Use our essay title generator to get ideas and recommendations instantly
obert Harris, (2009) indicates that problem solving or the art of decision making is actually a process that is targeted at the best solution out of an array of them that will best fit the situation or meets the intended goals and values best. obert further emphasizes that in the course of the process of decision making, there is reduction of doubts and uncertainty on each alternative to create room for a reasonable choice to be made.
People will always tend to form groups in order to solve problems or advance significant plans to their lives. These groups could be informal or formal groups, but their aims are always geared towards a given goal. The idea of having groups especially among employees and students gives the people involved a sense of power, security, self-esteem, achievement, affiliation and even status to some extent. If well utilized in any setting,…
Robert Harris, (2009). Introduction to Decision Making. Retrieved May 5, 2012 from http://www.virtualsalt.com/crebook5.htm
The Happy Manager, (2012). Problem Solving Technique: 5 Steps to Improve Your
Processes. Retrieved May 5, 2012 from http://www.the-happy-manager.com/support-files/pdffreedownloadproblemsolvingtechnique.pdf
Problem Solving Model for Classic Airline
Classic Airlines is ranked as the fifth largest airline globally with the net income of $10 million and $8.7 million operating revenue. Before 2008, the company recorded a net income of 71 billion and $8.5 billion operating revenue. However, evaluation of the company financial records reveals that Classic Airline recorded $61 million decrease in the net income within one year. Careful assessment of the company financial positions reveals that the company net revenues had declined because Classic Airline recorded a decline in customer participations due to the consistence rising in fuel and labor costs. Couple with rising in fuel costs, the outcome of aftermath of September 11, 2001 generally led to the decline in airline market.
Thus, Classic Airline was unable to attract more customers because both internal and external marketing programs that the company implemented failed to meet the stakeholders' expectations.…
University of Phoenix (nd). Classic Airlines Scenario. University of Phoenix Material, MKT 571, Retrieved on March 31, 2013 from University of Phoenix Material.
University of Phoenix (2003). Classic Airlines' Stock Price -- 2003. MKT 571.
University of Phoenix (2004). Classic Airlines' Stock Price -- 2004. MKT 571.
Hung, W. (2009). The 9-step problem design process for problem-based learning:
Clearly, the results of studies performed through such methods cannot possibly be taken for granted. Moreover, the presence or the absence of the cognitive process cannot be determined with proximity during a problem solving study.
Certain problems can be easily solved with the help of insight, as people can sometimes almost suddenly understand a problem or find a solid strategy to solve the respective problem. Even if most people believe that insight is just a coincidence, it is in most cases an earlier strategy conceptualized in a different way. Solutions found to problems which are not necessarily difficult to solve do not qualify as being insightful. People are only believed to solve problems through insight in the cases when they initially have doubts concerning their success in solving the problems.
Creativity is also of great importance during a problem solving process, as creative individuals have greater chances of solving a…
1. Lester, Frank K. (1980). "A Procedure for Studying the Cognitive Processes Used During Problem Solving." Journal of Experimental Education, Vol. 48.
2. "Problem Solving and Creativity." Retrieved July 16, 2009, from the University of Arizona Web site: http://www.u.arizona.edu/~dusana/psych325presession/notes/CH11.ppt .
Lester, Frank K. (1980). "A Procedure for Studying the Cognitive Processes Used During Problem Solving." Journal of Experimental Education, Vol. 48.
On a regular basis, humans must solve problems or issues. This has been true for millennia, from the time in which we were hunter-gatherers to now having a myriad of choices in almost every single moment of our lives. We must choose clothing, colors, styles, entertainment, meals, and time schedules, almost down to the minutiae. Because we are now confronted with so many decisions, these decisions often bleed off into more serious and interpersonal conundrums -- colleagues, subordinates, loved ones that problem and decision making solutions are even more complex. However, one way of thinking about a problem or set of challenges involves a rather simple, but powerful, form of analysis: 1) Identify the problem, 2) Brainstorm the alternatives, 3) List advantages/disadvantages for each alternative, 4) Propose a solution, 5) Test the solution. This method is, in fact, part of John Chaffee's Critical Thinking methodology, and may serve…
Chaffee, J., et.al. (2011). Proposing a Solution to a Problem. In Critical Thinking, Thoughtful
Writing. Cenage Learning. Retrieved from: http://college.cengage.com/english/chaffee/critical_thinking/2e/students/writing/chap11.html
Problem Solving Case Study
Merging Information Technology and Cultures at Compaq-Digital (B):
Becoming a Single Firm
The many challenges and opportunities evident for Compaq and Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) illustrated in the case study Merging Information Technology and Cultures at Compaq-Digital (B): Becoming a Single Firm are analyzed and evaluated from a strategic perspective in this analysis. Both companies have drastically different cultures, which made the challenges, opportunities and threats of the merger not being optimal between both at a cultural and IT level evident . Compaq is a very centralized organizational culture that values and believes in a centralized IT system architecture and reporting system strategy. It is common for Compaq to rely on single-instance EP systems throughout multiple regions of the world and seek out cost and time efficiencies based on the benefits of consolidated, highly controlled and centralized IT enterprise systems. Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) is diametrically…
Rainer Alt, Dimitrios Gizanis, and Christine Legner. 2005. Collaborative order management: toward standard solutions for interorganisational order management. International Journal of Technology Management 31, no. 1,2, (January 1): 78-97.
Barrett, J.. 2007. Demand-Driven is an Operational Strategy. Industrial Management, November 1, 14-19,5.
Rob Bois. (2004). Quoting Complex Products across Multiple Sales Channels -- A Sales Configuration Vendor Landscape. In AMR Research Editing Services (Ed.), AMR Research Series. Boston: AMR Research.
Louis Columbus. (2003). Configuration Is the Heart of Customer Fulfillment for Complex Product Manufacturers. In AMR Research Editing Services (Ed.), AMR Research Series. Boston: AMR Research.
Each day act personal mechanic. That, faced a myriad decisions, choices problems "fix." These range simple complex.
Each day act personal mechanic. That, faced a myriad decisions, choices problems "fix." These range simple complex
Each day we have to deal with number of problems. These problems can be classified into two broad categories. One are considered as immediate problems which needs an immediate solution while other are considered as those problem which do not require an immediate solution but they can create hindrances as far as long-term situation is concerned. For example if the car is not properly working or your microwave oven is not in an order than we can consider such problems as immediate problems as people cannot wait for a longtime for the fixation of such problems. They require immediate solutions. However consider the situation in which organization is thinking that their current…
Jozwiak, J. (2004). Teaching Problem-solving Skills to Adults. Journal of Adult Education, 33(1), 19+. Retrieved September 13, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5037461323
Kolb, S.M., & Stuart, S.K. (2005, November/December). Active Problem Solving: a Model for Empowerment. Teaching Exceptional Children, 38, 14+. Retrieved September 13, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5035458193
Sternberg, R.J. (Ed.). (1998). Thinking and Problem Solving. London: Academic. Retrieved September 13, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=115439165
Receiving and making important phone calls has been a serious problem in my daily life. This is a problem of time management and a lack of organization. Making and receiving these phone calls is essential because not doing so is affecting daily life.
