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PSA Testing and Reduction of Mortality Rates
Words: 2911 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 28276440
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Effectiveness of Mass PSA Testing in Reducing Mortality Rates

Prostate cancer screening is considered as one of the crucial steps towards dealing with the problem of prostate cancer among various patient population. Healthcare providers consider screening as a crucial issue towards improving the health and well-being of patients. In light of the significance of prostate cancer screening in health promotion, several screening tools have been developed and are utilized in the clinical setting such as digital rectal exam (DRE) and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing. PSA testing has received considerable attention in the recent past, particularly in relation to its impact on mortality rates. PSA testing/screening for prostate cancer remains a controversial issue in the modern healthcare setting given the variance in evidence on its impact on mortality rates. This paper examines whether PSA testing reduces morality rates based on research evidence or evidence-based practice. The analysis is carried out based…

References
American Cancer Society, Inc. (2017). Key Statistics for Prostate Cancer. Retrieved October 31, 2017, from  https://www.cancer.org/cancer/prostate-cancer/about/key-statistics.html 
Begley, S. (2017, September 5). Do Prostate Cancer Screenings Significantly Reduce Deaths? Retrieved October 31, 2017, from  https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/do-prostate-cancer-screenings-significantly-reduce-deaths/ 
Cancer Statistics Center. (2017). 2017 Estimates. Retrieved November 3, 2017, from  https://cancerstatisticscenter.cancer.org/#!/ 
Carter et al. (2011). Recommended Prostate-specific Antigen Testing Intervals for the Detection of Curable Prostate Cancer. The Journal of the American Medical Association, 277(18), 1456-1460.
Gulati, R., Gore, J.L. & Etzioni, R. (2013, February 5). Comparative Effectiveness of Alternative PSA-based Prostate Cancer Screening Strategies. Annals of Internal Medicine, 158(3), 145-153.
Helfand et al. (2013, May). Personalized PSA Testing Using Genetic Variants May Reduce Unnecessary Prostate Biopsies. Journal of Urology, 189(5), 1697-1701.
Howrey et al. (2013, January). The Impact of PSA Screening on Prostate Cancer Mortality and Overdiagnosis of Prostate Cancer in the United States. The Journal of Gerontology, Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, 68(1), 56-61.
Mitka, M. (2012, January 6). Study: Mass PSA Screening Does Not Reduce Risk of Dying from Prostate Cancer. Retrieved October 31, 2017, from  https://newsatjama.jama.com/2012/01/06/study-mass-psa-screening-does-not-reduce-risk-of-dying-from-prostate-cancer/

Basic Information About Cancer
Words: 1643 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69395774
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Care of Patients With Cancer

Diagnosis and Staging of Cancer

Because cancer is a complex disorder that often progresses over long periods of time -- including long periods before an actual diagnosis can be made -- it is very useful to medical practitioners to identify various stages in the progression of the disease. Diagnosis may occur as the result of presenting complaints that cause a patient to seek medical help, or diagnosis may occur when routine check-ups lead to a suspicion by a physician or a laboratory specialist that a more thorough investigation is indicated. Indeed, one of the reasons why certain procedures are included in routine annual physicals is because these tests result in a diagnosis at sufficiently high rates to make them worth conducting. As medical technology advances, the procedures are modified accordingly -- and sometimes the frequency standards for these procedures are modified, as well.

The nomenclature…

References

Diseases and Conditions: Cancer. Complications. Mayo Clinic Retreived from  http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/cancer/basics/complications/con-20032378 

Understanding Your Diagnosis: Staging. American Cancer Society. Retreived from  http://www.cancer.org/treatment/understandingyourdiagnosis/staging

Metronidazole and Prostate-Specific Antigen
Words: 1040 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13469959
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Bacterial vaginosis is one of the major contributors of vaginal infections during pregnancy and accounts for 40% of these cases. Generally, bacterial vaginosis is associated with several obstretic complications like pre-term labor and delivery, untimely rupture of membranes, postpartum endometrisis, and chorioamnionitis (Wang et. al., 2010, p.444). Metronidazole has traditionally been used as the drug of choice in the treatment of bacterial vaginosis because it is an agent of the nitroimidazole antibiotic family. This drug has been used for several decades because it efficiency in treating the condition ranges between 80 and 90% and can be administered across all pregnancy stages while tolerated by pregnant women. The ability of the drug to achieve the high levels of efficacy is attributed to the fact that it can be found in the cord blood, fetal tissue, and amniotic fluid in high concentrations.

