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We have over 530 essays for "Prison Reform"

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Prison Crowding

Words: 1287 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 53618609

prison overcrowding and its effect on the criminal justice system. Prison overcrowding has skyrocketed in the United States in the last three decades, leading to a multitude of problems in the criminal justice system. Overcrowding costs taxpayers money, it leads to dysfunction within the penal population, and it creates dangers for prison staff. It is a result of many items in society and the criminal justice system, and it must change if America's prisons are to remain effective and viable.

Many people may not be aware just how much the prison population has grown in the last thirty years. One researcher notes, "From 300,000 prisoners in 1977, the prison population has risen steadily to over 1.5 million as of June 30, 2005, a 400% increase" (Pfaff, 2008). The two largest states housing prisoners, California and Texas, have seen stupendous growth in their prison populations, but not in their funding. Another…… [Read More]

References

Haney, C. (2006). Prison overcrowding: Harmful consequences and dysfunctional reactions. Retrieved 31 July 2009 from the Commission on Safety and Abuse in America's Prisons Web site:  http://www.prisoncommission.org/statements/haney_craig.pdf . 1-17.

Jacobs, J.B. (2007). Finding alternatives to the carceral state. Social Research, 74(2), 695+.

Moore, S. (2009). The prison overcrowding fix. Retrieved 31 July 2009 from the New York Times Web site:  http://www.nytimes.com /2009/02/11/us/11prisons.html.

Pfaff, J.F. (2008). The empirics of prison growth: A critical review and path forward. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 98(2), 547+
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Overcrowding in Prisons

Words: 1976 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 54169893

Prison Overcrowding

Arguably the most pressing issue facing the field of corrections today is the problem of prison overcrowding. Overcrowding negatively impacts nearly every aspect of running a corrections facility, and even exacerbates problems when inmates are eventually released (Specter, 2010). Overcrowded prisons increase the likelihood of violence against both inmates and corrections officers, and there is evidence tying overcrowding to higher rates of suicide and homicide (Davies, 2004, & Camp, Gaes, Langan, & Saylor, 2003). The problem has only gotten worse over the last few decades, and there is no evidence that policymakers or administrators have plans to do anything soon (Giertz & Nardulli, 1985, & Taggart, 1996). After examining the relevant literature concerning the history, scope, and reasons behind prison overcrowding, it becomes clear that the solution to overcrowding and its attendant costs must come in the form of administrative/institutional reform coupled with a serious reconsideration of the…… [Read More]

References

Camp, S.D., Gaes, G.G., Langan, N.P., & Saylor, W.G. (2003). The influence of prisons on inmate misconduct: A multilevel investigation*. Justice Quarterly: JQ, 20(3), 501-533.

Davies, R. (2004). Deaths in UK prisons are due to overcrowding, says report. The Lancet,

363(9406), 378-378.

Giertz, J.F., & Nardulli, P.F. (1985). Prison overcrowding. Public Choice (Pre-1986), 46(1),
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State Prison Inmates Should Be Paroled Early to Help With the States Budget Problems

Words: 3026 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 33447439

Prison Inmates Should Be Paroled Early to Help Control the State's Budget Problems

This paper argues that inmates at State prisons should be having premature releases from prisons so that the States can manage their budget problems. As the paper illustrates, despite criticisms on parole that it introduces unreformed culprits back in the society and that the program is unorganized, parole is a major contributor in reducing prison populations, which directly translates to reduced State expenditures (Licari, 2009). All the implementation of parole releases has either direct or indirect economic effect to the States as well as the prisoner and society as a whole. eformed individuals are able to earn their income thus independent of the government (Sons, n.d.). In addition, as there is professional structure of parole, they lead to faster reforming and procedures that reduce caseloads enabling parole officers to spend more time with the high-risk individuals (National…… [Read More]

References

Clear, T.R., Cole, G.F., & Reisig, M. (2008). American Corrections, (8th ed.). Connecticut, U.S.:

Cengage Learning.

Corley, C. (2009, December 13). States release inmates early to cut prison costs. Npr.org.

Retrieved from  http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=121338571
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Life in Prison Life in

Words: 1453 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 4912157

Williams...consistently denied killing Owens.

March 11, 1979 --...three of Williams' friends -- all with criminal histories and motivation to lie, Williams says -- testify that he confessed to the killings. A ballistics expert links a shotgun shell at the motel to Williams' gun. Williams has also steadfastly maintained his innocence in the Yang killings.

1981 -- Williams is tried and convicted in Los Angeles Superior Court of all four murders, plus...sentenced to death. He arrives at San Quentin's death row on April 20.

1987 -- Williams is placed in solitary confinement for 6 1/2 years after committing a string of violent incidents behind bars, including assaults on guards and other inmates.

1988 -- the California Supreme Court affirms Williams' death sentence, and he files his first federal appeal to the U.S. District Court.

1996 -- Williams, with co-author Barbara Cottman Becnel, publishes the first of a series of anti-gang books…… [Read More]

References

Stovall, Jeffrey, M.D. (2001, March). Prison Madness: The Mental Health Crisis Behind Bars and What We Must Do About it. American Psychiatric Association. Retrieved December 8, 2007, at  http://psychservices.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/content/full/52/3/394-a 

Nieves, Evelyn, (2005, December 14). "Schwarzenegger Clemency Denial Called Politically Safe." Washington Post, p. A18, Retrieved December 8, 2007, at  http://www.washingtonpost.com/wpdyn/content/article/2005/12/13/AR200512100026 . tml

Tookie's Path to Death Row." (2005, December 13). Retrieved Decembe 9, 2007, at  http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=5047269Timeline:Tookie 's Path to Death Row

Williams, Stanley, with Becnel, Barbara Cottman. (2001). Life in Prison. Chronicle Books.
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Role and Evolution of the American Prison

Words: 3536 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 27365626

ole and Evolution of the American Prison System

Explain the Primary ole and Evolution of the American Prison System and Determine if Incarceration educes Crime

The United States constitution is the fundamental foundation of the American criminal justice system. Given that the document is now over two hundred years old, it constantly experiences numerous amendments and interpretations. As a result, the criminal justice system over the years experienced alterations in order to reflect the needs and beliefs of each subsequent generation. The configuration of the modern prison system has its basis in the late 1700's and early 1800s. The development of the modern prison system aims at protecting innocent members of the society from criminals. The prison systems also deter criminals from committing more crimes through detaining and rehabilitating them. However, more and more deluge of white-collar crimes and other crimes, burdens the American criminal justice system and the prison…… [Read More]

References

Barnes E. Harry. (1921). The Historical of the Prison System in America. Journal of the American Institute of Criminal Law and Criminology. Vol. 12, No. 1, May, 1921

Craig Haney. (1998). The Past & Future of U.S. Prison Policy Twenty-Five Years after the Stanford Prison Experiment. American Psychological Association July 1998 Vol. 53, No. 7, 709-727

Dina R. Rose & Todd R. Clear (2006). Incarceration, Social, Capital, & Crime: Implications for Social Disorganization Theory. Volume 36, Issue 3, pages 441-480.

Escresa - Guillermo, Laarni (2011) Reexamining the Role of Incarceration and Stigma in Criminal Law. Law and economics, criminal law, stigma, social norms, behavioral economics.
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Annotated Bibliography for Prisons Conditions

Words: 1321 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Annotated Bibliography Paper #: 36753201

Aleinikoff, . (2014). Between National and Postnational: Membership in the United States. Palgrave Macmillan UK, 110-129. http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/9780230554795

his paper focuses on the 'postnational viewpoint' to the American notion of sovereignty and membership. he author defines what postnational viewpoint is and explains it means the view that a universal model of membership is replacing national citizenship and is doing so because it is anchored within deterritorialized concepts of persons' rights. Essentially this means there is a respect for global human rights norms leading to a "deterritorialized membership." his is important to consider when comparing the states of prisons in Russia and the United States because the rights of prisoners may reach a form of universal expression in that everyone gets treated in a way that people deem appropriate regardless of location.

Kennedy, S., Sharapova, S., Beasley, D., & Hsia, J. (2016). Cigarette Smoking Among Inmates by Race/Ethnicity: Impact of Excluding African-American…… [Read More]

This article shares the extent of prison conditions in an American prison named Pelican Bay State Prison in California. July 1, 2011, prisoners there started a sustained hunger strike. The reason being the majority of them were kept in complete solitary confinement, experiencing conditions considered torturous like extreme sensory deprivation for over five years. Some were kept in isolation for two decades. They asked for basic things during their strike like a phone call once a week, warm clothes to go outside in, supply of decent food, and a chance at escaping solitary confinement. {risons like this show how bad the American prison system can be.

Sarang, A., Platt, L., Vyshemirskaya, I., & Rhodes, T. (2016). Prisons as a source of tuberculosis in Russia. International Journal of Prisoner Health, 12(1), 45-56.  http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/ijph-07-2014-0022 

This study examines the poor conditions of Russian prisons that leads to a prevalence of tuberculosis. They analyze the poor prevention, treatment, and management of tuberculosis through collecting data from qualitative interviews with participants that are former medical specialists and prisoners in the region of Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia. They also show aside from poor management of tuberculosis infection; HIV infection are poorly managed revealing a poor prison health system in Russia. The study highlights the need for reform of the health system as well as the most common serious infections in Russian prisons. The most common being Tuberculosis and HIV.
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Drug Prison Email L Jones Officer

Words: 389 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 86701001



Of course, I completely understand the volatile nature of the prison vs. rehab debate. However, I believe that if you take a look at the information available. Specifically check out the publications from Deputy Director of the Prison Reform Trust, Nick Flynn -- especially, "Drugs in Prison, Another Quick Fix (2005)." Also, consider the 2002 Corrections Today article by Jeff Goodale. I trust that both of these writers will present my point quite will.