In order to confront this issue and solve this problem some amount of brainstorming must take place. According to Carter et al. (2007) "Brainstorming -- letting your mind free-associate to come up with different ideas or answers -- is also referred to as divergent thinking (Carter et al., 2007, 12)." Through brainstorming the root of a problem can be discovered and remedies can be found. Another important issue is critical thinking. Critical thinking involves really investigating a problem to discover the most efficient solution (Elder & Paul, 2003)
According to an article entitled problem solving, one of the ways to solve a problem is to…
Carter, C. Bishop, J. Kravits S. (2007) Keys to College Studying: Becoming An Active
Thinker, 2e Chapter 3: Critical and Creative Thinking: Solving Problems and Making Decisions. Prentice Hall
Elder, L., Paul, R. (2003). Critical Thinking: Teaching Students how to study and learn (Part IV)
Problem Solving." The Oxford Companion to the Mind
Taking No Action - the costs of this approach weight far more than the benefits
Costs: immediate improvements are unlikely to occur; most of the hope for future advances lays in the responsibilities and capabilities of the Washington D.C. authorities; the problem might degenerate in the future
Benefits: it requires no additional investments and no risks; short-term operational efficiency and productivity will not be affected as a result of organizational changes
3. Acceptance of two lost hours due to heavy traffic - the losses are more numerous and significant than the gains
Costs: given that only 25 employees commute and they each book two lost hours per week due to traffic (and it is highly probable for them to use the two hours whether they need them or not), the company would lose 50 hours of work; internal tensions would occur and the morale of the employees who do not…
American Society for Testing and Materials, 1979, Community Noise - STP 692, ASTM International
Hansen, K., Making Your Case for Telecommuting: How to Convince the Boss, Quint Careers, http://www.quintcareers.com/telecommuting_options.htmllastaccessed on March 24, 2009
McKay, D.R., 2009, Flextime - an Alternative Work Arrangement, About.com, http://careerplanning.about.com/cs/flextime/a/flextime.html. astaccessed on March 24, 2009
Rogier, S.L., Padgett, M.Y., the Impact of Utilizing a Flexible Work Schedule on Perceptions of Career-Oriented Women, Retrieved at http://www.midwestacademy.org/Proceedings/2002/papers/Rogier.doconMarch 24, 2009
Calculating the cost of capital based on known rates is one example of a situation where a deterministic model could be utilized; the certainty of the figures involved lends the issue to a straightforward calculation. Probability models can project future events in degrees of uncertainty; forecasting future interest rates based on past changes and projected changes would be an effective use of a probability model as the output's certainty can be quantified despite coming from uncertain input. Simulation models are better suited to situations where information is not so easily quantified. Human behavior, for instance, is much better modeled by simulations; enactments of hypothetical workplace situations can effectively educate and prepare individuals for eventualities. When highly specific individuals and situations are involved, discipline-specific models are best suited.
Business Dictionary. (2009). Accessed 30 July 2009. http://www.businessdictionary.com/
Frontline Systems. (2009). "Simulation models." Accessed 30 July 2009. http://www.solver.com/simulation/simulation-model.htm
Yale. (1998). "Statistical modeling."…
Business Dictionary. (2009). Accessed 30 July 2009. http://www.businessdictionary.com/
Frontline Systems. (2009). "Simulation models." Accessed 30 July 2009. http://www.solver.com/simulation/simulation-model.htm
Yale. (1998). "Statistical modeling." Accessed 30 July 2009. http://www.stat.yale.edu/Courses/1997-98/101/probint.htm
Choosing which alternative out of those that have been identified represents the next step in problem solving. From the created list of possible alternatives, the one that most effectively and most efficiently solves the problem is generally considered to be the best solution, all other things being equal (Hopkin 2008). With a peanut butter and jelly sandwich, for instance, one would probably choose to use a table knife to extract desired amounts of peanut butter and jelly from their jars rather than shaking them upside down until the contents fall out, as this latter method would be messier, more time consuming (especially for the peanut butter), and would not assist in the spreading of these substances on the bread in the way a knife would.
Actually implementing the chosen alternative is, naturally, the next step in the problem solving process. This step can be seen as "converting a decision into…
DuBrin, a. (2004). Applying psychology: Individual and Organizational Effectiveness. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.
Hopkin, M. (2008). "Five stages of problem solving." Accessed 19 March 2010. http://leadonpurposeblog.com/2008/08/04/five-stages-of-problem-solving/
Through the mutual and constant exchange of information, best practices can also be seamlessly integrated throughout the firm. This is a very profound benefit over a closed system which does not enhance the overall amount of information exchange within a firm. A system often interfaces with other systems that may be of a similar or different type. With an open system, information can be used to benefit of all stakeholders within the organization. Aspects such as culture, company values, and other nursing characteristics can also be communicated effectively (Draper, 2011).
Problem through a Closed System Perspective
As a recent IOM report indicates, health care practitioners in the near future will have job requirements that are more business oriented. Health care practitioners will need to have a better understanding of quality management methods in addition to overall concepts of management to better aid the medical facility. As such, an open system…
1) Lucia, Patricia R.; Otto, Tammy E.; Palmier, Patrick a. (2009). "Chapter 1
Performance in Nursing." Reviews of Human Factors and Ergonomics 5: 5 -- 39
2) Draper, Elaine, Joseph LaDou, and Dan J. Tennenhouse. 2011. "Occupational Health Nursing and the Quest for Professional Authority," New Solutions 21, 47 -- 81
The text denotes that "the process of problem representation may seem automatic or trivial in some respects, but it is a critical component of successful problem solving. And the ways in which problems can be represented are as varied as problems themselves." (Robinson-Riegler & Robinson-Riegler, 449)
Indeed, there are considerable variables in how one may choose to interpret or be able to comprehend a particular problem. here, for instance, great complexity and a wide range of variables may be present, an individual may acknowledge or dismiss any number of details in representing the problem. This representation will, in turn, critically effect the nature of the problem solution, which will arise out of that which the individual can rationally perceive as appropriate, feasible and desirable where solving the problem is concerned.
Robinson-Riegler, G. & Robinson-Riegler, B. (2008). Chapter 11. Cognitive Psychology: Applying the Science of the Mind,…
Robinson-Riegler, G. & Robinson-Riegler, B. (2008). Chapter 11. Cognitive Psychology: Applying the Science of the Mind, Pearson Education, Inc.
chool Transporation Time Management
Problem olving by the District Transportation Department
everal management issues are presenting at the Public chool Transportation Department. These issues are of concern to management and human resources as they are impacting workplace harmony, efficiency, and productivity. The Human Resources Department has collaborated with management to ensure that practices related to the assignment of overtime and the assignment of routes to drivers comply with the district's rules and regulations. pecifically, these issues have become a concern as employees can bring claims of discrimination based on practices that may be characterized by favoritism.
The collaborative efforts of the Human Resources Department and the Director of chool Transportation have resulted in the following standards related to the assignment of routes and overtime:
Routing assignments shall be based on seniority. Favored routes are determined on several bases: ome routes have been historically preferred bus routes due to…
Problem Solving in Mathematics
GCSE or the General Certificate of Secondary Education is basically a system that is present in England, Northern Ireland and in Wales. In this system, a student is awarded an academic qualification based on the grades that they attain. The qualification that a person attains is equivalent to either a level 2 or Level 1 key skills qualification. Normally, a student can uptake as many subjects as he or she wants. However, different systems set a requirement for how many subjects or GCSEs a student must take. There is present an international system of IGCSE as well and these subjects can be up taken anywhere in the world. This was just a precise history of what exactly the GCSE system is all about. Interestingly enough, the GCSE system was not the first one of its kind. Prior to this, GCE and the English Baccalaureate System were…
Anderson, J. (2009) Mathematics Curriculum Development and the Role of Problem Solving. [E-Book] The University Of Sydney. Available Through: ACSA Conference 2009 Http://Www.Acsa.Edu.Au/Pages/Images/Judy%20Anderson%20-%20Mathematics%20Curriculum%20Development.Pdf [Accessed: 11th February 2013].
Bloom, B. (1971) Handbook Of Formative And Summative Evaluation Of Student Learning. New York: Mcgraw-Hill.
Boaler, J. (2002). Experiencing School Mathematics: Traditional And Reform Approaches To Teaching And Their Impact On Student Learning. Mahwah, N.J., L. Erlbaum.
Davies, I. (1975) Writing General Objectives And Writing Specific Objectives. In: Golby, M. Et Al. Eds. (1975) In Curriculum Design . 1st Ed. Open University Books .
Problem-Solving and negotiation in the workplace: Questions
Discuss the concepts of process vs. structure as it relates to shared visions and problem-solving workshops.
