Probation Essays (Examples)

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United States Faces a Dilemma

Words: 1539 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59748319

This was not a compilation of current rules and regulations, but rather adjustments to the current laws. It contains over 6,500 words of detailed fine-tuning (Florida ar, 2004). While these changes may well have been necessary and important, it also highlights the complicated rules and procedures those dealing with juveniles must follow. Meanwhile, individual municipalities and states, such as St. Louis and Texas, grapple with the practicalities of making juvenile probation do its job of rehabilitating youth and protecting society. It seems likely that Texas will not find the funds necessary to provide the type of program offered in St. Louis, since St. Louis can only accommodate 28 youth at a time. In addition, their approach still does not reach 35% of participants, so it is not the entire answer. Perhaps good research can suggest a way to offer rehabilitative probation to youth in a way that is financially feasible…… [Read More]


Administrative Office of the United States Courts (AOUSC). 1997. "Federal juvenile corrections in South Dakota." Federal Probation, March.

Florida Bar. 2004. "Proposed juvenile procedure rules (Notice)." Florida Bar News, October.

Geraghty, Thomas F. 2002. "Securing Our Children's Future: New Approaches to Juvenile Justice and Youth Violence (Book Review)." Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, January.

Lhotka, William C. 1998. "Special Probation Program Monitors Troubled Youths." St. Louis Post-Dispatch, March 1.
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Charlie What Are the Roles of a

Words: 1068 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12109139


hat are the roles of a juvenile police officer, a judge, and a probation officer in the juvenile system?

The juvenile police officer's role is to arrest those under the age of 18 who commit crimes, and according to an article in the Houston Chronicle, that officer must determine if the offender should be referred to the juvenile court or to an adult court. The juvenile police officer questions the alleged offender, fingerprints the offender, officially books the offender into the juvenile justice facilities and basically handles the case at the start of the process (Bolden-Barrett, 2011).

The statistics show that about 83% of court referrals for juveniles come from police officers; the remaining 17% come from parents, from schools, from the victims of crimes and from probation officers. Federal law requires that the arresting juvenile police officer can keep an under-18 offender in custody "…no more than six…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bilchik, S. (1999). Focus on Accountability: Best Practices for Juvenile Court and Probation.

Juvenile Accountability Incentive Block Grants Program. U.S. Department of Justice.

Retrieved December 24, 2013, from .

Bolden-Barrett, V. (2011). Police Officer's Roles in the Juvenile Justice System. Houston Chronicle. Retrieved December 24, 2013, from .
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Forensics and Mental Health

Words: 2723 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89090754

Forensic Mental Health Legislation and Policies

The current position on forensic mental health issues when it comes to legislation and policies is a strong one, but there are some difficulties that do not translate well into the probation and parole policies that are currently offered. In other words, there are issues that are not being addressed, and that are allowing individuals with mental health problems who on are probation and parole to slip through the cracks and struggle with their issues on their own (Wang, et al., 2005). Not only are they not getting the help they need in order to live productive lives, they are also more likely to reoffend, violate their probation or parole, become homeless, drink to excess, do drugs, and get involved in other unsavory behavior (Patel & Prince, 2002). The high proportion of indigenous offenders is one of the biggest issues that indicates mental health…… [Read More]


Australian Government (2012). Mental health services in Australia. Retrieved from

Demyttenaere, K., Bruffaerts, R., Posada-Villa, J., Gasquet, I., Kovess, V., Lepine, JP., Angermeyer, MC., Bernert, S., et al. (2004). WHO World Mental Health Survey Consortium. Prevalence, severity, and unmet need for treatment of mental disorders in the World Health Organization World Mental Health Survey. Journal of the American Medical Association, 291(21): 2581 -- 2590.

Keyes, C. (2002). The mental health continuum: From languishing to flourishing in life. Journal of Health and Social Behaviour, 43(2): 207 -- 222.

Munce, S.E., Stansfeld, S.A., Blackmore, E.R., & Stewart, D.E. (2007). The role of depression and chronic pain conditions in absenteeism: Results from a national epidemiologic survey. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 49(11): 1206 -- 1211.
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Community-Based Corrections Description A Court-Ordered Sanction That

Words: 687 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53238448

Community-Based Corrections

Description: A court-ordered sanction that puts the offender back into the community but under the supervision of a probation officer. Probation can be assigned to follow jail time (provided good behavior while incarcerated), and it may include having the offender pay a fine, do restitution, and perform community service activities as well (

Advantages: a) Instead of serving time in prison or a county jail the offender gets an opportunity to return to the community albeit under stringent requirements; b) it is basically like a second chance for the offender, and if he or she takes advantage of the opportunity and follows the rules, it can be a blessing for the offender and a savings of money for the correctional system

Disadvantages: a) This is not technically a "disadvantage" but if the terms of the probation are not met (for example, if the person on probation fails to…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Findlaw. (2010). Restitution. Retrieved February 18, 2013, from .

Prince William County, Virginia. (2010). What is Probation? Retrieved February 18, 2013, from .