The authors of the article reported the findings of two…

References:

Academic Press. (2011). Genomics in cancer drug discovery and development. San Diego, CA:

Elsevier Inc.

Becker, C. & Lilja, H. (1997, January 3). Individual Prostate-specific Antigen (PSA) Forms As

Prostate Tumor Makers. Clinica Chimica Acta, 257(1), 117-32.

Aetiology and Management of Cancer
Words: 4918 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77784533
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This is related to bronchitis, asthma and long-term conditions such as lung cancer and bladder cancer (obinson, 2009).

It is estimated that the chances of getting bladder cancer is high for ex-smokers and passive smokers even after thirty years later. This brings us to the question of management of bladder cancer for current and ex-smokers as well as passive smokers.

The management of bladder cancer is a three-pronged approach that involves reducing the progression of the disease, protecting the bladder and increasing the chances of survival. The course of treatment depends to a large extent on the stage of the cancer. During the earlier stages, surgery, trans urethral resection, intravesical chemotherapy and immunotherapy are used to contain the disease and prevent it from progressing further. The malignant areas are treated with one of the above procedures to remove the tumor. In the case of a more advanced stage, radical cystectomy…

References

Cancer Research UK. (2011). Cancer in the UK: April 2011. Retrieved from  http://info.cancerresearchuk.org/cancerstats/mortality/ 

Friedman, Howard. (1990). Personality and Disease. Publisher: New York, John Wiley & Sons.

Abrahamson; Seligman; Teasdale. (1978). Learned Helplessness in Humans: Critique and Reformulation. Abnormal Psychology. Vol 87. pp 49-74.

McAllister, Robert. (May 1974). Viral Etiology of Cancer: Two Hypotheses with relevance to chemical exposure. Pediatrics. Vol 53 (5). pp826.

Women's Issues Breast Cancer Awareness
Words: 1292 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 94859216
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Screening for breast cancer before there are symptoms is very important. Screening helps doctors find and treat cancer in its early stages. Treatment is more likely to be successful when the cancer is detected early. A doctor may suggest any of the following screening tests for breast cancer: screening mammogram, clinical breast exam, beast self-exam (Stoppler, 2009).

Mammograms can often show a breast lump before it can even be felt. A mammogram is a picture of the breast that is made with an x-ray. It can also show a cluster of tiny deposits of calcium. These deposits are known as micro calcifications. Lumps can be from cancer, precancerous cells, or a host of other conditions. Further tests may be needed to find out if abnormal cells are present. Women in their 40s and older should have mammograms every 1 to 2 years (Stoppler, 2009).

During a clinical breast exam the…

References

Cancer Gap Between Whites, Blacks May Be Biological in Part. (2009). Retrieved August 11,

2009, from  http://healthday.com/Article.asp?AID=628785 

Carcinogen Found in KFC's New Grilled Chicken. (2009). Retrieved August 13, 2009, from News and Media Center Web site:  http://www.pcrm.org/news/release090521.html 

National Breast Cancer Awareness Month. (2008). Retrieved August 11, 2009, from American

Living With Incurable Cancer at the End
Words: 602 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 3990699
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Living With Incurable Cancer at the End of Life-Patients' Perceptions on Quality of Life

Johansson, Christina Melin RN, Phd-student; Axelsson, Bertil MD, PhD; Danielson, Ella RN, PhD

This article is either a qualitative or a quantitative research study. Identify which, and then complete the table below where applicable. Write no more than three sentences in each cell of the table. The study may not contain all of the elements listed, or the element may be necessary and is not addressed. If the study does not address one of these elements and it is not necessary, simply indicate as N/A in the appropriate box. If the element is not adequately discussed, explain based on your readings and your understanding of the research study.

Qualitative

Quantitative

Research question

How do patients describe their perceptions of the quality of life (QoL) in incurable cancer at the end of life?

N/A

Problem

Patients with…

Selenium The Unsung Cancer-Preventing Wonder
Words: 708 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 18440065
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According to the National Institute of Health (NIH) "Brazil nuts may contain as much as 544 micrograms of selenium per ounce. They also may contain far less selenium. It is wise to eat Brazil nuts only occasionally because of their unusually high intake of selenium."

