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Prostate Cancer Issues in Healthcare
Prostate Cancer is a cancer of the prostate which affects men. 190,000 new cases are detected each year in America, making it the most common cancer among men. Additionally, prostate cancer has grown 192% between 1973 and 1992. (PCA)
There are social, environmental and political conditions which currently exist and may affect a prostate cancer victim's access to health care or other services. Some of these issues are very positive while others show that politics and 'political correctness' can sometimes hinder research and cost lives.
American men have a one in two lifetime risk of developing cancer. For women, the risk is one in three." (PCA) However, only one tenth of the American healthcare budget currently goes toward cancer research. The PCA estimates that if cancer were cured today, "the economic value to the United States would exceed $46 trillion, more than the entire financial…
Gibson, Steve. (November 16, 2002) "Sacramento Councilman has Prostate Cancer." Sacramento Bee.
International Union of Operating Engineers Local 30. "No Cost Screening for Prostate CancerAvailable During the Month of November. http://www.iuoe30.org/aphw/prostate_screening.htm
PCA Community. "Facts and Statistics: Prostate Cancer." Retrieved November 24, 2002 from National Prostate Cancer Coalition's Website: http://www.4npcc.org/Pca_community_resources/Pca_community_resources_facts_/pca_community_resources_facts_.html.
Prostate Cancer in America
Prostate cancer is the cancer of the prostate glands. Prostate gland is a small walnut sized organ and an important part of a man's reproductive system. It is one of the most common forms of cancer in men aged above 75 years. The incidence of prostate cancer in men younger than the age of 40 is very rare. High risk population for the prostate cancer include African-American men who have been reported to be prone to developing cancer at any age, men older than 60 years, and men having a family history of prostate cancer especially in father and brothers.
According to the latest statistics by the U.S. National Cancer Institute (NCI)'s Surveillance Epidemiology and End esults (SEE)'s report, more than 300,000 men in U.S. will be diagnosed with prostate cancer and more than 34000 deaths in men are expected based on prostate cancer.…
1. Allen JD, Kennedy M, Wilson-Glover A, Gilligan TD. African-American men's perceptions about prostate cancer: implications for designing educational interventions. Soc Sci Med. June 2007;64(11):2189-200.
2. Farrell HM, Chan CYE, Ladouceur KL, Stein MJ. A Structured Implicit Abstraction Method to Evaluate whether Content of Counseling before Prostate Cancer Screening is Consistent with Recommendations by Experts. Patient Educ Couns. December 2009; 77(3): 322 -- 327.
3. Volk RJ, Spann SJ, Cass AR, Hawley ST. Patient education for informed decision making about prostate cancer screening: a randomized controlled trial with 1-year follow-up. Ann Fam Med. May 2003;1(1):22-8.
4. Maliski SL, Kwan L, Krupski T, Fink A, Orecklin JR, Litwin MS. Confidence in the ability to communicate with physicians among low-income patients with prostate cancer. Urology August 2004;64(2):329-34.
All patients who suffered from inhalation injuries must be given a compulsory bronchoscopic examination so as to reveal the extent of respiratory injury and also to help in planning of the most suitable treatment.
McCance, K.A. & Huether, S.E. (2010). Pathophysiology: The biologic basis for disease in adults and children (6th ed). St. Louis: Mosby.
Module 8 (B)
Hypovolemic shock is noted by McCance and Huether (2010) to be an emergency condition in which severe fluid and blood loss makes the victim's heart unable to sufficiently pump enough blood to the victim's body. This kind of shock is noted by McCance and Huether (2010) to result in multiple organ failure.
Brief case scenario presenting a patient who has experienced this type of shock
Mrs. obertson was presented to the hospital with pale skin, was slipping into unconsciousness and sweating very heavily. She had been involved in a…
McCance, K.A. & Huether, S.E. (2010). Pathophysiology: The biologic basis for disease in adults and children (6th ed). St. Louis: Mosby.
Shires, GT (1979).Management of hypovolemic shock. Bull NY Acad Med. 1979 February; 55(2): 139 -- 149.
Worthley, LIG (2000).Shock: A Review of Pathophysiology and Management. Part I. Critical Care and Resuscitation 2000; 2: 55-65
The husband's physical recovery did not indicate the life changes they must contend with. These changes included grief over the loss of intimacy between them, the changes in the nature of their relationship, misguided individual expectations, a lack of interpersonal communication and the lack of professional information to help and enlighten them. The process of trying to recover sexual function led them to seek out many treatment modes. Most of them yielded poor results. Their frustration stole almost all hope for intimacy. Reflecting on the situation led us to realize that we actually lacked individual coping skills, which could restore our relationship to normal (Mooney & Mooney).
Their experience led them to see the importance of family physicians (Mooney & Mooney, 2011). They are a family's most valuable resource before and after surgery on sexual dysfunction and intimacy problems and appropriate interventions. As health practitioners themselves, the authors recommend that…
Bjornes, C.D. (2011). Men with prostate cancer and the accessibility to information -- a literature review. Vol 1 # 2 Open Journal of Nursing: Scientific Research Publishing,
Inc. Retrieved on October 31, 2012 from http://www.scirp.org/Journal/PaperInformation.aspx?paperID=7680
Bryat-Lukosius, D., et al. (2010). Evaluating health-related quality o life and priority health problems in patients with prostate cancer: a strategy for defining the role of the advanced practice nurse. Vol 20 # 1 Canadian Oncology Nursing Journal:
PubMed. Retrieved on October 30, 2012 from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/203669640
There are three main treatment options.
For tumors that are still inside the prostate, a surgery called radical prostatectomy and radiation therapy are common treatment options (Prostate cancer treatment options). This source describes these two options. Radical prostatectomy removes the whole prostate gland and the nearby lymph nodes. There are 2 types of radiation therapy, external beam radiation therapy and seed therapy also called brachytherapy. In external beam radiation therapy, radiation is given from a machine like an x-ray machine and in brachytheraphy, radioactive pellets (called "seeds") are injected into the prostate gland. oth types have similar results in curing prostate cancer, but involve different side effects and time commitments from the patient.
"Watchful waiting" and hormones are also treatment options (Prostate cancer treatment options). With "watchful waiting," treatment is not given until the tumor gets bigger. This may be the best option for an older man who has a…
Bostwick DG (1995). High-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia: The most likely precursor of prostate cancer. Cancer. 75: 1823-1836.
Diagnosis (Gleason scores and staging the disease). Prostate Cancer Foundation. http://www.prostatecancerfoundation.org/site/c.itIWK2OSG/b.47293/k.D232/Diagnosis.htm
Dreicer, R. Prostate cancer. Cleveland Clinic. http://www.clevelandclinicmeded.com/medicalpubs/diseasemanagement/hematology-oncology/prostate-cancer/
General information about prostate cancer. National Cancer Institute. http://www.cancer.gov/cancerinfo/pdq/treatment/prostate/patient
Prostate cancer is a type of cancer that develops in the male reproductive system, and most prostate cancer can be slow growing. However, there are still aggressive type of prostate cancers, because the cancer cells can spread from the prostate of a patient to all other part of the body particularly the lymph nodes and bones. Initially, prostate cancer may reveal no symptom, however, in a later stage, it can cause pain, erectile dysfunction, urinating difficulty, problems in having sexual intercourse and sometimes death. Prostate cancer is common among the older men especially men reaching age of 50 and above, however, the rate of prostate cancer varies across the world. Its widespread is more frequently in Europe and the United States than in the South and East Asia. Globally, "prostate cancer is the 6th leading cause of cancer-related death in men." (Siegel, 2011, p 212). However, the prostate cancer is…
Singh, K. (2011). Molecular Basis of Autophagy-Mediated Resistance to Radiation and Apo2L/TRAIL Therapy in Prostate Cancer Cells. U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command, Maryland.
Singh, K. Sharma, S. Mir, M.C. et al. (2014). Autophagic flux determines cell death and survival in response to Apo2L/TRAIL (dulanermin). Mol Cancer: 13: 70.
Subramaniam, P. Michela, P. Dennis, S.H. et al. (2013). Compensatory increase in USP14 activity accompanies impaired proteasomal proteolysis during aging. Pub Med Central.
Schwickart M. Huang X. Lill, J.R. et al.(2010) Deubiquitinase USP9X stabilizes MCL1 and promotes tumour cell survival. Nature, 463:103-107.
ats are commonly used for their size (creating the animal-sized scanners is so expensive they are commonly not used in veterinary medicine even for dogs and cats) and the fact that rats breed quickly (PET, 2011, New World Encyclopedia). Lab rats have also been bred to ensure that they have similar enough genetic profiles to the humans the drugs will eventually be used upon, and even more specific populations have been bred to manifest the types of cancers detected by PET scans. Acute toxicity studies are ideally conducted using the means of transmission deployed with the eventual human subjects, which this new technology permits.
According to FDA guidelines, the minimum amount of animals should be used to determine toxicity, contrary to previous ways of determining potential lethality. "Animals should be observed for 14 days after pharmaceutical administration. All mortalities, clinical signs, time of onset, duration, and reversibility of toxicity should…
CFR - Code of Federal Regulations Title 21. (2011). FDA. Retrieved August 19, 2011 at
Guidance. (2009). FDA. Retrieved August 19, 2011 at http://www.fda.gov/downloads/Drugs/GuidanceComplianceRegulatoryInformation/Guidances/UCM070306.pdf
Guidance for industry. (2006). Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER).