Generating a shared vision is a critical component of creating a functional organization, but agreeing upon such a vision is 'easier said than done.' A collaborative environment where disagreements can be worked out in an effective and productive fashion is essential. A good structure for discussing disagreements is necessary to support a positive and effective process of coming to a consensus. A problem-solving workshop is one way to achieve this objective: the workshop provides the structure needed to support the type of collaboration between organizational members that is necessary to agree upon a shared vision statement. Such workshops constitute a part of the 'pre-negotiation' process and also have an icebreaking function of getting participants to known one another better. These workshops build trust.
Problem-solving workshops can also…
schemas in Problem Solving
Schemas refer to the certain interpretation-pattern in our minds, which help us decipher and decode information. When new information is received, our mind automatically interprets it according to certain schemas and that makes it easier to understand the new bits of information. Without these schemas, it would become difficult to synthesize new information and thus we would need completely new schemas first to decipher information. Previously embedded schemas are helpful in synthesis of information or knowledge and this process helps in almost every field from learning mathematical concepts to solving problems at work. Problem solving requires certain specific skills like critical thinking, ability to develop creative solutions etc. But above everything else, it is extremely important to first understand and define the problem.
In every organization and almost in every field, we come across problems almost regularly and are required to develop creative and effective solutions.…
Driscoll, M. (1994) Psychology of Learning for Instruction Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
Price, E. & Driscoll, M. (1997) "An Inquiry into the Spontaneous Transfer of Problem-Solving Skill." Contemporary Educational Psychology 22, 472-494
Kahney, Hank, (1993) Problem solving: current issues- 2. ed. Buckingham; Philadelphia; Open University Press
problem-solving model in suggesting ways towards solving marketing problem of Classic Airline. It takes into account the internal and external pressures that contribute to the current crisis at Classic Airline, the current objective of implementing strategic marketing plan of solving solution. In addition, potential issues in implementation potential issues are as well considered in insuring impact of the plan. The analysis also touches on the fact that implementation of improved Customer elationship Management (CM) improves the profitability of the organization.
Classic Airlines is the fifth largest airline in the world with a command of up to above 375 jets that are serving cities with flights of over 2,300 daily. Since its inception, from 25 years ago, it has changed to become an organization having about 32,000 employees and even recently it managed to earn $10 million on sale of $8.7 billion in sales. Classic is among the airlines that faces…
Bull, C. (2003). Strategic issues in customer relationship management (CRM)implementation. Busiess Process Management Journal, 9 (5), 592-602, hosteddocs.ittoolbox.com/CB110408.pdf.
Hill.Patrissans, A. (2000). Customer Realtionship Management and the Challenge of Internet. Toronto: Cap Gemini Ernst and Young. scholar.sun.ac.za/bitstream/handle/10019.1/1475/BosseS.pdf?
Newell, F. (2000). Loyalty.com: Customer Relationship Management in the New Eraof Internet Marketing (1st Edition ed.). New York, NY: McGraw. http://www.scribd.com/doc/56202522/Classic-Airlines-Marketing-Solution
Philip Kotler, K.L. (2006). Marketing Management (12th Edition ed.). Upper SaddleRiver, New Jersey, United States: Pearson Prentice Hall.
problem solving involves the customer being very well-acquainted with the product as a result of researching it. The customer in this situation initially had little to no knowledge of the product, the brand selling it, and the market as a whole. A person wanting to buy a car typically engages in such a process.
Limited problem solving occurs in a situation when customers have already developed a set of measuring tools in order to evaluate a product and the brands promoting it. Even with this, their knowledge is still limited and they have to do more research in order to gain a complex understanding of the industry. Someone wanting to buy a jacket normally takes on ideas related to this type of problem solving.
Routinized response can be observed in situations when customers are accustomed to purchasing particular products. These respective consumers rarely need to perform additional research in order…
This concept says that the low zone represents what the child already knows and can handle alone, and the high zone represents what the child needs mentoring for. With help, Sara could very well pick a gift appropriate to her mother's interest and taste. Because Jane at 10 has a broader experience of the world and more experience with her mother's likes and dislikes, her zone of proximal or potential development will be much larger, however she might very well take advantage of the more complete knowledge of people around her and try to buy or possibly make something really special.
Siegler: Information Processing Theories
Information processing theories have much the same foundations as constructivist or socialcultural theory but seem to focus more on exactly how attention and memory work and grow and change in the child. Attention improves a lot in early childhood although with the younger child, focus…
Assessing a Decision Based on Edward de Bono's Six Thinking Hats Technique
In the book Six Thinking Hats Edward de Bono describes the process of parallel thinking. This process means looking at problems from all angles at once. Edward de Bono uses the example of four people all looking at the same house. One person is looking at the front. Another is looking at the back. The other is looking at the left side. The final person is looking at the right side. These people are all arguing about what the house looks like, while each has a different view of the house. The fact is that what everyone is seeing is part of what the house looks like. But as long as they are all only seeing one side, they will never agree. They will also never really understand what the entire house looks like. The four people…
Daft, R.L. (1997). Management. Fort Worth, TX: Dryden Press.
de Bono, E. (1999). Six Thinking Hats. New York: Back Bay Books.
Furnham, A. (1993). "Reaping the Benefits of Teamwork." Financial Times 19 May 1993: 12-14.
Herriot, P., & Pemberton, C. (1995). Competitive Advantage through Diversity. London: Sage.
Workplace Change Using Lewin's Framework
The change plan communicated to the hospital staff will clearly articulate the stages of change in Lewin's framework. The first stage is unfreezing, which requires thoughtful articulation of the need for the proposed change to the stakeholders in the workplace. The motivation for implementing the change plan will necessarily come from the recognition, in this scenario, that the bureaucratic response to a lack of paperwork was ill timed and poorly focused with respect to the priorities of triage. A first step in the communication is to help stakeholders recall that the paperwork procedures are there to serve the staff and patients and not the other way around. Standard operating procedures should reflect the best possible solutions for addressing a problem or situation. A more expedient and agile means of communicating rapid changes in patient status and care needs must be developed, however, this will only…
Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. (n.d.). TeamSTEPPS® Instructor Guide: Specialty ScenariosMed-Surg [Webpage]. Retrieved from http://www.ahrq.gov/teamsteppstools/instructor/scenarios/medsurg.htm
NHS Northwest Academy. (2011). Lewin's change management model: Understanding the three stages of change. Retrieved from http://www.nwacademy.nhs.uk/sites/default/files/86_1722011_lewin_s_change_management_model.pdf
In order to solve problems effectively, a formalized process can be used. These are the basic steps that all problem-solving goes through, but following them ensures that all relevant steps will be taken into consideration. This is better than the alternative, where ad hoc problem-solving can result is sloppiness and errors. Sometimes, such steps are required to resolve a dilemma, such as is the case in this scenario.
The problem in this situation is that there is a discrepancy between the effort that parents are putting into their children's projects. Ultimately, you can only worry about your own child. But the downside to that is that your child has not completed the assignment effectively, and the other child will by virtue of its parent's assistance will deliver a better project. Your child, with a poorer grade, could well be disadvantaged by performing their own work. You are seeking…
A systematic plan must be created to address a multilayered problem. Of course, there are certain things that are impossible to change -- like the recession, for example. But it is necessary to deal with the problems of the larger economy, even if the organization's previous policies did not contribute to the slump. Cutting back on ineffective television and radio advertisements, and focusing on marketing to young people through new media outlets, like the Internet and text messages are one way to use productive resources more effectively.
The fifth step is to plan and execute the solution -- something that is easier said than done. But it is important to remember that "even the best solution is doomed to fail if its implementation isn't carefully planned and executed" (Cochran 2002). A new incentive plan to lure teens with, for example, 'rewards points' on a discount card will convey little value…
Corcoran, Christ. (2002). 6 steps to problem solving. Quality Digest Magazine.
Creative Problem Solving
The human condition appears to be creative in nature. Porter (2010) suggested that "ideas appear to arise by chance only when people are actually looking for them. It does not happen to people who are not curious or inquiring or who are not engaged in a hard search for opportunities, possibilities, answers or inventions, " (p.5). The purpose of this paper is to explain a created problem using the Creative Problem Solving Process (CPS). Specifically, this paper will focus on refining the solutions that were presented in an earlier essay.