The reasons that selenium is so effective in cancer prevention are uncertain, although it has been speculated that it possesses anti-oxidant properties, "especially when used in conjunction with vitamin C, vitamin E and beta-carotene" and "works to block chemical reactions that create free radicals in the body (which can damage DNA and cause degenerative change in cells, leading to cancer)" (Black 2006). Selenium has also been found to prevent damaged DNA molecules from reproducing, thus preventing the development of tumors as well (Black 2006). This is supported by a University of Arizona-Cornell research team which linked low selenium levels in the blood to increased risk…

Works Cited

Black, Alexis. "The mineral selenium." Natural News. January 4, 2001. October 18, 2010.

 http://www.naturalnews.com/016446.html 

"Dietary supplement fact sheet: Selenium." National Institutes of Health. NIH. October 18, 2010.

 http://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/selenium.asp

New Ways to Treat Cancer
Words: 1980 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Paper #: 20394557
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neoplasm: "abnormal mass of tissue that results when cells divide more than they should or do not die when they should" ("NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms," 2016)

benign: noncancerous ("NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms," 2016)

malignant: cancerous ("NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms," 2016)

carcinoma: "Cancer that begins in the skin or in tissues that line or cover internal organs," ("NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms," 2016)

sarcoma: "A type of cancer that begins in bone or in the soft tissues of the body, including cartilage, fat, muscle, blood vessels, fibrous tissue, or other connective or supportive tissue" ("NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms," 2016)

anaplasia: Features of cells which indicate malignancy ("Anaplasia," 2016).

Q2. Identify the correct name for both benign and malignant tumors in the following locations:

Benign Tumors/Malignant Tumors

Pancreas: Adenoma / Adenocarcinoma ("Tumors by name," 2016)

Fat: Lipoma / Liposarcoma ("Tumors by name," 2016)

Bone: Osteoma / Osteosarcoma ("Tumors…

References

About immunotherapy. (2016). Chemocare. Retrieved from:

 http://chemocare.com/chemotherapy/what-is-chemotherapy/about-immunotherapy.aspx 

Anaplasia. (2016). USC. Retrieved from:

 http://www.usc.edu/hsc/dental/INTX/05/desc_2.html

Spinal vs. General Anesthesia

The outcome of patients after undergoing transurethral resection of the prostate is examined under varying clinical situations to assess whether spinal anesthesia is associated with greater likelihood of positive outcome. Also examined in great detail are the potential for increased morbidity and mortality based on whether patients underwent general or spinal anesthesia during surgery. A large body of evidence indicates that there is no statistically significant difference between patient outcomes regardless of choice of anesthetic technique. This paper concludes that patients should be well educated and informed so they may make the choice most appropriate to their personal situation and comfort level preferences. An equal number of adverse side effects are associated with each anesthetic technique; as such patients should choose the technique that will result in the greatest post-operative satisfaction. The implications for practice suggest that physicians and anesthetists have an obligation to educate and…

Bibliography

Dobson, PM., Caldicott, LD., Gerrish, SP., Cole, JR., & Channer, KS. Changes in haemodynamic variables during transurethral resection of the prostate: comparison of general and spinal anaesthesia. British Journal of Anaesthesia. Mar; 72 (3): 267-71

Edwards, ND., Callaghan, LC., White T., & Reilly, CS. (1995). Perioperative myocardial ischaemia in patnets undergoing transurethral surgery: a pilot study comparing general with spinal anaesthesia. British Journal of Anaesthesia. Apr; 74 (4): 368-72

Gravenstein, D. (1997). Transurethral resection of the prostate syndrome: a review of the pathophysiology and management. Anesthesia Analg. Feb; 84 (2): 438-36

Hosking, MP., Lobdell, CM., Warner, MA., Offord, KP., & Melton LJ. 3rd. (1989).Anaesthesia for patients over 90 years of age. Outcomes after regional and general anaesthetic techniques for two common surgical procedures. Anaesthesia. Aug; 44 (8): 697-8

Dietary Fats and Its Links With Cancer
Words: 1080 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 66235136
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Dietary Fibers on the Risk of Developing Cancer

Cancer is a genetic and complex disease caused mainly due to environmental elements. Carcinogen is a cancer agent that and can be present in water, food, air and in sunlight and chemicals as well. Almost ninety percent of the cancer occurs in epithelia because the epithelia cells cover the human's skin, lines the alimentary and respiratory tracts, and also metabolize ingested carcinogens. Currently, the causes of diseases are changing and infection can cause problems like cancer and cardiovascular diseases. There were more than ten million cancer cases in 1996 globally while six million people died from cancer. Unhealthy lifestyle like smoking cigarettes and adopting modern diet that includes fiber content and high fat is causing increased incidences of cancer in humans (Alison).