Prostrate Cancer Health Disparities Among Blacks
Prostate Cancer Health Disparities among Blacks and Latino Males
Prostrate Cancer Health Disparities among Blacks and Latino Males
Roughly 218,000 males in the United States some time or another are probably going to be diagnosed with prostate cancer this year, and each and every one of someone will have to male extremely personal and individualized assessments regarding treatment decisions and diet and lifestyle modifications. But most significantly, most of these males will probably need to find a strong, well-informed team of doctors, nurses, and other healthcare workers to help escort them through the procedure at each step of the way. However, the roles of family and race history are significant as well. African-American men are 1.7 times more probable to grow prostate cancer related with Caucasian men, and are approximately 2.3 times as probable to die from the ailment (Edwards BK, 2007). Men with…
Prostate: U.S. Racial/Ethnic Cancer Patterns. (2004, July 4). Retrieved from National Cancer Institute. U.S. National Institutes of Health.: http://www.cancer.gov/statistics/cancertype/prostate-racial-ethnic .
Barr, J.K.-A. (2008). Reducing disparities in utilization of mamography: Reaching dually eligible women in connecticut. Journal of Health and Human Services Administration, 26(3), 298-335.
Cancer., A.A. (2004, April 5). African-Americans and Cancer. Retrieved from Houston, Texas: Intercultural Cancer Council: http://iccnetwork.org/cancerfacts/cfs1 .
disparities., C. h. (2005). National Cancer Institute. U.S. National Institutes of Health. Retrieved from Bethesda, Md: http://www.cancer. gov/newscenter/healthdisparities
Prostate cancer is regarded as the most common cancer among men and contributes to annual deaths of approximately 29,000 people in the United States. Actually, it is estimated that close to 60% of elderly men in the United States are suffering from prostate cancer though most of them do not know it. However, many older men are learning about their conditions through new screening tests that have become prevalent in the country. The severity of prostate cancer among many elderly men is attributed to the fact that it generates other conditions that worsens a patient's health. It is estimated that nearly 20% of men with this condition have metastatic disease while others develop metastases regardless of treatment with radiotherapy or surgical procedures.
Most of the elderly men who suffer from prostate cancer have had to make decisions regarding treatment options together with their doctors while facing huge uncertainty about the…
Bolla et. al. (1997, July 31). Improved Survival in Patients with Locally Advanced Prostate
Cancer Treated with Radiotherapy and Goserelin. The New England Journal of Medicine, 337, 295-330. Retrieved from http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/nejm199707313370502#t=article
Hricak, H. (2014, January 28). MR Imaging and MR Spectroscopic Imaging in the Pre-treatment
Evaluation of Prostate Cancer. The British Journal of Radiology, 78(2). Retrieved from http://www.birpublications.org/doi/abs/10.1259/bjr/11253478?journalCode=bjr
The wholistic care plan to utilize for this patient is based on the possibility of several diagnoses. The patient may have kidney stones, an infection, or prostate cancer. Each of these possibilities should be checked and ruled off the list, but prior to doing so, some steps must be taken to educate the patient about the causes of his terminal dysuria. The fact that he is being treated for hypertension and hypercholesterolemia suggests that this terminal dysuria may be the result of kidney stones, which have been linked to both hypertension and hypercholesterolemia (Hamano, Nakatsu, Suzuki, Tomioka, Tanaka, Murakami, 2005). However the absence of hematuria would suggest that kidney stones are not the primary cause. Thus the diagnostic workup should consider the hypertension and high cholesterol as well as the swollen boggy prostate plus the terminal dysuria and the lack of blood in the urine. Medications and treatments will…
Chou, R. (2011). Treatments for localized prostate cancer. U.S. Preventive Services
Task Force Recommendation Evidence Syntheses, 91.
Hamano, S., Nakatsu, H., Suzuki, N., Tomioka, S., Tanaka, M., Murakami, S. (2005).
Kidney stone disease and risk factors for coronary heart disease. Int J Urology, 12(10): 859-863.
Effectiveness of Mass PSA Testing in Reducing Mortality Rates
Prostate cancer screening is considered as one of the crucial steps towards dealing with the problem of prostate cancer among various patient population. Healthcare providers consider screening as a crucial issue towards improving the health and well-being of patients. In light of the significance of prostate cancer screening in health promotion, several screening tools have been developed and are utilized in the clinical setting such as digital rectal exam (DRE) and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing. PSA testing has received considerable attention in the recent past, particularly in relation to its impact on mortality rates. PSA testing/screening for prostate cancer remains a controversial issue in the modern healthcare setting given the variance in evidence on its impact on mortality rates. This paper examines whether PSA testing reduces morality rates based on research evidence or evidence-based practice. The analysis is carried out based…
American Cancer Society, Inc. (2017). Key Statistics for Prostate Cancer. Retrieved October 31, 2017, from https://www.cancer.org/cancer/prostate-cancer/about/key-statistics.html
Begley, S. (2017, September 5). Do Prostate Cancer Screenings Significantly Reduce Deaths? Retrieved October 31, 2017, from https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/do-prostate-cancer-screenings-significantly-reduce-deaths/
Cancer Statistics Center. (2017). 2017 Estimates. Retrieved November 3, 2017, from https://cancerstatisticscenter.cancer.org/#!/
Carter et al. (2011). Recommended Prostate-specific Antigen Testing Intervals for the Detection of Curable Prostate Cancer. The Journal of the American Medical Association, 277(18), 1456-1460.
Gulati, R., Gore, J.L. & Etzioni, R. (2013, February 5). Comparative Effectiveness of Alternative PSA-based Prostate Cancer Screening Strategies. Annals of Internal Medicine, 158(3), 145-153.
Helfand et al. (2013, May). Personalized PSA Testing Using Genetic Variants May Reduce Unnecessary Prostate Biopsies. Journal of Urology, 189(5), 1697-1701.
Howrey et al. (2013, January). The Impact of PSA Screening on Prostate Cancer Mortality and Overdiagnosis of Prostate Cancer in the United States. The Journal of Gerontology, Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, 68(1), 56-61.
Mitka, M. (2012, January 6). Study: Mass PSA Screening Does Not Reduce Risk of Dying from Prostate Cancer. Retrieved October 31, 2017, from https://newsatjama.jama.com/2012/01/06/study-mass-psa-screening-does-not-reduce-risk-of-dying-from-prostate-cancer/
Care of Patients With Cancer
Diagnosis and Staging of Cancer
Because cancer is a complex disorder that often progresses over long periods of time -- including long periods before an actual diagnosis can be made -- it is very useful to medical practitioners to identify various stages in the progression of the disease. Diagnosis may occur as the result of presenting complaints that cause a patient to seek medical help, or diagnosis may occur when routine check-ups lead to a suspicion by a physician or a laboratory specialist that a more thorough investigation is indicated. Indeed, one of the reasons why certain procedures are included in routine annual physicals is because these tests result in a diagnosis at sufficiently high rates to make them worth conducting. As medical technology advances, the procedures are modified accordingly -- and sometimes the frequency standards for these procedures are modified, as well.
Diseases and Conditions: Cancer. Complications. Mayo Clinic Retreived from http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/cancer/basics/complications/con-20032378
Understanding Your Diagnosis: Staging. American Cancer Society. Retreived from http://www.cancer.org/treatment/understandingyourdiagnosis/staging
Bacterial vaginosis is one of the major contributors of vaginal infections during pregnancy and accounts for 40% of these cases. Generally, bacterial vaginosis is associated with several obstretic complications like pre-term labor and delivery, untimely rupture of membranes, postpartum endometrisis, and chorioamnionitis (Wang et. al., 2010, p.444). Metronidazole has traditionally been used as the drug of choice in the treatment of bacterial vaginosis because it is an agent of the nitroimidazole antibiotic family. This drug has been used for several decades because it efficiency in treating the condition ranges between 80 and 90% and can be administered across all pregnancy stages while tolerated by pregnant women. The ability of the drug to achieve the high levels of efficacy is attributed to the fact that it can be found in the cord blood, fetal tissue, and amniotic fluid in high concentrations.
The authors of the article reported the findings of two…
Academic Press. (2011). Genomics in cancer drug discovery and development. San Diego, CA:
Becker, C. & Lilja, H. (1997, January 3). Individual Prostate-specific Antigen (PSA) Forms As
Prostate Tumor Makers. Clinica Chimica Acta, 257(1), 117-32.
This is related to bronchitis, asthma and long-term conditions such as lung cancer and bladder cancer (obinson, 2009).
It is estimated that the chances of getting bladder cancer is high for ex-smokers and passive smokers even after thirty years later. This brings us to the question of management of bladder cancer for current and ex-smokers as well as passive smokers.
The management of bladder cancer is a three-pronged approach that involves reducing the progression of the disease, protecting the bladder and increasing the chances of survival. The course of treatment depends to a large extent on the stage of the cancer. During the earlier stages, surgery, trans urethral resection, intravesical chemotherapy and immunotherapy are used to contain the disease and prevent it from progressing further. The malignant areas are treated with one of the above procedures to remove the tumor. In the case of a more advanced stage, radical cystectomy…
Cancer Research UK. (2011). Cancer in the UK: April 2011. Retrieved from http://info.cancerresearchuk.org/cancerstats/mortality/
Friedman, Howard. (1990). Personality and Disease. Publisher: New York, John Wiley & Sons.
Abrahamson; Seligman; Teasdale. (1978). Learned Helplessness in Humans: Critique and Reformulation. Abnormal Psychology. Vol 87. pp 49-74.
McAllister, Robert. (May 1974). Viral Etiology of Cancer: Two Hypotheses with relevance to chemical exposure. Pediatrics. Vol 53 (5). pp826.
Screening for breast cancer before there are symptoms is very important. Screening helps doctors find and treat cancer in its early stages. Treatment is more likely to be successful when the cancer is detected early. A doctor may suggest any of the following screening tests for breast cancer: screening mammogram, clinical breast exam, beast self-exam (Stoppler, 2009).
Mammograms can often show a breast lump before it can even be felt. A mammogram is a picture of the breast that is made with an x-ray. It can also show a cluster of tiny deposits of calcium. These deposits are known as micro calcifications. Lumps can be from cancer, precancerous cells, or a host of other conditions. Further tests may be needed to find out if abnormal cells are present. Women in their 40s and older should have mammograms every 1 to 2 years (Stoppler, 2009).