Within a particular college class room, some of the students regularly come late to the class and left early. These same students also took extended long breaks and were absent from class most of the time. This was not acceptable by the students who always arrived on time and left at the end of the…
Goodman, N. (2012). A Secret to Creative Problem Solving. Entrepreneur, 23 May 2012. Retrieved from http://www.entrepreneur.com/blog/223588
Proctor, T. (2010). Creative Problem Solving for Managers. Developing Skills for Decision Making and Innovation. Third Edition. Published by Routledge.
Obesity and Fast Food
Obesity in America is one of the fastest-growing health concerns facing the nation. Many people blame the fast food industry, along with American's frenzied lifestyles, as major contributors to obesity in the country. When fast food was first introduced in the 1950s, the concept was appealing for a number of reasons. The food was quickly prepared, it was tasty, and it was cheap. These attributes still apply to fast food in the country, but there is a major difference between the 1950s and today. Then, fast food was seen as a "treat," or even a night outing with the family. Today, fast food is an everyday occurrence for most families, and some people even eat most of their meals in fast food restaurants. In fact, fast food often permeates every facet of American's lives, from school cafeterias to office snacks and lunches grabbed on the run.…
Manning, Cyril. "Clear Link Between Fast Food, Obesity." Harvard University. 2004. 18 May 2004. http://web1.tch.harvard.edu/chnews/01-2004/obesity.html
Problem-solving and Decision-Making in Nursing and Explain How Clinical Judgments Are Outcomes of Critical Thinking in Nursing
The American Philosophical Association (APA) has "defined critical thinking as purposeful, self-regulatory judgment that uses cognitive tools such as interpretation, analysis, evaluation, inference, and explanation of the evidential, conceptual, methodological, criteriological, or contextual considerations on which judgment is based" (Benner 1). In a nursing-specific context, nurses must be engaging their critical faculties at all times. They must analyze situations in a discriminatory fashion using logic, even while having enough confidence and "contextual perspective, creativity, flexibility, inquisitiveness, intellectual integrity" to be open-minded and use their intuition when needed (Benner, Hughes, & Sutphen 1).
In contrast to the scientific method, making clinical judgments is merely the use of objective reason. Nurses must use a problem-specific approach that is focused upon the here and now. "The goal of detached, critical objectivity used to conduct scientific experiments…
Benner, Patricia, Ronda G. Hughes, Molly Sutphen. (n.d.) Chapter 6. Clinical reasoning, decision-making, and action: Thinking critically and clinically. Retrieved:
In the reading component, individuals should be able to utilize library skills, mentioned earlier to identify articles, books, newspapers, advertisements and electronic resources that are of interest to him or her. Within the system observation is important as seeking literature and other resource materials is not innate, the novice must have reminders, in the form of intervention and help that continually reiterate the skill set to finding information, this can be performed through peer instruction, as well as instructor librarian interventions. The student need no have the guide do the work for them but should be offered reminders that help guide them to resources, both in the classroom and in the library. "Instead of using drill and practice on component problem-solving skills in isolation -- as suggested by the skill based approach -a metaskill-based approach suggests modeling of how and when to use strategies in realistic academic tasks." (Mayer, 1998,…
Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education (CBASSE), (2000) How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School: Expanded Edition Chapter 2. pgs. 31-50.
Mayer, R.E. (1998). Cognitive, metacognitive, and motivational aspects of problem solving. Instructional Science, 26, 49-63.
New York ELA Resource Guide to Core curriculum online at http://www.emsc.nysed.gov/ciai/ela/pub/ccela.pdf
Community-Based Policing, Problem-Solving History and esults
The objective of this study is to examine community-based policing, problem-solving history and results. Towards this end, this work will review literature in this area of study.
The Bureau of Justice Assistance document entitled "Understanding Community Policing: A Framework for Action" states that community policing is, "in essence, a collaboration between the police and the community that identifies and solves community problems." Additionally stated in the Bureau of Justice Assistance work is that problem-solving "is a broad term that implies more than simply the elimination and prevention of crimes. Problem-solving is based on the assumption that 'crime and disorder can be reduced in small geographic areas by carefully studying the characteristics of problems in the area and then applying the appropriate resources…" and on the assumption that "Individuals make choices based on the opportunities presented by the immediate physical and social characteristics of an…
Understanding Community Policing: A Framework for Action. Bureau of Justice Assistance. August 1994. Retrieved from: http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles/commp.pdf
Philosophy and Principles of Community-Based Policing (2006) SEESAC 2006. Retrieved from: http://www.seesac.org/uploads/studyrep/CBP_ENG_3rd_edition_FINAL.pdf
Eck, John E., and William Spelman, et al. (1983) Problem Solving: Problem-Oriented Policing in Newport News. Washington, D.C.: Police Executive Research Forum. 1987:pp.xvi -- xvii. See also Clarke, Ronald V. "Situational Crime Prevention: Its Theoretical Basis and Practical
Scope." Crime and Justice: An Annual Review of Research, eds. Michael Tonry and Norval
Army Problem Solving Model Process and the Rapid Decision Making and Synchronization Process Comparison
When comparing the Army Problem Solving Model Process and the Rapid Decision Making and Synchronization Process, there are fundamental characteristics that hold true for both processes. When each is investigated more deeply, the contrasts become evident. he surface comparisons can be seen as follows:
Both decision processes are used by the military to arrive at a viable solution as called for by certain situations.
Both processes are well established and often used by the Army.
Both decision capabilities are developed by Army personnel by means of practice and training.
Both capabilities are utilized according to the demands of specific situations.
Both capabilities involve a number of steps to arrive at the decision made according to the nature and demand of the situation at the time.
Steps of Rapid Decision Making and Synchronization Process
he Rapid Decision…
The six key mission areas in the 2010 Quadrennial Defense Review report are:
Those six are: defend the United States and support civil authorities at home; conduct counterinsurgency, stability, and counterterrorist operations; build partnership capacity; deter and defeat aggression in anti-access environments; impede proliferation and counter weapons of mass destruction; operate effectively in cyberspace.
Being a military commander, General George W. Casey Jr. seems to be more focused on the well-being and capability of military personnel serving in combat. In terms of the six mission areas, he is therefore particularly concerned with enabling his subordinates to conduct counterterrorist operations and deter and defeat aggression, as well as counter weapons of mass destruction. He was very concerned with doing this in such a way as to maximize the well-being of those who served under him.
Value: Problem Solving and Written Assessment by: Sharon . oss
This paper provides an analysis of an article by oss (2002), which describes the learning characteristics exhibited by young children in relation to a particular topic in mathematics, known as place value. Place value refers to the value assigned to each digit within a multiple-digit numeral, within the familiar decimal number system that is the basis for contemporary mathematics in academia and commerce. The premise of the article is that the concept of place value is inherently difficult for elementary grade students to grasp, and correspondingly difficult for instructors to teach. The reason for this difficulty is attributed to the complicated symbology inherent in the decimal system of numeration, which may be summarized as being the product of four mathematical properties, namely the additive, positional, base-ten and multiplicative elements inherent in each and every multiple-digit numeral. oss (2002) describes a…
Ross, Sharon, and Carol (ed.) Langbort. "Place Value: Problem Solving and Written Assessment." Mar. 2002. Web. 7 Feb. 2012.
That means teaching dieters the difference between complex carbohydrates and simple carbohydrates, for example, instead of prescribing a nearly complete moratorium on all types of carbohydrates in the manner of the very popular Atkins Diet (Larson-Duyff, 2002).
The Atkins Diet has proven extremely successful over the short-term because it allows dieters to satisfy food cravings associated with severe carbohydrate restrictions by consuming high-fat foods. However, according to several studies, that approach is impractical with respect to long-term weight maintenance by virtue of the eventual increase in cravings for the restricted food types, such as carbohydrates in the case of the Atkins Diet (Sizer & Whitney, 2003). Therefore, the preferred approach emphasizes understanding the difference between so-called "good" (i.e. complex) carbohydrates and so-called "bad" (i.e. simple) carbohydrates that enables the dieter to restrict only the portion of those types of carbohydrates most responsible for unwanted weight gain. This approach offers comparable…
Baldauf, S. (2008). Too Fat? No More Excuses: Research Is Revealing How Very Damaging Extra Baggage Is. U.S. News & World Report. Jan 14/08 (pp. 57-61)
Larson-Duyff, R. (2002). American Dietetic Association Complete Food and Nutrition Guide. Hoboken: Wiley & Sons.
Sizer, F., Whitney, E. (2003). Nutrition: Concepts and Controversies. Belmont: Wadsworth/Thomson.
Decision making and problem solving in companies are probably the most important processes in any business. These processes ensure that companies run smoothly and effectively. There are a variety of decision-making and problem-solving processes that ensure the effectiveness of business processes. Often, these are chosen on the basis of their effectiveness in the particular business setting involved. The automotive industry, for example, would not function on the same decision-making process as a childcare business. Particularly, problem identification relate to various problem-solving styles, including the morphological approach, the Kepner-Tregoe approach, inventive problem solving, constraints thinking, the collective-participative style, and the fairness approach. These will be related to five types of businesses, including an automotive business, a restaurant, an electronics business, a DVD store, and a preschool,
The first important step in problem solving is problem identification (Reference for Business, 2010). All five businesses investigated have a problem identification process in…
Jones, D, Padgett, M., Rose, C., and Weilacker, R. (2009, Aug. 3) Problem Formulation and Identification. Retrieved from:
Pashiardis, P. (1994). Problem and Dilemma Identification and Formulation as the Most Critical Element of the Decision-Making Process: Behavioral Biases and Characteristics. International Intervisitation Programme in Educational Administration. Retrieved from: http://www.eric.ed.gov/PDFS/ED375465.pdf
Reference for Business.. (2010). Problem-Solving Styles. Encyclopedia of Business, 2nd ed Retrieved from: http://www.referenceforbusiness.com/encyclopedia/Per-Pro/Problem-Solving-Styles.html
This engaged the whole class, regardless of their previous comfort level with mathematics. Graphing was also helpful for students to visualize what things really 'meant' in terms of the numbers they were studying.
Solving word problems as a class in a hands-on fashion forced all students to communicate with one another about mathematics. This increased student comfort levels and generated a collective interest in the mathematical solving process.
Students were given stories that illustrated mathematical concepts to read and asked to tell their own 'stories' to show they could understand mathematical concepts in a qualitative fashion. They were often asked to interpret graphs using verbal descriptions.
One of the most popular activities was the use of online research. Students were asked to research concepts on the web, such as examples of fractions, proportional rectangles, or the use of certain calculation techniques, and report back on their independent research the…
Algorithmic or Heuristic Problem-Solving Method
This study explores the problem surrounding the learners of AGI architecture within reference to decision making capabilities for the real world operation. While the operation of the AGI architecture can be applicable within a real world environment, however, few applicable methodologies and theories support its functionalities. Due to the inherent time-constraint, a direct application to the decision-making theory is not applicable. This study presents the predictive heuristics theory to solve the problem.
Objective of this paper is to use the heuristic theoretical framework to solve the problem posed by the application of AGI system, which is inherent with the time constraints.
Heuristic Application to solve the AGI System Application
In the contemporary environment, human problems are in a large scale where the decision-making procedures are subject to time constraints. One of these problems is the application of AGI architecture where decision is time constraint. The…
Helgason, H.P. Thorisson, K.R. Nivel, E. et al. (2011). Predictive Heuristics for Decision-Making in Real-World Environments. Artificial General Intelligence. 7999: 50-59.
Ormrod, J.E. (2008). Educational Psychology Developing Learners. Pearson Education Inc.
Nominal Group Decision-Making
earning team Creative Problem-Solving Demonstration: Topic "Coming late leaving early" Please Nominal Group Technique Discuss choose technique solve problem. - Nominal Group Technique Explain technique chosen briefly summarize technique conducted a virtual team environment.
Coming late and leaving early: Nominal group technique
Currently, our office is faced with a very difficult problem: people are arriving late and leaving early. The result is that productivity is decreased and people are getting paid the same amount of money for doing less and less work. To curtail this behavior, instead of issuing directives, management has decided to encourage buy-in by using the nominal group technique method, an alternative to brainstorming. This technique has the advantage of not 'pointing fingers' at specific employees, given that all employees have likely come late and left early at some point, meaning that no one is innocent of the crime. The objective of the exercise…
Sample, John A. (1984). Nominal group technique. Ideas at Work. 22 (2).
This is valid except otherwise provided for in the contract. Even if, provided for, the provision, further, need to pass the reasonability requirement.
Further credence to asserting that the clause contained in the contract had, in effect upon signing, become binding to the Landlord and the Tenant, get support from Section 3(2) (bi) UTCCA of 19996. The section stipulates that one party to the contract cannot provide that not provided for in the contract. Rather, any other provisions lie at the discreet choice of the party offering the provisions.
The above Section, therefore, explains that since a contract existed between the Landlord and the tenant, each party got bound by the terms contained in the contract. Therefore, the tenant deserves no right, in light of the contract, to demand that the landlord take responsibility on damages incurred as per the MP3.
In the court case of Suisse Atlantique Societe d'Armement…
Unfair Contract Terms Act, UCTA, 1977. / / www.e-lawresources.co.uk/Unfair-Terms-Regulation-by-statute.php
Unfair Contract Terms Act, UCTA, 1977 S.11 part two, / / www.e-
Unfair Contract Terms Act, UCTA, 1977 S.11 part three//www.e-
Teacher Gestures Affect Student Problem Solving
Learning is a process of brain development and change that is caused by diverse factors contributing to the learning experience of humans. Such includes mechanisms like speech and gestures.
This paper aims to study and provide information on the role of gesture mechanism in the learning process of students. From written articles and previous studies, this paper aims to gather and analyze data on how gestures affect change and development in the problem solving capabilities of children. It addresses issues on the fundamental role of using gestures in teaching: How are children's problem solving methods and approaches influenced by teachers' gestures?
Speech, naturally, is the very common approach of imparting thoughts and knowledge to anyone. It is the easiest way of expressing ideas, of presenting information, and of allowing the mind to picture what is being explained through verbalized characterization of the subject. Aside…
Begley, Sharon. (1998). Living Hand to Mouth.
Newsweek Vol 132(44), 69.
Flevares, L., Perry, M. (2001). How Many Do You See? The Use of Nonspoken Representations in First-Grade Mathematics Lesson.
Journal of Educational Psychology, 93.
Rubik's cube has been around for roughly two generations and it continues to fascinate. This report will focus on the different facets and historical facts surrounding the cube and what has happened with the Cube over the years. The depth and breadth to which mathematics is needed to solve the cube as well as the different overall methods that can be used to solve the cube will be summarized. The different uses of the cube and the different ways in which the puzzle has been solved through the years will be mentioned. hile it may seem like a pointless toy to many, the reach and magnitude of the Rubik's Cube over the years has been and remains palpable.
The Rubik's Cube was created in Budapest, Hungary by Erno Rubik. The year of its creation was 1974. Even Erno himself couldn't solve the cube until nearly a month had passed. The…
Boston.com. "Mass. teacher uses Rubik's Cube to teach math - Boston.com."
Boston.com. The New York Times, 30 Mar. 2014. Web. 20 July 2014.
Harris, Dan. Speedsolving the cube: easy-to-follow, step-by-step instructions for many popular 3-D puzzles. New York: Sterling Pub., 2008. Print.
Traditionally departments have retained information as confidential or proprietary. This practice however inhibits knowledge sharing. An organization must open the lines of communication not only between members of a department, but also between departments in order to adequately share knowledge and improve organizational productivity.
Information management is by far the most critical factor related to knowledge sharing. Information management may also be termed "knowledge management." It includes the process by which managers manage the knowledge they are learning to share. The literature strongly supports election of a knowledge manager to facilitate this process. It is important to note that in the past most organizations have considered information management a purely technological process. There is adequate evidence however, supporting information management as a people directed or people led process. Organizations should aspire to uncover ways to share and manage knowledge by using the resources available within from people rather than from…
Burk, M. (1999, Nov-Dec). "Knowledge management: Everyone benefits by sharing information." TFHRC, 63(3). Retrieved August 1, 2005: http://www.tfhrc.gov/pubrds/novdec99/km.htm
Han, F. (2001). "Understanding knowledge management." Public Manager, 30(2): 34.
Lowson, R.H. (2002). "Strategic operations management: The new competitive advantage." New York: Routledge.
Skyrme, D. (2002). "The 3Cs of knowledge sharing: Culture, co-opetition and commitment." I3 Update. Retrieved August 1, 2005: http://www.skyrme.com/updates/u64_f1.htm
Where, those facilities that had an adversarial relationship between management / employees or other groups saw dramatic long-term effects. As productivity, higher costs and increased amounts of waste would occur at these facilities. This is significant, because it shows how various issues of conflict are like a cancer that will eat away at the most productive of organizations. In the case of the organization that we are examining, this shows that immediate action must be taken to rectify the situation. The longer the conflict is allowed to occur between the two sales people, means that the various emotions will continue to fester. At which point, it is only a matter of time until the situation will spiral out of control and the long-term productivity of the organization can be brought into question.
Hyde, M. (2006). Workplace Conflict esolution and the Health of Employees. Social Science & Medicine, 63 (8), 2218…
About Workplace Conflict. (2000) Retrieved June 13, 2010 from Conflict at Work website: http://www.conflictatwork.com/conflict/cost_e.cfm
Gershenfeld, J. (1991). The Impact on Economic Performance of a Transformation in Workplace Relations. 44 Industry & Labor Relations Revision, 241.
Hyde, M. (2006). Workplace Conflict Resolution and the Health of Employees. Social Science & Medicine, 63 (8), 2218 -- 2227.
Jordan, P. (2004). Managing Emotions During Team Problem Solving. Human Performance, 17 (2), 195 -- 128.
Kotter's Change Model to Solve the FedEx Situation
FedEx HR Management Strategy
Local as well as multinational organizations experiences change during operations. The goal of change is to ensure sustained organizational competitiveness and relevance. Any change is met by an organization and its members going all-out in their commitment to it and in integrating it into company systems. HR departments are responsible for devising practicable plans for resolving organizational issues and, more significantly, inducing change. Corporate change may be small-scale (changing one sub-department or some operational processes only) or large-scale (department-wide or company-wide change).
International courier giant, FedEx, has a sound global footprint. Ever since its institution, the multinational has garnered positive reviews on the part of specialist commercial managers, business partners and its own workforce. Star candidates from the HR pool, with advanced educational qualifications and first-rate experience, are hired via a great vetting process, to handle its HR…
Problem Solving in the Workplace
Problem solving is one of the major issues in the workplace because of problems usually occur in the working environment. Since problems are part and parcel of the daily operations in a workplace, effective problem solving and decision-making is crucial towards establishing a suitable workplace for all workers. The significance of problem-solving in the workplace is evident in the significant attention this issue has obtained among business scholars and professionals. Additionally, effective problem solving in the workplace is vital given that people tend to become uncomfortable, fear or hope the problem would disappear, look for someone to blame or look for answers/solutions to the problem (Hicks, 2000). Hicks (2000) provide different steps that can be utilized in resolving problems experienced in the workplace.
One of the major problems or issues that I have faced in my workplace is time management. I experienced this problem during…
Hicks, T. (2000, January 30). Seven Steps Outlined for Effective Problem-Solving. Biz Journals. Retrieved April 21, 2017, from http://www.bizjournals.com/phoenix/stories/2000/01/31/smallb3.html
Carbon Emissions: Tax or Trade?
One of the central topics in the ongoing debate about global warming, carbon emissions, and the needs of businesses is whether governments should implement taxes on carbon emissions, construct an artificial carbon trading market and let the "invisible hand" place some controls on current and future pollution levels, or utilize some combination of these two options. There are many different ways in which to approach and address this debate, yet to develop an effective and meaningful decision in this regard a rational and objective decisions making model must be employed, rather than allowing specific political, environmental, business, or emotional arguments to enter the picture. This paper will attempt to apply certain specific decision making models to this issue in order to determine whether a carbon tax, a carbon trading system, or a combination of the two is most appropriate.
One method for such…
The key constructs of systems thinking were constituted in the first half of the 20th century in fields such as psychology, ecology, organismal biology, and cybernetics (Capra 1997). They include: sub-systems/parts/wholes, environment/system/boundary, process/structure, emerging properties, hierarchy of organizations, negative and positive feedback, data and control, open systems, holism, and the observer. The practical application of these constructs in many fields was discovered by von Bertalanffy (1950). He referred to these concepts as general systems theory (GST). These concepts were adapted in Organizational research and Management science (O/MS) and were referred to as management cybernetics (Beer 1967), systems engineering (Hall 1962), system four dynamics (Forrester 1968), and finally, in what we might refer to as the systems approach (Churchman 1968; Klir 1969; Weinberg 1975) (Mingers & White, 2009).
The systems thinking/systems approach, has been closely linked to the growth of organizational research and management science. At the start it…
Beer, S., 1967. Cybernetics and Management, English Universities Press: London.
Beer S (1984). The Viable System Model: Its Provenance, Development, Methodology and Pathology. Journal of the Operational Research Society 35(7): 25.
Bezuidenhout, C. & Bodhanya, S., 2010. Identifying opportunities in South African sugarcane supply-chain-systems: A synopsis, limitations and recommendations. Report to the South African Sugarcane Research Institute, Mount Edgecombe: s.n.
Burnett SM and Durant-Law GA (2008). Applying the RAAAKERS framework in an analysis of the command and control arrangements of the ADF Garrison Health Support. Journal of Military and Veterans' Health 17: 19-26.
Solving an Organizational Problem
Recently, while working as a customer service representative for the local telephone company, I became aware of an organizational problem that seriously affected the productivity of the organization. Employees in five of the six departments of the company were habitually late for work each morning, causing dissatisfied customers and possible loss of business. This presented a serious problem to the company.
The main issue at hand is that many of the chronically late employees were good, hardworking people. Therefore, their managers did not want to fire them or even punish them. However, an employee who is always late has demoralizing effect on other employees who arrive for work on time. In this light, habitual lateness is an infectious disease. Because so many employees got away with being late every day, soon many more participated in tardy behavior. Most of the employees were of lower middle-class economic…
That way, families could coordinate their schedules and plan family get-togethers just as they do now, except that they would be able to travel without worrying about traffic and airport congestion that makes holiday travel such a nightmare when everybody travels at the same time.
If anything, that approach to holidays would increase their meaning in several ways rather than reducing their meaning. Today, Christmas, Father's Day and Mother's Day in particular have become so commercialized that they have lost most of their underlying meaning. For example, every Christmas season, millions of Americans endure miserable conditions shopping to complete their Christmas lists. Meanwhile, everybody on their lists goes through the exact same thing reciprocally. Instead of giving meaningful gifts to one another, this process has become a ritualized obligatory exchange of gifts of approximately equal value that often completely detracts from any real warmth or meaningfulness of the gifts. In…
Solving a Problem
While working for a small company that published books and magazines about assembling model airplanes, I was part of a small group who wrote instructions. Most of the job entailed research about paints, glues, and plastics. Over time, we began collecting sources about all kinds of things which we could look up if we ever had questions pertaining to what we were writing about at the time. Also, because we were writers, we had various books on grammar, punctuation, and style that we used for reference as well.
This collection of sources consisted of magazines, books, articles, and tests we had conducted. Each writer had a small collection they kept in their office. As time went on, other people in the company would come to us asking if we knew about a particular kind of glue, paint, or some other thing that was related to putting the…
Wildlife conservations often tag members of a population in order to make estimates about things such as population size, mortality rates, mating habits, and migratory habits, and then recapture animals to see what percentage of the originally tagged groups shows up in the second sample. In this hypothetical, to estimate the size of the Keweenaw Peninsula bear population, conservationists tagged and released 50 bears. One year later, a random sample of 100 bears included only 2 tagged bears. From these numbers the conservationists may estimate the size of the bear population using proportions based on an assumption that the tagged animals represent the average member of the targeted population. Proportions allow people to assume that the ratios remain constant across scenarios.
Because proportions assume ratios are constant, they can be made equivalent to one another, allowing people to solve for a missing number if given three other numbers.…
Preventing and Addressing Problems in Human Services Organizations
PEVENTING AND ADDESSING POBLEMS
Human services administrators are responsible for recognizing problems within their organizations, addressing them, and taking the necessary steps to prevent them from re-occurring in the future (Berger et al., 2009). Unfortunately, the correct methods for achieving these goals are not always clear, so human services administrators must use their personal judgement when deciding on a plan of action. The process of recognizing and solving problems often involves the use of authority and supervision, or a combination of the two. In this assignment, I will discuss a problem faced by Andrea Ingram, a human services administrator, and examine the methods she used to address these problems.
Andrea Ingram runs an organization that offers 24-hour crisis services and shelter programs. Both programs are run out of the same building; however, the crisis staff and the shelter staff often act as…
Berger, C., De St. Aubin, M., Gilbert, C., & Kadushin, G. (2009). Models and methods in hospital social work supervision. The Clinical Supervisor, 28(2), 180-199.
Bogo, M. & Dill, K. (2008). Walking the tightrope: using power and authority in child welfare supervision. Child Welfare League of America, 87(6), 141-156.
Community Care. (2005). How to give supervision. Retrieved from [insert URL here].
Problem-based learning is something that teachers and students alike have been excited about, since it provides the opportunity not only to learn, but also to learn in a very practical setting, by solving presented problems. For educators, this presents a new and exciting world to help learners arrive at the level of knowledge they require to succeed in their immediate and long-term future. It is also important to recognize that students need particular traits to respond well and make good use of this type of education, especially at the tertiary level. When entering a physical therapy program that is strongly oriented towards problem-based learning, I will therefore use the skills that I have cultivated throughout my life and school career to make a success of this program; these include independent thinking, problem solving, group interaction skills, and self-discipline.
I have learned to be an independent thinker since a very…
Therefore should such an employee be fired, and then the basic tenets of corporate social responsibility would have been violated. The enterprise would be therefore in essence sanctioning the gross mutilation of its moral and ethical guidelines. Every employee, irrespective of their employment rank has a right to fair dismissal. Dismissing employees due to budget cuts is unethical, immoral and irresponsible. This means that it is the moral duty of the firing authority to ensure that the fired employee has a safe landing or a negotiated layoff.
Protection of the society from harm/hazardous wastes/effluents is an ethical and moral responsibility of responsible companies/
While defining CS as the act of conducting the affairs of a given enterprise in a manner that would maintain an equitable and yet workable balance among several claims of numerous directly interested parties comprising of a harmonious balance among the stakeholders such as employees, clients and…
Bowen H.R. (1953). Social responsibilities of the businessman. Harper and Row: New York.
Brincat, C.,Wike, vs (1999). Morality and the Professional Life: Values at Work. Pearson; 1st ed.
Frederick, W. (2006). Corporation, be good! The story of corporate social responsibility. Indianapolis: Dog Ear Publishing.
The World ank model centers on a five-person team called the Performance Advisory Service or PAS (Yandrick 1995). PAS trains supervisors to analyze work performance and personality problems. The supervisor first determines if a skill deficiency is involved or there are personal and environmental factors. He does this by reviewing the employee's records in search of troubled behavioral patterns; consulting with work team leaders, colleagues and support staff in investigating possible problems within the organization; and/or directly exploring the employee's work performance and conduct.
In the last option, the supervisor may ask or remind the employee about the consequence of poor performance; if he or she is being rewarded for poor or nonperformance; if performance matters to him or her; if there are health or stress factors conducing to his or her poor or low-level performance; or if there are external stimuli behind it. Armed now with the different angles…
Brown, J. (1992). How Would You Handle These Prickly Management Problems? Medical Laboratory Observer: Nelson Publishing. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m3230/is_n11_v24/ai_13806643
Business Wire. (1999) a.M. Best Company Says Technology Can Solve Insurance Management Problems. Gale Group 2000. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m3MKT/is_n78_v97/ai_56542486
Day, CM. (1987). Three Diagnostic Clues to Management Problems. Medical Laboratory Observer: Nelson Publishing. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m3230/is_v19/ai_5118836
Heisler, DL. (1989). The Wrong Response to Today's Problems. American Metal Market. Reed Business Information. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m3MKT/is_n78_v97/ai_7565287
This model is strong because it is formalize and has been proven over time. However, its structure also lends it a degree of rigidity -- it essentially closes off the more creative aspects of problem solving. By working through the model's steps, however, the organization was able to determine some of the issues that had lead to the deviation. In addition, other issues were uncovered. There is a risk that in working through the model some of the issues uncovered early on may be confused for the real source of the problem, leading the firm to abandon change efforts prematurely.
Low, James T. & Heil, Karl. (2007). Problem-Solving Styles. Encyclopedia of Business. Retrieved August 1, 2009 from http://www.referenceforbusiness.com/encyclopedia/Per-Pro/Problem-Solving-Styles.html
No author. (2009). Kepner-Tregoe Decision-Making. Decision-making-confidence.com. Retrieved August 1, 2009 from http://www.decision-making-confidence.com/kepner-tregoe-decision-making.html
Low, James T. & Heil, Karl. (2007). Problem-Solving Styles. Encyclopedia of Business. Retrieved August 1, 2009 from http://www.referenceforbusiness.com/encyclopedia/Per-Pro/Problem-Solving-Styles.html
No author. (2009). Kepner-Tregoe Decision-Making. Decision-making-confidence.com. Retrieved August 1, 2009 from http://www.decision-making-confidence.com/kepner-tregoe-decision-making.html
Problems contexts as social constructs
hat should be becoming clear from the discussion so far is that it may be best, in Systems Analysis, to regard problems, puzzles and messes as social constructs. That is, like beauty, there is a sense in which they are defined in the eye of the beholder. This does not mean that every aspect of the issues to be faced is within the mind of the analyst or the participants. That a business is heading for bankruptcy or that an ambulance service is failing to provide adequate response times may be beyond dispute (Galliers, 2010). But the interpretation of those "facts" is less certain, and different people may interpret the same "facts" in different ways. That is, there may be several valid views of what is happening and of what might be done about it. Some of these interpretations may turn out to be wrong,…
Galliers, R.D. "Strategic information systems planning: myths, reality and guidelines for successful implementation," European Journal of Information Systems, vol. 1, pp. 55-64, 2010.
Chan, Y. Huff, S. Barclay, D. And Copeland, D. "Business Strategic Orientation: Information Systems Strategic Orientation and Strategic Alignment," Information Systems Research, vol. 8, pp. 125-150, 2006.
Bleistein, S.J. Cox, K. And Verner, J. "Requirements Engineering for e-Business Systems: Integrating Jackson Problem Diagrams with Goal Modeling and BPM," presented at 11th Asia Pacific Software Engineering Conference, Busan, Korea, 2004.
Cox, K. Phalp, K.S. Bleistein, J. And Verner, J. "Deriving Requirements from Process Models via the Problem Frames Approach," Information and Software Technology, vol. 47, pp. 319-337, 2005.
communications skills to solve problems they are likely to encounter in the workplace.
Communication is the process of sharing information, expression, feeling, and thought between two or more people. Effective communication plays an important role in the organizational development, and communication forms an important constituent of every aspect of an organization. To maintain good working relations, it critical for the entire workforce to communicate with one another to enhance coordination, as well maintaining good working relations.
Evidence of communication skills is the ability of an individual or business organization to persuade and negotiate within business environment. Persuading and negotiating is one of the important aspects within business environment. Arriving at a concrete agreement within a business environment involves using effective communication skills. Persuasion involves ability to convince others to reach appropriate course actions, while negotiating involves ability to reach a mutually satisfactory agreement.