Development of Cancer

Cancer cells are different from normal cells and they continue to grow other abnormal cells in the…

Bibliography

ACS. "Genes and Cancer." American Cancer Society (2014).

-- . "Wilms Tumor ." American Cancer Society (2015).

Alison, Malcolm R. "Cancer." NCYCLOPEDIA OF LIFE SCIENCES (2001): 1.

Harras, A. "CANCER RISK FACTORS." NEW JERSEY DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH & SENIOR SERVICES (2002).

Effects of Working Night Shift and Getting Cancer
Words: 2834 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 41760721
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Working Night Shift and Getting Cancer

The increasing rate of women acquiring breast cancer disease has been an alarming issue in the medical history of cancer prevention and studies. The many research and studies conducted by medical professionals on breast cancer disease have found a number of cancer-causing habits and lifestyles. Among those that have been examined and found as risk factors of breast cancer on women is night-shift work.

Regularly working in night shift as a health-hazardous cause of breast cancer has been investigated by several studies of different cancer research institutions. Almost all studies were carried out based from employment histories of women diagnosed of breast cancer. In a population-based study conducted by Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, it was found that women who regularly work at night are at 60% risk of developing breast cancer. The most significant risk factor to this is the exposure to bright…

Bibliography

Davis, Jeanie Lerche. (2001). Breast Cancer and the Night Shift: Is There a Link?

Retrieved December 08, 2003, from Web MD Health.

Web site:  http://my.webmd.com/content/article/35/1728_91195 

DeNoon, Daniel. (2003). Hormone Melatonin Slows Breast Cancer.

Vitamin E Can Be Useful
Words: 1665 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 11279613
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These research findings were very significant because all the men who were studied in this were smokers. The researchers of this study admitted that vitamin E surely reduces the risk of prostate cancer. This study was used in a relatively low dose of 50 IU of the prostate but higher dose of 400 IU does have a greater benefit to the heart and prostate. (Challem, 37) Further a study published in the Journal Nutrition and Cancer 2000 states that natural vitamin E or d-alpha-tocopherol arrests the growth of the two types of prostate cancer cells and causes these cells to self-destruct. (Challem, 38)

However though vitamin E is a free-radical scavenger and is associated with a decreased risk of prostate cancer, men with a history of bleeding problems or who take blood thinners should surely discuss the use of vitamin E with their doctor before consuming them. (Heaney; Ellsworth; Gill,…

Works Cited

Challem, Jack. User's Guide to Nutritional Supplements. Basic Health Publications, Inc.

Health-Prostate Cancer. Retrieved at  http://www.webindia123.com/health/disease/cancer/prostate/index.htm . Accessed 5 November, 2006

Heaney, John A; Ellsworth, Pamela; Gill, Oliver. 100 Questions and Answers about Prostate

Cancer. Jones and Bartlett Publishers. 2003.

Prostascint Imaging in Detection of
Words: 3324 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 91047930
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The investigators noted that because patients who have skip metastases and negative pelvic lymph nodes have been found to later develop distant metastases, ProstaScint imagine was instrumental in detecting metastatic disease and prompting further investigation." (2004)

The work of Murphy and Troychak (2000) entitled: "Follow-Up Prostascint Scans Verify Detection of Occult Soft-Tissue Recurrence After Failure of Primary Prostate Cancer Therapy" published in the Prostrate Journal reports a study conducted for the evaluation of the ability of ProstaScint scan in the detection of prostatic bed recurrent and metastases to regional or distant lymph nodes. The study reported is of one hundred sequential patients who were evaluated with repeated ProstaScint scans due to evidence of recurrence during the disease course. These patients were followed from November 1994 and April 1999 and had "concurrent bone scans and serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) evaluations. They have had hormone therapy (n = 53) and/or experienced a…

Bibliography

Elgamal AA, Troychak MJ, Murphy GP. (1998) ProstaScint scan may enhance identification of prostate cancer recurrences after prostatectomy, radiation, or hormone therapy: analysis of 136 scans of 100 patients. Prostate. 1998 Dec 1;37(4):261-9.