During a clinical breast exam the…
Cancer Gap Between Whites, Blacks May Be Biological in Part. (2009). Retrieved August 11,
2009, from http://healthday.com/Article.asp?AID=628785
Carcinogen Found in KFC's New Grilled Chicken. (2009). Retrieved August 13, 2009, from News and Media Center Web site: http://www.pcrm.org/news/release090521.html
National Breast Cancer Awareness Month. (2008). Retrieved August 11, 2009, from American
Living With Incurable Cancer at the End of Life-Patients' Perceptions on Quality of Life
Johansson, Christina Melin RN, Phd-student; Axelsson, Bertil MD, PhD; Danielson, Ella RN, PhD
This article is either a qualitative or a quantitative research study. Identify which, and then complete the table below where applicable. Write no more than three sentences in each cell of the table. The study may not contain all of the elements listed, or the element may be necessary and is not addressed. If the study does not address one of these elements and it is not necessary, simply indicate as N/A in the appropriate box. If the element is not adequately discussed, explain based on your readings and your understanding of the research study.
How do patients describe their perceptions of the quality of life (QoL) in incurable cancer at the end of life?
According to the National Institute of Health (NIH) "Brazil nuts may contain as much as 544 micrograms of selenium per ounce. They also may contain far less selenium. It is wise to eat Brazil nuts only occasionally because of their unusually high intake of selenium."
The reasons that selenium is so effective in cancer prevention are uncertain, although it has been speculated that it possesses anti-oxidant properties, "especially when used in conjunction with vitamin C, vitamin E and beta-carotene" and "works to block chemical reactions that create free radicals in the body (which can damage DNA and cause degenerative change in cells, leading to cancer)" (Black 2006). Selenium has also been found to prevent damaged DNA molecules from reproducing, thus preventing the development of tumors as well (Black 2006). This is supported by a University of Arizona-Cornell research team which linked low selenium levels in the blood to increased risk…
Black, Alexis. "The mineral selenium." Natural News. January 4, 2001. October 18, 2010.
"Dietary supplement fact sheet: Selenium." National Institutes of Health. NIH. October 18, 2010.
neoplasm: "abnormal mass of tissue that results when cells divide more than they should or do not die when they should" ("NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms," 2016)
benign: noncancerous ("NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms," 2016)
malignant: cancerous ("NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms," 2016)
carcinoma: "Cancer that begins in the skin or in tissues that line or cover internal organs," ("NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms," 2016)
sarcoma: "A type of cancer that begins in bone or in the soft tissues of the body, including cartilage, fat, muscle, blood vessels, fibrous tissue, or other connective or supportive tissue" ("NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms," 2016)
anaplasia: Features of cells which indicate malignancy ("Anaplasia," 2016).
Q2. Identify the correct name for both benign and malignant tumors in the following locations:
Benign Tumors/Malignant Tumors
Pancreas: Adenoma / Adenocarcinoma ("Tumors by name," 2016)
Fat: Lipoma / Liposarcoma ("Tumors by name," 2016)
Bone: Osteoma / Osteosarcoma ("Tumors…
About immunotherapy. (2016). Chemocare. Retrieved from:
Anaplasia. (2016). USC. Retrieved from:
Spinal vs. General Anesthesia
The outcome of patients after undergoing transurethral resection of the prostate is examined under varying clinical situations to assess whether spinal anesthesia is associated with greater likelihood of positive outcome. Also examined in great detail are the potential for increased morbidity and mortality based on whether patients underwent general or spinal anesthesia during surgery. A large body of evidence indicates that there is no statistically significant difference between patient outcomes regardless of choice of anesthetic technique. This paper concludes that patients should be well educated and informed so they may make the choice most appropriate to their personal situation and comfort level preferences. An equal number of adverse side effects are associated with each anesthetic technique; as such patients should choose the technique that will result in the greatest post-operative satisfaction. The implications for practice suggest that physicians and anesthetists have an obligation to educate and…
Dobson, PM., Caldicott, LD., Gerrish, SP., Cole, JR., & Channer, KS. Changes in haemodynamic variables during transurethral resection of the prostate: comparison of general and spinal anaesthesia. British Journal of Anaesthesia. Mar; 72 (3): 267-71
Edwards, ND., Callaghan, LC., White T., & Reilly, CS. (1995). Perioperative myocardial ischaemia in patnets undergoing transurethral surgery: a pilot study comparing general with spinal anaesthesia. British Journal of Anaesthesia. Apr; 74 (4): 368-72
Gravenstein, D. (1997). Transurethral resection of the prostate syndrome: a review of the pathophysiology and management. Anesthesia Analg. Feb; 84 (2): 438-36
Hosking, MP., Lobdell, CM., Warner, MA., Offord, KP., & Melton LJ. 3rd. (1989).Anaesthesia for patients over 90 years of age. Outcomes after regional and general anaesthetic techniques for two common surgical procedures. Anaesthesia. Aug; 44 (8): 697-8
Dietary Fibers on the Risk of Developing Cancer
Cancer is a genetic and complex disease caused mainly due to environmental elements. Carcinogen is a cancer agent that and can be present in water, food, air and in sunlight and chemicals as well. Almost ninety percent of the cancer occurs in epithelia because the epithelia cells cover the human's skin, lines the alimentary and respiratory tracts, and also metabolize ingested carcinogens. Currently, the causes of diseases are changing and infection can cause problems like cancer and cardiovascular diseases. There were more than ten million cancer cases in 1996 globally while six million people died from cancer. Unhealthy lifestyle like smoking cigarettes and adopting modern diet that includes fiber content and high fat is causing increased incidences of cancer in humans (Alison).
Development of Cancer
Cancer cells are different from normal cells and they continue to grow other abnormal cells in the…
ACS. "Genes and Cancer." American Cancer Society (2014).
-- . "Wilms Tumor ." American Cancer Society (2015).
Alison, Malcolm R. "Cancer." NCYCLOPEDIA OF LIFE SCIENCES (2001): 1.
Harras, A. "CANCER RISK FACTORS." NEW JERSEY DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH & SENIOR SERVICES (2002).
Working Night Shift and Getting Cancer
The increasing rate of women acquiring breast cancer disease has been an alarming issue in the medical history of cancer prevention and studies. The many research and studies conducted by medical professionals on breast cancer disease have found a number of cancer-causing habits and lifestyles. Among those that have been examined and found as risk factors of breast cancer on women is night-shift work.
Regularly working in night shift as a health-hazardous cause of breast cancer has been investigated by several studies of different cancer research institutions. Almost all studies were carried out based from employment histories of women diagnosed of breast cancer. In a population-based study conducted by Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, it was found that women who regularly work at night are at 60% risk of developing breast cancer. The most significant risk factor to this is the exposure to bright…
Davis, Jeanie Lerche. (2001). Breast Cancer and the Night Shift: Is There a Link?
Retrieved December 08, 2003, from Web MD Health.
Web site: http://my.webmd.com/content/article/35/1728_91195
DeNoon, Daniel. (2003). Hormone Melatonin Slows Breast Cancer.
These research findings were very significant because all the men who were studied in this were smokers. The researchers of this study admitted that vitamin E surely reduces the risk of prostate cancer. This study was used in a relatively low dose of 50 IU of the prostate but higher dose of 400 IU does have a greater benefit to the heart and prostate. (Challem, 37) Further a study published in the Journal Nutrition and Cancer 2000 states that natural vitamin E or d-alpha-tocopherol arrests the growth of the two types of prostate cancer cells and causes these cells to self-destruct. (Challem, 38)
However though vitamin E is a free-radical scavenger and is associated with a decreased risk of prostate cancer, men with a history of bleeding problems or who take blood thinners should surely discuss the use of vitamin E with their doctor before consuming them. (Heaney; Ellsworth; Gill,…
Challem, Jack. User's Guide to Nutritional Supplements. Basic Health Publications, Inc.
Health-Prostate Cancer. Retrieved at http://www.webindia123.com/health/disease/cancer/prostate/index.htm . Accessed 5 November, 2006
Heaney, John A; Ellsworth, Pamela; Gill, Oliver. 100 Questions and Answers about Prostate
Cancer. Jones and Bartlett Publishers. 2003.
The investigators noted that because patients who have skip metastases and negative pelvic lymph nodes have been found to later develop distant metastases, ProstaScint imagine was instrumental in detecting metastatic disease and prompting further investigation." (2004)
The work of Murphy and Troychak (2000) entitled: "Follow-Up Prostascint Scans Verify Detection of Occult Soft-Tissue Recurrence After Failure of Primary Prostate Cancer Therapy" published in the Prostrate Journal reports a study conducted for the evaluation of the ability of ProstaScint scan in the detection of prostatic bed recurrent and metastases to regional or distant lymph nodes. The study reported is of one hundred sequential patients who were evaluated with repeated ProstaScint scans due to evidence of recurrence during the disease course. These patients were followed from November 1994 and April 1999 and had "concurrent bone scans and serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) evaluations. They have had hormone therapy (n = 53) and/or experienced a…
Elgamal AA, Troychak MJ, Murphy GP. (1998) ProstaScint scan may enhance identification of prostate cancer recurrences after prostatectomy, radiation, or hormone therapy: analysis of 136 scans of 100 patients. Prostate. 1998 Dec 1;37(4):261-9.
Kahn D, Williams RD, Manyak MJ, et al. 111 Indium-capromab pendetide in the evaluation of patients with residual or recurrent prostate cancer after radical prostatectomy. The ProstaScint Study Group. J Urol. 1998;159:2041-2046. discussion 2046-2047.
Murphy GP, Elgamal AA, Troychak MJ, Kenny GM. (2000) Follow-up ProstaScint scans verify detection of occult soft-tissue recurrence after failure of primary prostate cancer therapy. Prostate. 2000 Mar 1;42(4):315-7.