U.S. Department of Education. (2011). Community-Based Correctional Education. Retrieved February 18, 2013, from .

U.S. Department of Justice. (2011). Electronic Monitoring Reduces Recidivism. Retrieved February 18, 2013, from .
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Criminal Justice Leadership Learning to

Words: 729 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62886685

The unique circumstances indicate that this event is an isolated one and that absent the abuse the offender is not likely to repeat the behavior. However, the seriousness of the crime, that is, a homicide, demands that the offender be treated firmly. The homicide is certainly understandable under the facts of the case but not necessarily justifiable. The discretion of the judge will determine to what extent the extenuating circumstances will affect the offenders sentencing.

A recommendation short of incarceration must include some form of intensive supervision for a period of time to ensure that the offender is as he appears to be, that is, a non-violent offender (U.S. Department of Justice, 1997). Such supervision should also include a period of counseling to ensure that the offender can effectively deal with any residual guilt arising from the homicide and the years of intensive abuse. Specific recommendations to this effect should…… [Read More]


Burke, P.B. (1997). Policy-Driven Responses to Probation and Parole Violations. Silver Spring, MD: Center for Effective Public Policy.

Farlex. (2002, April 1). Media Access. Retrieved December 15, 2010, from the Free Library: 

U.S. Department of Justice. (1997, May). Intermediate Sanctions in Sentencing Guidelines. Retrieved December 15, 2010, from NIJ Issues and Practices: /txtfiles/165043.txt" target="_blank" REL="NOFOLLOW">
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Juvenile Delinquents

Words: 2220 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54718429

Juvenile Justice

Juvenile delinquents

Shifting to a restorative model, acknowledging the needs of victims

Juvenile justice:

Shifting to a restorative model, acknowledging the needs of victims

The adult justice system in America has long focused upon retribution and community restoration as well as rehabilitation of offenders. Victims must be 'made whole,' not just offenders within the adult system. However, the juvenile justice system has had a far less clear focus upon the restoration of justice to the community than that of its adult counterpart. This is partially due to the oft-expressed view that juveniles are less morally responsible than adults. Juvenile records are usually 'wiped clean' after the adolescents have served their time in probation or prison. The focus of the juvenile justice system is always on the improvement of the life of the juvenile and to reduce the likelihood of recidivism, rather than outright punishment.

On the other hand,…… [Read More]


Balanced and restorative justice. (2010). OJJDP report: Guide for implementing the balanced and restorative justice model. Retrieved July 4, 2010.

Giacomazzi, Andrew L. (2005, February). Review of Restorative justice by Ruth Ann

Strickland. (New York, NY: Peter Lang, 2004). LPBR. 15.2: 139-142. Retrieved July 4,

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Criminal Justice Theory

Words: 2525 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51732386

Criminal Justice Theory and the Los Angeles County Probation Department

Criminal and antisocial behaviors have been studied in the field of criminology for many years. Criminologists are very interested to learn what types of things cause specific criminal and antisocial behaviors. hile criminal behavior and antisocial behavior are not always related, they often have close ties. Criminologists and other researchers are looking to find commonalities between certain genetic makeups and deviant behavior. They believe that many people are genetically predisposed to be violent, and if these people can be located they can be treated.

That does not mean that criminologists are in favor of testing everyone's genetic makeup on the planet to see if any of them show violent tendencies. hat they are interested in doing, however, is studying criminals who already have a history of violent and deviant behavior to see what other traits they have, and what their…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Anderson, R.H. (2000, January 13). Unit 5: deviance, conformity and social control. University of Colorado at Denver. Retrieved September 2, 2005, from http://psychology.

Brand, C. Cycad Web Works. (2003, February). Can crime be traced to such often-mooted personality features as extraversion and lack-of-conscientiousness? Are genetic factors involved-in whatever interaction with the environment? And can any therapeutic or preventive steps by recommended? Retrieved August 29, 2005, from

Brunet, J.R. (2002, November 15). Discouragement of Crime Through Civil Remedies: An Application of a Reformulated Routine Activities Theory. In Western Criminology Review 4 (1) Retrieved September 5, 2005, from html

Casey, D. Human Genome Project. (1997, June). Introduction. Retrieved September 1, 2005, from  / primer/prim1.html
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Intermediate Sanctions Over the Last Decade There

Words: 1160 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63236093

intermediate sanctions?

Over the last decade there have been rising overcrowding in prisons and other correction facilities making them costly and dangerous for the inmates. There has been also a need to better manage the crime levels in the community as well as reduce crime, and give fair sentencing to adult offenders. These are the main factors that led to development of intermediate sanctions (Caputo G., 2004).

Discuss the evolution and use of boot camps. What are the purposes of shock incarceration?

