evidence the fact that improved automobile safety features have led to increased speeding by drivers. In addition, it has been suggested that because drug users are risk takers to begin with, they may increase use or risky behavior to compensate for the harm reduction assumptions that substance use is part of the human condition.

The second reason is based on concerns about "sending the wrong message." If harm reduction were implemented, it might be interpreted as condoning drug use. The fear is that harm reduction would lead to new users and undermine efforts to engage current users in trying to achieve abstinence (Brocato & Wagner, 2003).

Future Trends and Innovations in Privatization, Parole and Probation, Community Corrections and Overcrowding.

In a market economy, privatizing governmental operation just…… [Read More]

Sources:
About CCA. (2008). Corrections Corporation of America. [Online]. Available: http://www.correctionscorp.com/about/.

Brocato, J. & Wagner, E.F. (2003). Harm reduction: A social work practice model and social justice agenda. Health and Social Work, 28(2), 117.
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Rtf Rich Text Format File Extension Reflection

Words: 555 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 714552

rtf (Rich Text Format) file extension Reflection Paper 4 (Module/Week 7) After completing reading study week, alternative methods incarceration.

Alternative methods of incarceration: How would you reduce cost and overcrowding while maintaining a system of justice?

Concerns about prison overcrowding and the spiraling costs of incarcerating inmates, some of whom may have committed nonviolent offenses, have precipitated many states to consider alternative methods of punishment. For example, in New York, "the Nathaniel Project provides 24 months of extra-intensive supervision for felon-indicted individuals who are seriously and persistently mentally ill. The program offers comprehensive mental health and integrated substance abuse treatment, rehabilitation, case management, court advocacy and reporting, and monitored linkages to housing and social services" (Alternatives to incarceration program, 2012, NYS). Although inmates may not be legally 'insane' and are considered responsible for their actions, this program treats some of the root causes that can cause inmates to turn to a life of crime. It provides a transition from prison to other supportive services and is designed to reduce the risks of recidivism.

Similarly, for inmates convicted of drug-related offenses, inmates may be sent to rehabilitation programs (either inpatient or outpatient) as a requirement of their sentencing, versus standard jail…… [Read More]

References:
Adult drug court programs. (2012). New Jersey Courts. Retrieved:

http://www.judiciary.state.nj.us/criminal/crdrgct.htm