Evidence of communication skills is…
Australian Computer Society (2011).Case Studies and their clauses in the Code. Australia.
Wheeler, S. (2003). Comparing Three IS Codes of Ethics -- ACM, ACS and BCS . 7th Pacific Asia Conference on Information Systems, 10-13 July 2003, Adelaide, South Australia. 1576- 1587.
COPs and POPs
Community- and problem-oriented policing have been touted by some as representing the biggest changes to policing implemented at the end of the 20th century (reviewed by Maguire and King, 2004). However, as Maguire and King point out, defining these policing innovations is not a straightforward task since there may be as many variations as there are police agencies. This essay will define and contrast these two policing strategies in an attempt to better understand how crime control strategies have changed.
Department of Justice's website devoted to community-oriented policing (COPs) defines community policing as having three components: community partnerships, organizational transformation, and problem solving (Community Oriented Policing Services, n.d.). Under this definition, community not only includes residents, but also other government agencies, groups, nonprofits, service providers, businesses, and the media. Proper implementation of community policing requires police organizational transformation that may impact every corner of the…
Clarke, Ronald, V. And Eck, John E. (2005). Crime Analysis for Problem Solvers in 60 Small Steps. U.S. Department of Justice. Retrieved 22 Jan. 2013 from www.cops.usdoj.gov/pdf/CrimeAnalysis60Steps.pdf.
Community Oriented Policing Services. (n.d.). Community policing defined. Community Oriented Policing Services, U.S. Department of Justice. Retrieved 22 Jan. 2013 from http://www.cops.usdoj.gov/Default.asp?Item=36 .
Goldstein, Herman. (2001). What is POP? Center for Problem-Oriented Policing. Retrieved 22 Jan. 2013 from http://www.popcenter.org/about/?p=whatiscpop .
Lombardo, Robert M., Olson, David, and Staton, Monte. (2010). The Chicago Alternative Policing Strategy: A reassessment of the CAPS program. Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, 33(4), 586-606.
In fact it has been proposed that the positive impact observed of PBL on motivation may come from these academically talented individuals rather than the intervention itself (Hwang & Kim, 2006). GPAs and demographic characteristics were not found to be correlated to PBL (Ceconi et al., 2008).
White et al. (2004) found in a study regarding that PBL was not shown to be superior to other learning styles in assisting students to acquire or retain knowledge regarding asthma management. This finding is consistent with the majority of research that has not found greater knowledge acquisition or retention amongst PBL students vs. traditional teaching methods (Albanese, 2000; Beers, 2005; Rogal & Snider, 2008). However, it is not that PBL produces inferior results, most studies have found that there are no significant differences between PBL students and those from traditional curricula on standardized knowledge tests (Beachey, 2007). Beers (2005) points out that…
Many studies have shown that PBL students experience greater motivation toward learning than their traditional counterparts (Hwang & Kim, 2006; Beachey, 2007, Rogal & Snider, 2008). Further PBL has been associated with greater satisfaction in the learning process by physicians than its traditional counterpart (Beachey, 2007; Op't Holt, 2000; Rogal & Snider, 2008). Evaluations of PBL programs have found that not only do students take pleasure in the process, they also believe that they have the capacity to out perform their peers from traditional curricula in clinical settings (Op't Holt, 2005; Kaufman & Mann, 1996). Studies have shown that the teaching method has little bearing on the learning of academically talented students (Hwang & Kim, 2006; Distlehorst, Dawson, Robbs, & Barrows, 2005; Op't Hoyt, 2005). In fact it has been proposed that the positive impact observed of PBL on motivation may come from these academically talented individuals rather than the intervention itself (Hwang & Kim, 2006). GPAs and demographic characteristics were not found to be correlated to PBL (Ceconi et al., 2008).
White et al. (2004) found in a study regarding that PBL was not shown to be superior to other learning styles in assisting students to acquire or retain knowledge regarding asthma management. This finding is consistent with the majority of research that has not found greater knowledge acquisition or retention amongst PBL students vs. traditional teaching methods (Albanese, 2000; Beers, 2005; Rogal & Snider, 2008). However, it is not that PBL produces inferior results, most studies have found that there are no significant differences between PBL students and those from traditional curricula on standardized knowledge tests (Beachey, 2007). Beers (2005) points out that one would expect significant improvement in clinical knowledge and performance in order to advocate for the use of PBL in the classroom due to the extensive resources that are required to utilize PBL curricula.
One would expect that PBL students would be at a significant advantage over their traditional peers due to the clinical application in the classroom (Colliver, 2000). Some
computer is too slow. I went onto various sites to find a solution. At first, I thought that finding a solution would be rapid and that, in fact, I would be inundated with advice, but I soon discovered that what I was inundated with instead was with marketing schemes and scams with all sorts of sites and more attempting to sell me mechanisms that -- they guaranteed -- would enable me to make my program faster. In fact, I was soon bewildered and reluctant to try any of the proffered, and sometimes contradictory, advice for fear that not only would my computer not become any faster but that it may break down altogether.
Close into the chase, I realized that seeking authoritative and reliable information would necessitate my approaching the sites most connected with and associated with computer. One such site I contacted was Microsoft (Microsoft at home; Web), which…
Microsoft at home. Slow PC? Optimize your computer for peak performance www.microsoft.com/athome/setup/optimize.aspx
As Epstein suggested earlier, there seems to be no downside to this process.
James Colliver (2000) would disagree. He dismisses the assertions that favor the efficacy of PBL; his misgivings parallel Hmelo-Smith's earlier remarks. For instance, Colliver contends that the popularity of PBL is predicated on a kind of mass enthusiasm rather than empirically
based scientific evidence (p.259). Colliver asserts that PBL has not proven valid and lacks confirmation as successful teaching model. His article is largely a condemnation of the assertions that proponents of PBL assert. (He also implicates the cognitive sciences that underscore PBL.)
Colliver believes medical educators must abandon their support of PBL until there is sufficient empirical proof that PBL is, in fact, an effective way to teach people.
After ten years of administering Problem-Based Learning at the University of Missouri's
School of Medicine, Hoffman and her research team sought to examine the overall efficacy of…
Kinshuk, Liu, ., & Graf, S. (2009). Coping with mismatched courses: Students' behaviour and performance in courses mismatched to their learning styles. Educational echnology Research and Development, 57(6), 739-752. Retrieved from ERIC database.
Kinshuk and Graf first establish the fact that students are often required to learn material that is not adaptive to their preferred learning style. he work then goes on to analyze how an interactive adaptive online/computer aided system could aide these students in allowing individual learning through designs that were more adaptive to learning style preference (i.e. had multiple ways of learning the same material) the work indicates that non-adaptive computer aided designs, i.e. that simply teach with one learning style are not as effective as those which offer students in mismatched courses several ways to learn material.
Sahin, a., Cermik, H., & Dogan, B. (2010). Is it "Writing on Water" or "Strike it Rich?" he experiences…
This work analyses interactive complex group learning tasks through the implementation of computer learning models. The research indicates that the computer model must be structured in a specific way to best aide the student in finding answers to complex learning tasks. The model that was most effective involved task specific step processes organized in a linear way and computer aided scripting (through chat) to help the learner answer enduring questions about the subject and the computer program, with a pre-task orientation to the system by a computer learning aide live in the computer lab, where each student worked independently on his or her own computer.
Wang, S., & Heffernan, N. (2010). Ethical issues in computer-assisted language learning: Perceptions of teachers and learners. British Journal of Educational Technology, 41(5), 796-813. Retrieved from ERIC database.
Wang and Heffernan discuss the issue of ethics as it is associated with Computer- Assisted Language Learning (CALL) as it has transitioned from stand alone formats to internet driven interactive learning. The researchers state that there has been a near complete lack of attention paid to online privacy and security in the classroom which could potentially create a demonstrative difficulty for computer aided learners and instructors as well as for the use of internet-based learning systems in general. The researchers seek to let their work serve as a starting point for a serious discussion about these issues, specific to the classroom and the industry of internet-based computer learning in general.