In short, I urge you to consider my opinion regarding an alternative sentencing option for offenders like Mr. Smith. In my opinion one of the states in-patient, minimum security rehabilitation centers may be more appropriate. Please let me know what you think.

Thank you very much for your time.

Sincerely:

Officer Betty Rumble

orks Cited

Goodale, Jeff. (2002). The prison that drugs built: Illinois designs a new women's prison for the new reality. Corrections Today. August.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Goodale, Jeff. (2002). The prison that drugs built: Illinois designs a new women's prison for the new reality. Corrections Today. August. Retrieved from Web site on October 18, 2005, from,  http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_go1850/is_200208/ai_n7187734 

Flynn, Nick. (2005). Drugs in Prison: Another Quick Fix. Web page. DrugText.org. Retrieved on October 18, 2005, from,  http://www.drugtext.org/library/articles/four1.html
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Reforms Needed for Three Strikes Law

Words: 3077 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81828274

Define the Problem

The defined and existing problem is going to vary in scope and definition depending on who is doing the defining. However, there are some clear and obvious problems with the “three strikes” law. The policy itself was meant to address a problem. However, that policy has created a new set of problems. Indeed, there are situations where three-time violent felons are justifiably put away for twenty-five years to life. However, the major problem with the policy are the human and budgetary costs that are created by people being thrown in jail for life for minor offenses (“Ewing v. California”, 2017). There is also the concern that some people are being thrown in jail even though they will soon “age out” of criminal behavior. Indeed, men in their 60’s are not able to crawl through windows, run and jump fences like someone in their 20’s or 30’s (Besemer,…… [Read More]

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Prison Management From the Prison

Words: 1606 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 96996046

In addition, prison managers must deal with the mundane as well as the human equation, because much of their jobs are in the paperwork, union rules, state statutes, and other regulations that are required in the prison system. Management in the prison is a unique challenge, because of the many responsibilities that come with it. It is clear, just as business management and leadership are evolving, that prison management will continue to evolve, and as it does, it could create model prison systems of the future.

Finally, it is important to note that prisons are unique operations, but they still should uphold management principles. Author Daly continues, "Management is responsible for the mission and strategy of the organization. Prisons are unique with special features but they still reflect the philosophy and methodology of management" (Daly, 2002). Prison management should have clearly defined goals and missions regarding their inmate populations, but…… [Read More]

References

Boin, a. (2001). Crafting public institutions: Leadership in two prison systems. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner.

Daly, W.C. (2002). Shades of gray in prison administration. Education, 122(3), 488+.

Greene, J. (2003). Chapter Five Lack of correctional services. In Capitalist punishment: Prison privatization & human rights, Coyle, a., Campbell, a., & Neufeld, R. (Eds.) (pp. 56-66). Atlanta: Clarity Press.
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Jail Time and Death Penalty Finding New

Words: 2882 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 55231289

Jail Time and Death Penalty: Finding New Ways to Deter Criminal Behavior

Jail Time and Death Penalty: A Deterrent?

For years many law enforcement agencies have relied on the assumption that jail time or the death penalty serve as adequate deterrents to crime or criminal activity. However multiple studies confirm that jail time and the death penalty are not effective methods alone for deterring criminals. Because of this it is important that law enforcement agents, government officials and community members work together to uncover effective tools for deterring crime and discouraging criminals from repeating crimes after release.

Jail time and the death penalty do not deter crime. Early Gallup Polls conducted in the 1980s and 1990s show that while roughly two thirds of Americans and law enforcement agents support the death penalty, there is inadequate evidence supporting its use as an effective deterrent to crime (Akers & adelet, 1996). Many…… [Read More]

References:

Abraham, E., Boyle, J., Mullen, R. & ratelle, J. (1996). "California program reduces recidivism and saves tax dollars." Corrections Today, 58(5): 118.

Akers, R.L. & Radelet, M.L. (1996). "Deterrence and the death penalty: The views of the experts." Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 87(1): 15.

Clayton, S.L. (2005 -- Apri). "Jail inmates bake their way to successful reentry."

Corrections Today, 67(2):78.
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Prison Conditions in the United States and Russia

Words: 974 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Article Review Paper #: 98729681

Maximum security prisons have grown in recent decades and have implemented methods some may deem inhumane. A 2016 article discusses prison conditions in maximum security prisons and addresses specifically the topic of preservation of human dignity and disease prevention. The author mentions the Dudley Lee v. Minister of Correctional Services case that held "that prison authorities have a duty of care to prevent prisoners from being infected with HIV-related illnesses such as TB" (Torriente, Tadion, & Hsu, 2016). The applicant was sent to a maximum security prison in South Africa where he eventually was diagnosed three years later with TB. Another instance of the government and its failure to acknowledge the need to safeguard a prisoner's health is the . v. Secretary of State for the Home Department, ex-parte Glen Fielding. Here the case discusses of a prisoner in the United Kingdom asking for condoms and being denied unless given…… [Read More]

References

Engel, P. (2013). Here's What Life Is Like Inside Russia's Toughest Prison.Business Insider. Retrieved 16 April 2016, from  http://www.businessinsider.com/inside-russias-black-dolphin-prison-2013-10?op=1 

Torriente, A., Tadion, A., & Hsu, L. (2016). Opening the Door to Zero New HIV Infections in Closed Settings. Health and Human Rights Journal. Retrieved 16 April 2016, from  http://www.hhrjournal.org/2016/02/opening-the-door-to-zero-new-hiv-infections-in-closed-settings/ 

Vasiliades, E. (2005). Solitary Confinement and International Human Rights: Why the U.S. Prison System Fails Global Standards. American University International Law Review, 21(1). Retrieved from  http://digitalcommons.wcl.american.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1045&context=auilr
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Reform and Rehabilitation Program to

Words: 6267 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 71084368

These facts do not even address the personal bias that may exist among employers who are more likely to hire welfare recipients than ex-offenders (Western, 2003).

The problems ex-offenders face do not stop with employment. Male ex-offenders unable to hold steady or appealing jobs are often less appealing to potential partners as they are perceived as unable to "Contribute economically" and many carry a stigma associated with a past conviction (Western, 54).

All of these facts support the need for better rehabilitation programs to prevent increased recidivism among ex-offenders (Western, 2003). May have likened parole to law enforcement processes than social work, suggesting that parole officers are more surveillance oriented than supportive in their roles toward ex-offenders (Western, 2003).

Many groups that do support the needs of ex-offenders including nonprofit agencies often lack the resources necessary to help ex-offenders (Western, 2003).

Significance of the Study

Every year more than 600,000…… [Read More]

References

Etters, K. (2002 - Dec). "Job-readiness training program at the Wayne County Jail prepares offenders for success." Corrections Today, 64(7): 112.

Fischer, M., Geiger, B. & Toch, H. (1991). "Reform through community: Resocializing offenders in the Kibbutz." New York: Greenwood Press.

Lattimore, P. & Witte, A.D. (1985). "Programs to aid ex-offenders: We don't know nothing works." Monthly Labor Review, 108(4): 46.

Lemieux, C.M. (2002). "Social support among offenders with substance abuse problems:
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Criminal Justice Prison Architecture

Words: 728 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6645815

Prison Architecture

Criminal Justice, Prison Architecture

The evolution of prison architecture is a reflection of societies changing attitudes toward crime and punishment. Prisons have progressed from simple places for incarceration where the primary purpose is to protect the public to instruments of punishment where the loss of freedom is penalty for breaking the law, to institutions for reform dedicated to mould the guilty to conform to society's norms. Initially imprisonment was a means of detaining debtors to ensure payment, the accused before trial, or the guilty before punishment. Courts imposed sentences including fines, personal mutilation such as flogging or branding, or death. In 18th-century England transportation to penal settlements in the Thirteen Colonies and later Australia, became an increasingly popular penalty because it removed the guilty from local society; length of sentence and destination reflected the severity with which the court viewed the offence. Eventually a new type of prison,…… [Read More]

References

Johnson, D. (2011) Prison architecture. The Canadian encyclopedia. Retreived October 16, 2011, from http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com/index.cfm?PgNm=TCE&Params=A1ARTA0009130

Lewis, J. (2009, june 10). Behind bars…sort of. The New York times magizine. New York Times. Retrieved October 16, 2011, from  http://www.nytimes.com /2009/06/14/magazine/14prisons-t.html?pagewanted=all
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Analyzing Prison Life for Inmates

Words: 3314 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 77684400

Prison Life for Inmates

Sending offenders to prison has been used as a way of dealing with prisoners for a long time. It was not always seen as a way of punishment; rather, it was used as detention pending the actual punishment of these offenders. The application of imprisonment has been around, perhaps, for as long as humanity has existed. In Old Testament times, prisons were used in Jerusalem. Some prominent personalities have been reported to have been born in prison environments. Others have been imprisoned. It is reported that Lord Krishna was born in prison at a place called Mathura. Shahjahan was imprisoned by his son at Agra. The ritish constructed the historic cell at Port lair for detaining for life those who revolted against their rule. Prisons have not always been viewed as a way of punishing offenders; rather they have been used to detain offenders before the…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Bradford, Andrew Ryan. "An Examination of The Prison Environment: An Analysis of Inmate Concerns Eight Environmental Dimensions." School of Graduate Studies (2006).

