448+ documents containing “probation”.
Probation and ecidivism
ecidivism is the habit of offenders falling back to crime or misdemeanor after having been charged with offences or while still on probation. It is a new crime that is committed by a felony inmate or a probationer (Merriam Webster, 2012). The recidivism rate is measured by the number of re-arrests, reincarnations and the reconvictions that take place.
From various studies, there have been various categories of offenders who have been noted to have a higher possibility of falling into recidivism than others and yet another category that has a greater percentage of success in their probation and not fall back into recidivism. The success on probation is widely predicted based on personal characters of the probationers. Women of thirty years and above are generally seen to be able to carry on successfully with the probation and not be subjects to recidivism. It is also noted by Cengage Learning….
Cengage Learning Inc. (2009). Probation, Modification and Termination.
Dr. Tony Fabelo (2009). Travis County probation, three years later. Retrieved February 14, 2012 from http://www.tdcaa.com/node/5268
Merriam Webster, (2012). Definition: Recidivism. Retrieved February 14, 2012 from http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/recidivism
Probation and Parole Programs
Individuals who are unfamiliar with the criminal justice system may think that a convicted criminal is sentenced to a certain period of time in prison and when released has paid his -- or her -- debt to society in full and is as free as anyone without a criminal record. However, in most cases, prisoners released from jail or prison are sentenced to additional time on probation or parole as a sort of transitional phase in their lives during which they have a much higher level of supervision than does the ordinary individual. This period of time is -- ideally -- one in which each individual can make a smooth transition back to ordinary civilian life while at the same time posing a reduced risk to public safety.
A few basic definitions will be useful at this point. While "probation" and "parole" are parallel terms, they can refer….
Andrews, D.A. & Bonta, J. (1994). The Psychology of Criminal Conduct Cincinnati, Ohio: Anderson Publishing Co.
Betesh, W. (2002). Has the state gone too far? Seton Hall Legislative Journal 26.
Corbett, R.P., Fitzgerald, B.L. & Jordan, J. (1998). Boston's Operation Night Light: An Emerging Model for Police-Probation Partnerships, in J. Petersillia, ed. Community Corrections: Probation, Parole, and Intermediate Sanctions New York: Oxford University Press.
Department of Justice. (1998). Rethinking probation. Retrieved from http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/probation/rethink.pdf .
"Public safety and assisting the offender in reintegrating into the community are the most important considerations in any parole decision. Is the inmate willing and ready to re-enter the community as a law-abiding citizen and contribute to a safer society? Can the inmate's release back into society harm the general public? All relevant information is considered" (General parole and probation questions," 2008, Criminal Law - Parole Probation, p. 3). This is in contrast to probation, which is a legal sentence enforced based upon the nature of the crime and is viewed more in terms of the degree of the convicted defendant's culpability and mitigating circumstances regarding the crime.
The parole board takes some of the same factors into consideration as a judge does when sentencing an individual to a term of probation, such as the type and severity of the offence, but also considers certain personal factors, such as the….
General parole and probation questions." (2008). Criminal Law - Parole Probation. Free Advice. Retrieved 30 May 2008 at http://criminal-law.freeadvice.com/parole_probation/probation_parole_pardon.htm
Parole and probation." (2008). Directory M. Retrieved 30 May 2008 at http://articles.directorym.com/Parole_and_Probation-a854432.html#8064170
In 1841, Augustus bailed out a 'common drunkard', and became the first probationer. "The offender was ordered to appear in court three weeks later sentencing. He returned to court a sober man, accompanied by Augustus. To the astonishment of all in attendance, his appearance and demeanor had dramatically changed" ("A Brief History"). This would eventually evolve into today's probation system.
Examples of Probation:
sentence ordered by a judge instead of, or in addition to, serving jail time, that allows the convicted offender to live in the community for a period of time, is known as probation.