The increased crime rates among the juvenile in the late 70s and early 80s led to the development of the boot camps with first being set in 1980. They are owned by the government or by private sector. It is estimated that there are almost 100 boot camps in the U.S.A. today. Shock incarceration is the alternative to incarceration which leads to earlier liberation from confinement. They are…… [Read More]

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careers in criminal justice and prospects

Words: 1517 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35587176

A cursory glance at job market statistics offers a grim picture, leading many to pessimistic conclusions. The United States Department of Labor’s Bureau of Labor Statistics points out that increasing numbers of young people are graduating from college and entering the job market now, leading to increased competition in many job sectors (1). Likewise, rates of unemployment have been at near-record lows, especially for young men (United States Department of Labor Bureau of Labor Statistics 1). Baeurlein also points out the problem that many college students have with debt accumulation from student loans, making it difficult for them to get a foothold on their careers. Yet not all graduates are doomed to flounder in the labor market. I am pursuing a career in adult probation and parole. On reason why I am optimistic about my future prospects is that working in corrections is a public service sector job that does…… [Read More]

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Most Important Change Needed to the CJ System

Words: 1586 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18548737

Criminal Justice System

Most Important Change Needed

Personal Statement Essay

I appreciate this opportunity to tell you a little bit about myself, my career aspirations, my educational plans, and what admission to the Master of Criminal Justice Program at the New Mexico State University would mean to me. For as long as I can remember, I have been interested in a career in criminal justice. When I was a younger, I wanted to work for the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI); however, that window of opportunity has now been closed by my age. Nevertheless, my career goals are to work as a probation officer and teach Criminology at a community college. To accomplish this, I hope to spend the next two years earning a graduate degree at Mexico State University.

When I graduated from high school, I wanted to go directly into college; however, a number of factors precluded this…… [Read More]

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Organizational and Admin Strategies in Criminal Justice

Words: 1029 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66930850

Organizational Structure

The debate regarding which form of protocol is more appropriate, custodial vs. treatment, is indeed one of the more controversial subjects in criminal justice today. Custodial treatment refers to the act of putting the convicted criminal in an institution of some sort, such as a jail or prison (hence the term, "custody"). Those who are in favor of this option stress the pros of this type of method, stressing that it is one of society's oldest forms of punishment: "When someone is sentenced to jail or prison, that individual is physically separated from society (the modern version of banishment- society's first form of punishment. In doing so, the person is quite literally deterred from committing any further crimes against the general public because (due to their incarceration) they simply no longer have physical access to the community" (Bayley, 2009). Bayley stresses one of the obvious advantages of custodial…… [Read More]


Bayley, B. (2009, July 1). Custody Vs. Treatment Debate: Deterrence -- The Two Great Lies.

Retrieved 8, 2012, June, from - training/articles/1851841-Custody-Vs- Treatment-Debate-Deterrence-The-Two-Great-Lies/ (n.d.). What Is the Difference between Probation and Parole? Retrieved June 8, 2012, from Wisconsin Department of Justice: tweenprobationandparole.htm (n.d.). Position Classification Standard. Retrieved June 8, 2012, from U.S. Office of Personnel Management:
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Gender Bias in the U S Court System

Words: 2961 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84999901

Gender Bias in the U.S. Court System

Statistics regarding male and female criminality

Types of cases involving women and men

Sentencing guidelines for judges imposed to diminish disparities

Feminists say women should get less jail time

Number of women vs. men arrested

omen committing misdemeanors get little or no jail time

Death penalty cases

10% of murder cases are perpetrated by women

Leniency of juries on women defendants

Easier for women to be treated leniently by juries

Sex crimes involving men and women adults vs. teens and children

omen are always given less punishment than men in this area

Reaction of judges towards female defendants

Male judges

Female judges


a. Chivalry Theory of women perpetrators


Focal Concerns theory of women perpetrators


In both the Constitution and Declarations of Independence, two of the most important documents in American history, it is promised by the very foundations of the…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Brockway, J. (2011). Gender bias and the death penalty. Death Penalty Focus. Retrieved from 

Crew, K. (1991). Sex differences in criminal sentencing: chivalry or patriarchy? Justice

Quarterly. (8:1). 59-83.

Doerner, J. (2012). Explaining the gender gap in sentencing outcomes: an investigation of differential treatment in U.S. federal courts. Bowling Green State University.
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Intermediate Sanctions How Boot Camps

Words: 2669 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69457041

(Kilgore; Mede, 64)

Of course as a program approaches the end, much interaction have concentrated around how to return to the home environment and foster relationships with positive influences and make positive selections. Boot camps unquestionably generate a scope for the boys to become part of a positive peer environment, and this environment is likely to be one of the keys to each boy's success at the camp. (Kilgore; Mede, 65) Further Boot camps have shown that the society has a great liking for the functioning of the Boot Camps. Against the environment where serving in the military is considered as a valuable gain of knowledge and training, the society also appears to intuitively understand the valuable cause inherent in the programs. (Smylka; Selke, p. 93)

Cons of Boot Camps:

The inmates of boot camp appeared to be less vulnerable to re-offend after liberation in comparison to that of other…… [Read More]


Benda, Brent B. Testing the Problem Syndrome among Young Males in Boot Camp: Use of Theoretical Elaboration with Reciprocal Relationships. Social Work Research. 1999. Volume: 23; No: 1; pp: 73-78