Burlington County. "Prison Museum." A National Historic Landmark Located in The Heart of Holly 2013.

Covert, H. "Ministry to The Incarcerated." Chicago: Loyopla Books, 1995.

Department of Corrections. Victims Services Programs. 2015. .
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Healthcare in Prisons

Words: 1577 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28956815

Federal Bureau of Prisons

While most people seem to agree that prisoners should have access to basic healthcare while incarcerated, there is tremendous variation about what type of healthcare constitutes basic care. The reality is that many prison inmates receive a better quality of healthcare than non-incarcerated working-class individuals, but many inmates also suffer consequences because of significant medical neglect. For the federal prison system, the Federal Bureau of Prisons (BOP) is the agency given broad oversight over healthcare in prison. In fact, the BOP is in charge of all aspects of inmate care for all inmates in the federal prison system.

The BOP is part of the Department of Justice (DOJ). It was established in 1930 to regulate the federal prison system. The BOP's job is not limited to healthcare. Instead, it has responsibility for the entire federal prison system, which "currently includes 114 prisons, 6 regional offices, 2…… [Read More]

References

U.S. Department of Justice, Office of the Inspector General Audit Division. (2008). The

Federal Bureau of Prison's Efforts to Manage Inmate Health Care. Retrieved April 29,

2013 from the Justice.gov website: http://www.justice.gov/oig/reports/BOP/a0808/final.pdf

Wallechinsky, D. (2012). Federal Bureau of Prisons. Retrieved May 1, 2013 from Allgov.com website:  http://www.allgov.com/departments/department-of-justice/federal-bureau-of-prisons-bop?agencyid=7204
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Holloway Hmp Holloway Road Prison

Words: 6856 Length: 24 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 22617462

The Home Office website was also a good source of informstion in this regard. A very good article that shed light on the more negative view of Holloway prison as well as units in other prisons was Getting it right? Services for pregnant women, new mothers, and babies in prison. An extremely useful report that deals specifically with Holloway prison was REPORT ON AN UNANNOUNCED FOLLOW-UP INSPECTION OF HM PRISON HOLLOWAY 11 -- 15 December 2000

Y HM INSPECTORATE OF PRISONS. This report provide some telling and insightful data that invaluable in terms of assessing the value and function of the mother and baby units in this prison.

4. Theoretical aspects

There are many theoretical aspects that pertain to the issue of mother and child units at a prison such as Holloway. In general terms, and from a criminological perspective, there is the view that units of this kind are…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Burrell I. Jail baby units reviewed 1998 [Online] Available at: By

 http://www.independent.co.uk/news/jail-baby-units-reviewed-1189057.html  [Accessed 2 April, 2010].

Female Prisoners [Online] Available at:  http://www.hmprisonservice.gov.uk/adviceandsupport/prison_life/femaleprisoners  / [Accessed 3 April, 2010].

Holloway [Online] Available at:  http://www.hmprisonservice.gov.uk/prisoninformation/locateaprison/prison.asp?id=454,15,2,15,454,0 [Accessed 3 April, 2010].
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Police Reform in Post Authoritarian Brazil

Words: 12011 Length: 35 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 41646569

Police eform in Post-Authoritarian Brazil

A majority of new democracies entail an unbelievable illogicality of an immensely feeble citizenship coalesced with a stern description of the constitutional guarantees. In order to explicate this disparity it would be prudent to contemplate the significance of political institutions regarding representation of citizen, which were prevalent subsequent to the military establishments attributed as troublesome and a majority of the new restrictions. A few defined in the autocratic establishment, were implemented by quite a few new establishments prominently by the Brazilian Constitution of 1988 (Pinheiro, 1996).

The prominence out of such institutions of Brazil were the excessive illustration of lesser populated regions on the contrary to the regions with greater population: Sao Paulo in recent times incorporates 60 Congressmen (which is analogous to 11.9% of the entire constituents of a Congress) depicting a voting strength of 20,774,991. This strength makes up 21.9% of the entire…… [Read More]

References

Amnesty International (2002). 'Subhuman': Torture, overcrowding and brutalization in Minas Gerais police stations. London, Amnesty International.

Bailey, Willian C. 1984. "Poverty, Inequality and City Homicides Rates." Criminology. Vol. 22. no0 4. November.

Beato F., C.C. Accion y Estrategia de las Organizaciones Policiales In: Policia, Sociedad y Estado: Modernizacion y Reforma Policial en America del Sul.1 ed.Santiago: Centro de Estudios del Desarrollo, 2001a, p. 39-56.

Beato F., Claudio Chaves, Renato Martins Assuncao, Braulio Figueiredo Alves da Silva, Frederico Couto Marinho, Ilka Afonso Reis, Maria Cristina de Mattos Almeida. 2001. "Conglomerados de homicidios e o trafico de drogas em Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brasil, de 1995 a 1999." Cadernos de Saude Publica. Rio de Janeiro: v.17, n.5, p.1163-1171, 2001b.
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Overcrowded and Under-Funded Prisons According

Words: 3353 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 55816431

In the American Disease: Origins of Narcotic Control, David Musto notes that throughout the twentieth century, America's drug wars have regularly scape-goated minority groups, like the Chinese with opium, marijuana among the Mexicans, and cocaine among the African-Americans (McCormick 2000).

The National Advisory Commission on Criminal Justice Standards and Goals reported in 1973 that "the prison, the reformatory and the jail have achieved only a shocking record a failure. There is overwhelming evidence that these institutions create crime rather than prevent it," yet during the next two decades both state and federal legislatures implemented increasingly stiffer penalties and mandatory minimums claiming that prisons were an effective tool for crime control, and longer prison terms would reduce crime by deterring or incapacitating criminals (McCormick 2000). However, at the end of this period, after the average prison sentence had tripled and the prison population at more than quadrupled, a National Academy of…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Demleitner, Nora V. (2005 October 01). Smart public policy: replacing imprisonment with targeted nonprison sentences and collateral sanctions. Stanford Law Review. Retrieved September 18, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.

Dickenson, Rachel. (1996 February 01). The prison population bomb.

American Demographics. Retrieved September 18, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.

Incarceration. (2005). The Sentencing Project. Retrieved September 18, 2006 at  http://www.sentencingproject.org /issues_01.cfm
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Controlling the Prison Population According

Words: 1376 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 78083676

S. pp). This is partly due to high recidivism because within three years of their release, two of every three prisoners are back behind bars (U.S. pp). Criminologists attribute the prison population growth to "get tough on crime" policies that have subjected hundreds of thousands of nonviolent drug and property offenders to long mandatory sentences (U.S. pp). Malcolm Young of the Sentencing Project, says, "e have to be concerned about an overloaded system which sentences many offenders quickly and is not dong a good job of sorting out people who should be incarcerated from people for whom other responses would produce better, less expensive results" (U.S. pp).

The rise in the prison population varies by state, yet since 1998, twelve states experienced stable or declining incarceration rates but crime rates in those states declined at the same rates as in the other thirty-eight (U.S. pp).

Young says, "e're working under…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Incarcerated America. April 2003. Accessed from the Human Rights Watch web site on May 04, 2005.  http://www.hrw.org/backgrounder/usa/incarceration /" target="_blank" REL="NOFOLLOW">
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Adaptations to Prison Life the

Words: 1546 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77193912

Prisoners feign conformity with rehabilitation programs merely in an effort to get ahead. Prison stays involving the shedding of one's former self, and its replacement with a new prison self that conforms to all the expectations and behavioral patterns of inmate culture. This inmate culture is inherently hostile to the aims of corrections staff. Corrections staff must avoid doing anything that would tend to enhance the validity of inmate culture. They must resort to equal measures in reaction to prisoner provocations. Prisoners must not be stripped of their humanity. They must be maintained as independent men and women capable of surviving on their own, in a reasonably normal society. Notions of status, respect, and hope for the future, must be maintained as they would outside the prison walls. Corrections personnel must enable prisoners to continue to follow, and believe in, the rules of normal society, even if, in the beginning,…… [Read More]

References

Frase, R.S. (2004). 4 Limiting Retributivism. In The Future of Imprisonment, Tonry, M. (Ed.) (pp. 83-112). New York: Oxford University Press.

(2003). Prisonization: Individual and Institutional Factors Affecting Inmate Conduct. New York: LFB Scholarly Publishing.

Richards, S.C., & Ross, J.I. (2001). Introducing the New School of Convict Criminology. Social Justice, 28(1), 177.

Stanko, S., Gillespie, W., & Crews, G.A. (2004). Living in Prison: A History of the Correctional System with an Insider's View. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
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Privatizing Prison Administration

Words: 713 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 16040271

Privatizing Prison Administration

Description of the Financing System.

Description of How the Current System orks. The financial costs associated with maintaining America's prison system are staggering. Just to stay even with an inmate population that grows by 50,000 to 80,000 a year, approximately, 1,000 new jails and prisons have been built since 1980, and about one new 1,000 bed facility must be added every week for the next ten years (Mccormick 2000). The cost of imprisoning adult offenders ranges from $25,000 to $70,000 a year, and the total costs associated with constructing each new prison cell has soared to $100,000; as a result, the annual budget for constructing and maintaining prisons has jumped in the last two decades from $7 billion to almost $40 billion dollars (Schlosser 1999).