Depending on the seriousness of the crime and the circumstances, this sentence sometimes occurs under the supervision of a probation officer. This differs from parole, which is a conditional release of an offender, after serving part or all of their sentence.
Probation also differs from a pardon, which is when an offender is "fully forgiven from all….
Brief History of Probation. No date. New York City Department of Probation. December 6, 2007 http://www.nyc.gov/html/prob/html/history.html.
Browning, D. "Minnesota Frequent Offenders Thrive." IRE Journal 23(4) Jul/Aug 2000: pp. 32-33. Academic Search Premier. EBSCOHost. University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ. December 6, 2007 http://web.ebscohost.com .
O'Connor, T. Probation in a System of Justice. 21 Sept 2004. North Carolina Wesleyian College. December 6, 2007 http://faculty.ncwc.edu/toconnor/294/294lect06.htm.
What are the Typical Examples of Probation Condition? No date. Free Advice. December 6, 2007 http://criminal-law.freeadvice.com/parole_probation/typical_probation_conditions.htm .
Probation and its various forms: According to the official government website by Prince illiam County (PC), Virginia, probation is a sanction ordered by courts that "…allows a person to remain in the community under the supervision of a probation officer." The probation sentence could also include time in jail, a financial penalty, community service, and other sanctions (PC).
There are several kinds of probation, including: a) unsupervised probation (this is generally only available for very petty crimes); b) supervised probation (this requires regular contact with a probation officer and includes specific rules -- no alcohol, etc. -- that must be adhered to); c) community control (in this case the person on probation may be under house arrest and/or have ankle monitoring); and d) shock probation (the judge in this case may put the probationer in prison just to shock him, then release him on probation) (LaMance, 2012).
Probation and recidivism: A report….
Bureau of Justice Statistics. (2012). One in 34 U.S. Adults Under Correctional Supervision in
2011, Lowest Rate Since 2000. Office of Justice Programs. Retrieved January 28, 2013, from http://bjs.ojp.usdoj.gov/content/pub/press/cpus11ppus11pr.cfm.
Katz, Joanne, and Bonham, Gene. (2004). Effective Alternatives to Incarceration: Police
Collaborations with Corrections and Communities. U.S. Department of Justice, retrieved
Guidelines may indicate that probation is an option, giving the judge some leeway in sentencing. Still for other judges, the kinds of services an offender may require will often dictate whether or not probation is a viable option.
A number of the crimes that occur in my state are related to drugs; the sale of drugs, being in possession of drugs, being under the influence of drugs in a public place. In many instances, contingent upon the factors outlined above, probation is a viable option even if the person pleads guilty, particularly if this is a first offense, the client is an habitual user but no one else is directly hurt in the commission of the crime, and in situations of possession with no intent to sell.
I think that imprisonment is imposed in many of these cases when it should not be. The three strike rule with habitual users when….
Probation and Parole: Supervision
Probation and parole agencies supervise offenders in the community. Once an offender has been granted probation or parole, a probation or parole officer is assigned to supervise the progress of that offender in the community.
There is a conflict over the duty and specificities of supervision. To some, supervision is based upon the casework model where supervision forms the basis of a treatment program. In other words, the parole officer draws up a plan of treatment for the parole based upon his or her character and needs, and, using all the information available and resources at his service, designs a treatment plan. The treatment plan is a combination of the parole's needs (e.g. employment), and ways that the parole can satisfy these needs (e.g. attending a life-skills program). The probation officer's endeavor and strategy will assist the parolee in meeting these needs and in finding and attending the….
Criminal Justice System - Structural And Theoretical Components. Retrieved on February 7, 2011 from: http://law.jrank.org/pages/858/Criminal-Justice-System.html
Probation and Parole: Supervision Retrieved on February 7, 2011 from: http://law.jrank.org/pages/1852/Probation-Parole-Supervision.html
Sentencing: Procedural Protection Retrieved on February 7, 2011 from: http://law.jrank.org/pages/2092/Sentencing-Procedural-Protection.html
Parole reduces the financial strain on prison system in terms of costs of feeding and housing prisoners as well as overcrowding and the need to build more prisons.