Kilgore, Deborah; Mede, Susan. Look What Boot Camp's done for me: Teaching and Learning at Lakeview Academy. Journal of Correctional Education. June, 2004. Volume: 45; No: 1; pp: 60-66

MacKenzie, Doris Layton; Li, Spencer De. The Impact of Formal and Informal Social Controls on the Criminal Activities of Probationers. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency. August, 2002. Volume: 39; No. 3; pp: 243-276

MacKenzie, Doris Layton; Wilson, David B; Armstrong, Gaylene Styve; Gover, Angela R. The Impact of Boot Camps and Traditional Institutions on Juvenile Residents: Perceptions, Adjustment, and Change. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency. August 2001. Volume: 38: No: 3; pp: 279-313
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How Kristen Died

Words: 1517 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65924133

Kristin Died -- Case Study

On May 30, 1992, a young woman named Kristin Lardner was shot by her ex-boyfriend, Michael Cartier. Cartier had a long history of violence and criminal activity, not to mention several convictions of domestic violence. At the time of the murder, in fact, Cartier was on probation and under the auspices of a restraining order. A number of public agencies had the task of keeping Cartier away from Kristin, but unfortunately, this did not happen. The gist of the matter deals with the element of bureaucracy, the way they are set up, what keeps them going, what incentives they use to measure efficacy, and what factors inhibit their ability to be responsive.

Within the rubric of public administration, there seems to be at least two theoretical precepts that apply to the case of Kristin Lardner. First, there is the idea of public bureaucracy and the…… [Read More]


Lardner, G. (1992 November 22). The Stalking of Kristin: The Law Made It Easy for My Daughter's Killer. The Washington Post. Retrieved from: 

Rosenbloom, D., Kravchuk, R., Clerkin, R. (2008). Public Administration: Understanding Management, Politics, and Law in the Public Sector. New York: McGraw Hill.

Stillman, R. (2005). Public Administration: Concepts and Cases. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.

See for example, the information in the National Domestic Violence Registry.
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Correctional Methods Throughout Most of

Words: 1289 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64755367

For example, offenders without job skills can receive job training, while offenders with emotional problems can be ordered to attend the appropriate counseling. (Native American and Alaskan Technical Assistance Program, 2005). Because such a huge proportion of crimes are drug-related or committed by addicts, completion of in-patient or out-patient substance abuse programs is often an integral part of an offender's alternative sentencing program. Furthermore, alternative sentencing strives to make an offender personally responsible for their crime. Therefore, mediation and restitution play an important part in alternative sentencing, because mediation gives the victim a voice, while restitution can require an offender to repay his victim. (Native American and Alaskan Technical Assistance Program, 2005).

After one has an understanding of the different sentencing alternatives available, the logical step is to question whether alternative sentencing is effective. In order to answer that question, many criminal justice professionals look to recidivism rates. "However, limited…… [Read More]


Jones, G. & M. Connelly. (2001) Prison vs. alternative sanctions: trying to compare recidivism rates. Retrieved October 31, 2006, from Maryland State Commission on Criminal Sentencing Policy

Web site:

Native American and Alaskan Technical Assistance Program. (2005). Project guide:

alternatives to incarceration of offenders. Washington, D.C.: National Institute of Corrections.
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Sneaky Pete Case Answers to Jake Law's

Words: 1143 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79644121

Sneaky Pete Case

Answers to Jake Law's Questions

Jake Law is the prosecuting attorney in the armed robbery case of Sneaky Pete. In the current negotiation, Jake must resolve his issues with the defense attorney, Chris Vaughn and the Judge as well. It is important for Jake to remember his role as an officer of the court and do what is right for the jurisdiction he represents and not simply for his own personal benefit. Unfortunately for Pete, many of these attorneys are very unsympathetic to anything other than their career.

Prosecuting attorneys serve the public by representing local, state or federal governments in criminal court cases. They participate in the investigation of criminal activity and fight for justice and represents the court. They must also have an understanding of their communities' needs and the motivations driving law breakers. Successful prosecution can lead to an individual's loss of rights, and…… [Read More]


Sneaky Pete Case Study. Provided by customer.

The Legal Dictionary. "District and Prosecuting Attorneys." Viewed 11 Aug 2013. Retrieved from 

The Legal Dictionary. "Defense Attorney." Viewed 11 Aug 2013. Retrieved from http://legal-
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Criminal Justice Day Fines Why

Words: 617 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9784454

The traditional backup sanction for nonpayment of a fine has been the use of jail as an alternative sentence. Yet, because jail space is a scarce resource in most jurisdictions, it is important to have statutory authority for other sanctions that can be used when an offender does not pay the fine (Bureau of Justice Assistance, 1996).

There are three types of sanctions that can be used as backups when an offender fails to pay the fine that has been imposed: community-based sanctions, civil mechanisms, and incarceration. The following are examples of community-based sanctions that can be used in the event of nonpayment: (1) Community Service, (2) Day eporting Centers, (3) Home Confinement, and (4) Halfway Houses/Work elease Centers (Bureau of Justice Assistance, 1996).