Kahn D, Williams RD, Manyak MJ, et al. 111 Indium-capromab pendetide in the evaluation of patients with residual or recurrent prostate cancer after radical prostatectomy. The ProstaScint Study Group. J Urol. 1998;159:2041-2046. discussion 2046-2047.

Murphy GP, Elgamal AA, Troychak MJ, Kenny GM. (2000) Follow-up ProstaScint scans verify detection of occult soft-tissue recurrence after failure of primary prostate cancer therapy. Prostate. 2000 Mar 1;42(4):315-7.

Murphy GP, Snow PB, Brandt J, Elgamal a, Brawer MK. (2000) Evaluation of prostate cancer patients receiving multiple staging tests, including ProstaScint scintiscans. Prostate. 2000 Feb 1;42(2):145-9.

Science Daily Called Pepper Component
Words: 762 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Article Critique Paper #: 47336082
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he introduction of Capsaicin to mice that have prostrate cancer will cause many of the cancer cells to die."

According to a team of researchers from the Samuel Oschin Comprehensive Cancer Institute at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, in collaboration with colleagues from UCLA, the pepper component caused human prostate cancer cells to undergo programmed cell death or apoptosis (http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2006/03/060319150754.htm)."

When the Capsaicin was introduced to mice that had prostrate cancer growing it killed approximately 80% of the cancer cells.

his was done by leading the capsaicin to follow molecular pathways that lead to the apoptosis of those cells.

Prostate cancer tumors treated with capsaicin were about one-fifth the size of tumors in non-treated mice. Capsaicin had a profound anti-proliferative effect on human prostate cancer cells in culture," said Sren Lehmann, M.D., Ph.D., visiting scientist at the Cedars-Sinai Medical Center and the UCLA School of Medicine. "It also dramatically slowed the development…

The article provides a clear overview of the experiment and results and allows the reader to understand the significance of the consequences without creating a bias about those results.

REFERENCE ( http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2006/03/060319150754.htm )

Pepper Component Hot Enough to Trigger Suicide in Prostate Cancer Cells. Science Daily.

U S Healthcare Hard Economic and Finance Choices
Words: 1043 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 23823803
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U.S. Healthcare

Hard Economic and Finance Choices in U.S. Healthcare

The United States has recently undergone a financial crisis that has made the government, and the citizens, more conscious of what things cost and have produced debates regarding the costs of items. One debate that has intensified in volume is that over the large, and ballooning cost of healthcare. Although the Affordable Healthcare Act is supposed to take care of a portion of that, evidence shows that costs will remain exorbitant. The main reason for that is the research and development costs of therapies and associated drug treatments. Currently, new therapies have been coming on the market that are able to prolong the lives of cancer patients, but a cost-benefit analysis prove that these therapies are too costly. The debate then is whether a few weeks, months, years of life are worth hundreds of thousands to millions of dollars. This…

References

Short, N.M. (2013). Overview: The Economics and Finance of Health Care. In J.A. Milstead (Ed.), Health policy and politics: A nurse's guide (4th ed.) (pp. 191 -- 206). Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.

Stein, R. (2010, November 8). Review of prostate cancer drugs Provenge renews medical cost-benefit debate. The Washington Post. Retrieved from  http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp - dyn/content/article/2010/11/07/AR2010110705205.html ?

Sullivan, J.D. (2010). End Stage Renal Disease economics and the balance of treatment modalities. Journal of Service Science & Management, 3(1), 45 -- 50. Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.

Market Driven Management
Words: 25695 Length: 75 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 32150042
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Pharmaceutical industries have to operate in an environment that is highly competitive and subject to a wide variety of internal and external constraints. In recent times, there has been an increasing trend to reduce the cost of operation while competing with other companies that manufacture products that treat similar afflictions and ailments. The complexities in drug research and development and regulations have created an industry that is subject to intense pressure to perform. The amount of capital investment investments required to get a drug from conception, through clinical trials and into the market is enormous. The already high-strung pharmaceutical industry is increasingly investing greater amounts of resources in search of the next "blockbuster" drug that can help them gain market position and profits. Laws, regulations and patents are important to the industry while spending billions of dollars in ensuring the copyright of their products.