Parole sentences that require prisoners to volunteer involve prisoners in the local community and enable prisoners to 'pay' their debt to society and thus pay for their incarceration.
Most probationers in the system are nonviolent: "three-quarters of probationers were supervised for a non-violent offense" (Probation and parole statistics, 2008, Bureau of Justice Statistics).
Parole programs can provide added support for prisoners with 'special needs' such as juveniles, individuals who are mentally challenged, or have other conditions that make their reintegration into society more difficult, such as a mental illness which require consistent treatment and medication. For example, states as diverse as New Mexico and New York provide family services, addiction support services, and mental health counseling to prisoners on parole. This improves the health of….
Ciamarra, Michael. (2006, Nov 19). Should Alabama use private prisons?
The Huntsville Times Retrieved 24 Sept 2008 at http://realcostofprisons.org/blog/archives/2006/11/al_should_alaba.html
La Faive, Michael (2004, Apr 26). Prison privatization: A growing national trend. The Mackinac Organization. Retrieved 24 Sept 2008 at http://www.mackinac.org/article.aspx?ID=6504
Probation and Parole. (2008). New Mexico Corrections. Retrieved 24 Sept 2008 at http://corrections.state.nm.us/parole/intro.html
In other circumstances, the offender should be directed towards more traditional means of punishment.
Split sentencing has been part of the criminal justice system since the beginning of incarceration programs, and shock probation programs, a form of split sentencing, have been in use for more than 50 years. There is significant debate about the efficacy of these programs, because some so-called shock probation programs are linked to high rates of recidivism and offender violence, while others are shown to dramatically reduce recidivism. The important thing to keep in mind is that not all programs labeled shock probation programs actually follow the guidelines established in the 1960s for these programs. Shock probation programs involve the exposure of a defendant to a prison-type environment followed by period of highly monitored probation. However, shock probation programs were never intended to be used on those defendants who were unlikely to be shocked by exposure….
Branham, L. (2012). Follow the leader: The advisability and propriety of considering cost and recidivism data at sentencing. Federal Sentencing Reporter; Saint Louis U. Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2011-29. Retrieved April 27, 2012 from Social Science Research Network website: http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1963506
Broemmel, M. (2012). Definition of shock probation. Retrieved April 27, 2012 from e.how website: http://www.ehow.com/about_6324611_definition-shock-probation.html
Pasquesi, a. (2012). How does shock probation work? Retrieved April 27, 2012 from e.how website: http://www.ehow.com/how-does_5234079_shock-probation-work_.html
Riley, J. (2007, December 23). Many on shock probation in Jefferson rearrested. Retrieved April 27, 2012 from Courierjournal.com website: http://www.courier-journal.com/article/20071223/NEWS01/712230489/Many-shock-probation-Jefferson-rearrested
Career as a Probation Officer ight for You?
One of the most challenging and potentially rewarding careers in criminal justice is that of a probation officer. Probation officers are on the front line in working with and monitoring released offenders in an effort to prevent them from committing new crimes and being reincarcerated. By helping to keep offenders out of prison, probation officers can improve the quality of the lives of their probationers while saving the government significant amounts of money in the process. Although significant growth is projected in the field for the future and the pay is generally good, working as a probation officer is not for everyone. This paper provides a review of the relevant literature to determine the responsibilities and typical job tasks of probation officers, the types of work environments they encounter, national salary levels and the outlook for this position in the future. A….
Black's law dictionary. (1991). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co.
Buron, N. (2009, Winter). YA Q&A: Expert advice on tough teen services questions. Young Adult
Library Services, 7(2), 14-17.
Cattermole, C.M. (2003, December). The VIP method: Promoting voluntary training in the workplace. Corrections Today, 65(7), 12-14.