Civil mechanisms that can be used include garnishment of wages, interception of income tax refunds, driver's license suspensions, denial of automobile registration renewals, or the use…… [Read More]


Bureau of Justice Assistance. (1996). How to Use Structured Fines (Day Fines) as an Intermediate Sanction. Retrieved from U.S. Department of Justice Web site: /pdffiles/156242.pdf" target="_blank" REL="NOFOLLOW">
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Ethics in Business

Words: 618 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71454371

Betty Vinson was horribly unjust, especially considering that she cooperated completely with federal prosecutors. Indeed, it is difficult to imagine how their case against WorldCom CEO Bernard Ebbers could have proceeded as well as it did without the cooperation of Ms. Vinson. Certainly, if the federal government is to be expected to attract the small "fish" to give up the big "fish," then this certainly is counterproductive.

Certainly, Ms. Vinson made the decisions that she made due to the fact that she was fearful about losing her job if she did not engage in the activity that she did. After all, did the accounting agency pick up on the fraud? The above conviction is especially unbelievable since she took the stand not just against Ebbers multiple times, but also Troy Normand was only given three years' probation and did not impose a fine on him. This was especially the case…… [Read More]


McClam, E. (2005, August 5). Ex-worldcom exec vinson gets prison, house arrest. Retrieved from
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Studied John Can Be Used as a

Words: 670 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39919284

studied, John can be used as a success for first time offenders. The reason why is because, he has been through different rehabilitation programs that have helped to change his focus. John is a first time offender with violent tendencies. This is coupled with substance abuse and possible gang affiliations. After spending time in the program, he now wants to give back to the community (i.e. working with first time offenders). This is a success due to the fact that John has made positive changes in the direction of his life. If he had been sent to jail, the situation may have made him more anti-social.

Some of the tools that were utilized on John will be applied to the juvenile justice system in the future. This is because there has been an emphasis on having stiffer penalties for juveniles in the last few years. The problem with this approach…… [Read More]


Catlett, I. (2010). Juvenile Justice. Tufts University. Retrieved from: 

Jones, K. (2006). The Future of the Juvenile Justice System. Yahoo. Retrieved from: 

Tas, J. (2006). Trends in International Criminal Justice. Eurocrim. Retrieved from:
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Criminal Justice - Juvenile Delinquency

Words: 866 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61146822

While the subject's rationale for blaming his most recent victim for dressing provocatively may reflect "normal" (Macionis 2002) social conditioning (particularly among adolescent males), his complete lack of empathy (as distinct from responsibility or fault) is more consistent with pathological indifference and lack of empathy often observed in serial rapists and other sociopaths who display a clinical indifference to their victims (Gerrig & Zimbardo 2005).

Subsequent analysis will distinguish whether the subject's relative immature statements about the connection between video game violence and the real world are the result of low intelligence and delayed cognitive skills in the area of logical reasoning and responsibility or functions of repressed rage directed at all females.

Intervention Strategy:

viable intervention strategy must emphasize intensive psychological counseling to address the subject's past sexual victimization, the rage associated with it, and the direction of his anger at all females. Behavioral psychotherapy will be necessary to…… [Read More]


Gerrig, R., Zimbardo, P. (2005) Psychology and Life 17th Edition. Boston: Allyn & Bacon

Innes, B. (2007) Serial Killers: The Stories of History's Most Evil Murderers. London: Quercas

Macionis, J.J. (2002) Sociology. New Jersey: Prentice Hall

Packer, Herbert, L. (1968) the Limits of the Criminal Sanction. Stanford University Press.
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Police Management Change Management

Words: 584 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54253763

sold to law enforcement as a way to implement stringent policing structure while at the same time ensuring that community safety is maintained at minimal cost to the department and without job loss or reductions in force due to economical policing practices. In addition the plan should be sold as a way for the police department to re-build it's reputation among community members, and strengthen its reputation for working in a productive and collaborative manner. The cost savings benefits of building a stronger community with less crime in an efficient manner should also be emphasized as a primary benefit of the program.

There are many opportunities existing that lend support for the plan. For example, the report notes that a number of juvenile gangs are evolving within the community, a problem that is new for a community that had been relatively stable in the past. The police department can gain…… [Read More]


"Stojkovic, S., Kalinich, D. & Klofas, J. (2003). "Radical Approach Plan." Criminal

Justice Organizations, Wadsworth: Thomson.
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Correctional Institutions Have Enhanced in Quality and

Words: 1588 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45393477

Correctional institutions have enhanced in quality and condition over the years. What started out as dungeons and sewers in ome, the conditions for correctional institutions have improved to quite an extent. In the 1980s, overcrowding became a renowned problem as it also went against the eighth amendment that forbids cruel and unusual punishment. (Carter & Glaser, 1977, p. 1) Increased crowdedness causes mental and physical damage to the inmates in the prison according to a research done by Paulus, Cox and McCain. The Iowa department of corrections takes control of the public, workers and the offenders by keeping them under punishment yet away from cruel behaviors as well. All the correctional measures taken under the criminals are done under proper supervision to ensure that their safety is not compromised.