It is the intention of this…

Bibliography

Ansoff, H.I. (1957). Strategies for diversification. Harvard Business Review, 35(5), 113-124.

Ansoff, H.I. (1965). Corporate Strategy. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

Ashour, M.F., Obeidat, O., Barakat, H., & Tamimi, A. (2004). UAE Begins Examination of Patent Applications. Tamino.com. Retrieved January 18, 2004, from the World Wide Web:  http://www.tamimi.com/lawupdate/2001-01/intprop.htm 

Bain, J.S. (1954). Economies of scale, concentration, and the condition of entry in twenty manufacturing industries. American Economic Review, 44, 15-36.

Drugs and Health
Words: 931 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 53181604
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Personal Statement: Regarding My Future Pharmacy Career

Even a casual reader of today's newspapers will know that the modern drug industry has been subjected to increasingly rigorous scrutiny and litigation. In the current climate, it is easy to forget what it is like to live in a land where antibiotics are not a phone call to the doctor away, and research dollars for drug research are scarce, not the subject of a highly theoretical media debate about ethics. In the country I grew up, the rare sight of the face of a pharmacist was always a welcome one. I remain infused with my childhood faith, now grounded in study and experience, of the power of drugs to heal the human body, not to harm them.

As a young girl in Southeast Asia I suffered from acute bronchitis. I was profoundly grateful for the relief that pharmaceuticals could bring to my…

Technology Has Revolutionized Society Communication Transportation Commerce
Words: 1736 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84215378
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technology has revolutionized society: communication, transportation, commerce, and especially medicine. . Ironically, for centuries and still in Oriental Medicine, healthcare was and is tailored to the individual. Even the Greek Physician Hippocrates wrote that he prescribed sweet elixirs to some and astringents to others depending on their individual condition (Pray, 2008). 21st century medicine, though, is more about an individual person's genetic code, and is made possible by advances in genetic technology and engineering. This is partially due to the Human Genome Project, a massive program completed in 2003 that focused on the identification of the individual genes that make up human DNA with the overall hope that it would initiate genomic medicine -- healthcare delivered based on the individual's medical history and genetic profile (About the Human Genome Project, 2011). Traditionally, medicine diagnoses human illnesses based on quantitative and qualitative signs and symptoms. With the advent of genetic technology,…

References

About the Human Genome Project. (2011, September 19). Human Genome Management Information Systems. Retrieved from:  http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources  / Human_Genome/project/about.shtml

Gattaca. (1997, March). Retrieved from International Movie Database:  http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0119177/ 

Personalized Medicine - An Overview. (2011, January 11). Retrieved from: U.S. News Health report: http://health.usnews.com/health-conditions/cancer/personalized-medicine

Public Law 110-223. (2008). The Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act of 2008. Retrieved from:  http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/PLAW-110publ233/content-detail.html

Philosophy the Murder-Cannabalism of Bernd
Words: 1953 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 6521115
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Question 5:

Since the events of September 11th, terrorism has been a crucial concern for Americans specifically, and the global society in general.

As Wilkins (2005) notes, although it is generally agreed to be justifiable to commit violence in the act of self-defense against aggressors, many of the victims of terrorism are innocent of any crime, and that the question of "collective guilt" must come into play when determining the justification for terrorism. There is a "distinction between moral guilt and metaphysical guilt (which) can be explained partially in terms of the difference between the failure to do one's duty and the failure to perform a supererogatory act. We have a duty to mutla aid to other human beings" (p. 340).

Therefore, it is justifiable to inflict violence upon innocent individuals when this guilt is apparent, such as the case of the plight of the Jews and the aggression of…

References

An-Na'im, A.A. "Islam, Islamic Law." Applied Ethics: A Multicultural Approach. Ed. May, L., Collins-Chobanian, S., & Wong, K. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2005. pp. 101-108.

Bolte, A. "Do Wedding Dresses Come in Lavender? The Prospects and Implications of Same-Sex Marriage?" Applied Ethics: A Multicultural Approach. Ed. May, L., Collins-Chobanian, S., & Wong, K. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2005. pp. 399-410.

Goering, S. "Gene Therapies and the Pursuit of a Better Human." Applied Ethics: A Multicultural Approach. Ed. May, L., Collins-Chobanian, S., & Wong, K. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2005. pp. 659-668.