Probation and Offenders
Many people who are convicted of petty crimes are placed on probation instead of being sent to prison. Those who have served time in prison are often released on parole. During probation offenders have to stay out of trouble and meet other requirements stipulated in their probation sheet. Probation officers work together with and monitor the offenders in order to prevent them from committing new crimes. Probation officers supervise the people that have been placed on probation. They supervise these offenders that are on probation through personal contact with these offenders and their families. Instead of the probation officers requesting the offenders to go to them most of these officers meet them in their homes and the places where they are employed or are undergoing therapy. By meeting the offenders where they are, it means that they are less likely to take part in any crime since they….
Probation originated from ancient times in England and the United States, it was devised so that they could avoid the mechanical application of the harsh penal codes of the day. Early criminal law of the British that was practicing much of the objectives of retribution as well as punishment imposed on the offenders severe and rigid penalties. The punishment which was common was corporal such as flogging, branding, mutilation and execution. Philanthropists and volunteers proved to be instrumental in the development and acceptance of probation in practice prior to probation being made into law.
There is need for identifying a probationer's risks and needs. isk assessment gives a measure of the probationer or parolee's level of danger to the public and at the same time it measures propensity of the offenders to get involved in the criminal activities of the future. Parole and probation jurisdiction have developed some aspects of risk….
Joan Petersilila, and Richard Rosenfeld, (2007) "Parole, Desistance from Crime, and Community Integration Committee on Community Supervision and Desistance from Crime," National Research Council
Lutze Smith and Lovrich (2004) "Innovation in Community Corrections and Probation Officers' Fears of Being SuedImplementing Neighborhood-Based Supervision in Spokane, Washington" Washington State University, Pullman, WA
Petersilia.( 2003). When Prisoners Come Home: Parole and Prisoner Reentry. New York: Oxford
Taxman, F.S, Simpson, S. & Piquero, N.L. (2002). "Measuring and Calibrating Therapeutic Integration in Drug Treatment Programs," Journal of Criminal Justice.
We take a look at improving the construct and thereby the impact of probation in our criminal justice system in this paper.
The inmate population in the U.S.A. rose by 50% between 1990 and1999. The increase also accounts for recidivated parolees. Critics raised Issues about the allegedly ineffective parole system. The U.S.A. is known to have sent a huge number of people to its prisons in the past 40 years. A large chunk of those imprisoned are expected to return to their respective communities. Some of these inmates will return via accumulation of earned time credits or presidential clemency. However, it is observed that the luckier lot of the convicts is the group on parole. Probation has been around for many years in the criminal justice system. It is available in every state across the nation (Larkin). Although the architects of the probation program hoped to achieve a significant feat through….
Labriola, Gold, & Kohn. (2013). Center for Court Innovation -- Research. Development. Justice. Reform. Innovation in the Criminal Justice System: A National Survey of Criminal Justice Leaders. Retrieved March 28, 2016, from http://www.courtinnovation.org/sites/default/files/documents/Innovation_Survey
Larkin. (n.d.). Conservative Policy Research and Analysis. Hawaii Opportunity Probation with Enforcement Project. Retrieved March 28, 2016, from http://www.heritage.org/research/reports/2014/02/the-hawaii-opportunity-probation-with-enforcement-project-a-potentially-worthwhile-correctional-reform
Robinson, J. (2005). The Relationship Between Parole and Recidivism in the Criminal Justice System. McNair Scholars Journal, 9(1). Retrieved, from http://scholarworks.gvsu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi ?
Ethics and Discretion in Probation
"…Encourage relationships with colleagues of such character to promote mutual respect and cultivate a professional cooperation with each segment…" [and] "respect, serve and empathize with the victims of law violations allegedly committed by children…"
(Denton County Juvenile Probation Department)
hat ethical considerations are important in probation departments in the United States? hat are the ethical expectations for communities when there are offenders out from prison and on probation? hat discretion do probation officers have vis-a-vis offenders they are responsible for? These and other issues will be presented in this paper.
Potential Ethical Conflicts in the Field of Probation
Mitchell Silverman writes in the peer-reviewed International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology that there are two potential conflicts that emerge from the two "major roles" that are typically given to probation officers. First, the probation "agent" is trained to help offenders get on their feet socially (which can create a….
American Probation & Parole Association. (2006). Code of Ethics. Retrieved April 1, 2013, from http://www.appa-net.org .
Denton County Juvenile Probation Department (2005). Code of Ethics for Juvenile Probation
Officers. Retrieved April 1, 2013, from http://dentoncounty.com .
Evans, Tony, and Evans, Antony. (2010). Professional Discretion in Modern Social Services:
When requested to leave the premises the defendant refused to do so and proceeded to assault the security officer by throwing a beverage at said officer and then, subsequently, slapping the same officer. The defendant was detained by the store security and arrested by the local police.
George Petrie, the chief security officer for Publix, states that his employer would like to see the defendant punished for his actions against his staff. Based upon the defendant's actions and statements, he is concerned that the defendant has no intention to comply with this Court's dictates.
Defendant's Prior Record
Petty theft; Disorderly Conduct; Criminal trespass
Petty theft (shoplifting)
Defendant has admitted to drinking alcohol on a regular, perhaps, daily basis. He denies the use of any form of non-prescription drug usage. He does admit to the recreational use of marijuana as a juvenile but denies any recent usage. He has never been….
Probation and ecidivism ecidivism is the habit of offenders falling back to crime or misdemeanor after having been charged with offences or while still on probation. It is a new…Read Full Paper ❯
Probation and Parole Programs Individuals who are unfamiliar with the criminal justice system may think that a convicted criminal is sentenced to a certain period of time in prison and…Read Full Paper ❯
"Public safety and assisting the offender in reintegrating into the community are the most important considerations in any parole decision. Is the inmate willing and ready to re-enter…Read Full Paper ❯
In 1841, Augustus bailed out a 'common drunkard', and became the first probationer. "The offender was ordered to appear in court three weeks later sentencing. He returned to…Read Full Paper ❯
Probation and its various forms: According to the official government website by Prince illiam County (PC), Virginia, probation is a sanction ordered by courts that "…allows a person to…Read Full Paper ❯
Guidelines may indicate that probation is an option, giving the judge some leeway in sentencing. Still for other judges, the kinds of services an offender may require will…Read Full Paper ❯
Probation and Parole: Supervision Probation and parole agencies supervise offenders in the community. Once an offender has been granted probation or parole, a probation or parole officer is assigned to…Read Full Paper ❯
Parole reduces the financial strain on prison system in terms of costs of feeding and housing prisoners as well as overcrowding and the need to build more prisons. Parole sentences…Read Full Paper ❯
In other circumstances, the offender should be directed towards more traditional means of punishment. Conclusion Split sentencing has been part of the criminal justice system since the beginning of incarceration…Read Full Paper ❯
Career as a Probation Officer ight for You? One of the most challenging and potentially rewarding careers in criminal justice is that of a probation officer. Probation officers are…Read Full Paper ❯
Probation and Offenders Many people who are convicted of petty crimes are placed on probation instead of being sent to prison. Those who have served time in prison are often…Read Full Paper ❯
Probation originated from ancient times in England and the United States, it was devised so that they could avoid the mechanical application of the harsh penal codes of the…Read Full Paper ❯
Probation We take a look at improving the construct and thereby the impact of probation in our criminal justice system in this paper. Theory The inmate population in the U.S.A. rose by…Read Full Paper ❯
Ethics and Discretion in Probation "…Encourage relationships with colleagues of such character to promote mutual respect and cultivate a professional cooperation with each segment…" [and] "respect, serve and empathize with…Read Full Paper ❯
When requested to leave the premises the defendant refused to do so and proceeded to assault the security officer by throwing a beverage at said officer and then,…Read Full Paper ❯