Community-based correctional institutions.

Community-based corrections are a substitute measure to punish criminal without sending them to jail. The Iowa department of…… [Read More]

References (n.d.). BOP: Maps of Facilities - North Central Region. [online] Retrieved from:  [Accessed: 17 Dec 2012].

Carter, R.M., Glaser, D., & Wilkins, L.T. (1972). Correctional institutions. Philadelphia: Lippincott.

Craig, D. (2004). Iowa's Dual Diagnosis Offender Program . Corrections Today, Iss. 2. (1980). Iowa Department of Corrections - Employment Information: Institution Description. [online] Retrieved from: [Accessed: 17 Dec 2012].
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Criminal Policy of Drug Court

Words: 3736 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85191739

Drug Courts: A Program to Reinvent Justice for Addicts

For the past several decades, drug use has had an overwhelming effect upon the American justice system, with drug and drug-related crime being the most common offense in almost every community (Drug Strategies, 1996). eyond the troubling ability of these problems to fill prisons to capacity, the traditional judicial system seemed to have no deterrent effect on these crimes (Drug and Crime Facts, 1994). A disturbing "revolving door" pattern had emerged, with drug offenders moving through the system in a predictable pattern of arrest, prosecution, conviction, incarceration, and release. In a few weeks, sometimes only a few days, the same person was back in the system again, arrested for drug possession or a drug-related crime (National Association of Drug Court Professionals [NADCP], 1997). A particularly difficult problem faced by the system was the growing use of crack cocaine in the 1980s…… [Read More]


Bean, Philip. (1996, October). "America's Drug Courts: A New Development in Criminal Justice." Criminal Law Review. 720-740.

A scholarly review of the American drug court by a British attorney.

Brumbaugh, Alex. (1994) "Why Drug Courts Work." 3 Dec. 2002.

Discussion of the various counseling techniques available to drug court clients, with an emphasis on acupuncture.
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Sexual Predators

Words: 1069 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88446395

Internet Sex Offenders

Today's technology has allowed for many great advances in society that allow for great benefit and good. The internet and instant communication abilities have provided new landscapes for the human species to evolve and grow. The power of technology must be wielded with temperance and wisdom however due to the always present threat of those who wish to prey and feed off the weakness of other people.

The purpose of this essay is to describe specific strategies that are most effective with sex offenders in the community. This discussion will first discuss the newly formed landscape in which criminal justice professionals find themselves in today and how technology has affected their ability to successfully perform their duties. This discussion will also include ideas about legislation and technology that can be used in the efforts to deter these criminals from committing future sex crimes.

The New Landscape

Sex…… [Read More]


Markon, J. (2009). New technology, tight budgets hinder sex-offender monitoring. Washington Post, 23 Nov 2009. Retrieved from 

Fuchs, E. (2013). 7 Surprising Things That Could Make You a Sex Offender. Business Insider, 9 Oct 2013. Retrieved from 

Wolak, J., Finkelhor, D., Mitchell, K.J., & Ybarra, M.L. (2010). Online "predators" and their victims. Psychology of violence, 1, 13-35.

Wortley, R.K., & Smallbone, S. (2006). Child pornography on the internet. U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Community Oriented Policing Services.
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Reforms Needed for Three Strikes Law

Words: 3077 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81828274

Define the Problem

The defined and existing problem is going to vary in scope and definition depending on who is doing the defining. However, there are some clear and obvious problems with the “three strikes” law. The policy itself was meant to address a problem. However, that policy has created a new set of problems. Indeed, there are situations where three-time violent felons are justifiably put away for twenty-five years to life. However, the major problem with the policy are the human and budgetary costs that are created by people being thrown in jail for life for minor offenses (“Ewing v. California”, 2017). There is also the concern that some people are being thrown in jail even though they will soon “age out” of criminal behavior. Indeed, men in their 60’s are not able to crawl through windows, run and jump fences like someone in their 20’s or 30’s (Besemer,…… [Read More]

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Future of Eurasian Organized Crime

Words: 7401 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30485101

Ashley, Assistant Director, Criminal Investigative Division of the FI relates that in 1991: "...the U.S. Attorney's office in Los Angeles charged 13 defendants in a $1 billion false medical billing scheme that was headed by two Russian emigre brothers. On September 20, 1994, the alleged ringleader was sentenced to 21 years in prison for fraud, conspiracy, racketeering, and money laundering. He was also ordered to forfeit $50 million in assets, pay more than $41 million in restitution to government agencies and insurance companies victimized by the scheme." (2003) Ashley relates that the first Eurasian organized crime investigation of a significant nature involved a major underworld figure in the United States and specifically, Vyacheslav Ivankov who is a powerful Eurasian organized crime boss. Ashley states that Ivankov "...led an international criminal organization that operated in numerous cities in Europe, Canada, and the United States, chiefly New York, London, Toronto, Vienna, udapest,…… [Read More]


Albini, Joseph L. And R.E. Rogers. "Proposed Solutions to the Organized Crime Problem in Russia." Demokratizatsiya Winter 1998: p. 103.