According to Stephen Donziger (1997), "prisons are the largest public works program in America, providing housing, food, (and only sometimes) education, mental…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Campbell, Allison, Andrew Coyle and Rodney Neufeld (Eds.). Capitalist Punishment: Prison

Privatization & Human Rights. Atlanta: Clarity Press, 2003.

Mccormick, Patrick T. (2000). Just Punishment and America's Prison Experiment. Theological Studies, 61(3):508.

Schlosser, Kathryn Casa. (July 2, 1999). Prisons: The New Growth Industry. National Catholic Reporter, 16.
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Nineteenth Century Reform

Words: 1948 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 1976691

Nineteenth Century Reform

The nineteenth century, particularly between 1825 and the outbreak of the civil war in 1861, the United States was in a state of reform. There were five key reform movements that made themselves present in America in the nineteenth century. There was the Utopianism/

Communitarian Movement, which established an ideal society separate from present politics. Educational reforms were important in the creation of taxes to support the public school system, higher education for adults, as well as mandatory education and attendance. The Temperance Movement urged abstinence from alcohol and the oman's Rights Movement was vital in the improvement of the life of women politically, socially, and economically. It also included the battle forged for women's suffrage rights. Humanitarianism was improving the lives of those less fortunate.

Reform in the nineteenth century was generated by secular communities, which arose in the mid 1800s. The primary goal of these…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Emerson, Ralph Waldo. The Transendentalist. 1842.  http://www.emersoncentral.com/transcendentalist.htm 

Fitzhugh, George. Sociology for the South or The Failure of Free Society. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 1998.

Sumner, William Graham. What Social Classes Owe to Each Other. Caldwell, ID: Caxton Press, 2003.

U.S. Constitution. http: www.usconstitution.com/const.html.
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Tort Reform Has Been on the Lips

Words: 1021 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32208254

Tort reform has been on the lips of politicians and attorneys for many years. In the United States, it is a contentious political issue with strong feelings on both sides of the issue. U.S. tort reform advocates propose procedural and time limits on the right to file claims as well as capping the amounts of damage awards. The supporters of the existing tort system argue that the reformers have misrepresented the issues and criticize tort reform as favoring corporations. In this essay, the author will briefly look at both sides of the issue. Then, we will examine possible solutions in the form of a social security type of system that would issue payments to tort recipients from a government run accident insurance fund that corporations and citizens would both contribute to. Such an approach would however constitute a major change in the tort system of the U.S. which is fundamentally…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Dukes, G., Mildred, M., & Swartz, B. (1998). Responsibility for drug-induced inquiry: a reference book for health professionals and manufacturers . Amsterdam, NE: IOS Press.

Examining the work of state courts, 2003. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.ncsconline.org/D_Research/csp/2003_Files/2003_Main_Page.html.

Facts about tort liability and its impact on consumers. (2007). Retrieved from http://www.atra.org/wrap/files.cgi/7963_howtortreform.html.

Koenig, T.H., & Rustad, M.L. (2001). In defense of tort law. New York, NY: New York Univ. Press.
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Domestic Prison Gender Roles and Marriage the

Words: 3215 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 58318174

Domestic Prison

Gender oles and Marriage

The Domestic Prison: James Thurber's "Secret Life of Walter Mitty" and Kate Chopin's "The Story of an Hour"

James Thurber's "The Secret Life of Walter Mitty" (1939) and "The Story of an Hour" (1894) by Kate Chopin depict marriage as a prison for both men and women from which the main characters fantasize about escaping. Louise Mallard is similar to the unnamed narrator in Charlotte Perkins Gilman's "The Yellow Wallpaper" is that they are literally imprisoned in a domestic world from which there is no escape but death or insanity. As in all of this early feminist fiction, the women characters are defined as 'sick', either physically or mentally, for even imaging a situation on which they might be free, for they are allowed no lives of their own. Louise Mallard was overjoyed when she heard that her husband was killed in an accident,…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Allen, J.A. (2004) The Feminism of Charlotte Perkins Gilman: Sexuality, Histories, Progressivism. University of Chicago Press, 2004.

Chopin, K. (1997). "The Story of an Hour" in A. Charters and S. Charters (eds). Literature and Its Writers: An Introduction to Fiction, Poetry, and Drama. Boston: Bedford Books, pp. 158-159.

Davis, S. (1982). "Katherine Chopin." American Realists and Naturalists. D. Pizer and E.N. Harbert (eds). Detroit: Gale Research, 1982. Dictionary of Literary Biography Vol. 12.

Gilman, C. (1997)."The Yellow Wallpaper" in A. Charters and S. Charters (eds). Literature and Its Writers: An Introduction to Fiction, Poetry, and Drama. Boston: Bedford Books, 1997, pp. 230-242.
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How the Politics of Reform Impact Prisons

Words: 641 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Paper #: 61990333

judicial reform is based on the idea that a total or partial political reformation of the judiciary can be performed as a stage in a much grander reform concept that includes both the legal and the executive branches of government. When judicial reform is effected, the aim is to end corruption in the judicial system -- whether the issue is bribery or cronyism or any other form of corruption. Prison control, such as the concept of the Panopticon is about instilling social values in the prisoners by giving them the sense that they are always being observed and therefore should act accordingly. While this concept does not necessarily gel with the concept of reform, as in the idea to reform prison conditions so that prisoners are more comfortable and so that the penal system (like the judicial system) is cleansed of corruption, it does offer a kind of reformation strategy…… [Read More]

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Juvenile Total Institutions Total Institutions Prisons Jails

Words: 1797 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65920440

Juvenile Total Institutions

Total Institutions ( prisons/jails) juveniles. A. Discuss history B. Goals C. programming youth held . D. Issues/Problems Present facilities Below Guideline paper. 1. Students expected draw information class material scholarly sources journal articles, government websites, NPO websites.

Bortner and Williams (1997)

define a total institution as a physical location such as a prison or a reformatory where all the total needs of the residents are met. The needs of the individuals are mostly physical such as health, clothing, nutrition, shelter, etc. For juveniles, total institutions must be able to meet their educational and psychological needs as the youth. For an institution to quality as a total institution, the totality of the care that is provided in the institutions must be reflected in the round the clock confinement of the residents including holidays and weekends Shoemaker, 2009.

Goffman (1961)

argues that in many different ways, correctional institutions also…… [Read More]

References

ABA Division for Public Education. The History of Juvenile Justice. In ABA Division for Public Education (Ed.), Dialogue on Youth and Justice (pp. 1-8). Chicago, IL: American bar association.

Austin, J., Johnson, K.D., & Weitzer, R. (2005). Alternatives to the Secure Detention and Confinement of Juvenile Offenders (pp. 41). Rockville, MD: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, U.S. Dept of Justice.

Bortner, M.A., & Williams, L. (1997). Youth in Prison. New York: Rutledge.

Commonwealth v. Fisher, No. 213 48 (1905).
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Solitary Confinement for Prison Infractions

Words: 1589 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 70757647

Solitary Confinement for Prison Infractions

In this article, the subject of solitary confinement as a punishment for breaking prison laws and its moral effect is discussed and a decision taken whether it should be continued or not.

Background of Solitary Confinement

The country with the highest number of prisoners in the world is the United States of America with 's over 2 million people in various federal, state and locally owned incarceration facilities, a number which represents an almost 400% rise compared to the population in the 70's. numbers. The 2014 U.S. National esearch Council report showed that in the year 2012, America was home to over 25% of the world's prisoners and 1% of Americans were in jail. A common prison tradition that has received a lot of attention and criticism lately is the segregation of specific inmates into separate cells in order to protect the other prisoners or…… [Read More]

References

(n.d.). American Friends Service Committee - Quaker values in action. Solitary confinement facts - American Friends Service Committee. Retrieved December 9, 2016, from  http://www.afsc.org/resource/solitary-confinement-facts 

Gangi. (2015). Corrections Officers - Corrections One. The role of solitary confinement, and why it's necessary. Retrieved December 11, 2016, from  http://www.correctionsone.com/treatment/articles/9487054-The-role-of-solitary-confinement-and-why-its-necessary 

(n.d.). Home - Journalist's Resource Journalist's Resource. Solitary confinement in prisons: Key data and research findings - Journalist's Resource Journalist's Resource. Retrieved December 8, 2016, from  http://journalistsresource.org/studies/government/criminal-justice/solitary-confinement-prisons-key-data-research-findings 

Igne-Bianchi, J. (n.d.). The Kenan Institute for Ethics at Duke University. In the Hole: Is Solitary Confinement Justifiable? - Team Kenan at the Kenan Institute for Ethics. Retrieved December 9, 2016, from  http://kenan.ethics.duke.edu/teamkenan/encompass/current-issue/e14-in-the-hole-is-solitary-confinement-justifiable/
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Privatization of Prisons

Words: 1735 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 13417431

Furthermore, even the goal of preventing recidivism (and crime rates in general) conflict with the profit motive of any industry whose demand is measured by the numbers of criminals convicted and sentenced to terms of incarceration.