Murphy GP, Snow PB, Brandt J, Elgamal a, Brawer MK. (2000) Evaluation of prostate cancer patients receiving multiple staging tests, including ProstaScint scintiscans. Prostate. 2000 Feb 1;42(2):145-9.
he introduction of Capsaicin to mice that have prostrate cancer will cause many of the cancer cells to die."
According to a team of researchers from the Samuel Oschin Comprehensive Cancer Institute at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, in collaboration with colleagues from UCLA, the pepper component caused human prostate cancer cells to undergo programmed cell death or apoptosis (http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2006/03/060319150754.htm)."
When the Capsaicin was introduced to mice that had prostrate cancer growing it killed approximately 80% of the cancer cells.
his was done by leading the capsaicin to follow molecular pathways that lead to the apoptosis of those cells.
Prostate cancer tumors treated with capsaicin were about one-fifth the size of tumors in non-treated mice. Capsaicin had a profound anti-proliferative effect on human prostate cancer cells in culture," said Sren Lehmann, M.D., Ph.D., visiting scientist at the Cedars-Sinai Medical Center and the UCLA School of Medicine. "It also dramatically slowed the development…
The article provides a clear overview of the experiment and results and allows the reader to understand the significance of the consequences without creating a bias about those results.
REFERENCE ( http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2006/03/060319150754.htm )
Pepper Component Hot Enough to Trigger Suicide in Prostate Cancer Cells. Science Daily.
Hard Economic and Finance Choices in U.S. Healthcare
The United States has recently undergone a financial crisis that has made the government, and the citizens, more conscious of what things cost and have produced debates regarding the costs of items. One debate that has intensified in volume is that over the large, and ballooning cost of healthcare. Although the Affordable Healthcare Act is supposed to take care of a portion of that, evidence shows that costs will remain exorbitant. The main reason for that is the research and development costs of therapies and associated drug treatments. Currently, new therapies have been coming on the market that are able to prolong the lives of cancer patients, but a cost-benefit analysis prove that these therapies are too costly. The debate then is whether a few weeks, months, years of life are worth hundreds of thousands to millions of dollars. This…
Short, N.M. (2013). Overview: The Economics and Finance of Health Care. In J.A. Milstead (Ed.), Health policy and politics: A nurse's guide (4th ed.) (pp. 191 -- 206). Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.
Stein, R. (2010, November 8). Review of prostate cancer drugs Provenge renews medical cost-benefit debate. The Washington Post. Retrieved from http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp - dyn/content/article/2010/11/07/AR2010110705205.html ?
Sullivan, J.D. (2010). End Stage Renal Disease economics and the balance of treatment modalities. Journal of Service Science & Management, 3(1), 45 -- 50. Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.
Pharmaceutical industries have to operate in an environment that is highly competitive and subject to a wide variety of internal and external constraints. In recent times, there has been an increasing trend to reduce the cost of operation while competing with other companies that manufacture products that treat similar afflictions and ailments. The complexities in drug research and development and regulations have created an industry that is subject to intense pressure to perform. The amount of capital investment investments required to get a drug from conception, through clinical trials and into the market is enormous. The already high-strung pharmaceutical industry is increasingly investing greater amounts of resources in search of the next "blockbuster" drug that can help them gain market position and profits. Laws, regulations and patents are important to the industry while spending billions of dollars in ensuring the copyright of their products.
It is the intention of this…
Ansoff, H.I. (1957). Strategies for diversification. Harvard Business Review, 35(5), 113-124.
Ansoff, H.I. (1965). Corporate Strategy. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
Ashour, M.F., Obeidat, O., Barakat, H., & Tamimi, A. (2004). UAE Begins Examination of Patent Applications. Tamino.com. Retrieved January 18, 2004, from the World Wide Web: http://www.tamimi.com/lawupdate/2001-01/intprop.htm
Bain, J.S. (1954). Economies of scale, concentration, and the condition of entry in twenty manufacturing industries. American Economic Review, 44, 15-36.
Personal Statement: Regarding My Future Pharmacy Career
Even a casual reader of today's newspapers will know that the modern drug industry has been subjected to increasingly rigorous scrutiny and litigation. In the current climate, it is easy to forget what it is like to live in a land where antibiotics are not a phone call to the doctor away, and research dollars for drug research are scarce, not the subject of a highly theoretical media debate about ethics. In the country I grew up, the rare sight of the face of a pharmacist was always a welcome one. I remain infused with my childhood faith, now grounded in study and experience, of the power of drugs to heal the human body, not to harm them.
As a young girl in Southeast Asia I suffered from acute bronchitis. I was profoundly grateful for the relief that pharmaceuticals could bring to my…
technology has revolutionized society: communication, transportation, commerce, and especially medicine. . Ironically, for centuries and still in Oriental Medicine, healthcare was and is tailored to the individual. Even the Greek Physician Hippocrates wrote that he prescribed sweet elixirs to some and astringents to others depending on their individual condition (Pray, 2008). 21st century medicine, though, is more about an individual person's genetic code, and is made possible by advances in genetic technology and engineering. This is partially due to the Human Genome Project, a massive program completed in 2003 that focused on the identification of the individual genes that make up human DNA with the overall hope that it would initiate genomic medicine -- healthcare delivered based on the individual's medical history and genetic profile (About the Human Genome Project, 2011). Traditionally, medicine diagnoses human illnesses based on quantitative and qualitative signs and symptoms. With the advent of genetic technology,…
About the Human Genome Project. (2011, September 19). Human Genome Management Information Systems. Retrieved from: http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources / Human_Genome/project/about.shtml
Gattaca. (1997, March). Retrieved from International Movie Database: http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0119177/
Personalized Medicine - An Overview. (2011, January 11). Retrieved from: U.S. News Health report: http://health.usnews.com/health-conditions/cancer/personalized-medicine
Public Law 110-223. (2008). The Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act of 2008. Retrieved from: http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/PLAW-110publ233/content-detail.html
Since the events of September 11th, terrorism has been a crucial concern for Americans specifically, and the global society in general.
As Wilkins (2005) notes, although it is generally agreed to be justifiable to commit violence in the act of self-defense against aggressors, many of the victims of terrorism are innocent of any crime, and that the question of "collective guilt" must come into play when determining the justification for terrorism. There is a "distinction between moral guilt and metaphysical guilt (which) can be explained partially in terms of the difference between the failure to do one's duty and the failure to perform a supererogatory act. We have a duty to mutla aid to other human beings" (p. 340).
Therefore, it is justifiable to inflict violence upon innocent individuals when this guilt is apparent, such as the case of the plight of the Jews and the aggression of…
An-Na'im, A.A. "Islam, Islamic Law." Applied Ethics: A Multicultural Approach. Ed. May, L., Collins-Chobanian, S., & Wong, K. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2005. pp. 101-108.
Bolte, A. "Do Wedding Dresses Come in Lavender? The Prospects and Implications of Same-Sex Marriage?" Applied Ethics: A Multicultural Approach. Ed. May, L., Collins-Chobanian, S., & Wong, K. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2005. pp. 399-410.
Goering, S. "Gene Therapies and the Pursuit of a Better Human." Applied Ethics: A Multicultural Approach. Ed. May, L., Collins-Chobanian, S., & Wong, K. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2005. pp. 659-668.
Leth, F. "Confessed Cannibal Given 8.5-Year Prison Sentence." Title of Source. Day Month Year: pages.
Advanced Nursing Practice
Advance Nursing Practice
Ignoring symptoms that are clearly indicative of something wrong is a bad idea. The idea becomes even more ill-advise as the symptoms become more and more prominent and/or numerous in nature. While chronic diseases and other disorders take time to do their work, waiting until they become unbearable is something that should never occur as the chances of an optimal outcome are not nearly as good as they could or should be. Further, become the opposite of a hypochondriac and avoiding the diagnosis and care of a doctor is also less than wise. For example, a person might think they have cancer when instead they just need a little modest medical care and lifestyle changes to their health back on track. Indeed, it would seem that precisely that is going on with the patient described and diagnosed below.
Patient Initials: Not Known Age: 60…
CMS. "ICD-9 Code Lookup." ICD-9 Code Lookup. N.p., 20 Oct. 2014. Web. 20 Oct. 2014. .
E-Medicine. "Enlarged Prostate Causes, Symptoms, Treatment - Enlarged Prostate Treatment - eMedicineHealth." eMedicineHealth. N.p., 20 Oct. 2014. Web. 20 Oct. 2014. .
Mayo. "Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)." Prostate gland enlargement Treatments and drugs. N.p., 20 Oct. 2014. Web. 20 Oct. 2014. .
NYT. "Enlarged Prostate." New York Times. N.p., 20 Oct. 2014. Web. 20 Oct. 2014. .
(Associated Press) This means that patients would be able to decide whether or not to undergo treatment with Provenge irrespective of cost.
The subsidization of expensive medical treatments by the Medicare program is actually nothing new. Medicare already pays for other expensive cancer treatments from companies such as Genentech and Eli Lilly. (Associated Press) However, the recent backlash against government expenditures on healthcare has compelled the Medicare program to give closer scrutiny to the drugs it agrees to cover. There were many who were surprised, and offended, that the Medicare program even considered the possibility of not covering Provenge treatments. (Associated Press) These people believe that the federal government's commitment to cover the health care costs of older individuals is absolute. They believe that this responsibility does not have a price limit.
Prostate cancer patients seem to have received the best of all worlds with the recent developments involving…
P.W. Kantoff, C.S. Higano, N.D. Shore, et al. (2010). "Sipuleucel-T Immunotherapy for Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer." New England Journal of Medicine 363: 411 -- 422. Available at http://www.nejm.org/doi/pdf/10.1056/NEJMoa1001294 .