Crime Without Punishment." (1999) the Economist August 28, 1999 the Makings of a Molotov Cocktail. The Economist 344, no. 8025.

Edward H. Sutherland (nd) Differential Association Theory. Online Criminology FSU.EDU available at 

Eurasian, Italian and Balkan Organized Crime (2003) Testimony of Grant D. Ashley, Assistant Director, Criminal Investigative Division, FBI Before the Subcommittee on European Affairs, Committee on Foreign Relations, United States Senate. 30 Oct. 2003. Federal Bureau of Investigations. Online available at
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HRM Criminal Justice America's Correctional

Words: 1332 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65289530

The result is that employees at all levels for their own protection as well as to create a system of mutial support among leaders and subordinates have begun to demand collaborative rights of communication and input on job design, and leadership practices. Empowerment of employees has long been shown to be a positive aspect of individual employee motivation as well as the desire to be a part of a team that works together to provide holistic knowledge of community problems and concerns and therefore contributes to solutions. (Sims, 2002, p. 18) being a member of the team that proposed a solution or the individual who had a good idea that will potentially solve a problem is empowering and motivational and will likely increase retention and decrease problematic communication, such as collusion, a phenomena that occurs when individuals do not feel that the top down system is effective in resolving problems…… [Read More]


Coyle, a., Campbell, a., & Neufeld, R. (Eds.). (2003). Capitalist Punishment: Prison Privatization & Human Rights. Atlanta: Clarity Press.

Gottfredson, S.D. & McConville, S. (Eds.). (1987). America's Correctional Crisis: Prison Populations and Public Policy. New York: Greenwood Press.

Sims, R.R. (2002). Organizational Success through Effective Human Resources Management. Westport, CT: Quorum Books.

Stanley, D.T. (1976). The Problem of Parole. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution.
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Crime and Punishment There Are

Words: 413 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43977783

The second reason punishment is handed out following a conviction is to appease the victim or the victim's family and let them know that justice was served. If someone is the victim of a crime they often feel violated and angry that someone could do this to them. Idea of revenge may enter their mind or they may find themselves dwelling on the event. The punishment lets them know that the criminal did not get away with the commission of the crime and that society does in fact recognize that they committed it.

Both of these are foundations for the court system handing out punishment following the conviction of a criminal.

A side note to the entire process is political. Politicians often use the punishment system as a platform for election reminding voters that they supported this punishment tier system or that one. They do so in the effort to…… [Read More]


Chemerinsky, Erwin (2004) the Constitution and punishment.(how Supreme Court

Stanford Law Review
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Security Plan Target Environment Amron International Inc

Words: 2339 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80195487

Security Plan Target Environment

Amron International Inc.

Amron International Inc. is a division of Amtec and manufactures ammunition for the U.S. military. Amron is located in Antigo, Wisconsin. Amron also manufacturer's mechanical subsystems including fuses for rockets and other military ammunitions as well as producing TNT, a highly explosive substance used in bombs.

Floor Plan Target Environment

The target environment in this security plan is the manufacturing operation located in Antigo, Wisconsin, a manufacturing plant with personnel offices adjacent to the facility. The work of Philpott and Einstein (nd) reports the fact that more than 50% of U.S. businesses do not have a crisis management plan and for those who do have a plan, it is generally not kept up-to-date. Philpott and Einstein states that even fewer businesses and organizations "have integrated physical security plans to protect the facility and the people who work in it.

The challenge is reported…… [Read More]

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Juvenile and Criminal Justice Systems

Words: 678 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69171380

Juvenile and Adult Justice

Juvenile and Criminal Justice Systems

Similarities and differences: Juvenile and adult criminal justice systems

The goals of the juvenile justice and the adult criminal justice systems are fundamentally distinct. The goal of the juvenile justice system is to rehabilitate the offender and to provide aid and assistance to the juvenile, enabling him or her to become a more productive adult (La Mance 2010). In contrast, the purpose of the adult system is one of fact-finding, and is designed to see 'justice' done on a societal level: in the case of a guilty offender, this usually means him or her 'paying a debt' to society in the form of some kind of punishment. However, the adult system still does offer many rehabilitative programs for the majority of convicts, including educational and vocational training. And, depending on the state, if the severity of the crime is deemed significant…… [Read More]


Chapter 4: Juvenile justice system structures and processes. (1999). Juvenilia Offenders and Victims: National Report. Retrieved: 

Juvenile law: status offenses. (2013). Nolo. Retrieved: 

Komisaruk, Kami. 92007). Differences between juvenile and adult court. Just Law Collective.
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Workplace Harassment Policy Introduction the Way That

Words: 2318 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3287258

Workplace Harassment

Policy Introduction

The way that a society treats its criminals is indicative of the moral character and worthiness of that society. While it is easy for us to ignore and disregard the criminals amongst us by leading them to prison and throwing away the key, an important lesson is lost in this disregard for the human experience. In California the intolerance of violent crime and action has led to the development of the Three Strikes Law, which was implemented in 1994. As a policy maker I am firmly opposed to this law as I find it to be inhumane, impractical, excessively expensive and carried out in poor taste with a snobbish attitude towards those of us who have temporarily lost our way. A new policy is needed that can help address the important facts and details particular to the State of California and its unique needs.