Conclusion:

Prison privatization has increased in the last few decades in the U.S. Its proponents believe that privatizing prisons will reduce the financial strain on government authorities in connection with maintaining correctional services. Critics are extremely wary of any transition to for-profit business models in the realm of corrections, primarily because of the tremendous potential for inherent conflicts of interests. Ultimately, the best approach might be a hybrid format where private entities supplement government authorities, but subject to appropriate legislative guidelines and oversight mechanisms sufficient to ensure that industry standards and integrity are not compromised the way they might be under unrestricted privatization policies.

eferences

Cullen, F.T., Eck, J.E., Lowencamp, C.T. (2002). Environmental Corrections:…… [Read More]

References

Cullen, F.T., Eck, J.E., Lowencamp, C.T. (2002). Environmental Corrections: A New Paradigm for Effective Probation and Parole Supervision. Federal Probation, Vol. 66, No. 28.

Dershowitz, a.M. (2002). Shouting Fire: Civil Liberties in a Turbulent Age. New York: Little Brown & Co.

Gaines, L.K., Kaune, M., Miller, R.L. (2006). Criminal Justice in Action: The Core.

Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
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Women at Five State Prison

Words: 10602 Length: 30 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 80834550

5%, compared to 4.8% for males). (Chesney-Lind, 1998, p. 66)

The author also re-confirms the fact that data regarding of female inmate's indicate that as cited the passage of increased penalties for drug offenses has certainly been a major factor in this increase. Again, it is also important to see that implementation of these stricter sentencing reform initiatives which supposedly were devoted to reducing class and race disparities in male sentencing, pay very little attention to gender and the particular needs of women have been grievously overlooked. (Chesney-Lind, 1998; Aday, 2003)

The advent of mandatory sentencing schemes and strict punishment for drug offenses has been devastating to women. Many states have adopted harsh mandatory sentencing schemes. The Federal Sentencing Guidelines, which eliminated gender and family responsibility as factors for consideration at the time of sentencing, were adopted. (5) the policy of eliminating gender and family responsibility, combined with heightened penalties…… [Read More]

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Ethics Prison Purpose of a Prison Sentence

Words: 748 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 9201868

Ethics

Prison

Purpose of a Prison Sentence

Crimes are committed daily in our modern day society and can be loosely defined as any action, that by society's standard, equals the breaking or disobeying of some accepted rule, standard, statute or cultural opinion. Crimes can be committed by either or both adults and juveniles. There is no age requirement to committing a crime but age often does affect other aspects of how and when a perpetrator gets caught and/or treated by law information. Many things can get people incarcerated such as selling drugs, jaywalking and premeditated murder to name a few. That brings to light the topic of the system of jurisprudence and the criminal justice system. Even though crime continues to rise, our criminal justice system is underfunded, understaffed and most likely overwhelmed. So, if this is the case, what is the purpose of a prison sentence? There are many…… [Read More]

Works Cited

New World Encyclopedia. (2009). Prison. Ed. All American Patriots. 2005 March 1. Retrieved on December 1, 2009, from New World Encyclopedia at  http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Prison
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Performance Management in Prisons

Words: 2476 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61412476

Performance-Based Standards

Accreditation plan for the American Correctional Association

The accreditation of the correctional facilities is aimed at ensuring the well-being of the inmates but also is targeted at benefiting the employees, the victims, the courts as well as the legislators of a state. The standards that are set do allow the protection of the judicial system from embarrassment as well as allowing the correctional institutions to have and retain the autonomy from outside interventions.

Goals and functions of functional areas

Safety; this involves provision of conditions that are humane, protection of the inmates from rape and possible assault, giving of nutritious food as well as medical care, giving the inmates a hygienic living environment and recreation activities. This will ensure the inmates are safe from ill health or physical harm while within the walls of the facility as well as being safe from abusive guards.

Security; this functional are…… [Read More]

References

American Correctional Association, (2014). Public Correctional Policy on Standards and Accreditation. Retrieved March 7, 2014 from https://www.aca.org/government/policyresolution/view.asp?ID=44

David Ronald R., (2006). Evaluating American Correctional Association Accreditation of Adult Correctional Institutions. Retrieved March 7, 2014 from  https://www.google.co.ke/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=5&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0CEgQFjAE&url=https%3A%2F%2Fdspace.uta.edu%2Fbitstream%2Fhandle%2F10106%2F478%2Fumi-uta-1244.pdf%3Fsequence%3D1&ei=r3YcU97SBubb7Aa2hIHAAQ&usg=AFQjCNGeh6YJwRQeOzwduuSGkhI3J9IXMg&sig2=jVsH_ysiTj7ZUyDagJDjSA&bvm=bv.62578216,d.bGE 

Flynn E.E., (1977). The Correctional Facility: The Environment Today and in the Future. Library Trends. Summer edition.

Manitoba Laws, (1999). The Correctional Services Act. Retrieved March 7, 2014 from  https://web2.gov.mb.ca/laws/statutes/ccsm/c230e.php
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African-Americans Receive Longer Jail Sentences

Words: 688 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84389805

Selling in public obviously can result in an arrest far easier than selling in a dorm, or a bar, or a workplace, as whites tend to do. Police can stop a black man on the street and frisk him without a warrant. And so if African-Americans are far more likely to be selling crack in the open air, and crack sales result in far longer jail sentences than powder cocaine sales, there is at least part of the answer as to why African-Americans serve longer sentences in some cases.

A ashington Post analysis of 79,000 federal sentences between the years 1993 and 1995 (referenced in Jet Magazine) reflects that "Blacks received 2% longer jail terms than whites" nationally, and in the District of Columbia Blacks received sentences that were 12% longer than whites (Jet Magazine).

Meantime, in the publication Sentencing Law and Policy (a participant in the law Professor Blogs…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Contexts. "Black/White Disparities in Prison Sentences." Sociological Images. Retrieved January 30, 2009, from  http://contexts.org .

Doege, David. "Drug Sentences Worse For Blacks." Journal Interactive. Wisconsin State

Journal. (2007).

Jet. "Federal Prison Study Reveals That Black Defendants Still Get Longer Sentences.
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Health Care Reform Recommendations to

Words: 1761 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 32743451

On the contrary, a comprehensive medical care solution that tackles the main issues driving up health care costs in America is possible. The main problem experienced by the average American is that health insurance premiums are cost prohibitive for the middle-class, but being uninsured can bankrupt a family forced to deal with even a minor catastrophic illness. Therefore, a national health insurance program has to be part of the solution. However, one cannot overlook the role that unpaid medical bills and exorbitant malpractice premiums also play in the modern healthcare crises. As a result, the solution must include a way to reduce malpractice premiums through tort reform, and a way to reduce the percentage of medical bills that go unpaid. The proposed three-prong approach would tackle all of those issues, without forcing any unwilling person to participate in a nationalized healthcare program.

orks Cited

American Tort Reform Association. "Medical Liability…… [Read More]

Works Cited

American Tort Reform Association. "Medical Liability Reform." ATRA Issues. 2007.

American Tort Reform Association. 6 Nov. 2008 http://www.atra.org/show/7338.

Kershaw-Staley, Tracy. "Miami Valley Hospital Files Lawsuit Over Unpaid Medical Bills."

Dayton Business Journal. 2008. Dayton Business Journal. 6 Nov. 2008  http://dayton.bizjournals.com/dayton/stories/2008/01/07/story5.html .
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argument in favor of the life in prison over execution

Words: 473 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29678832

The death penalty is a vestige of the past, a time when vengeance and retribution were the standard means of dealing with transgressions or deviance. While there are significant drawbacks with the American penal system and corrections institutions, a life term in prison is a far more reasonable sentence for the most heinous of crimes than capital punishment is. There are several reasons why the death penalty plays no role at all in a civilized democracy, and why it also threatens to undermine the very foundations of Constitutional law. The worst criminals—those who prove themselves incapable of rehabilitation or reform due to their psychological constitutions—can be effectively dealt with in prison, promoting public safety without putting at risk the integrity of the criminal justice system.
One of the main reasons to avoid using the death penalty is the possibility of false confessions and wrongful convictions. DNA evidence overturns convictions often…… [Read More]

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Social Reform

Words: 633 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 38857698

Economic Changes in the North and Social Reform Movements

The years between 1820 and 1860, also known as the pre-Civil War years or the antebellum years, were the most chaotic in American History (Dudley 2003). During this time, significant changes took place in the United States. The nation saw a transformation from a largely undeveloped nation of farmers and frontiersmen into an urbanized and economic powerhouse. This essay will explore how these economic changes in the North are linked to the social reform movements of the time.

The North was completely transformed by the Market Revolution, that is, a shift from an agricultural-based economy to one based on wages and the exchange of goods and services (Dudley 2003). A contributing factor was a manufacturing boom in the North which was created by the invention of the cotton gin. Infrastructure began to improve along with modes of transportation, such as the…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Dudley, William. American History by Era: Antebellum America 1784-1850. New York: Cengage Gale, 2003.
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Ethics of Prison Novel Punishments

Words: 3649 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 46256788

Ethics Policy

Going by history, the chain gangs found in America were mostly used as tools for humiliating, controlling and terrorizing the African-Americans. The chain gang reappeared in 1995 as a type of punishment in Alabama prisons, thus bringing back to life one of the most shameful and powerful symbol of America's bequest of institutionalized ethnic subjugation and racial prejudice. The 8th Amendment prohibits all punishments that are not in agreement with the evolving decency standards that exhibits the growth of an emergent civilization. Slavery was not abolished immediately as a consequence of implementation of the 13th Amendment.

Despite the constitutional provisions for the total prohibition of slavery; the remnants of slavery could still be found in several economic, political and social contexts. Under the disguise of criminal justice, slavery was almost unashamedly re-implemented. Before the 13th Amendment saw the light of the day, repressive labor practices were introduced into…… [Read More]

References

Anderson, J.F., & Dyson, L. (2000). Alabama Prison Chain Gangs: Reverting to Archaic Punishment to Reduce Crime and Discipline Offenders. Western Journal of Black Studies, 24(1), 9.

Haley, S. (2013). "Like I Was a Man": Chain Gangs, Gender, and the Domestic Carceral Sphere in Jim Crow Georgia. Signs: Journal of Women in Culture & Society, 39(1), 53-77.

Guttierrez, A. (2013). Sufferings peculiarly their own: the thirteenth amendment, in defense of incarcerated women's reproductive rights, 15 Berkeley J.Afri.-Am. L. & Pol'y.

Banks, C. (2004) Criminal justice ethics: theory and practice. SAGE.
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Since the Middle of the 20th Century Prisons and Other Corrections Issues

Words: 977 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 78984314

corrections models in the United States have changed significantly over the past several generations, from a rehabilitative toward a punitive paradigm. After World War Two, a strong sense of national security and prosperity prevailed in the United States, leading to a corrections system that was based more on rehabilitation than on punishment. During these idealistic times, criminals were believed to be "ill," and correctable via a treatment model ("History and Development of Corrections 1700-Present," n.d.). Trust in governmental institutions also helped politicians and the public alike agree that corrections should be built upon the theory that criminal behavior can be unlearned, or "corrected." The rehabilitation approach persisted well into the 1960s, as humanistic psychology informed corrections models. A humanistic worldview encouraged "deinstitutionalization" of corrections through the use of community-based services like halfway houses and probation ("History and Development of Corrections 1700-Present," n.d.). Sentencing policy during the middle of the 20th…… [Read More]

References

Christianson, S. (n.d.). Prisons: history. Retrieved online:  http://law.jrank.org/pages/1786/Prisons-History.html 

"History of American Corrections," (n.d.). In Corrections: A Text/Reader. Retrieved online:  http://www.sagepub.com/upm-data/26034_1.pdf 

"History and Development of Corrections 1700-Present," (n.d). Retrieved online:  http://www.preceden.com/timelines/23091-history-and-development-of-corrections-1700-present 

Mackenzie, D.L. (2001). Sentencing and corrections in the 21st century. Retrieved online:  https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/189106-2.pdf
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Affirmative Action Why We Need to Reform

Words: 3682 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1065291

Affimative Action: Why We Need to Refom It

It is widely believed that the Ameican society is a "melting pot" whee membes of acial, ethnic, eligious, and sexual minoities eventually mold into the mainsteam, becoming full-fledged citizens of the county. The eality, howeve, is much moe complicated. While it is tue that Ameica offes many oppotunities to all its citizens, thee is a histoy of discimination against minoity goups that affects the Ameican society even today. Afican-Ameicans wee confined to the shackles of slavey fo thee hunded yeas and fo anothe hunded yeas of institutionalized discimination, while othe minoity goups and women had to stuggle had to win civil ights and make the Ameican society moe egalitaian. The Ameican society has pogessed to the point whee most citizens believe that eveyone should be entitled to equal ights egadless of one's ace, colo, gende, ethnicity, o eligion. And it is because…… [Read More]

references in Black and White. New York: Routledge.
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Social Reform

Words: 1768 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 14320704

films may have in common are performers, directors or subject matter. The films, The Shawshank Redemption, The Green Mile and the Hurricane, have several things in common. All three films follow the results of men wrongly convicted of murder. Two of the films, The Shawshank Redemption and The Green Mile, were adapted from original works of the same author, Stephen King. They also were directed by the same person, Frank Darabont. In addition, all three films share something else. They are all films about individuals who have been judged because of the way they look.

In The Green Mile, John Coffey, played by Michael Clarke Duncan, is on death row after being found guilty of murdering two little white girls. The Green Mile is the name given to Coal Mountain Louisiana State Penitentiary's death row. Coffey, a black man, was found with the broken bodies of the two dead girls…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Berardinelli, James. "The Green Mile." 1999. May 2, 2005 .

Berardinelli, James. "The Hurricane." 1999. May 2, 2005 http://movie-reviews.colossus.net/movies/h/hurricane.html>.

Berardinelli, James. "The Shawshank Redemption." 1994. May 2, 2005 .

Ebert, Roger. "The Green Mile." December 10, 1999. May 2, 2005 .
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Treatment of Prisoners in the U S Continues to Be Cruel

Words: 863 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48041533

Evolution of Prison Life

hat were prisons like, how were prisoners treated and classified through American history -- including prison environments in the last few years? This paper delves into those topics and provides the available literature that validates the points to be made in this essay.

The History of Prisons and Prisoner Life in America

According to author and Professor Jack Lynch, prisons were among the very first public buildings when settlers began to populate and develop the New orld. And there were few long-term punishments that were meted out, and among those were individuals convicted of being "debtors" (Lynch, 2008). The problem with putting the poor in prison because they couldn't pay their debts was that "…they could never earn the money they owed"; but it wasn't until the 1830s that the U.S. began to "…abolish debtor's prisons" (Lynch, 3). Instead of being imprisoned, convicted criminals were forced…… [Read More]

Works Cited

American Civil Liberties Union. (2013). Prison Conditions. Retrieved March 19, 2014, from  https://www.aclu.org .

Austin, J., and Hardyman, P.L. (2004). Objective Prison Classification: A Guide for Correctional Agencies. U.S. Department of Justice. Retrieved March 19, 2014, from http://www.jfa-associates.com.

Lynch, J. (2008). Cruel and Unusual Prisons and Prison Reform. History.org. Colonial Williamsburg. Retrieved March 19, 2014, from  http://www.history.org .

Schwirtz, M. (2014). Mental Illness and Violence Rise at a Vast Jail. The New York Times.
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Santos Reyes Is Sentenced to

Words: 1612 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Capstone Project Paper #: 62453996

The significant increase in prison terms has created unsafe, unhealthy, and potentially dangerous conditions for violent and non-violent criminals alike, frequently affecting the potential to rehabilitate felons. The Law has led to various unusual circumstances that have attracted national attention, especially those cases that send third-time offenders to prison for 25 years or more for simple, non-violent, victimless crimes, such as in the case of Santos Reyes in 1998. Despite the controversy and negative consequences, the Supreme Court upheld the Three Strikes Law, saying that it stopped short of constituting "cruel and unusual punishment."

The Three Strikes Law had the intention of limiting recidivism. However, numerous studies suggest that declines in recidivism have been negligible. This is another unintended consequence of the Three Strikes Law; the general failure to curb third offenses. Violent crimes have dropped in urban areas in California, but those declines are in line with declines in…… [Read More]

PA: Mason Crest Publishers.

Tyler, T. (1997). Three Strikes and You're Out, but Why? The Psychology of Public Support

for Rule Breakers. Law & Society Review, vol. 31, 2, pp. 23-246.
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Fiscal Impact of the Maryland Budgetary Crisis

Words: 5056 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 79562335

Maryland Prison System

Crime is expensive. But so too is punishment. The state of Maryland, like the majority of states across the nation at the moment, is facing a period of slow economic growth and shrinking economic resources even as it continues to have to meet the needs of its citizens. This paper examines the effect on the state's overall budget of the cost of incarcerating prisoners.

The treatment of prisoners causes few legal problems for the government of a dictatorship. A government that refuses to acknowledge the human rights of even its law-abiding citizens is not likely to show too many qualms about shoving its criminals into overcrowded and unsafe prisons - or even to worry about whether the niceties of due process were considered in getting the person to prison to begin with. But the rule of constitutional law changes all that. Because we live in a country…… [Read More]

References

Feely, M. And Edward, R. (1998). Judicial policy making and the modern state: How courts reformed. Cambridge: Cambridge University.

Hafetz, J. (1995). Tough justice. New York Empire State Report. http://216.239.57.104/search?q=cache:5haT4coRUqgJ:www.mdgreens.org/montgomery/pdf/schoolsnotprisons.pdf+maryland+state+budget+prison&hl=en&ie=UTF-8

 http://biotech.law.lsu.edu/cases/prisons/Estelle_v_Gamble.htm 

 http://www.caps.ucsf.edu/inmaterev.html
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Business Social Responsibilities in a

Words: 1297 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 56328959

Likewise, public policies ranging from immigration to the war on drugs and the de-institutionalization of persons with mental illness also have a substantial impact on local corrections (Stinchcomb and McCampbell, 2008).

The key to running a successful correctional institution is building an organization that is capable of good strategy execution. These types of facilities have a social responsibility not only to the prisoners that they house but also to the community in which they are located. They way in which they can do this is to make sure that the employees within the facility are prepared to deal with they things that are going to go on within the facility walls. The overall goal of a correctional facility is to rehabilitate inmates into socially responsible citizens that can be returned to society in order to be productive members.

The occurrence of doing jail time can be life changing for those…… [Read More]

References

Corporate Social Responsibility. (2010). Retrieved July 28, 2010, from As you Sow Web site;

http://www.asyousow.org/csr/

Wang, Zhixin. (n.d.). Prison Enterprise Financial Management Innovation in the Context

of China's Prison System Reform. Retrieved July 28, 2010, from Web site:
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Federal Mandatory Minimum Drug Sentences and Their

Words: 2517 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 18974474

Federal Mandatory Minimum Drug Sentences and Their Impact on Recidivism

There is much controversy regarding mandatory sentencing and its impact on the American society throughout recent times. In many ways, prisons are used as a means to control crime, to protect society from it, with criminals being deterred from continuing to commit illegalities as a direct result of the time they spend behind bars. Mandatory minimums were generally introduced with the purpose of preventing future recidivism. The authorities considered that the uncomfortable nature of prison life and the social status associated with being in prison were enough to persuade criminals to refrain from ever expressing interest in illegalities once they were set free. Other schools of thought appear to think just the opposite as some believe that prison time actually has a negative impact on convicts, while others believe that criminals experience little to no change consequent to staying in…… [Read More]

Works cited:

Book:

Goldberg, Raymond, "Drugs Across the Spectrum, 7th ed.," (Cengage Learning, 5 Oct 2012)

Kitwana, Bakari, "The Hip-Hop Generation: Young Blacks and the Crisis in African-American Culture," (Basic Civitas Books, 2008)

Lyman, Michael D., "Drugs in Society: Causes, Concepts, and Control," (Newnes, 25 Sep 2013)
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Better ways to house long term prisoners

Words: 1083 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37322340

Confinement

There is little argument, at least in general, that people that commit wrongful acts and crimes should be punished for what they have done. One of the common methods used to punish people for committed crimes is confinement in jail and/or prison. However, there are many people that suggest or assert that confinement has wide-ranging and long-lasting effects on the people that are subjected to it. They assert that this happens to the point that the method is counterproductive and just makes a bad situation worse in terms of whether the person will recidivate, how/when they will transition back to life outside of prison and mental health concerns in general. hile people that do wrong should obviously be punished to some degree, the possible and perceived effects on confinement should give people pause before they act like they know what the best answer and methods happen to be.

Analysis…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Gawande, Atul. "Is Long-Term Solitary Confinement Torture?."The New Yorker, 2009,  http://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2009/03/30/hellhole .

Kerman, Piper. Orange Is The New Black. New York, Spiegel & Grau, 2010,.

Travis, Jeremy et al. The Growth Of Incarceration In The United States: Exploring Causes And Consequences. National Academies Press, 2014,.
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Social Change Pushed by Transcendentalists

Words: 912 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 59717119

Transcendentalists

Transcendentalism emerged in early 19th century. It is believed that Ralph Waldo Emerson who denied that he was a transcendentalist started transcendentalism. Amongst his peers, he was seen as the pioneer of American transcendentalism. Emerson has criticized various things in his essay especially regarding the Unitarian church. Other key transcendentalists were Henry David Thoreau, Thomas Parker, Amos Bronson Alcott, Margaret Fuller, James Freeman Clark, and Mary Moody Emerson. Ralph Emerson urged Americans to be themselves and searching for inspiration from Europe. He aimed at encouraging people to think openly and search for answers from nature and art. Emerson held on to the belief that people were naturally good, and they all had limitless potential. Emerson was totally against slavery, but was unwilling to speak up about it initially. Eventually in 1844, he began taking an active role in slavery opposition.

Thoreau pushed for simple living and encouraged people to…… [Read More]

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Pennsylvania Correctional System vs Auburn Correctional System

Words: 751 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 86799314

Corrections

Pennsylvania Correctional System VS Auburn Correctional System

Compare and contrast the Pennsylvania Correctional System and the Auburn Correctional System. What correctional system most closely explains our modern day prisons? Why?

The Pennsylvania Correctional System was one of the first correctional systems created in the new nation of America. It was instituted during the 18th century. At the time, it was felt that "the solution to the disorder and corruption in most prisons ...lay in complete separation of each inmate for his or her entire sentence, a system which had been tried occasionally in England but was always abandoned because of costs and inadequate prison structures" (Johnston 2012). The philosophy of the Pennsylvania System was heavily influenced by the Quakerism of the state, which stressed the need for penitential reflection as a way of repenting and establishing a closer relationship between the inmate and God. "The system of 24-hour separation…… [Read More]

References

Both sides of the wall. (2012). Correction History. Retrieved:

http://www.correctionhistory.org/auburn&osborne/brochure2.htm

Johnston, Norman. (2012). Prison reform in Pennsylvania. The Prison Society. Retrieved:

 http://www.prisonsociety.org/about/history.shtml
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Quality TV Some Critics Might

Words: 1542 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 3397657



Quality TV generates interest about social problems

Quite often, fictional TV programs can raise national consciousness and awareness about social problems. Through fiction, viewers care about people far away because problems and issues are personalized and humanized. For example, the HBO program Oz about life in prison has generated compassion about the fate of incarcerated individuals and motivated calls for prison reform in a way that seeing someone in handcuffs on the nightly news cannot. The Sopranos was not simply a high-quality TV drama, its location in a suburban community also forced viewers to think more critically about their daily lives, like the lies, pain, and murder that lay behind the closed doors of affluent suburban New Jersey. The use of violence in these shows is designed to accurately depict life

Quality TV is cinematic

Violence has become part of the cinematic vocabulary, and modern television dramas with legitimate aspirations…… [Read More]

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Mass Incarceration in Arizona Social Cultural and Legislative History

Words: 3499 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65452769

Mass Incarceration in Arizona: Trends and History

Mass incarceration is an example of one of the more profound injustices of our time. Arizona is one of the states in America that currently struggles with mass incarceration, as its penal system has spiraled out of control, becoming a factor of injustice, rather than a necessary and notable part of the justice system. This paper will look at how the penal system has changed—in Arizona and in America as a whole, and discuss how Arizona has also gotten on the corrupt bandwagon of for-profit prisons, something that does a tremendous disservice to all the citizens of the nation. Finally, this paper will examine the race relations in Arizona from a more historical perspective, ultimately demonstrating that mass incarceration impacts black and brown men more than white men, and is ultimately a form of segregation revived. This paper seeks to prove the undeniable…… [Read More]

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Preventing Crime Will Be More Effective Than

Words: 1253 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 717237

Preventing Crime Will Be More Effective Than ehabilitation

Pennsylvania

Preventing Crime May Be

More Effective Than

ehabilitation

This paper reviews Pennsylvania policymakers approach to crime. In particular the researcher explores the idea that it is better to prevent crime than merely rehabilitate criminals. Once released, most criminals return to a life of crime. ecent research in Pennsylvania State however, reveals that crime may be prevented if rehabilitative measures begin at the juvenile level. If at-risk youths are identified at an early age, there is a greater chance that they can be rehabilitated to become contributing members of society rather than criminals engaged in an endless cycle of violent criminal activity.

Introduction

There are few things that make a difference in one's life than the values and morals one learns as a child. Self-sufficiency is something that is taught, not necessarily something a child instinctually learns when they are born. Criminal…… [Read More]

References:

House Hearing. (March 2002). "Innovative Approaches to Preventing Crime and Rehabilitating

Youth and Adult Offenders." House Hearing, 107 Congress, From the U.S. Government

Printing Office, Serial No. 107-165. August 3, 2011:  http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CHRG-107hhrg85124/html/CHRG-107hhrg85124.htm 

Pennsylvania Public Safety Policy Solutions, Pew Center on the States Public Safety
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Prisoner Re-Entry Into Society

Words: 2466 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 37544202

Prisoner Reentry

Recommendations to Hillary Clinton Regarding Prisoner Re-Entry into Society

Prisoner re-entry is a vitally important issue today which has yet to reach its full impact on the minds and lives of voters. However, with every passing year the importance of this topic becomes more evident. Since the eighties, every passing year has brought more pressure for harsher and longer imprisonment and more streamlined mandatory sentencing rules. This has not only resulted in an exploding prison population, but also in a drastic increase in the number of prisoners re-released into communities. Additionally, the push towards more punitive measures has decreased educational opportunities in prisons and the availability of rehabilitation programs. This means that released prisoners are increasingly unable to reintegrate into their communities, increasingly prone to recidivism, and increasingly violent in each release and re-capture cycle. Even the conservative ush administration has recognized the threat posed by unprepared prisoner…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Banks, Gabrielle. "Learning Under Lockdown." Colorlines, NCM 2004 Award Winner, Nov 28, 2004.

Center on Crime, Communities and Culture. Research Brief: Education as Crime Prevention, Sept, 1997.

Human Rights Watch. "No Escape: Male Rape in U.S. Prisons." Archived at:  http://www.hrw.org/reports/2001/prison/ 

Petersilia, Joan. "CHALLENGES OF PRISONER REENTRY AND PAROLE IN CALIFORNIA" California Policy Research Center Brief Series, June 2000. Archived at:  http://www.ucop.edu/cprc/parole.html
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Punishment it Is Interesting to

Words: 970 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 25905263



Part Two Question

It is possible that the debate about the justifications for punishment has been seriously confused about the tacit assumption that the justifications for punishment that makes sense in small-scale family environments also make sense in the larger-scale of the impersonal criminal justice system. In the family-setting, a vast majority of the power of punishment comes from the fact that the person being punished feels that they have disappointed people that they love. In fact, children frequently apologize to their parents for wrongdoing, even if the behavior being punished was something that did not directly harm their parents; for example, the hitting of a peer. Furthermore, when children hide their wrongdoing, they oftentimes do so to avoid parental disappointment, rather than to avoid a specific punishment. How many people, as adults, remember specific non-abusive punishments? On the other hand, how many adults recall specific moments when their parents…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Feinberg, Joel. The Expressive Function of Punishment.

Martinson, Robert. The Paradox of Prison Reform.
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Women in Policing

Words: 1214 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 85392001

Women in Policing

women's initial police work followed work in prisons

Estelle B. Freedman's book, Their Sister's Keepers: Women's Prison eform in America, 1830-1930, focuses not on women emerging as police officers, but rather on women in prisons, and women who were employed by prisons to work with female inmates. On page 19, Freedman explains that in the late 19th Century, "sexual ideology began to suggest that purity came naturally to women, in contrast to men, who had to struggle to control their innate lust." It was argued by "influential Victorian authorities" that women did not have an appetite for sex, but rather they just went through the motions to have children. This attitude laid the groundwork for the vicious hatred society had for "impure women" who had the capacity "to unleash not just male sperm, but more importantly, the social disintegration that sexuality symbolized" (20).

And so, the "fallen…… [Read More]

References

Freedman, Estelle B. (1981). Their Sisters' Keepers: Women's Prison Reform in America, 1830-1930. Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press.

Schulz, Dorothy Moses. (1995). From Social Worker to Crimefighter: Women in United States Municipal Policing. Westport, Connecticut: Praeger.

Segrave, Kerry. (1995). Policewomen: A History. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland

Company.
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Open and Closed System Models in Criminal

Words: 1053 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 66287728

open and closed system models in criminal justice. Specifically it will define open and closed system models of organizations and explain why it is important that the criminal justice professional should know the differences between these models. It will also provide a specific organizational example of each type of organization, one for open systems and one for closed systems, and describe how these organizations meet the criteria of either the open or closed system perspective. There are vast differences in management and outcome between open and closed system models in organizations, and these differences are especially important to the criminal justice system. An open system allows for change and growth, while a closed system is less flexible and far more bureaucratic.

The open and closed ideas of system models in organizations were originated by organizational experts obert L. Kahn and Daniel Katz in the 1960s. There are three basic system…… [Read More]

References

Ciarkowski, Arthur A. "8 Influencing Structure: From Hierarchy to Chaos." How Public Organizations Work: Learning from Experience. Ed. Bellavita, Christopher. New York: Praeger, 1990. 111-122.

Hartmann, Francis and Charles Wellford. "Panel III Changing Nature of Criminal Justice System Responses and Its Professions." U.S. Department of Justice. 1998. 10 June 2005.

<  http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/reports/98Guides/lblf/panel3d.htm 

Roeckelein, Jon E. Dictionary of Theories, Laws, and Concepts in Psychology. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1998.
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Goals of Corrections the Objective

Words: 2380 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 19065395

Just as clearly no individual who is logical would consider Charles Manson or Theodore undy as eligible profiles for the restorative justice program or even for rehabilitation program or indeed of any other than imprisonment or death by execution There are however, very potentially productive, useful, and worthy individuals who are shuffled into the correction system due to their inability to hire a lawyer or lack of knowledge concerning their rights to having representation appointed to them that with education and knowledge or skills acquisition can be successfully rehabilitation or restored to society and within the community. Recently there has been documented an additional strategy in criminal justice corrections which is described as a 'transformational' process and is a cognitive-behavioral approach in treatment.

RECOMMENDATIONS for FUTURE CORRECTIONS

Cognitive behavioral approaches are being used in transforming the dysfunctional thinking of the individual. The work of Mahoney and Lyddon (1988) relate approximately…… [Read More]

Bibliography

MacKenzie, DL and Hickman, LJ (1998) What Works in Corrections? An Examination of the Effectiveness of the Type of Rehabilitation Programs Offered by Washington State Department of Corrections. Submitted to: The State of Washington Legislature joint audit and review committee. Crime Prevention effectiveness Program - Dept. Criminology and Criminal Justice. Online available at  http://www.ccjs.umd.edu/corrections/What%20Works%20In%20Corrections.htm 

Van Ness, DW (nd) Restorative Justice in Prisons. Session 204: The Practice of Restorative Justice in Prison Reform. PFI Centre for Justice and Reconciliation. Prison Fellowship International. Online available at  http://www.restorativejustice.org/editions/2005/july05/2005-06-21.9036003387 .

Complexity of the Social Contract (2001) Prisoner Life Online available at  http://www.prisonerlife.com/s_writings6.cfm .

Erikson, Kai. Wayward Puritans. New York: John Wiley, 1966.
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High Risk Inmates in a

Words: 1460 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 41621300



The prison gangs that emerged in the late 1960s have maintained their identity for more than a decade and they remain a major source of violence in... prisons. A quasi-military type of organization continues to provide the continuity that the old-style predatory alliances lacked and to allow transfer of power when gang leaders are killed or segregated. The tight organization and discipline of these groups enable them to dominate much larger groups of unorganized inmates. Inmates continue to be the primary victims of the gangs, whose activities are the largest source of assaults and deaths in the California system. A major development in recent years has been an escalation of gang activities in several...communities, and there have been more gang-related homicides outside of jails and prisons than inside.

The reasons having been established for why violence so frequently occurs in prison environments this work will now go on to discuss…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Carter, Robert Melvin, and Daniel Glaser, eds. Correctional Institutions. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott, 1977.

Champion, Dean J. A Criminal Justice Sourcebook. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1994.

Park, James W.L. "19 the Organization of Prison Violence." Correctional Institutions. Ed. Robert Melvin Carter and Daniel Glaser. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott, 1977. 277-284.
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Correction System in the United States the

Words: 608 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 11298957

Correction System in the United States

The objective of this brief study is to examine the correctional system in the United States. This system was historically a state-owned and government-operated institution however, in recent years the prison system in the United States has become privatized and this has created a new paradigm in terms of housing prisoners under the present judicial system's orders.

If It Is roken

The prison system received a wake-up call in the Spring of 2011 due to a ruling by the U.S. Supreme Court that the California prison system was required to reduce the inmates in its overcrowded prison system by 30,000 individuals. The court ruled that the California state's system was "incompatible with the concept of human dignity." (Thomas and eckel, 2011) The United States is reported to have roughly 2 million individuals incarcerated in local, state, and federal jails or prisons, which equals "the…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Mikkelsen, Randall (2007) U.S. Prison System: Costly and Harmful Failure. Reuters News. 19 Nov 2007. Retrieved from:  http://www.reuters.com/article/2007/11/19/us-usa-prisons-idUSN1841666120071119 

Private Prisons are Back (2012 ) Corrections. Retrieved from:  http://www.correctionsproject.com/corrections/pris_priv.htm 

Thomas, Cal and Beckel, Bob (2011) Jailbroken: 5 Ways to Fix the U.S.A.'s Prisons. 13 Jul 2011. Retrieved from:  http://www.usatoday.com/news/opinion/forum/2011-07-13-prison-jail-system-america_n.htm
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How the Criminal Justice System Works

Words: 1614 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 58423805

Criminal Justice System

After heavy bombardment on London by fighter plans of Germany in Second World War, someone asked Winston Churchill that would ritain live long! Churchill replied immediately that if our courts are providing justice then there is no question about existence of ritain, which they are. Similarly, in World War 1 and World War 2 where Jews were brutally killed by Nazis then some of the Jews got refuge in America. Americans do not have discrimination for any community at that time and famous scientist Einstein was one of them, which proved its worth. Provision of justice for every community is very important for any society, so it is for ritain. From last few years' lot of questions have been raised on criminal Judiciary system in ritain.

Shami chakrabarti (Director of liberty) says

efore you decide whether the system is fit for purpose, you have to decide what…… [Read More]

Bibliography

BBC. (2001, MAY 7). BBCNEWS VOTE 2001. Retrieved from BBC NEWS|VOTE 2001|FACTS: http://news.bbc.co.uk/news/vote2001/hi/e

CNN. (2012, Feb 22). Cameron hosts talks on football racism. Retrieved from CNN:  http://edition.cnn.com/2012/02/22/sport/football/uk-football-racism/index.html 

Community Correction Punishments. (1996, May). California Research Bureau. Retrieved from Community Correction Punishments:  http://www.library.ca.gov/crb/96/08/ 

Press TV. (2012, May 07). UK police racism complaints doubled. Retrieved from Press TV_UK police racism complaints doubled:  http://www.presstv.ir/detail/239932.html
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Illegal Drug Use Implications

Words: 710 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72701892

Drugs and Behavior

What are drugs exactly and what are some ways drug users get away with illegal usage?

Defining drugs use is a surprisingly difficult proposition. The definition as stated in the session II review is as follows: "any substance taken into the body that alters the function or structure of the body organs ... that changes body state or mental function." But this definition might not only apply to the substances that we would normally consider to be a "drug," but also to substances like chocolate. For example, chocolate has properties that have been shown to change body state and mental function by making a user feel happier for example. Furthermore, drugs can also be naturally occurring substances such as marijuana or mushrooms and thus cannot be further classified in regards to being synthetic substances. There are also countless useful drugs that significantly improve an individual's well-being. Thus…… [Read More]

References

OHSINC. (N.d.). How to Beat a Drug Test. Retrieved from OHSINC:  http://www.ohsinc.com/info/how-to-cheat-a-drug-test/ 

The Economist. (2015, July 16). President Obama for the prisoners. Retrieved from The Economist:  http://www.economist.com/blogs/democracyinamerica/2015/07/criminal-justice-reform 

The White House. (N.d.). Prescription Drug Abuse. Retrieved from Office of National Drug Control Policy: https://www.whitehouse.gov/ondcp/prescription-drug-abuse