"Survival Benefit of Sipuleucel-T in Prostate Cancer Appears Durable." Elsevier Global Medical News. Mar 11, 2010. Available at http://www.oncologystat.com/news/Survival_Benefit_of_Sipuleucel-T_in_Prostate_Cancer_Appears_Durable_US.html.
"Dendreon Cancer Drug Faces U.S. Review Tied to Its Sole Product." Catherine Larkin. Nov. 16, 2010. Available at http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2010-11-16/dendreon-cancer-drug-faces-u-s-review-tied-to-its-sole-product.html
"Medicare panel backs $93K cancer drug Provenge." Associated Press. Nov. 18, 2010. Available at http://www.usatoday.com/yourlife/health/medical/cancer/2010-11-18-provenge-medicare_N.htm
Elsevier reland Ltd., 2004.
n this highly-detailed article, prepared by Melina Gattellari and Jeanette E. Ward of the University of New South Wales in Sydney, Australia, the overall goal is to evaluate a number of current resources used to "facilitate informed decisions about prostate cancer screenings," a subject that has rarely been addressed in recent years. n order to accomplish this goal, the authors conducted a study of 421 men who randomly were given a leaflet, a booklet or a video concerning how to make informed decisions on whether or not to have prostate cancer surgery or some other type of treatment. What the authors found is very interesting, for after testing these men on their increased knowledge on prostate cancer alternatives, "scores were significantly higher... among those who had received (the) booklet, compared with men who received the leaflet or video." Thus, the results of the author's study suggests…
In this highly-detailed article, prepared by Melina Gattellari and Jeanette E. Ward of the University of New South Wales in Sydney, Australia, the overall goal is to evaluate a number of current resources used to "facilitate informed decisions about prostate cancer screenings," a subject that has rarely been addressed in recent years. In order to accomplish this goal, the authors conducted a study of 421 men who randomly were given a leaflet, a booklet or a video concerning how to make informed decisions on whether or not to have prostate cancer surgery or some other type of treatment. What the authors found is very interesting, for after testing these men on their increased knowledge on prostate cancer alternatives, "scores were significantly higher... among those who had received (the) booklet, compared with men who received the leaflet or video." Thus, the results of the author's study suggests that men "require detailed information about the pros and cons" of PSA testing, surgery and chemotherapy "in order to make an informed decision," one that could potentially affect the rest of their lives. This article certainly demonstrates that most men are not very knowledgeable on the topic of prostate cancer and shows that all men need to become more informed about the dangers of not being tested for prostate cancer.
Glouberman, Sholom and Henry Mintzberg. Managing the Care of Health and the Cure of Disease -- Part I: Differentiation. Aspen Publishers, 2001.
In this highly-detailed article, Sholom Glouberman and his colleague Henry Mintzberg concern themselves with a problem that has plagued the medical profession for many years, namely, "Why are the so-called systems of health care so notoriously difficult to manage?" In order to answer this question, the authors explore exactly why health care systems are currently under examination, due in part to almost all Western nations, including the United States, being unsatisfied with the current state of their systems which has mandated a broad spectrum of reforms, particularly in the area of finances. Since health care systems are "the most complex systems known to contemporary society," it appears that "fixing" the ills of these systems will require a great deal of research and exploration. The authors also point out that hospitals "are considered to be extraordinarily complicated organizations," especially when one takes into account the enormous pressures linked to an ever-growing and aging American public. Thus, this article is certainly necessary reading for anyone wishing to examine the various health care systems worldwide.
3%) are very satisfied with their health care services, compared to only 41.5% of Canadians; a lower proportion of Americans are dissatisfied (6.8%) than Canadians (8.5%).
Atlas (2009) acknowledge that Americans have much better access to important new technologies like medical imaging than patients in Canada or the U.K. Maligned as a waste by economists and policymakers naive to actual medical practice, an overwhelming majority of leading American physicians identified computerized tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MI) as the most important medical innovations for improving patient care during the previous decade (Fuchs & Sox, 2001). This is justifiable in the presented table showing the most important recent medical innovations, below. Hence, Atlas (2009) claim that the United States has nearly 27 MI machines per million compared to about 6 per million in Canada and Britain.
According to" The U.S. Health Care System as an Engine of Innovation," 2004 Economic…
Association of American Medical Colleges. (2010). Healthcare Innovation Zones: A True
Platform for Reform. Retrieved on 29th March, 2010 from http://www.aamc.org/
Atlas, S. (2009). Ideals Changing the World: 10 Surprising Facts about American Health Care.
National Center for Policy Analysis (NCPA) No. 649
WHY DO THE JAPANESE LIVE LONGE?
NUTITIONAL BENEFITS OF SOY:
As an annual Asian legume (meaning that it grows in a pod), soy is one of the most amazing members of the bean family, due mostly to its significant health benefits. Many studies done by nutritionist worldwide have confirmed that a plant-based diet is the most healthful choice. Soybean and its extracts, such as soybean oil, provide high-quality protein that is equal to that found in poultry, milk and other animal-based foods. However, not all soyfoods are low in fat, but most of them are cholesterol-free. An added bonus is that soybean and its byproducts do not contain saturated fat unless it is added during the processing stage or is combined with other ingredients containing saturated fat.
Because many forms of soy are low or modest in total fat, a person's overall diet will be inclined toward…
Davidson, Alan. (1989). The Oxford Companion to Food. New York: Oxford University Press.
Ling, Wen Hua, et al. (2001). "Black and Red Rice Decreases Atherosclerotic Plaque Formation and Increases Antioxidant Status." Journal of Nutrition. Vol. 131. 1421-26.
London, Sheryl. (1992). The Versatile Grain and the Elegant Bean. New York: Simon & Schuster.
Marks, Leonard S., et al. (2004). "Prostate Cancer in Native Japanese and Japanese-American Men: Effects of Dietary Differences on Prostatic Tissue." Urology. 64. 4. 765-71.
, and otjak, C. (2006). Cannabinoid CB1 Receptor Mediates Fear Extinction via Habituation-Like Processes. The Journal of Neuroscience 26(25): 6677-6686.
Kim, S., on, S., Mao, X., Ledent, C., Jin, K. And Greenberg, D. (2006). Role for Neuronal Nitric-Oxide Synthase in Cannabinoid-Induced Neurogenesis. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther., October 1, 2006; 319(1): 150-154
Kogan, N., Blazquez, C., Alvarex, L., Gallily, R., Schlesinger, M., Guzman, A., and Mechoulam, R. (2006). A Cannabinoid Quinone Inhibits Angiogenesis by Targeting Vascular Endothelial Cells. Mol Pharmacol 70:51-59.
Lundqvist, T. (2005). Cognitive Consequences of Cannabis Use: Comparison with use of Stimulants and heroin with regard to attention, memory and executive functions. Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior. 81: 319-330.
Maccarrone, M., Lorenzon, T., Bari, M., Melino, G., and Finazzi-Agro, A. (2000). Anandamide Induces Apoptosis in Human Cells via Vanilloid Receptors
Evidence For A Protective Role Of Cannabinoid Receptors. J. Biol. Chem., 275 (41): 31938-31945.
Massi, P., Vaccani, A., Ceruti, S.,…
Bolla, K., Brown, K., Eldreth, D., Tate, B., and Cadet, J. (2002). Dose-related neurocognitive effects of marijuana use. Neurology 59:1337-1343.
Farthing, G. (1992) The Psychology of Consciousness. Prentice Hall
Gazzaniga, M., Ivry R., and Mangun, G. (1998) Cognitive Neuroscience: The Biology of the Mind W.W. Norton & Company.
Grant, I., Gonzalez, R., Carey, C., Natatajan, L., and Wolfson, T. (2003). Non-acute (residual) neurocognitive effects of cannabis use: A meta-analytic study.
And for good reason: it's still one of the most effective, affordable and trusted products in agriculture today.
The company points out that this herbicide is 'safe' and that it is essential for increased crop production at a time of critical demand in the United States and the world. Syngenta also refers to the fact that in 2006 the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency "…re-registered atrazine in 2006, based on the overwhelming evidence of safety from nearly 6,000 studies" (Syngenta).
While the main reason for the EU ban on this product was the indication of contaminated drinking water supplies, Syngenta denies this claim. It supports this view by referring to a 2008 study in which 122 Community Water Systems monitored in 10 states were monitored. This study found that the federal standards set for Atrazine were not exceeded in any of the states.
One should however bear in mind that…
Ackerman F. ( 2007)the Economics of Atrazin. Retrieved from http://ase.tufts.edu/gdae/Pubs/rp/EconAtrazine.pdf
Ackerman F. ( 2010) With weed killer atrazine, the benefits are small, the risks are huge. Retrieved from http://www.kansascity.com/2010/09/14/2224213/with-weed-killer-atrazine-the.html
A Field of Nightmares Updated: Atrazine, Corn, and Frogs. Retrieved from http://frogsaregreen.com/tag/effect-of-atrazine-on-frogs/
Atrazine. Retrieved from http://www.pan-uk.org/pestnews/Actives/atrazine.htm
WHAT WORKS EST
Adherence Intervention for Afro-Caribbeans
Recent improvements on prescription medications are beneficial only if patients adhere to them faithfully. Non-adherence is common and results in adverse conditions (Ho et al., 2009). This is a problem both to patients and heir care providers as well as the healthcare system itself. The solution consists of identifying the causes and motivations of non-adherence and the design and implementation of better interventions to improve adherence (Ho et al.). The following studies present and suggest more effective interventions for a variety of health conditions among Afro-Caribbean people who have been reported to have a high level of non-adherence to therapy.
Many health providers contend that more effective interventions in reducing risks for diseases, especially HIV / AIDS, through greater adherence need to culturally conform to the specific culture of the subject population (Archibald, 2011). This study used a…
Adams, O.P. And Carter, A.O. (2010). Diabetes and hypertension guidelines and the primary health care practitioners in Barbados: knowledge, attitudes, practices and barriers -- a focus group study. Vol 11 # 96, BMC Family Practice: BioMed Central.
Retrieved on February 1, 2013 from http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2296/11/96
Archibald, C. (2011). Cultural tailoring for an Afro-Caribbean community: a naturalistic approach. Vol 18 # 4, Journal of Cultural Divers: Pubmed. Retrieved on January 27,
2013 from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3408883
Tumor Invasion and Metastasis
This is a paper that concentrates on tumor invasion and metastasis. There are five references used for this paper.
Cancer is one of the deadliest diseases faced by mankind today. It is important to look at tumor invasion and metastasis to understand how cancer can spread and ways in which the progress of cancer can be arrested.
A substantial problem in the treatment of carcinoma patients is tumor invasion and metastasis. Approximately "30% of patients with newly diagnosed solid tumors already have clinically detectable metastases (herkules.oulu.fi/isbn9514254023/html/x446.html)." The production of "extracellular matrix degrading enzymes, such as serine proteinases, metalloproteinases, cysteine proteinases, threonine proteinases, and aspartic proteinases (herkules.oulu.fi/isbn9514254023/html/x446.html)" is linked with tumor invasion.
The transition from "in situ tumor growth to mestastic disease is defined by the ability of tumor cells at the primary site to invade local tissue and to cross tissue barriers…
(Castells, Antoni and Anila K. Rustgi. Tumor Invasion and Metastasis. (accessed 27 October,
2003). < http://www.harcourt-international.com/e-books/pdf/478.pdf >).
Couzin, Jennifer. (14 February, 2003). MEDICINE: Tracing the Steps of Metastasis, Cancer's
Menacing Ballet. Science.
LEADING CAUSES OF MOBIDITY:
Some of the diseases which often result in early death in African-Americans, provided that the go untreated or undiagnosed, include hypertension, coronary heart disease, stroke, kidney failure, dementia (i.e., Alzheimer's disease), diabetes and certain types of cancer, most notably lung cancer, breast cancer, colon cancer and prostate cancer (in men). Exactly why the morbidity rates for these disease are so much higher in African-Americans than in other ethnic/racial groups include a lack of education, lower incomes and the inability to access professional health care providers and clinics ("Health and Health Care," 2009, Internet). At the top of the list, there is hypertension, coronary heart disease (especially arterial blockage), stroke and some major types of cancer. With hypertension, some studies have shown that if a black male lives in poverty, his chances of being stricken with high blood pressure increases, perhaps because of the stress which goes…
"Health and Health Care of African-American Elders." (2009). Internet. Accessed June 24,
2009 from http://www.stanford.edu/group/ethnoger/african.html .
Spector, Rachel E. (2008). Cultural Diversity in Health and Illness. New York: Pearson
Some studies posit that casein consumption has a direct correlation to cancer cell growth, and patients with any form of cancer are counseled not to drink milk, and to limit the consumption of milk products. This is contradicted in terms of using milk to help with certain stomach and colon cancers (Hakkak, 2001). Men who drink large amounts of milk and consume numerous dairy products are at a higher risk for Parkinson's disease, and high levels of calcium intake (6 or more glasses of milk per day), also increase the chance for prostate cancer (Chen, 2007; Giovannucci, et.al. 1998). Additionally, a number of links have been made to digestive disorders such Crohn;'s disease and Hirschprung's disease, which are serious conditions of the digestive system and the bowel ("How Bacteria in Cow's Milk…" 2007).
The idea that the human body requires milk in order to produce calcium and create a stronger…
REFERENCES and WORKS CONSULTED
Champe, P. (2008). "Introduction to Carbohydrates." Lippincott's Illustrated
Reviews: Biochemistry. Williams and Williams.
Chen, H., et.al. (2007). "Consumption of Dairy Products and Risk of Parkinson's
Disease." American Journal of Epidemiology. 165 (9): 998+.
More objectivity is however expected from scientists, but their opinions also vary. Specifically, the opinions of those who support growth hormones and those who reject them are all derived from scientific evidence. This in turn means that the results of scientific research could be manipulated and influenced so that the findings are indicative of the desires of those who initiated the study. In this particular sense, the most pertinent situation is revealed by the beef and dairy producers, who hire their own scientists to lead the research process in the direction desired by them.
Aside from these situations however, the scientists who have conducted studies tend to link various health problems with the growth hormones. Some of the side effects to consuming products with residual matters from growth hormones include the onset of early puberty in girls, an increase in the risk of breast cancer, an increase in the risk…
Leonard, a., the story of stuff, the Story of Stuff Project, http://www.storyofstuff.org / last accessed on February 21, 2012
McLaughlin, a. 2011, the effects of growth hormones in food, Live Strong, http://www.livestrong.com/article/98816-effects-growth-hormones / last accessed on February 21, 2012
Artificial hormones, Sustainable Table, http://www.sustainabletable.org/issues/hormones / last accessed on February 21, 2012
EU scientists confirm health risks of growth hormones in meat, Organic Consumer Association, http://www.organicconsumers.org/toxic/hormone042302.cfm last accessed on February 21, 2012
One mid-range nursing philosophy is that of Barbara esnick, with her "Middle ange Theory of Self-Efficacy." This theory states that 'self-efficacy expectations and outcome expectations are not only influenced by behavior, but also by verbal encouragement, physiological sensations and exposure to role models or self-modeling" (Nurses.info, 2014).
esnick is an Associate Professor at the University of Maryland School of Nursing. She is also a geriatric nurse practitioner at oland Park Place. Her research is focused on motivation, particularly with older adults. She has written papers on motivation for older adults to recover from disabling events, for example, noting that where motivation is high recovery is more likely to be successful, and life prolonged. She found support for her theory in this study (esnick, 1998), for example, lending credence to her prior work on finding ways to enhance the likelihood of recovery in all populations, but particularly in older and…
Nurses.info. (2014). Barbara Resnick. Nurses.info. Retrieved March 21, 2014 from http://www.nurses.info/nursing_theory_midrange_theories_barbara_resnick.htm
Resnick, B. (1998). Efficacy beliefs in geriatric rehabilitation. Journal of Gerontological Nursing. Vol. 24 (7) 34-44
Resnick, B. & Jenkins, L. (2000) Testing the reliability and validity of the self-efficacy for exercise scale. Nursing Research. Vol. 49 (3) 154-159.
Weber, B., Roberts, B., Resnick, M., Deimling, G., Zauszniewski, J., Musil, C. & Yarandi, H. (2004). The effect of dyadic intervention on self-efficacy, social support, and depression for men with prostate cancer. Psycho-oncology. Vol. 13 (2004) 47-60.
The picture to the left depicts the various elements that are responsible for thermoregulation in human skin. The illustrations shows the various layers of skin along with the veins, arteries and capillaries of the circulatory system that assist in insuring that the thermoregulatory system works properly. The sweat glands are responsible for selectively removing materials from the blood the sweat glands then concentrates or alters these toxins, and secretes them for elimination from the body. The perspiration or sweat is then removed through the sweat pore. This has a twofold purpose: to remove toxins and thermoregulation (in this case cooling the body).
Thermoregulation involving perspiration is brought about by both internal and environmental heat and exercise. As it relates to the latter, there have been many studies related to exercise and thermoregulation. According to Marino (2004)
"thermoregulatory effector responses of humans and concluded that temperature regulation during exercise is dissimilar…
Caterina MJ, Schumacher MA, Tominaga M, Rosen TA, Levine JD, Julius D. The capsaicin receptor: a heat-activated ion channel in the pain pathway. Nature. 1997;389:816-824.
Dugan SA, Powell LH, Kravitz HM, Everson Rose SA, Karavolos K, Luborsky J (2006)
Musculoskeletal pain and menopausal tatus. Clin J. Pain 22: 325 -- 331
Deecher, D.C.K. Dorries (2007)Understanding the pathophysiology of vasomotor symptoms
The exchange of the defective gene could be brought about by a process called homologous recombination. One of the first gene therapy experiments, though well intentioned, caused the death of the patient. esearchers at the University of Pennsylvania introduced a normal gene into a boy's body by using the rhino virus as a carrier. The body's immune system attacked this as a pathogen. This led to eventual organ failure and death. Gene therapy projects all over the world were largely abandoned. But more recently, gene therapy is beginning to make a comeback. (ONL, 2009)
Gene therapy has been tested in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. This is not a treatment that targets amyloid beta proteins or the tangles, but protects the brain cells from destruction. The regenerative properties of skin cells (stem cells) have been used to prevent the brain cells from "withering" away. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scans reveal…
http://www.alzforum.org/drg/drc/detail.asp?id=84Alzforum . (2009). Retrieved April 18, 2009, from BBC. (2003). Alzheimer's vaccine 'promising'. Retrieved April 18, 2009, from Alzheimer's vaccine 'promising'
ChemoCare. (2005). Taxol. Retrieved April 18, 2009, from http://www.chemocare.com/bio/taxol.asp
Elements4health. (2009). PET Scans Reveal Plaques and Tangles In Alzheimer's Retrieved April 18, 2009, from http://www.elements4health.com/pet-scans-reveal-plaques-and-tangles-in-alzheimers.html
Feng, J.A., Crasto, C.J., & Matsumoto, Y. (1998). Deoxyribose phosphate excision by the N-terminal domain of the polymerase beta: the mechanism revisited. Biochemistry, 37(27), 9605-9611.
(We've never had it so good - and it's all thanks to science) Thus the question of genes is an effect on certain humans and their behavior; in short their physical and behavioral traits. That does not change the view of society on what a well nurtured human is.
Thus we still expect "other people" in society to be upright, polite, incorruptible, generous, are honest, hard working, well-informed, broadminded, who are conscious about society, sensitive to environment, non-violent and self-restraint. In short, those are the objectives of good nurturing, but does it happen all the time? Even in the Old Testament we had the tale of Cane and Abel. Society involves both nature and nurture.
Bad Gene Ups Prostate Cancer isk in Black Men. 9 July, 2003. etrieved at http://www.hon.ch/News/HSN/513973.html. Accessed on 10 August, 2005
Did the march of progress bring Aids to Africa? Sydney Morning Herald. 15…
Bad Gene Ups Prostate Cancer Risk in Black Men. 9 July, 2003. Retrieved at http://www.hon.ch/News/HSN/513973.html . Accessed on 10 August, 2005
Did the march of progress bring Aids to Africa? Sydney Morning Herald. 15 September 2000.
Retrieved at http://www.uow.edu.au/arts/sts/bmartin/dissent/documents/AIDS/rs/SMH.html . Accessed on 10 August, 2005
Lemonick, Michael. D. Gene Mapper. December 17, 2000. Retrieved at http://www.time.com/time/poy2000/mag/venter.html . Accessed on 10 August, 2005
Public health screening activities in programs are also essential in ensuring this level of prevention is ensured. A good example is organized screening programs targeted at the community.
The third level of prevention, tertiary prevention, involves bother rehabilitative and therapeutic measures once the person already has the symptoms and signs of the disease. Tertiary prevention has several goals, which include preventing damage and pain that may arise from the disease, slowing down the progression of the disease, preventing the disease from causing complications, giving optimum care to people with signs of the disease, and helping those with the disease to live healthy lives afterwards. A quintessential example of tertiary preventive activities includes treating diabetics to prevent complications that occur as a result of the disease such as liver and kidney failure. Other examples are management of patients with chronic heart disease with therapy and medication, physical and occupational therapy as…
Baker, J.E.L. (1992). Primary, Secondary, and Tertiary Prevention in Reducing Pesticide-Related Illness in Farmers. Journal of Community Health Nursing, 9(4), 245-254. doi: 10.2307/3427201
Flaskerud, J.H. (1992). HIV Disease and Levels of Prevention. Journal of Community Health Nursing, 9(3), 137-150. doi: 10.2307/3427251
Green, M.M. (1971). The Expanded Role of the Public Health Nurse. Canadian Journal of Public Health / Revue Canadienne de Sante'e Publique, 62(2), 147-152. doi: 10.2307/41984635
Ureda, J., & Yates, S. (2005). A SYSTEMS VIEW of HEALTH PROMOTION. Journal of Health and Human Services Administration, 28(1), 5-38. doi: 10.2307/41288055
Peppers in the Mexican Culture
Chili peppers are a member of the Capsicum food group; the principal pigment is chlorophylls a and b (chlorophylls are "a complex macrocyclic compounds with an extensive system of conjugated double bonds") (Roth, 2014). There are 27 different species of Capsicum. The hot taste comes from alkaloid chemicals (capsaicinoids -- capsaicin C18H27NO3).
On January 1, 1493, Christopher Columbus was exploring the north coast of what is today Haiti when he found a plant that he figured must be related to the black pepper. He wrote in his log: "This pepper that local Indians use as seasoning grows everywhere here and is more valuable than black pepper or melegueta pepper" (Roth, p. 1). Columbus brought chili peppers to Europe and they were widely dispersed into Asia. Benefits: rich in vitamins A and C; carotene is an antioxidant that helps reduce cholesterol and triglycerides in the blood…
Garden Guides. "How to Store Peppers." Retrieved August 19, 2015, from http://www.gardenguides.com . 2011.
Health Aliciousness "Health Benefits of Chili Peppers." Retrieved August 19, 2015, from http:www.healthaliciousness.com. 2010.
Lynn, Andrea. "Serious Heat: A Guide to Chile Substitutions." Serious Eats. Retrieved August 19, 2015, from http://www.seriouseats.com . 2009.
Physics. "Early uses of chili peppers in Mexico." Retrieved August 19, 2015, from http://phys.org . 2013.
aldness and thinning hair are common and the ultimate fate of almost all men and women as they age. In fact, hair loss is genetic in origin, and as we come to a greater understanding of the biology and genetics of hair loss, we are beginning to find novel solutions to this age-old "problem" of the human condition. We have come a long way from the treatments for hair loss in ancient Egypt, which used a mixture of crocodile fat and hippopotamus dung to combat baldness. Another ancient cure for baldness included eating fried leeches. Men have been attempting to treat their hair loss for over 5000 years, beginning in approximately 3500 C, when a list of treatments was passed on from generation to generation and incorporated into the medical libraries of Egyptian healers. In 1553 C, the Ebers Papyrus, discovered in Luxor, Egypt, suggested a baldness prescription of iron,…
Bruning, Nancy Paul. What You Can Do About Chronic Hair Loss (The Dell Medical Library) Dell, 1993.
Jacobs, Sheila. The Big Fall: Living With Hair Loss Next Century Books, 1992
Kobren, Spencer David; Eisman, Diane B; Eisman, Eugene H. The Bald Truth: The First Complete Guide to Preventing and Treating Hair Loss, Pocket Books. 2000
Kobren, Spencer David; Christiano, Angela. The Truth About Women's Hair Loss: What Really Works for Treating and Preventing Thinning Hair. Mcgraw Hill, 2000.
Omega-3 Fatty Acids for Fitness and Wellness
Fat is back. The American public is no longer fat-phobic. Fat is essential for the body to function in a healthy manner. The low-fat craze is dead and fortunately the supermarket shelves are no longer lined with cookies and crackers proudly proclaiming themselves to be healthy because they are low in fat. But it is critical that people get the right kind of fats, in the right balance. And that is where omega-3 fatty acids come into play.
Omega-3 fatty acids are called essential fatty acids. This means that your body cannot make them and you have to either get them through food or supplements (Ehrlich 2011). The best and most easily-absorbed omega-3s are found in fish. Salmon, tuna, and sardines are some of the most popular sources of omega-3s. All of these can be easily purchased at your local supermarket in canned…
Ehrlich, S. (2011). Omega-3 fatty acids. University of Maryland Medical Center. Retrieved http://umm.edu/health/medical/altmed/supplement/omega3-fatty-acids
LeWine, F. (2013). Fish oil: Friend of foe? Harvard Medical School. Retrieved from:
Race and Arrests
Racial Profiling, according to the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU), is a "longstanding and deeply troubling national problem." It involves police and private security personnel targeting people of color based on suspicions, in most cases, that the individual being targeted is up to something illegal. The ACLU states that racial profiling "occurs every day," and the result for the innocent person of color is often a "frightening detention, interrogation, and searches without evidence of criminal activity." The basis for the stop in many cases is a person's perceived race, ethnicity, and national origin -- and in some cases the clothing a person is wearing in addition to the color of his skin. This paper delves into a few of the questions that surround racial profiling: a) why do police feel the need to racially profile people? b) Is it just part of the work of a cop…
American Civil Liberties Union. (2011). Racial Profiling. Retrieved December 2, 2014, from https://www.aclu.org .
Blair, L. (2014). Michigan Police Officer Detains Man for 'Making People Nervous' by Walking With Hands in Pockets in Near Freezing Cold. The Christian Post.
Retrieved December 2, 2014, from http://www.christianpost.com .
Brumback, K. (2014). Holder Announces Plan to Target Racial Profiling. ABC News.
Figure 1 portrays the state of Maryland, the location for the focus of this DR.
Figure 1: Map of Maryland, the State (Google Maps, 2009)
1.3 Study Structure
Organization of the Study
The following five chapters constitute the body of Chapter I: Introduction
Chapter II: Review of the Literature
Chapter III: Methods and Results
Chapter IV: Chapter V: Conclusions, Recommendations, and Implications
Chapter I: Introduction
During Chapter I, the researcher presents this study's focus, as it relates to the background of the study's focus, the area of study, the four research questions, the significance of the study, and the research methodology the researcher utilized to complete this study.
Chapter II: Review of the Literature in Chapter II, the researcher explores information accessed from researched Web sites; articles; books; newspaper excerpts; etc., relevant to considerations of the disparity in access to health care services between rural and urban residence in Maryland…
Potter, S. (2002) Doing Postgraduate Research. London: Sage.
Qualitative research: Approaches, methods, and rigour, (2008, Nov. 7). Microsoft PowerPoint Qualitative Research AdvC08 RS.PPT. Retrieved March 10, 2009 from www.unimaas.nl/bestand.asp?id=11629
Wolvovsky, Jay. (2008). Health disparities: Impact on Business and Economics Summit. Maryland's healthcare at a glance. The Heart of Community Health Baltimore Medical Syste. Retrieved March 10, 2009 at http://dhmh.maryland.gov/hd/pdf/2008/oct08/Jay_Wolvovsky.pdf
" (AAF, nd)
The Health Maintenance Organization further should "…negotiate with both public and private payers for adequate reimbursement or direct payment to cover the expenses of interpreter services so that they can establish services without burdening physicians…" and the private industry should be "…engaged by medical organizations, including the AAF, and patient advocacy groups to consider innovative ways to provide interpreter services to both employees and the medically underserved." (AAF, nd)
One example of the community healthcare organization is the CCO model is reported as a community cancer screening center model and is stated to be an effective mechanism for facilitating the linkage of investigators and their institutions with the clinical trials network. It is reported that the minority-based CCO was approved initially by the NCI, Division of Cancer revention Board of Scientific Counselors in January 1989. The implementation began in the fall of 1990 and the program was…
Principles for Improving Cultural Proficiency and Care to Minority and Medically-Underserved Communities (Position Paper) (2008) AAFP -- American Academy of Family Physicians http://www.aafp.org/online/en/home/policy/policies/p/princcultuproficcare.html
Volpp, Kevin G.M. (2004) The Effect of Increases in HMO Penetration and Changes in Payer Mix on In-Hospital Mortality and Treatment Patterns for Acute Myocardial Infarction" The American Journal of Managed Care. 30 June 2004. Issue 10 Number 7 Part 2. Onlineavaialble at: http://www.ajmc.com/issue/managed-care/2004/2004-07-vol10-n7Pt2/Jul04-1816p505-512
Darby, Roland B. (2008) Managed Care: Sacruificing Your Health Care for Insurance Industry Profits: Questions You must ask before joning an HMO. Online available at: http://www.rolanddarby.com/br_managedhealth.html
The meat comes from a local independent packing company that doesn't buy beef that has been injected with growth hormones; the buns are from a bakery in Pueblo, Colorado; and two hundred pounds of potatoes are "peeled every morning in the kitchen and then sliced with an old crank-operated contraption." The cooks make $10 an hour, and all other employees earn $8.00 an hour. hen asked why the Conway family provides health insurance for all full time employees, Rich Conway said, "e want to have healthy employees."