Prisoners are…… [Read More]


Batabyal, A. (2014). It's time to rethink three strike and similar laws. Rochester Business Journal, 3 Jan 2014. Retrieved from 

California Courts, The Judicial Branch of California (nd). Viewed 2 Feb 2014. Retrieved from 

Cohen, D. (2013). Latest FBI Crime Statistics Released. Right On Crime, 20 Sep 2013. Retrieved from 

Egelko, B. (2013). Prop. 36 3 Strikes Change working lawyers say. 9 Sep 2013. Retrieved from
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Disposing of Repeat Juvenile Offenders in Cook County

Words: 1112 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95097854

Juvenile Justice

Xander, an Illinois Juvenile Criminal Justice Case Study

The Illinois Criminal Justice Information Authority (ICJIA, 2012) operates under a statutory mandate to improve the administration of the criminal justice system in the State of Illinois. In order to perform this function the agency must be aware of all the operational details related to the Illinois juvenile criminal justice system (ICJIA, n.d.). The Illinois juvenile criminal justice system consists of 102 county systems that operate semi-independently from state agency oversight; therefore, the procedures of probation, detention, and corrections are the responsibility of the county juvenile systems. A distinct juvenile criminal justice system (JCS) in Illinois is relatively new, having been created in 2005 by the state legislature to separate adults from juvenile offenders within prisons and jails. A few years earlier (1998), legislation was passed that mandated a criminal justice policy of balanced and restorative justice.

According to the…… [Read More]


Bostwick, L. (2010). Policies and Procedures of the Illinois Juvenile Justice System. Chicago, IL: Illinois Criminal Justice Information Authority. Retrieved 1 Apr. 2014 from .

Cook County Juvenile Court. (2009). Juvenile Justice in Cook County. Report of the Cook County Juvenile Court. Retrieved 1 Apr. 2014 from .

ICJIA. (n.d.). Juvenile Justice System. Retrieved 1 Apr. 2014 from pdf/TI%202008/Juvenile%20justice.pdf" target="_blank" REL="NOFOLLOW">
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Supervision in the Criminal Justice Field

Words: 2908 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86020401

Supervision in the Criminal Justice Field

Mentoring inmates

Problems and challenges facing a criminal justice organization

Supervision in the criminal justice system is an integral aspect of the inmate rehabilitation process. In this paper, we conduct an intensive investigation and examination of the supervisory problems as well as challenges that are unique to the criminal justice organizations. In our analysis, we provide the details of general supervision, management, leadership, personnel evaluation, motivation, mentoring and training.

Keller (2002) pointed out that inmate violence, vandalism, escape, unsanitary conditions, inmate suicide, and high level of stress as well as low staff morale are the main issues that inspire supervision in the correctional facilities. It is therefore necessary that effective inmate supervision as well as behavioral management be made integral elements in all correctional facilities. Keller (2002) went on to indicate that in a historical perspective most correctional facilities have been designed and run…… [Read More]


Atlas, R (1989).Reducing the opportunity for inmate suicide: A design guide.Psychiatric Quarterly, Vol 60(2), Sum 1989, 161-171. doi: 10.1007/BF01064942

Berry, P.E., & Anderson, R. (2001). An evaluation of a private alternative probation and counseling program:Predicting program outcomes from client characteristics. American Journal of Criminal Justice, 26, 121-130.

Brimhall, J (2011).A SQL Experiment-Mentoring
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Criminal Justice as an Individual

Words: 847 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96135868

This essentially would send John to a treatment facility where he will undergo constant monitoring, education, and counseling. (Sims 2005; p. 106; Lewis, 2002; p. 77).

After successfully completing his inpatient treatment program, John still cannot be released to his own initiative. More likely than not John comes from an environment that would make alcohol and other triggers readily available. Further, John has a history of not following through with outpatient treatment. For this reason, the court should order that John be placed in a controlled environment, such as a halfway house.

While serving his time in a halfway house or other residential facility, John will be continually monitored and be able to live in a dry environment. Here John will be able to attend group therapy, individual counseling, and other similar programs. (urnet, 2004; p. 303).

The benefits of this special probation program is that John will retain enough…… [Read More]


Abadinsky, Howard (2005). Probation and Parole: Theory and Practice. Prentice Hall.

Burnet, Ros (2004). What Works in Probation and Youth Justice:

Developing Evidence-Based Practice. New York: Willam Publishing.

Culler, Francis (1982). Reaffirming Rehabilitation. New York: