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The Kellogg Company is a producer of cereal and convenience foods with a number of brands. The company is located in Battle Creek, Michigan, and was founded in 1906. Kellogg's posted earnings of almost $13 billion in 2010 and employs about 31,000 people. Facing global sales stagnation and decline, Kellogg promoted Carlos Gutierrez, who had risen in the company from the ground up since 1975, as CEO. Gutierrez believed in the strategy of "Volume to Value," a way to increase sales by focusing resources on Kellogg's highest margin products like Special K, kasha, and Nutri-Grain. This extra income would fund advertising, promotion and R&D, which would also encourage high-margin sales growth. "Volume is a means to an end -- not an end. What counts is dollars" (Boyle, 2004).
PIC Analysis for Rice Kipsies:
Rice Krispies, also known as Rice Bubbles in Australia and New Zealand, is one of…
Individual Product Innovation Proposal Assume organization, familiar, made a strategic decision innovative. (Mcdonald's product line) Identify unknown problems unmet opportunities develop innovative strategy address .
McDonald's has lately decided to become more innovative by adding a healthier product line that includes fruit, salad and vegetables. It has not only added this new product line, but has consistently encouraged customers to purchase them, including by allowing them to add such products to value meals instead of the traditional fries
This paper aims to use the IDM five-step roadmap to address the creation of an innovative business product, namely the new product line at McDonalds.
Assessing the situation
During the last years, McDonald's has been under considerable pressure from groups and individuals that argued that the products that the company sells are not healthy and encourage obesity. The arguments these groups used included the nature of the products (meat, fries, sweet products,…
1. Langley, Lacy. McDonald's announces big menu changes. September 2013. On the Internet at http://www.webpronews.com/mcdonalds-announces-big-menu-changes-2013-09 . Last retrieved on September 30, 2013
Langley, Lacy. McDonald's announces big menu changes. September 2013. On the Internet at
product market that interests you, and come up with a new product for that market. Select a market that you know something about so that you will have the most domain specific knowledge. Be sure to include the following steps:
Describe the current product market. This includes the nature of the product, the target markets, competitors, and their product lines.
Your problem definition is to come up with a valuable new product for your product/market (See the slide on types of new products).
Go through the Product Innovation Slides, and use the 6 ideation techniques to come up with at 6-10 new product ideas.
Evaluate the ideas, select the best one, and justify your choice.
Flesh out your new product idea, including target market, benefits and features, etc. Explain why you think this idea is likely to be a commercial success.
I would like to develop a new design for…
Moreover, CoPs develop their practice through improving the diffusion of innovation within their active networks; the benefits of such interactions are countless especially in the field of healthcare. One can assume that specialty doctors' communities would present the perfect example for CoPs because they share the same practice, interest and professionalism. It would be interesting to study if those CoP networks exist in United Arab Emirates, whether they are active or not and whether leaders can be identified. Collecting such data will enable this project to measure if the rate of diffusion of new innovation can be improved and hence be used by pharmaceutical companies in UAE to improve their resource allocation; all within healthcares' ethical framework.
Overview of Study
This dissertation used a five-chapter format to achieve the above-stated research purpose. To this end, chapter one introduced the topic under consideration, a statement of the problem, the purpose and…
MAKET ANALYSIS & PODUCT INNOVATION
Market Analysis and Product Innovation: Facebook Inc.
In an increasingly competitive environment, business organizations must remain innovative. They must deliver offerings that resonate with the ever changing needs of the consumer and the operating environment (Akbar & Tzokas, 2013). This often calls for product innovation, which has been marked as a crucial driver of competitive advantage in the contemporary marketplace (Song & Chen, 2014). Nonetheless, product innovation is often not a straightforward undertaking. An organization must have comprehensive understanding of the environment in which it operates, especially in terms of the threats and opportunities it presents, for its products to succeed in the marketplace (Bart, 2002). The organization must also effectively utilize its resources and capabilities to overcome those threats and take advantage of the opportunities (Holahan, Sullivan & Markham, 2014).
One organization that is an epitome of innovation in today's business environment is Facebook…
Akbar, H., & Tzokas, N. (2013). An exploration of new product development's front-end knowledge conceptualization process in discontinuous innovations. Journal of British Management, 24, 245-263.
Bart, C. (2002). Product innovation charters: mission statements for new products. R&D Management, 32(1), 23-34.
Facebook (2015). Annual Report 2015. Retrieved 28 September 2016 from: https://s21.q4cdn.com/399680738/files/doc_financials/annual_reports/2015-Annual- Report.pdf
Holahan, P., Sullivan, Z., & Markham, S. (2014). Product development as core competence: how formal product development practices differ for radical, more innovative and incremental product innovations. 31(2), 329-345.
In a single day, the average person comes into contact with a range of services, products, and processes that can be categorized as forms of innovation. Furthermore, most of these innovations will differ in degree, some being radical innovations and others being merely incremental; some sustaining, others breakout, and still others viewed as disruptive innovations. This paper will analyze the different examples of innovation with which I come into contact on a daily basis, show how they are innovative, what generic lessons can be derived from them, and under what form of innovation they would be categorized.
The water purifier is a perfect form of process innovation that is often applied to product innovation: for example, it may be found within the mechanism of the refrigerator, attached to the kitchen faucet, or even inside a portable water bottle. All three provide purified water and illustrate how process innovation can…
Innovations in Marketing Services Innovation
Innovation of services
According to Chang (2010), service-based concepts have traditionally lent themselves less easily to innovation than tangible products (Chang 2010:113). Service-based enterprises are said to suffer from the problem of immediate exposure or the fact, that unlike the launch of a new, technical device, there is no 'build-up' or secrecy regarding the released service. However, clearly innovative services have been generated. For example, the innovation of providing supermarket shoppers with home-based deliveries, ordered online, has recently begun to be a popular service. Service sectors have been identified as existing in the Wholesale and etail, Business and Professional, Education, Government, and Finance sectors. The Goods Sector encompasses Manufacturing, Construction, Agriculture and Extraction services (Omachonu & Einspruch 2010: 110).
Services have been defined as deeds, processes, and performances after which no material object is generated (Omachonu & Einspruch 2010: 111). However, there is a clear…
Chang, C.M. (2011). The creation of novel and marketable service ideas. International Journal
of Innovation and Technology Management, 8 (1) 113 -- 133.
Omachonu, Vincent K. & Norman Einspruch. (2010). Innovation: Implications for goods and services. International Journal of Innovation and Technology Management, 7 (2) 109 -- 127.
New products and services are being developed almost continually based on technological changes, consumer choice and demand, and available materials and other new inventions. For instance, computer technology and miniaturization might make it possible for a product to have additional innovation enough to constitute a new niche or an extension. According to most research, however, it is more important to spend time and money selling inventions as opposed to protecting the rights. Patent Pending, for instance, is usually less than a few hundred dollars and provides some level of protection while the item is coming to market (Tozzi, 2007).
In the product management side, there are numerous types of innovation that occur when it comes to managing new or ancillary products. The two most popular types, however, are incremental and radical innovation. In essence, incremental innovation tends to exploit, improve, or otherwise change some existing technology. This innovation…
Arons, M. (March 17, 2010). Five Key Drivers of Global Marketing Effectiveness.
Forbes.com. Retrieved from: http://www.forbes.com/2010/03/17/branding-gillette-glaxosmithkline-cmo-network-marc-de-swaan-arons.html
Coe, N., Wrigley, N. (1990). The Globalization of Retailing. London: Edward Elgar
In the middle of the 20th century, a single exercise enthusiast who would later become nationally known as Jack LaLane single-handedly revolutionized weightlifting by virtue of an original inspiration that Drucker would likely regard as being attributable to genius and as functions of process needs, industry market changes, and new knowledge. Specifically, Jack LaLane was (probably the first modern) professional fitness trainer in American history. As a young man, he was a fitness enthusiast who, before becoming famous, earned a living teaching others how to build their bodies through resistance training.
At the time, there were very few weightlifting gyms and those that existed were not particularly welcoming to novices or to recreational users; they were dingy, dirty, and frequented more by competitive athletes like boxers and wrestlers than by ordinary people hoping to change the way they looked. Jack LaLane recognized that there was a demand for an accessible…
Drucker, Peter, F. "The Discipline of Innovation." 1985 in The Innovative Enterprise,
Chapter Three: "Types and Patterns of Innovation"
Innovation at Google
The significance of innovation in creating and maintaining a competitive advantage in today's increasingly aggressive business environment cannot be overemphasized. Businesses that survive in such an environment are those that constantly deliver innovative offerings and/or reengineer their structures and processes amidst ever more changing market and industry conditions (Andriopoulos & Dawson, 2009). Google is one such organization that embodies innovation. With an innovation-oriented culture, the organization has, in a little more than a decade grown to be one of the most innovative organizations in the internet realm. From its adword online advertising service and search engine, to its cloud computing service, browser, productivity software, social networking service, desktop applications, operating system, mobile applications, as well as a host of other internet products, the organization provides a perfect example of how innovation can be an engine for rapid growth.
Based on responses obtained from an interview with one…
Andriopoulos, C., & Dawson, P. (2009). Managing change, creativity and innovation. London: Sage.
Chen, Y. (2015). The role of reward systems in product innovations: an examination of new product development projects. Project Management Journal, 46(3), 36-48.
Mayle, D. (2006). Managing innovation and change. London: Sage.
Nilsson, S., & Ritzen, S. (2014). Exploring the use of innovation performance measurement to build innovation capability in a medical device company. Creativity & Innovation Management, 23(2), 183-198.
Additionally, aside financial resources, they also used their assets. The most relevant example in this sense is the selling of part of its interests in Mazda. It as such transformed its assets into liquidities -- the 20% shares in Mazda were converted into $540 million (Murphy) -- that better allowed them to pursue their innovation objectives.
The matter of technological innovation is not only a core focus of Ford's, but of all players within the American automobile industry. The reasons for the rivalry in terms of &D are numerous, the most outstanding however being constituted by the desire to attract and satisfy as many customers as possible, managing as such to increase organizational revenues. "&D efforts in the U.S. Auto industry are channeled into a variety of processes such as stamping, casting, machining, and assembling. Within the time-frame of our investigation, &D efforts had to embrace sudden changes in taste…
Brighton, G., July 17, 2006, Ford to Drive Revolution with £1bn R&D Project, PSFK, http://www.psfk.com/2006/07/ford_to_drive_g.html last accessed on May 6, 2009
Murphy, J., November 18, 2008, Ford Cuts Mazda Stake, The Wall Street Journal
Ramrattan, L.B., 1998, R&D Rivalry in the U.S. Automobile Industry: A Simultaneous Equation Model Approach to Bain's Hypothesis, American Economist, Vol. 42
Ramsey, J., October 7, 2007, Ford is Biggest Spender on R&D, AutoBlog, http://www.autoblog.com/2007/10/07/ford-is-biggest-spender-on-randd / last accessed on May 6, 2009
Product: Xperia Z1 Twist plus ear
Enrolling a product in the market attracts subsequent challenges that seek to examine its validity. Therefore, it is inopportune that modern companies develop products that will seek to minimize issues related to the incorporation. The impetus behind this approach is in the knowledge that a good product might fail because of implementation because of the ever-increasing incorporation problems. This becomes challenging if the product in question is affecting several markets. This report will present a product; Xperia Z1 twist plus ear owned by the Sony roup. The report will specify on considerate techniques on how to enroll the product in the market. The report is segmented into three main sections; firstly, the generation of a new idea. Secondly, this report will second an argument of innovation through the democratizing process. Finally, the report will present brief changes that are instrumental in customizing the product…
Guellec, Dominique, and Bruno Van Pottelsberghe De La Potterie. "The Value of Patents and Patenting Strategies: Countries and Technology Areas Patterns." Economics of Innovation and New Technology 11.2 (2002): 133-148. Print.
McMillan, G. Steven, Alfredo Mauri, and Robert D. Halmilton. "The Impact of Publishing and Patenting Activities on New Product Development and Firm Performance: The Case of the U.S. Pharmaceutical Industry." International Journal of Innovation Management 07.02
(2003): 213-221. Print.
Describe the problem your innovation targets. What is the scope of the problem and which stakeholders, both within the organization and without, does it impact?
The organization that I work in is Dana Incorporated. Dana is a global leader in the supply of significantly engineered drivetrain, sealing, in addition to thermal-management technologies that augment the efficacy and performance of vehicles with conventional and powertrains using alternative energy. The auto industry has had a past account of innovation and a great deal of turbulence. However, the level of innovation in the contemporary is unmatched. Brand reputation together with high product quality continues to be significant but have lost their gleam as consumer selling points. Notably, at the present moment, technology innovation and transparent cost of ownership have swiftly shifted to the top of what consumers desire and demand from a vehicle (Gnamm, Kalmbach, and Burgin, 2018).
By analyzing the internal processes…
Innovation & Creativity
FedEx was founded as an innovator in a logistics field that had never seen overnight delivery before. The company has always positioned itself as a premium provider in the business, based on its sophisticated technology, superior network size and quality of service. However, as the company has matured, its ability to be an innovation leader is being threatened. There are a few different issues at play. The first is that, as in any mature industry, the pace of innovation is generally slow. And as the only company that genuinely seeks to position itself as premium to its competitors, FedEx is the only firm truly trying to compete on innovation. Over the years, it has had some tremendous innovation successes, pioneering the ability to maintain communication with its drivers on road, with its tracking that allows customers to see where their packages are at every step of the…
Andersen, H.; Barker, P. And Chen, X. 2006. The Cognitive Structure of Scientific Revolutions Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Cooper, R.G. 2008. Perspective: The Stage-Gate® Idea-to-Launch Process-Update, What's New, and NexGen Systems Journal of Product Innovation Management 25 (3) 213-232.
Edquist, C. & Hommen, L. 1999. Systems of innovation: Theory and policy for the demand side. Technology in Society. 21 (1) 63-79.
Gatignon, H.; Tushman, M.L.; Smith, W. And Anderson, P. 2002 A Structural Approach to Assessing Innovation: Construct Development of Innovation Locus, Type, and Characteristics. Management Science 48 (9) 103-122.
Undoubtedly, the main beneficiary of such fierce competition is the customer who will be able to choose among several reliable products (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/iPod).
Thirdly, iPod has proved to be an excellent consumer-oriented item as it has made available revolutionary features (like modern design, lighter weight, high capacity) to the masses due to the average price established. Thus, in return for a moderate sum of money, people can take with them their favorite songs.
Fourthly, iPod has had a considerable social impact as it has succeeded in warming up human relationships. Steven Levy (2006) suggested that: "Music hits people's emotions and the purchase of something that opens up one's entire music collection...makes for an intense relationship." This idea was also reiterated by professor Katch from the University of Michigan who said that when students saw him with his iPod, "a sort of bounding" occurred (Levy, 2006).
Consequently, the generation gap is overcome…
Kahney, L.(2006). Straight dope on the iPod's birth. On the Internet at http://www.wired.com/gadgets/mac/commentary/cultofmac/2006/10/71956?currentPage=3.Retrieved May 2, 2007.
Levy, S. (2006). iPod Nation. On the Internet at http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/5457432/site/newsweek/.Retrieved May 2, 2007.
Apple wins 5 'World class' Awards (2006). On the Internet at http://www.macnn.com/articles/06/05/31/top.100.products.announced/.Retrieved May 2, 2007.
The 25 most innovative products of the year (2006). On the Internet at: www.pcworld.com/article/id,123942-page,2-c, electronics/article.html. Retrieved May 2.
Apple is a classic example for the modern business world of a company that bases a significant proportion of its strategy on innovation. Most all of its products are innovative by some measure while a few of their product offerings have been revolutionary. There are two events that have occurred recently that make an examination of Apple an especially interesting event. The first is that the co-founder and the commonly known Apple visionary, Steve Jobs, has recently stepped down as the company's chief executive and shortly after he passed away (Sherr, 2011). Another headline that was recently reported on the major media channels recently is that Apple had passed up Exxon Mobile to become the world's most valuable company in regards to its total net worth (Market Data Staff, 2011).
Apple's strategy of innovation is built into its product design. Apple doesn't manufacture the products it sells…
Lipschutz, N. (2011, June 1). Netflix's Formula for Innovation. Retrieved from The Wall Street Journal: http://blogs.wsj.com/digits/2011/06/01/netflixs-formula-for-innovation/
Market Data Staff. (2011, September 26). Apple, Exxon Mobil: Money Flow Leaders (AAPL, XOM). Retrieved from The Wall Street Journal: http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052970204422404576595212893665894.html
Sherr, I. (2011, October 18). Apple to Close Some Retail Stores Wednesday During Jobs Memorial. Retrieved from The Wall Street Journal: http://blogs.wsj.com/digits/2011/10/18/apple-to-close-some-retail-stores-wednesday-during-jobs-memorial-sources/
This acquisition gave Motorola the necessary services to expand their commercial divisions and also sell more effectively into enterprise-wide accounts. The use of mergers and acquisitions at Motorola for gaining differentiation and therefore delivering innovative solutions, freeing themselves from being a purely product-driven company illustrates how this strategy can be effectively used.
Abetti, Pier a (1994). Impact of technology on functional roles and strategies: Illustrative cases in the U.S.A., Japan, and France, and lessons learned. International Journal of Technology Management, 9(5,6,7), 529.
Retrieved September 10, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 879027).
ara ee (2008, February). Innovation at Risk. Business Week (Online),1. Retrieved September 13, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Trade & Industry database. (Document ID: 1428625341).
David Probert, Michael Radnor. (2003). Technology roadmapping: Frontier experiences from industry-academia consortia. Research Technology Management, 46(2), 26-30. Retrieved September 11, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 305041271).
Weekly Corporate Growth (2006). Motorola…
Lara Lee (2008, February). Innovation at Risk. Business Week (Online),1. Retrieved September 13, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Trade & Industry database. (Document ID: 1428625341).
David Probert, Michael Radnor. (2003). Technology roadmapping: Frontier experiences from industry-academia consortia. Research Technology Management, 46(2), 26-30. Retrieved September 11, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 305041271).
Weekly Corporate Growth (2006). Motorola to Acquire Netopia Inc. For 1.97 Times Revenue. (2006, November). Weekly Corporate Growth Report,(1416), 3. Retrieved September 11, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 1178968731).
Getting back to the three main reasons that people in the U.S. are resistant to public health insurance one must also consider the idea that quality and technological advance might be damaged by prioritization of care. The Canadian system does not seem to mirror this concern, as though some complain about prioritization of services provided by the public plan as many as 65% of the Canadian public carries supplemental insurance that covers procedures and services that are not paid for by public insurance. In truth this would likely be the case here to and if people opted to receive the most advanced medical care available then they could do so, at their own expense, much in the same way they do now, only basic care would be covered so more people would be able to choose to have private supplemental insurance. ("Health Care System in Canada" 2007, NP) it must…
Canadian Institute for Health Information, (2005) "Explaining the 70/30 Split: How Canada's Health Care System is Financed." Retrieved January 20, 2008 at http://secure.cihi.ca/cihiweb/products/FundRep_EN.pdf
Cutler, D.M. (2004). Your Money or Your Life: Strong Medicine for America's Health Care System / . New York: Oxford University Press.
Health-Care Reform: Be Patient." (2006, March 26). The Washington Times, p. B04.
Health Care System in Canada," Microsoft® Encarta® Online Encyclopedia 2007
While the logistics, supply chain execution, management and optimization along with exceptional control over pricing is what Wal-Mart is known for today, it was Sam Walton who initially defined the supply base as strategic partners (Friedricks, 1995). Being partners, the concept of collaborative supply chain planning and execution could easily drive greater value and lower cost for the core Wal-Mart customer base, the Price Value Shopper (Blanchard, Comm, 2008). According to Wal-Mart executives, Sam Walton believed heavily in the vision and mission of his stores as being the necessary foundation for America's middle class to make ends meet (amanathan, Gunasekaran, Subramanian, 2011). His focus on managing price as aggressively as he could, in collaboration with suppliers, set a new foundation for low-price retailing while also creating a foundation for middle class families to afford to live within their means (Blanchard, Comm, 2008). This is one of the core precepts of…
Blanchard, C., & Comm, C.L. (2008). Adding value to service providers: Benchmarking Wal-Mart. Benchmarking, 15(2), 166-177.
Friedricks, W.B. (1995). Wal-mart: A history of sam waltons retail phenomenon. Business History Review, 69(4), 574-574.
Krishnamurthi, M. (2001). Forecasting using data warehousing model: Wal-marts experience. The Journal of Business Forecasting, 20(3), 13-17.
Ramanathan, U., Gunasekaran, a., & Subramanian, N. (2011). Supply chain collaboration performance metrics: A conceptual framework. Benchmarking, 18(6), 856-872.
On the other hand, iMac is performing relatively great from AMD in terms of a number of things like cost effectiveness, quality and advertisement. In the next section, we will talk about the marketing mix which usually called marketing communication mix.
Marketing Mix of iMac
Marketing mix essence is the most important essence underlies in marketing communication. Through the mix the researcher analyze the operation management of an entity along with its consumer choice and specification (Salas, 1992). There are 4 elements comes under the umbrella of marketing mix which predominantly are
Basically a product is an ending process of an organization. The product of Apple Inc. is remarkable in terms of quality and reliability, but there is a need to enhance the quality of the product more to make this brand more powerful.
Price is the thing on which the consumers emphasize a lot. The buying power…
Alvin, J (2006), Marketing: An Introduction, Prentice Hall Publications
Brannan, T (1995), a Practical Guide to Integrated Marketing Communications, John Wiley & Sons Professional Publications
Baker, J (2007), the Marketing Book, Curtin University of Technology Publications
Parmerlee, a (1993), Product Analysis: Selecting the Right Product, McGraw Hill Publications
This practically also pays big dividends for manufacturers as they continue to strive to keep their Energy STA Compliance ratings on products, leading to lower costs for power supply, electrical system integration and less product wear due to more efficient use of energy. Studies also indicate that Energy STA compliance, when designed in as part of the DfE initiatives in a PLM system, can have an exceptionally high accumulative impact as well (Preston, 2001).
Integrating DfE into PLM frameworks then not only alleviates the unnecessary and often high costs of noncompliance to federal and global mandates, this integration has also been shown to reduce the net amount of new product components necessary, further creating higher levels of reliability in products over time (Mascle, Zhao, 2008).
There are many additional benefits to integrating DfE product development practices into the broader PLM frameworks manufacturers use for designing, launching, managing and discontinuing products.…
Abramovici, M. (2007). Future trends in product lifecycle management (plm). Springer-Verlag Publishing, London, UK. (pp. 665-674).
Mike Adami-Sampson. (2007, February). Design for environmental compliance. Control Engineering, 54(2), 12-14.
Vidhi A Chaudhri. (2006). Organising Global CSR: A Case Study of Hewlett-Packard's e-inclusion Initiative*. The Journal of Corporate Citizenship,(23), 39-51.
Deathe, A., MacDonald, E., & Amos, W.. (2008). E-waste Management Programmes and the Promotion of Design for the Environment: Assessing Canada's Contributions. Review of European Community & International Environmental Law, 17(3), 319-334.
McDonald's Corporation Overview
of Product Design, Development and Product Lifecycles
McDonald's Corporation relies on the intersection of continual product design innovations, new product development, and an extensive supply chain and strategic sourcing system to continually fuel the development of new menu items globally. Their approach to product design, product lifecycle management, and the different issues pertaining to product development they manage are explained in this analysis.
Product design is applied to the decision-making process within McDonald's using an accelerated New Product Development and Introduction (NPDI) process that allows for the company to continually keep their new product pipeline moving forward. This NPDI process is tightly integrated to Product Lifecycle Management (PLM) systems of record and the continual in-bound information from supply chain management (SCM), pricing and procurement systems so a 360-degree view of the new product design process is achieved (Martin, 2002). In this way the product design…
Hickey, K. (2004). McDonald's tall order. Traffic World, (0041073), 1-10.
Hoffman, W. (2006). There Lovin' Logistics. Traffic World, (0041073), 1-20.
Martin, R. (2002). Keep your eye on supply side ball when swinging for a new-product home run. Nations Restaurant News, 36(27), 25-26.
Petrak, L. (2005). Shining the golden arches. National Provisioner, (0027996), 60-61,64-65,68-69,72-73.
The development of Google G-Mail is one of the best-known as is the creation of Picasa and Google Scholar as well. Google's senior management team realizes that to the extent they can continually deliver new applications is the extent to which they will become a platform, not being relegated to only a search engine (Gawer, Cusumano, 2008). The development of Chrome, a Web-based operating system that can work within a browser, to the development of Google Office, and Translate, an incredibly powerful tool for translating documents of all types from one language to another all came into existence due to the ule of 20%.
All of these innovations have over time completely re-ordered the definition of strategy within the company as well, concentrating the focus more on services and extension to enterprises on the one hand, and being the replacement of individual operating systems on the other. Google's single largest…
THE WORLDS 25 MOST INNOVATIVE COMPANIES. (2007, May). Business Week,(4034), 54-55.
Leaders: Lessons from Apple; Innovation. (2007, June). The Economist, 383(8532), 9.
Annabelle Gawer, Michael a Cusumano. (2008). How Companies Become Platform Leaders. MIT Sloan Management Review, 49(2), 28-35.
Von Johnson, & Pierre Ollivier. (2007). The Technology Disruption Conundrum. Journal of American Academy of Business, Cambridge, 12(1), 215-221.
For second-tier PC manufacturers this is the phase of the product lifecycle where pricing becomes the competitive weapon of choice, and in many cases, the other aspects of the marketing mix are ignored. Pricing as the only differentiator used during this phase often impacts the largest, most capital-intensive vendors the greatest. Prior to their acquisition by HP, Compaq was well-known for having one of the highest cost structures in the industry, which inevitably lead Compaq to offer price protection on inventories that are obsoleted due to lack of sales through distribution channels (Lee, Padmanabhan, Taylor, and Whang 2000).
The next phase of the product lifecycle is typically called the maturity phase. For products that have been successfully launched and nurtured through their lifecycles, this is the phase where sales are at their peak, the cost per customer is low, and as costs of the products' development have been covered in…
Barry L. Bayus (1998). An analysis of product lifetimes in a technologically dynamic industry. Management Science, 44(6), 763-775. Retrieved December 10, 2007, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 32306221).
Jim Burruss, Dorothea Kuettner. (2002). Forecasting for short-lived products: Hewlett-Packard's journey. The Journal of Business Forecasting Methods & Systems, 21(4), 9-14. Retrieved December 11, 2007, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 305703281).
George Deltas, Eleftherios Zacharias. (2006). Entry order and pricing over the product cycle: The transition from the 486 to the Pentium processor. International Journal of Industrial Organization, 24(5), 1041. Retrieved December 12, 2007, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 1152034371).
Mika Gabrielsson, VH Manek Kirpalani, Reijo Luostarinen. (2002). Multiple channel strategies in the European personal computer industry. Journal of International Marketing, 10(3), 73-95. Retrieved December 11, 2007, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 212269951).
Identify which one of the five alternative system building approaches you believe Coca Cola, applied, and explain why Coca Cola would have selected that alternative. What management, organization and technology issues would Coca Cola have considered before it implemented the online image library and digital archive system?
The five alternative systems that Coke could have considered would include: working on team level, group level, regional level or organizational level. The organizational level system was selected because it allows them to be able to effectively communicate with bottlers about changes that are taking place in the marketplace. The biggest issues that would have to be considered before implementing such a system would include: effectively organizing all the data, ensuring that the system is user friendly and encouraging all to bottlers to work with headquarters on a collaborative effort. ("Innovation and Collaboration at Coca Cola")
Describe the differences between fault tolerant and…
"Decision Support System." Webopedia. 2010. Web. 10 May 2010.
"Five Competitive Forces." 12 Manage. 2010. Web. 10 May 2010.
"High Availability Computer Definition." Your Dictionary. 2010. Web. 10 May 2010
"Innovation and Collaboration at Coca Cola."
Innovation and Theories of Management.
Managerial Planning and Leading in Organizational Innovation
The account presented here is intended to examine the role of innovation in modern business practices. Particularly, this will be examined from the perspective of management and with a focus on the two primary management functions of Planning and Leading. The literature review hereafter considers these functions of management in direct relation to the complex questions pertaining to innovation. Primary areas of consideration are the decision-making which enters into the determination of whether to innovate or to follow market patterns; the impact of market externalities and economic cycles on this decision; and the correlation of internal factors and personnel matters on this decision. The discussion ultimately produces the finding that innovation is only suited for those firms possessing the right mix of internal and external conditions.
Corporate innovation is often thought of as an inherency in the…
Abramson, Mark A. & Ian D. Littman. (2002). Innovation. Rowman & Littlefield.
Audretsch, David B. (1995). Innovation and Industry Evolution. The MIT Press.
Audretsch, David B. (2006). Entrepreneurship, Innovation and Economic Growth. Edward Elgar Publishing.
Barnett, Homer Garner. (1906). Innovation: The Basis of Cultural Change. McGraw-Hill.
The shifts in line with this innovation have enforced corporation give back to the environment.
One of the major developments in consumption habits has been use of recycled material in our everyday life. Consumers have been encouraged to participate in recycling materials that would otherwise require depletion of global resources and putting strain on the environment when these products are dumped in the natural atmosphere. Consumption patterns among consumers have also been influenced through campaigns for recycling by environmental friendly activists
The conservative use of energy among consumers has been encouraged to reduce the need for production of energy that was otherwise not optimally used. The conservation of energy is also encouraged by car polling systems and use of public transport system. Basically these are innovations touching on habits of consumption. Although it is argued that consumption is not easily controlled, there have been appreciable changes.…
Fischer F. (1995). Evaluating public policy Chicago USA: Nelson-Hall Publishers.
Tukker a. (2005). Leapfrogging into the future: developing for sustainability International. Journal of Innovation and Sustainable Development, 1(1), 65-84.
Lankton manages innovation at Nypro by creating a highly-competitive environment. There are a few different ways in which this environment is fostered. The company has performance bonuses only for top performers, creating incentive among good performers to improve their performance.
Lankton also has implemented a corporate culture that emphasizes both competition and intrapreneurship. The latter is important because Lankton recognized that top innovators typically prefer to become entrepreneurs, so the company developed mechanisms that would keep them in the company, by providing them with similar opportunities within Nypro. The culture derives from Lankton's own personality. Competitive by nature, he has repeatedly pushed competition as a key message -- for example at a corporate retreat where competition was emphasized over cooperation.
The company also fosters competition between its different plants. Each plant is roughly the same size, which means that they have more or less the same structure and resources…
Birkinshaw, J. & Hood, N. (2001). Unleash innovation on foreign subsidiaries. Harvard Business Review. In possession of the author.
Innovations in healthcare in recent years have resulted in profound improvements in the quality of healthcare services as well as the manner in which they are delivered. One of the more important factors that has been shown to contribute to improved quality of healthcare services is the willingness to share knowledge among healthcare practitioners. To identify what factors serve to improve or detract from effective knowledge management practices, this paper reviews five relevant peer-reviewed studies concerning knowledge management in healthcare settings, followed by an assessment of the significance of the findings that resulted, as well as a summary of the research and potential topics for future research in this area.
Importance of Knowledge Management (KM) in Healthcare
Although knowledge management is an important element in almost any organizational setting, effective and efficient knowledge management practices in healthcare settings can spell the difference between life and death as well as…
Alavi, M., and Leidner, D.E. (2001). Review: Knowledge management and knowledge management systems: Conceptual foundations and research issues. MIS Quarterly,
Chatzkel, J.L. (2003). Knowledge capital: How knowledge-based enterprises really get built.
New York: Oxford University Press.
Innovation, design and creativity are essential elements of a competitive advantage for company's services and products. This paper evaluates the impact that innovation, design, and creativity have on the strategy of Hewlett-Packard and Sprint. An assessment of the respective processes, products or services of these organizations is followed by a summary of the research and important findings in the conclusion.
Innovation and creativity are key aspects of Hewlett-Packard's track record of success. For instance, according to this company's promotional literature, "At HP, we live for the big idea, the next great discovery. 'Invent' is more than a word: it's who we are. Everything we do, we do to make technology more practical, usable, and valuable to our customers" (About HP, 2014, para. 3). Currently, Hewlett-Packard has more than 317,000 employees worldwide (Number of employees at Hewlett-Packard, 2014). An assessment of the various programs in place at Hewlett-Packard shows that…
About HP. (2014). Hewlett-Packard. Retrieved from http://www8.hp.com/us/en/hp-information/index.html .
Brown, M. (2008, May/June). Successfully embedding innovation: Strategies and tactics.
Research-Technology Management, 51(3), 65-71.
De Kuijper, M. (2009). Profit power economics: A new competitive strategy for creating sustainable wealth. New York: Oxford University Press.
One such exemplary resource is Epicor's recent guide, "Managing Today's Professional Services Organization: How to Improve Efficiency and Increase Profits" (2011). Although the guide contains some self-serving information concerning Epicor's own IT product line, the bulk of the guide is devoted to timely and informative insights concerning how IT can facilitate project delivery in professional services organizations. For instance, according to Epicor's guide:
Ultimately, a successful operational model demands higher-order tools such as resource, opportunity and knowledge management to achieve operational best practices. The reality facing most organizations, from small, specialized firms to the largest, most sophisticated multinational consulting agencies, is the same -- each faces significant challenges related to accurately and efficiently capturing time and expense, managing work-in-progress, generating and approving invoices, and reporting on project and client status. (Managing today's professional services organization, 2011, p. 1)
Given the wide array of enterprises that now fall under the umbrella…
Ashby, M.D. & Miles, S.A. (2002). Leaders talk leadership: Top executives speak their minds.
New York: Oxford University Press.
Bielski, L. (2002). Talent is available, will anyone grab it? ABA Banking Journal, 94(5), 30-32.
Copeland, M.C. (2010, August). Marketing and advertising for CPAs: Leading-edge strategies.
Innovation in its simplest form can be termed as something new or newly introduced into the market. Innovation in the business field is quite necessary since it forms the backbone of a company's growth and that of the economy as a whole. Innovation is the success of every business and must be managed effectively and efficiently (Limerick, 2002).
The ever changing technology and instant global communication have made it easier for companies to find answers to some problems they encounter and more so come up with innovations to improve on the current ones. Companies are also faced with pressures arising from global competition and by this; most of them are seeking the need to manage their innovations. Companies are nowadays attracting and managing innovations by having rewards or prizes for individuals within the company who manages to come up with brilliant and innovative concepts. This will give the…
AFUAH, A. 2003. Innovation Management: Strategies, Implementation, and Profits, New York and Oxford, Oxford University Press.
ALEXY, O. & REITZIG, M. 2012. Managing the business risks of open innovation. McKinsey Quarterly, 17-21.
BROWN & HELEN 2008. Knowledge and innovation: a comparative study of the U.S.A., the UK, and Japan London Routledge.
DANNEELS, E. 2002. The Dynamics of Product Innovation and Firm Competences. Strategic Management Journal, 23, 1095-1121.
Product Life Cycle
When we talk about the strongest multinational companies of the world then Nestle is definitely one of the names that triggers in everyone's mind. Nestle is the world's No.1 food manufacturing company. Nestle is a Swiss multinational company whose product are available almost in every part of the world. Most of the Nestle products are in a market leading position. Nestle company was established in 1866 and since that day, it has proved itself as one the leading companies of the world with its improved quality, innovative ideas of marketing and attractive packaging (Nestle, 2007).
Nestle launched its first juice in 1996 and since then it has spread its product largely. The consumers' response to the flavored juices of the Nestle Company was upbeat. This further strengthened the position of the Nestle Company in the market as the unbeatable leader. Later on, the company innovate the…
Franzen, G., & Moriarty, S. (2009). The Science and Art of Branding. Armonk, N.Y.: M.E. Sharpe.
Jennings, M.M. (2012). Business: Its Legal, Ethical, and Global Environment. Mason, OH: South-Western Cengage Learning.
Morschett, D., Schramm-Klein, H., & Zentes, J. (2009). Strategic International Management. Wiesbaden: Betriebswirtschaftlicher Verlag Gabler.
Nestle, M. (2007). Food Politics: How the Food Industry Influences Nutrition and Health. Berkeley, Calif. [u.a.]: Univ. Of California Press.
Discuss this product in terms of its repositioned target market demographics using U.S. Census Data.
In regards to U.S. Census Data, the target market demographic show promise. The repositioned product will focus on high level and medium income level people. These individuals tend to be high lifestyle and business professionals. The product is full of applications and latest operating system that is helpful for professionals and other business persons to accomplish their tasks on the phones. This demographic is experiences positive change. For instance, consumer confidence for the past three months has risen in this segment. Discretionary income for individuals making $100,000 or more has risen 12% over the past decade. This positive trend allows consumers to spend more on IM's products and services. The smartphone industry overall is growing at an annual rate of 9% per year with adoption rates increasing at a corresponding amount.
Determine the types…
1) Robert J. Gordon (1988), Macroeconomics: Theory and Policy, 2nd ed., Chapter 22.4, 'Modern theories of inflation'. McGraw-Hill.
2) Susan Mallik (2010). Hossein Bidgoil. ed. The Handbook of Technology Management: Supply Chain Management, Marketing and Advertising, and Global Management, vol 2 (1 ed.). Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley @ Sons, Inc.. p. 100- 104. ISBN 978-0-470-24948-2.
3) John T. Phelan, Jr. P.E. "Guest Column: Knowing When a WMS or WCS Is Right for Your Company." Supply & Demand Chain Executive. Enom, Inc. http://www.sdcexec.com/web/online/FulfillmentLogistics-Trends/Guest-Column -- Knowing-When-a-WMS-or-WCS-Is-Right-for-Your-Company/15$10,982
emarketing Obsolete Products -- the Case of Telephone Handsets
Profiting from Obsolescence
Finding New Markets for Handset Telephones
Analysis of the American Telephone Handset Market
Telephone handsets, once a symbol of upward mobility and continued affluence in the United States have been replaced by the cell phone and smart phone where today they are more seen with nostalgia. The cannibalization of the handset market has gained momentum as the adoption of cell phones and smart phones have accelerated in the most affluent customer segments first followed by broader, larger and more middle-income market segments (U.S. Census Bureau, 2009). What continues to be the catalyst of growth for cell phone and smartphone growth is the ability to complete multiple functions on a mobile device including texting, web browsing and taking and sending pictures (U.S. Census Bureau, 2009). The multifunctional nature of the cell phones and smartphones has led to the quick…
Apple, Investor Relations (2013). Investor Relations. Retrieved January 31, 2013, from Apple Investor Relations and Filings with the SEC Web site: http://www.apple.com/investor/
Josh Bernoff, Charlene Li. (2008). Harnessing the Power of the Oh-So-Social Web. MIT Sloan Management Review, 49(3), 36-42.
Cuban daily looks at growing mobile phone use in Cuba. (2009, Feb 10). BBC Monitoring Americas.
Programme summary of Cuban radio news 11007 Dec 11. (2011, Dec 28). BBC Monitoring Americas.
Kotler Fine Food
Innovation is a continuous process, which requires individual and organizational creativity. The process demands for individuals to come up with authentic ideas to rediscover the meaning, identity, and the purpose of innovation (Kelly & Littman, 2001). Internal learning and communication reflects individual and organizational creativity. Creativity is essential for any organization in the course of fulfilling their objectives as seen in the case of Kotler Fine Foods.
Creativity fills the void and necessitates the platform for communication between individuals in an organization. In turn, new ideas are discovered which also impart new knowledge. With reference to Kotler Fine Foods, creativity has created the urge to explore different types of foods and wines. Consequently, individuals obtain knowledge on various types of foods and wines that are new to them. Creativity creates new depth, time, space, and pace through continuous innovation.
Creativity identifies with the…
Kelley, T. & Littman, J. 2001. The Art of Innovation: Lessons in Creativity from IDEO, America's Leading Design Firm. New York: Doubleday
Patterson, C. (2006). Individual and Organizational Creativity. New York: Ashgate Publishing Limited
Williams, R & Edge, D. 1996. "The social shaping of technology." Research Policy. (25)6: 865-901
edesigning Product Lines with Conjoint Analysis:
How Sunbeam Does It
What are the strengths & weakness of the studies ?
The Sunbeam Appliance Company (SAC) division is facing the challenge of differentiating their core product lines, as they are rapidly maturing and losing market share and profits. The decision to pursue conjoint analysis is made to accomplish the following goals. First, Sunbeam wants to know what models need to be in the product line, what their physical appearance needs to be what their performance characteristics also need to be (Page, osenbaum, 1987). What follows is an analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of these studies and what Sunbeam could have done differently to minimize the study's weaknesses, which are many.
The following are the key strengths of the conjoint analysis studies taken on by Sunbeam in an effort to reposition and profitably grow their food processor line.…
Auty, S. 1995, "Using conjoint analysis in industrial marketing," Industrial Marketing Management, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 191-191.
Green, P.E. & Krieger, A.M. 1991, "Segmenting Markets with Conjoint Analysis," Journal of Marketing, vol. 55, no. 4, pp. 20-20.
Green, P.E., Krieger, A.M. & Carroll, J.D. 1987, "Conjoint Analysis and Multidimensional Scaling: A Complementary Approach," Journal of Advertising Research, vol. 27, no. 5, pp. 21-21.
Green, P.E., Krieger, A.M. & Wind, Y. 2001, "Thirty years of conjoint analysis: Reflections and prospects," Interfaces, vol. 31, no. 3, pp. S56-S73.
Already, the applications rolled out by Google such as Gmail, instant messaging, calendar, word processing, presentation, and a spreadsheet application called "Google Docs" allows consumers to store large amounts of information on Google's servers and to access that information and those processes remotely (Cutts. 2009).
At the same time, Google has also exhibited the foresight to appreciate the continuing usefulness of allowing consumers access to standard applications provided by Microsoft, including free, simplified versions of essential word processing software and other basic applications available in MS Office (Cutts, 2009). While this is not, strictly speaking, innovation (because it does not involve new ideas), it is nevertheless does reflect a highly creative and flexible approach to product and service development in that Google is avoiding the narrow focus that seems to be plaguing Microsoft. In that regard, Google has recognized the continuing value of traditional software applications and invested the necessary…
Cutts, M. "Gadgets, Google, and SEO." Business Week (October 4, 2009)
Rowe, a.J. (2004). Creative Intelligence: Discovering the Innovative Potential in Ourselves and Others. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
drivers of using biofuel in the airlines industry are closely linked to the evolution of oil prices in the last decade, as well as to the risks associated with the use of petroleum fuel. First of all, the oil prices have continuously increased over the last decades and the evaluations that this would happen date back to after 2003.
As early as 2009, the predictions for the period 2009-2016 reflected oil was expected to increase by 50% (as a trend) from an average at that time of around $50 (Kitov, 2009). This was based on existing statistical facts and evaluations and past data, thus carrying a high level of abstract objectivity. These evaluations were translated in practice, with oil prices currently at $92. All this would translate into an increased cost for the airline carriers.
Even more worrying when it comes to oil is that much of the price is…
1. Prajogo, DI & Ahmed, PK. 2006. Relationships between innovation stimulus, innovation capacity, and innovation performance. R&D Management, vol.36, no.5, pp.499 -- 515
2. Smith, Andy. 2011. Management practices and innovation capacity in enterprises. On the Internet at http://avetra.org.au/wp-content/uploads/2011/05/20.00.pdf. Last retrieved on August 6, 2012
3. Chemers M. 1997. An integrative theory of leadership. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers
4. Ulrich, Dave (1996). Human Resource Champions. The next agenda for adding value and delivering results. Boston, Mass.: Harvard Business School Press
Innovation Models Lead to a Sustainable Business -- Closed vs. Open Innovation
Following the introduction of the concept of open innovation, the exploration in the area has increased significantly. Open innovation involves the utilization of purposive knowledge inflows and outflows to help in the acceleration of internal innovation and the expansion of external markets for innovation. On the other hand, closed innovation refers to a situation where every activity is carried out within the organization and for the benefit of the organization. There are strong arguments for both approaches.
The Shift from Closed to Open
Innovation previously adopted a linear view where the focus was on science and tended to favour 'closed' systems. This approach would later be replaced by a more interactive and 'open' model that was grounded on continuous education and learning for all participating parties. The evolution and constant changes in the micro and macro environment produces…
Aranha, E. A., Garcia, N. P. & Correa, G., 2015. Open Innovation and Business Model: A Brazilian Company Case Study. Journal of Technology Management and Innovation, pp. 91-98.
Arora, A., Fosfuri, A. & Gambardella, A., 2004. Markets for Technology. The MIT Press.
Brunswicker, S. & Ehrenmann, F., 2013. Managing Open Innovation in SMEs: A Good Practice Example of a German Software Firm. International Journal of Industrial Engineering and Management, pp. 33-41.
Chesbrough, H., 2003. Open Innovation: The New Imperative for Creating and Profiting from Technology. Boston: Harvard Business Publishing.
Market researchers have long understood that complexity -- particularly in the form of too many choices -- can cause consumers to freeze up and not make a selection. Gottfredson and Aspinall (2005) argue that complexity is not just confounding for consumers, but that it can also contribute to lower profits. Innovation is perceived as a positive factor in business, but to a degree, innovation has taken on a life of its own. To illustrate how effective restraint can be in business, Gottfredson and Aspinall (2005) discuss the In-N-Out Burgers enterprise. While In-N-Out Burgers is focused on creating its own particular brand of harmony around the number four, other businesses need to identify a balance based on the attributes that are the most valued by their customers.
Contemporary consumers expect a level of customization that may actually serve to reduce the quality and expediency of their service experiences. Gottfredson and Aspinall…
Burgelman, R.A. And Siegel, R.E. (2006, December). Defining the minimum winning game in high-technology ventures. California Management Review.
Gottfredson, M. And Aspinall, K. (2005, November). Innovation vs. complexity: What is too much of a good thing? Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business Review.
Moore, G.A. (1991). Crossing the chasm: Marketing and selling disruptive products to mainstream customers. New York, NY: Collins Business / Harper Collins Publishers. Retreived from http://archive.wired.com/wired/archive/12.10/tail.html
New products can either be an entirely new product to the marketplace, or more commonly are an extension of a product line or an iteration of a pre-existing product. One new product released in the past year was the iPhone 6S. This is an extension of the iPhone line in general, or more specifically the iPhone 6 line that was originally launched in 2014. The 6S represents some tweaks to the older products, but nothing so dramatic that an entirely new name for the product was warranted. Thus, this product is an extension of the older line, intended to replace older models of the iPhone, as anything before the 6 series is now discontinued. The biggest challenge that Apple had with this product was to differentiate it sufficiently from its other offerings. The existing iPhone 6 proved popular, and the 6S was viewed by the marketplace…
Fuller, J., Bartl, M., Ernst, H., Muhlbacher, H. (2004). Community-based innovation. Proceedings of the 37th Hawaii International Conference on System Science. Retrieved April 16, 2016 from https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Hans_Muehlbacher/publication/221180518_Community_Based_Innovation_A_Method_to_Utilize_the_Innovation_Potential_of_Online_Communities/links/0046352b85ba69f305000000.pdf
George, A. (2016). The 6 most important technologies of summer 2016. Popular Mechanics. Retrieved April 16, 2016 from http://www.popularmechanics.com/technology/gadgets/g2560/the-6-most-important-technologies-of-summer-2016/
Hoyer, W., Chandy, R., Dorotic, M., Krafft, M. & Singh, S. (2010). Consumer co-creation in new product development. Journal of Service Research. Vol. 13 (3) 283-296.
Nambisan, S. (2002). Designing virtual customer environments for new product development: Toward a theory. Academy of Management Review Vol. 27 (3) 392-413.
Moller Skycar Promotions Plan for 2013 Product Introduction
The Moller Skycar is a disruptive innovation that once launched will disrupt the auto, ultra-light aircraft and low-end private aircraft industries by completely redefining the personal travel experience. The success of the product launch is heavily dependent on how well integrated and synchronized product, pricing, distribution, pricing and the unique value proposition of the company are consistent with each other. The most critical success factor of launching a disruptive product is how integrated each functional team is to the product strategy and the unique market position it occupies, all centered on communicating clearly and accurately what makes the new product unique and highly differentiated (Brettel, Heinemann, Engelen, Neubauer, 2011). The Moller Skycar is rich with product differentiation and unique value proposition potential because it can easily symbolize freedom and flexibility, agility and responsiveness. All of these are excellent messages and emotions to…
Begona Alvarez, & Rodolfo Vazquez Casielles. (2008). Effects of price decisions on product categories and brands. Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, 20(1), 23-43.
Bernoff, J., & Li, C.. (2008). Harnessing the Power of the Oh-So-Social Web. MIT Sloan Management Review, 49(3), 36-42.
Brettel, M., Heinemann, F., Engelen, A., & Neubauer, S.. (2011). Cross-Functional Integration of R&D, Marketing, and Manufacturing in Radical and Incremental Product Innovations and Its Effects on Project Effectiveness and Efficiency. The Journal of Product Innovation Management, 28(2), 251.
SA Delre, W Jager, THA Bijmolt, & MA Janssen. (2007). Targeting and timing promotional activities: An agent-based model for the takeoff of new products. Journal of Business Research, 60(8), 826.
Ecological Consciousness on the ate of Purchase of Green Products: An Experimental Analysis of German Stores
Purposes and inquiries of this research paper
The main aims of this research paper are:
(i) To study how much the green buying activity of customers is affected by previous awareness of environmental problems and ability to identify environmental friendly commodities.
(ii) To ascertain whether customers would rather buy environmentally friendly commodities and would pay more for them if required.
In order to accomplish these aims, this study assesses the various reasons why customers buy environmentally friendly merchandise from retail outlets and correlates these reasons with their personal way of life as well as the general way of life in the German community. After thorough research, the following theories were established from supplied information sources:
H1. The customers' environmental consciousness greatly influences their buying objectives;
etail outlet goods are not just displayed instead they…
Ahmad A, &Thyagaraj K. S, (2015), Consumer's Intention to Purchase Green Brands: the Roles of Environmental Concern, Environmental Knowledge and Self Expressive Benefits. Curr World Environ., 10(3). doi :10.12944/CWE.10.3.18
Ar IM, (2012), The Impact of Green Product Innovation on Firm Performance and Competitive Capability: The Moderating Role of Managerial Environmental Concern. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 62, 854-864.
Blaxter L, Hughes C, & Tight M, (2006), How to research. (3rded.). England: Open University Press
Braga Junior SS, da Silva D, Gabriel ML & de Oliveira Braga WR, (2015), The Relationship between Environmental Concern and Declared Retail Purchase of Green Products, Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 170, 99 -- 108
Career management unlike other phases, is a continuous process that occurs throughout one's career and not just at discrete times…it is a philosophy and set of habits that will enable you to achieve career goals and develop career resiliency…" (Berkeley HR).
The value of effective HRM practices within any organization is well-known and wide ranging, according to a peer-reviewed article in the Journal of Computer Information. Competent, consistently presented HRM strategies include offering "…training programs, incentive systems, employee participation, clearly defined jobs, internal career opportunities, and selectivity practices" (Lee, et al., 2009). Employee participation, when HRM professionals fully utilize this model, can be viewed as the degree to which any company "…values the inputs and voices of the employees" (Lee, 84).
The value that HRM professionals place on employee participation should be significant albeit not every company encourages employee participation to the degree that it should. This paper presents scholarship…
Berkeley HR. (2010). Career Development: Career Management. Retrieved March 19, 2015,
From http://hrweb.berkeley.edu .
Jiang, J., Wang, S., and Zhao, S. (2012). Does HRM facilitate employee creativity and organizational innovation? A study of Chinese firms. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 23(19), 4025-4047.
Lee, C.S., and Lee, C.M. (2009). Effects of HRM practices on IT Usage. Journal of Computer Information Systems. 50(2), 83-94.
The target market for the headscarves consists of Muslim women. In general, the product will appeal mostly to those aged 12-40, as that is the prime demographic for athletic wear, and as well that demographic may be more liberal with respect to things like exercise. It is important to note that there are significant differences between types of Muslims, so there is no one universal headscarf style that will appeal to all groups, or even be acceptable to all groups. A variety of designs will be needed in order to meet the needs of the target market. The target market is otherwise the same as for Nike's regular client base. This means younger, fairly well-educated, in the case of Muslims more liberal, and with a reasonable income that allows them to purchase Nike's premium-priced products.
The market is a niche market. In the United States, there are…
CIA World Factbook (2015). United States. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved April 19, 2015 from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/us.html
Cohen, S. (2011). The significance of clothing for female athletes.UK Sports Coach.. Retrieved April 19, 2015 from http://www.sportscoachuk.org/blog/significance-clothing-female-athletes
Harb, J. (2013). Recognising and profiting from growing niche markets. The New Economy. Retrieved April 19, 2015 from http://www.theneweconomy.com/strategy/profiting-from-growing-niche-markets
innovation and using technology to make better products. It discuses several tactics taken up by companies and they used the plans for their growth and success. The long-term impact of strategies is discussed and emphasized. Furthermore, personal opinions about the implementation of strategies are also discussed.
Due to the increase in the rate of technological enhancements and globalization, technological innovation is something crucial to the growth and survival of any company. A business environment is very competitive, complex and ever changing. The strategies taken up by an organization to manage the ongoing innovation play a very crucial role in all of the technology-based companies. This process is basically used to manage the production of a certain product and how that production is organization within in the company. There are many tools that engineers and managers have to implement. This clearly states that both the upper level and the…
Andrew, J. And Sirkin, H. (2003) Innovating for Cash. Harvard Business Review, September p.76 -- 83.
Hof, R. et al. (2004) Building an Idea Factory. Business Week, October 22.
Schilling, M. And Hill, C. (1998) Managing the New Product Development Process: Strategic Imperatives. Academy of Management Executive, August p.67 -- 81.
Such a strategy would also help the firm to address its weaknesses while acting on its strengths. Some of Apple's strengths include an innovative cast of executives and a well-known brand. Its weaknesses include significantly high R&D costs in comparison to those of competitors. Competition from makers of similar products is one of the main threats the company faces. In regard to opportunities, Apple could seek to take advantage of emerging markets to push up its sales figure.
To further evaluate how successful Apple is, such ratios as the gross profit margin, inventory turnover, current ratio and return on equity can be taken into consideration.
Gross Profit Margin
Apple's gross profit margin can be computed by deducting C.O.G.S from the figure given for sales. The resulting figure in this case is then divided with the sales figure. Consider below.
2008 gross profit margin = 37.49B - 23.49B/37.49B =…
Apple. "10K: Annual Report-Oct 2010." Apple Stock. P. 6. Oct 2010. Web. 9th Oct 2011.
Dalrymple, J. "Interview: HP says Apple is not Touchpad's Target. The Loop. 30th June 2011. Web. 9th Oct 2011. http://www.loopinsight.com/2011/06/30/interview-hp-says-apple-is-not-touchpads-target/
Ferrell, O.C. And Michael Hartline. Marketing Strategy. Cengage Learning, 2010. Print.
Harrison, Jeffrey. S. & Caron, H. St. John. Foundations in Strategic Management. Cengage Learning, 2009. Print.
innovation, design, creativity strategy organizations: Kudler
There are several key components to effective business and marketing strategy. Some of the most eminent of these are the prudent usage of creativity, innovation, as well as an appropriate design that customers and potential partners can relate to. An analysis of the strategy of two companies in particular, Kudler Fine Foods and iordan Industries, readily confirms these facts, and serves as a model for other organizations to pattern themselves after.
There is an innate simplicity in the strategy employed by Kudler Fine Foods, which was the creation of Kathy Kudler in the final years of the 20th century. The food retailer still relies on the marketing image of its founder simply trying to merge two exceedingly pragmatic ideas into one innovative one -- that in which it could "create one store that would stock a wide selection of the freshest ingredients as well…
Baihaqi. (2009). "Riordan manufacturing history." Riordan Manufacturing. Retrieved from http://riordan-manufacturing.com/riordan-manufacturing-history/
No author (2013). "About Kudler." Kudler Fine Foods. Retrieved from http://kudlerfinefoods.info/
No author (2010). "Riordan manufacturing: analysis of service request assessment." www.riordanmanufacturingblogspot.com.
Retrieved from http://riordan-manufacturing.blogspot.com/2010/04/riordan-manufacturing-analysis-of.html
In his book, Beyond the obvious: killer questions that spark game-changing innovation, Phil McKinney (2012) argues that most innovation efforts fail because the right questions are never asked -- people are taught and do not stray from the obvious. McKinney asserts that in a rapidly changing world, people ought to ask the right questions about their businesses -- they must stretch beyond the basic or usual. Indeed, asking the right questions is the heart of innovation (Berger, 2014). Asking the right questions causes a fundamental shift in how a business sees its products and customers, and the way the two interact. In addition to asking the right questions, innovation involves creating an environment that supports innovation and having the right leadership practices. These three themes constitute the focus of this paper. The paper particularly highlights important questions that drive the innovation process and the role of leadership in creating a…
Both dissenters and innovators are outsiders -- thinking and acting outside the box. The very qualities that make these individuals annoying (e.g. arrogance, single-mindedness) are also part of the types of qualities (passion, drive, confidence) that are needed to keep ideas alive and vital. A good manager can deal with the package and manage the wheat with the chaff.
Usually impossible to get the type of innovators one wants without getting some of their own negatives (arrogance, inability to compromise, etc.).
Managing means eliciting the needed strengths out of each individual employee, and harkens back to the idea that not all employees are equal.
Managers often have the urge to tame the wild nature of a dissenter; to "bring them into the fold."
There are people who provide dissent because they are simply unhappy -- regardless of the situation. These types of dissenters rarely contribute innovation, but instead…
Cited in www.fastcompany.com.
Senge, P.M. (2006). The Fifth Discipline: The Art and Practice of the Learning
Tichy, N. And a. McGill, eds. (2003). The Ethnical Challenge: How to Lead with Unyielding
INNOVATION Q1. WHAT IS YOUR DEFINATION OF INNOVATION? ANSWER IN ONE LINE. Q2.WHY DO YOU THINK INNOVATION IS IMPORTANT, ANSWER IN ONE LINE Q3HOW WOULD YOU EVALUATE EXPERIMENT PROCESS OF KNIGHT RIDERS? A.
What is your definition of innovation?
Innovation is seeing something with new eyes; finding the unexpected in the expected, and changing in an intelligent fashion with the needs of the environment.
Q2.Why is innovation important?
Without innovation, growth is impossible and products and ideas will grow outdated -- change is constant in life and without change a brand will quickly 'die.'
How would you evaluate the experimental process of Knight Riders?
Knight Riders' experimental process could best be characterized as one of trial and error. The initial experimental process was unsuccessful. No data was kept on email users, customization was not emphasized, and the unique attributes of the medium were not fully realized. Separating the…
A Total Cost Approach to Understanding Supply Chain Risk
Using the current exchange rate, what is the initial purchase cost per unit (in U.S. dollars) paid to Dong Hai Supply? (Do not include transportation costs.)
The exchange rate between the U.S. Dollar and the Chinese Renminbi is:
Dollar = 6.92 CNY China Yuan Renminbi
CNY China Yuan Renminbi = 0.1445 U.S. Dollar
The quoted price by Dong Hai Supply at the factory is 547 China Yuan Renminbi. Therefore, the initial purchase cost per unit is
The initial purchase cost is $79.04 for every unit (Frankel, 2013).
What is the average time for an order filling a TEU container to come from Dong Hai Supply in Chengdu, China, to IDC's Alliance Fort Worth Distribution Center? From CousinsAg in Wahoo, Nebraska, to IDC's Alliance Fort Worth Distribution Center?
Dong Hai Supply to Alliance Fort Worth Distribution Center
Dong Hai Supply order processing…
PRODUCT, PRICE, PROMOTION, PLACE ) OF INGAPORE AIRLINE & #8230;focus on Product ( brand, service quality, service excellence ) .Why product ( brand, service quality, service excellence) price, promotion, place of ingapore Airlines is important ?
ingapore Airlines is a full-fledged carrier service that combines a high-level product with excellent flight service. As of 2011, IA possessed 108 modern passenger planes (mostly Boeing 777 (PREWIRE, 2005) whose average age was six years and three months (ingapore Airline, 2012). IA has, accordingly, achieved the reputation of possessing one of the world youngest fleet of aircraft (PREWIRE, 2005). IA is a member of tar Alliance. he is also the first airline company to internationally operate the world's largest passenger aircraft called Airbus A380 that is comfortably equipped to cater to its passengers' needs.
IA has also diversified into aircraft handling and engineering .Meanwhile, her subsidiary, ilkAir, operates local flights with smaller…
Chan, Daniel. (2000). The Story of Singapore Airlines and the Singapore Girl. The Journal of Management Development. Bradford: Vol. 19 (6):456-473.
Mutzabaugh, Ben (14 December 2010). "U.S., European airlines no longer world's biggest, IATA says." USA Today
PRESSWIRE. (May, 6, 2005).Singapore Airlines: world's largest operator of Boeing 777M2 ( http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=849692561&sid=5&Fmt=3&clientId=63584&RQT=309&VName=PQD )
Singapore Airline. (2012).
Innovation at L3 Communications
Planning for Innovation
Management Systems and Innovation Metrics
Rewards and Incentives
Leadership's Commitment to Innovation
Leadership's Innovation Strategy Involvement
Ethics in Innovation
L-3 is a prime contractor in Command, Control, Communications, Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (C3ISR) systems, platform and logistics solutions, and national security solutions; L-3 is also a leading provider of a broad range of electronic systems used on military and commercial platforms (L-3, N.d.). The company's client base includes an array of different organizations such as the U.S. Department of Defense and its prime contractors, U.S. government intelligence agencies, the U.S. Department of Homeland Security, U.S. Department of State, U.S. Department of Justice, allied foreign governments, domestic and foreign commercial customers and select other U.S. federal, state and local government agencies.
The L-3 concept was developed along three different central components that constitute the organization's…
Alipour, F., K., I., & Karimi, R. (2011). Knowledge Creation and Transfer: Role of Learning Organization. International Journal of Business Administration, 2(3), 61-67.
Halliday, S., & Beddie, F. (2009). Informal Learning. At a Glance. National Centre for Vocational Education Research, 12(1), 1-12.
Hooley, G., Greenley, G., Fahy, J., & Cadogan, J. (2010). Market-focused Resources, Competitive Positioning and Firm Performance. Journal of Marketing Management, 17(5-6), 503-520.
IMT. (N.d.). Innovative Micro Technology Receives Equity Investment From L-3 Communications to Partner on MEMS-based Strategic Technologies for Defense Applications. Retrieved from IMT: http://www.imtmems.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=89:innovative-micro-technology-receives-equity-investment-from-l-3-communications-to-partner-on-mems-based-strategic-technologies-for-defense-applications&catid=13:press-releases&Itemid=7
Both of these are just the beginning of contextual-based innovation in information management. The use of contextual taxonomies for example that manage all areas of potential interest in real-time from a smart phone such as the iPhone for example are coming. The personalization of content according to each person's interest is arriving today and will be pervasive soon. Thinking of this from a Business-to-Business (B2B) standpoint with suppliers, the speed of supply chains could be greatly increased if this type of knowledge were made available throughout a supplier network (Wagner, 2010).
What Apple does extremely well in this area however is convergence of innovation, from the operating systems on their laptops to the continually updated iTunes platform and the latest iTouch, iPad and iPhone, Apple has successfully created an ecosystem that generates not only innovation but tacit knowledge as well (Augustine, Yadav, Jain, athore, 2010). The next major breakthroughs are…
Augustine, M., Yadav, O., Jain, R., & Rathore, A.. (2010). Concept convergence process: A framework for improving product concepts. Computers & Industrial Engineering, 59(3), 367.
Wagner, S.. (2010). Supplier traits for better customer firm innovation performance. Industrial Marketing Management, 39(7), 1139.
administered to 50 respondents. The data obtained from these participants was credible for analysis since there were no substantive missing values. The questions were based on a Likert Scale that made it easier for participants to provide their responses and enhance reliability. Data obtained from this instrument was analyzed using descriptive statistics and measures. In this case, the researcher utilized Cross Tabulation analysis and Chi-Square analysis.
This study had 50 respondents working in German and Swiss labor markets though the research was not restricted to participants from German or Swiss origins. Actually, the respondents were from different nationalities though they were working in German or Swiss labor markets as shown in the table below.
Table 1: Nationality of espondents
Number of espondents
Aas, T.H. & Jorgensen, G., 2016. Open vs. Closed Innovation: Advancing the Debate. Proceedings of ISPIM Conferences, pp. 1-12.
Aranha, E. A., Garcia, N. P. & Correa, G., 2015. Open Innovation and Business Model: A Brazilian Company Case Study. Journal of Technology Management and Innovation, pp. 91-98.
Brunswicker, S. & Ehrenmann, F., 2013. Managing Open Innovation in SMEs: A Good Practice Example of a German Software Firm. International Journal of Industrial Engineering and Management, pp. 33-41.
Creswell, J.W 2014, "The selection of a research approach," in Research design: qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches, 4th ed., Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks, California, pp.3-24.
here are 2855 locations in NYC alone that sell you coffee cups. o list all these stores -- sometimes duplicated -- would take a volume alone. he following is therefore a summary of some key places that sell coffee cups -- otherwise called mugs, the general price of these (usually ceramic) coffee cups; the details of these coffee cups; and descriptions of outstanding logos and/or designs.
As the Huff Post New York (2012) remarks: "Coffee cups in New York are as varied as the Big Apple" (http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2009/07/13/coffee-cups-in-new-york-a_n_230644.html). For the first three decades it was the iconic polystyrene or paper Greek-themed "Happy to Serve" coffee cup that has now been converted into ceramic. In the mid-1990s, the environmentally friendly Starbucks-style cup rushed into style usually accompanied with sipping lids and cardboard sleeves. All of these are free; you paid for the drink of course. You find these cups…
TSA screener at JFK 'hurled hot coffee at American Airlines pilot who told her to stop swearing' Mail online. dailymail.co.uk http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2124997/TSA-screener-JFK-hurled-hot-coffee-American-Airlines-pilot-told-stop-swearing.html
Nyc Coffee Cups
In other words, the Keynesian economics were implemented on the belief that low levels of consumptions generate the economic crisis, and that "a fall in national income, lack of demand for goods, and rising unemployment should be countered by increased government expenditure to stimulate the economy" (the Free Dictionary by Farlex, 2008).
Not long after John Maynard Keynes stated his principles, the allied states signed the monetary agreement at Bretton Woods. The new system was basically centered on creating international price stability, which contradicted the ideas of Keynes and his growth theories. He stated that the international stability would eventually be reached through trade, but his beliefs were not shared by the major participant and the largest creditor of the time, the United States of America. To reach the objective of global stability, two institutions were formed to coordinate and supervise financial operations: The International Bank for econstruction and Development…
Adelman, I., the Genesis of the Current Global Economic System, College of Natural Resources at UC Berkeley, http://are.berkeley.edu/~adelman/KEYNOTE.htmllast accessed on March 17, 2008
Biddle, J.E., Emmett, R.B., Samuels, W.J., 2005, Research in the History of Economic Thought and Methodology, Research Annual Volume 23, Emerald Group Publishing Limited
Dammasch, S., the System of Bretton Woods - a lesson from history, Retrieved at http://www.ww.uni-magdeburg.de/fwwdeka/student/arbeiten/006.pdfon March 17, 2008
2003-2008, What is Keynesian Economics?, Wise Geek, http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-keynesian-economics.html . Ast accessed on March 17, 2008
Role of Leadership Styles in Organizational Innovation
Andre Alexandre, Jr.
Dr. Amy Burkman
Revised prospectus outline
The Role of Leadership Styles in Organizational Innovation and Success
The study will research the role of leadership styles in organizational innovation and success. A number of studies have shown that transformational leadership positively influences organizational innovation. However, there is a lack of studies examining the contextual conditions under which this effect occurs or enhance organizational success.
Purpose Statement / Problem Statement
The purpose of this study is to explore and provide a deeper understanding of the relationship between leadership styles and organizational innovation.
It is not known to what extent leadership styles impact innovation and enhances organizational success. Therefore, this study will investigate to provide a deeper understanding of the relationship between leadership styles and organizational innovation and success.
III. Literature Review
a) Theory: Transformational Leadership Theory. This study aims to investigate the…