The author also calls for changes in the way the U.S. Congress oversees advertising, asserting on page 262 that Congress "should immediately ban all advertisements aimed at children that promote foods high in fat and sugar." The justification for that ban would be that 30 years ago, congress banned cigarette ads from TV and radio, because of course cigarettes were seen as a…
Robbins, John. (2001). The Food Revolution: How Your Diet Can Help Save Your Life and Our
World. Boston: Conari Press.
Schlosser, Eric. (2001). Fast Food Nation: The Dark Side of the All-American Meal. New York:
Houghton Mifflin Company.
Nutrigenomics is an important field of study. It finds in roots in modern times, because of the direct relation to advances in science and technology. Nutrigenomics also straddles the nature vs. nurture divide. The publication of the relatively preliminary results of the Human Genome has given greater impetus to the idea of Nutrigenomics. One might assuredly say that the publication of the Human Genome is preliminary because the current versions of the genome are merely representatives of a very select group of individuals. (Lander et al., 2001; Venter et al., 2001) What makes individuals unique of course is the presence of single nucleotide polymorphisms or SNPs. It is these SNPs that give each of us our individuality. Hence each individual's genome is his or her genotype. A genotype is an individual's genome -- the genetic coding that identifies the character traits that govern existence. In the context of Nutrigenomics, a…
Antshel, K.M., & Waisbren, S.E. (2003). Timing is everything: executive functions in children exposed to elevated levels of phenylalanine. Neuropsychology, 17(3), 458-468.
Arn, P.H. (2003). Galactosemia. Curr Treat Options Neurol, 5(4), 343-345.
Buttke, T.M., & Sandstrom, P.A. (1995). Redox regulation of programmed cell death in lymphocytes. Free Radic Res, 22(5), 389-397.
Collins, F.S., Guyer, M.S., & Charkravarti, A. (1997). Variations on a theme: cataloging human DNA sequence variation. Science, 278(5343), 1580-1581.
Tea as an Antioxidant
Tea is an aromatic drink that is usually prepared by soaking or pouring water over plant products, typically the tea plant, but also may be infused with other dried herbs, roots, or extracts. After plain water, tea is consumed more than any other drink globally, including soft drinks. It has a slightly bitter, astringent flavor, sometimes floral, sometimes metallic, that people find enjoyable and often relaxing or, in some cases, medicinal (Martin, 2007). The consumption of tea is said to have a number of beneficial health effects based on the properties it has including antioxidants, flavinols, flavonoids, polyphenols, and catechins. The catechins, particularly, are known for anti-inflammatory and cellular detoxicity. In addition, these catechins have proven neuroprotective activities that can bond with cannabinoid receptors and suppress pain and nausea and provide a relaxing effect (Korte, G., et.al., 2010). Medical studies have also shown that green tea…
AAICAD. (2010, July 12). Large-Scale, Long-Term Studies Support Roles of Physical Activity and Diet in Dementia and Cognitive Decline. Retrieved from Medical News Today: http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/194407.php
Biotech Week. (2011, January 19). Protective Properties of Green Tea Uncovered. Retrieved from High Beam Research: http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-247694008.html
Feruzzi, M. (2010). The influence of beverage composition on delivery of phenolic compounds from coffee and tea. Physiological Behavior, 100(1), 33-41.
Fontaine, K. (2010). Complementary & Alternative Therapies for Nursing Practice. New York: Prentice Hall.
This can also include aspects such as taboos, perceptions of pain as well as concomitant factors such as education and socioeconomic status, language barriers, and advance health care planning. ( Mitty and Post, 2008).
Good examples that can be given are the strategies employed by the nurse in oncology in helping cancer patients to make informed decisions about their treatment. The nurse can assist these patients by providing access to informed decision making; which implies making sure that the patient understands both the nature as well as the risks of cancer treatment. This can include explaining to the patient the risks and benefits of aspects such as alternatives to screening for cancer; and by helping the patient to make various decisions in relation to his or her values and preferences. For example, the nurse can clarify the difference between screenings for various types of cancer; for instance the fact that…
Marquis B. And Huston C. ( 2008) Leadership Roles and Management Functions in Nursing: Theory and Application. New York: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Oncology nurses are key to ensuring that patients' decision making is truly informed.
Retrieved from http://www.thefreelibrary.com/Oncology+nurses+are+key+to+ensuring+that+patients%27+decision+making+is...-a0187773050
Mitty E. And Post L. (2008) HEALTHCARE DECISION MAKING: Nursing Standard of Practice Protocol. Retrieved from http://consultgerirn.org/topics/treatment_decision_making/want_to_know_more
http://www.maverickranch.com/beef-hormones-mdirf5.htm,2006 para 1)
There is no credible evidence about this statement. It must be noted that it is extremely illegal, not only in the U.S. But also to other or even milk-producing countries, for penicillin to be used specifically in low-level doses in the feed. In fact, penicillin is only use via injection, in concentrated doses, and only if the animals to be injected are sick or with high fever. Penicillin doses are usually once or twice only and the particular animal which has been injected with such medication is separated from other animals and would not be harvested within a certain period. This is to ensure that there is no penicillin residues left in any system or body parts of the animal http://www.maverickranch.com/beef-hormones-mdirf5.htm,2006 para 1).
Moreover, as of latest survey, only 1% (or even less) of the cattle have recorded to ever had any doses of penicillin. Cattleman's Beef…
WTO Dispute Panel Report 1997. European Communities -- Measures Concerning Meat and Meat Products (Hormones): Complaint by the United States, Wr/DS26/R, August 18, 1997.
WTO Appellate Body Report 1998. European Communities Measures Concerning Meat and Meat Products (Hormones), Wr/DS26/AB/R, January 16, 1998.
Zekos, Georgios I. An Examination of GATT/WTO Arbitration Procedures. Dispute Resolution Journal, 54(November): 72-74. 1999.
6% of the respondents stated that this was what they did. This number however is not reflected in lower numbers for life style disease and so it must be given greater scrutiny at another time (See table below).
Fruit and vegetable consumption by ethnicity
There are a number of diseases and health conditions that have been linked to life style behaviors and belief systems. The prevalence of these diseases demonstate that while persons may report a certain behavior emperical evidence suggests that another behavior may be taking place. This may occur principally because respondents may over estimate what they do on a daily basis since they are not taking active records of their behaviors.
On several indicators African-Americans have higher rates of the disease and death as a consequency than White populations. The data for diabetes shows that African-Americans are twice as likely to report having diabetes than…
A religious portrait of African-Americans (2009) Retrieved from http://pewforum.org/A-Religious-Portrait-of-African-Americans.aspx
Department of health and senior services New Jersey. (2011).
Dowd, K. (1996). Dietary patterns and physical activity among New Jersey adults. Center for health Statistics 1(3):1-4.
Pesticides which were invented to destroy large quantities of insects that were harming crops, are actually causing a great deal of harm to the environment. This has been an issue particularly in the agricultural field. Farmers and those in the agricultural field have for a long time had to deal with insects which try to attack their crops and ruin their potential harvest. To combat these bugs, scientists were able to create chemical combinations which would kill the insects and then protect the crops which could then be sold and given to humans. These chemicals, such as DDT, were very successful and farmers had more to harvest than they had in years past (right 2007). However, there was an unforeseen result of the mass spraying of poisonous chemicals on the food stuffs. Human beings were negatively affected in a multitude of ways including contracting illnesses as a result of ingesting…
Bassil, K.L. et al. (2007). Cancer health effects of pesticides. Canadian Family of Physicians.
The College of Family Physicians of Canada: Canada. (53:10). 1704-11.
Lear, L. (1997). Rachel Carson: Witness for Nature. New York: Henry Hoyten.
Savage, S. (2012). When increased pesticide use is a good thing. Science 2.0.
Endometriosis' is taken from the Greek work endon which means "within," metra, meaning "uterus" and osis, meaning "uncommon or sick state." Endometriosis is said to be very complicated and tiring gynecological sickness. This disease causes the functional endometrial stroma and glands grow outside of uterus that is usually present inside (the endometrium). These areas mostly consist of fallopian tubes, ovaries, gastrointestinal tract, rectovaginalseptum, bladder, pelvic peritoneum and unusually Pleura and pericardium. Endometriosis is a widespread disease most common in women who are in age of reproduction. This disease depends on estrogen and involves a chronic inflammatory component. Sampson was the first person to classify hemorrhagic ovarian lumps. He further explained these cysts as follicular, stromal, endometrial and corpus luteal. He also presented the endometrial hematomas based on thehistologic form. A number of categories have been formed after that, which is based on the histologic appearance, anatomic size, location and the…
1. Batt, R. (2011). A history of endometriosis. Springer Science & Business Media.
2. Burney, R. O., & Giudice, L. C. (2012). Pathogenesis and pathophysiology of endometriosis. Fertility and sterility, 98(3), 511-519.
3. Brown, J., & Farquhar, C. (2015). An overview of treatments for endometriosis. JAMA, 313(3), 296-297.
4. Gupta, S., Harlev, A., & Agarwal, A. (2015). Endometriosis: A Comprehensive Update. Springer.