Leth, F. "Confessed Cannibal Given 8.5-Year Prison Sentence." Title of Source. Day Month Year: pages.

Icd-9 Coding
Words: 1233 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 94973844
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Advanced Nursing Practice

Advance Nursing Practice

Ignoring symptoms that are clearly indicative of something wrong is a bad idea. The idea becomes even more ill-advise as the symptoms become more and more prominent and/or numerous in nature. While chronic diseases and other disorders take time to do their work, waiting until they become unbearable is something that should never occur as the chances of an optimal outcome are not nearly as good as they could or should be. Further, become the opposite of a hypochondriac and avoiding the diagnosis and care of a doctor is also less than wise. For example, a person might think they have cancer when instead they just need a little modest medical care and lifestyle changes to their health back on track. Indeed, it would seem that precisely that is going on with the patient described and diagnosed below.

Patient Initials: Not Known Age: 60…

References

CMS. "ICD-9 Code Lookup." ICD-9 Code Lookup. N.p., 20 Oct. 2014. Web. 20 Oct. 2014. .

E-Medicine. "Enlarged Prostate Causes, Symptoms, Treatment - Enlarged Prostate Treatment - eMedicineHealth." eMedicineHealth. N.p., 20 Oct. 2014. Web. 20 Oct. 2014. .

Mayo. "Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)." Prostate gland enlargement Treatments and drugs. N.p., 20 Oct. 2014. Web. 20 Oct. 2014. .

NYT. "Enlarged Prostate." New York Times. N.p., 20 Oct. 2014. Web. 20 Oct. 2014. .

Incurable Diseases Afflicting the World
Words: 676 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 1364256
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(Associated Press) This means that patients would be able to decide whether or not to undergo treatment with Provenge irrespective of cost.

The subsidization of expensive medical treatments by the Medicare program is actually nothing new. Medicare already pays for other expensive cancer treatments from companies such as Genentech and Eli Lilly. (Associated Press) However, the recent backlash against government expenditures on healthcare has compelled the Medicare program to give closer scrutiny to the drugs it agrees to cover. There were many who were surprised, and offended, that the Medicare program even considered the possibility of not covering Provenge treatments. (Associated Press) These people believe that the federal government's commitment to cover the health care costs of older individuals is absolute. They believe that this responsibility does not have a price limit.

Conclusion

Prostate cancer patients seem to have received the best of all worlds with the recent developments involving…

Bibliography

P.W. Kantoff, C.S. Higano, N.D. Shore, et al. (2010). "Sipuleucel-T Immunotherapy for Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer." New England Journal of Medicine 363: 411 -- 422. Available at  http://www.nejm.org/doi/pdf/10.1056/NEJMoa1001294 .

"Survival Benefit of Sipuleucel-T in Prostate Cancer Appears Durable." Elsevier Global Medical News. Mar 11, 2010. Available at http://www.oncologystat.com/news/Survival_Benefit_of_Sipuleucel-T_in_Prostate_Cancer_Appears_Durable_US.html.

"Dendreon Cancer Drug Faces U.S. Review Tied to Its Sole Product." Catherine Larkin. Nov. 16, 2010. Available at  http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2010-11-16/dendreon-cancer-drug-faces-u-s-review-tied-to-its-sole-product.html 

"Medicare panel backs $93K cancer drug Provenge." Associated Press. Nov. 18, 2010. Available at  http://www.usatoday.com/yourlife/health/medical/cancer/2010-11-18-provenge-medicare_N.htm

Boggis Anthony R J and Charles
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Elsevier reland Ltd., 2004.

n this highly-detailed article, prepared by Melina Gattellari and Jeanette E. Ward of the University of New South Wales in Sydney, Australia, the overall goal is to evaluate a number of current resources used to "facilitate informed decisions about prostate cancer screenings," a subject that has rarely been addressed in recent years. n order to accomplish this goal, the authors conducted a study of 421 men who randomly were given a leaflet, a booklet or a video concerning how to make informed decisions on whether or not to have prostate cancer surgery or some other type of treatment. What the authors found is very interesting, for after testing these men on their increased knowledge on prostate cancer alternatives, "scores were significantly higher... among those who had received (the) booklet, compared with men who received the leaflet or video." Thus, the results of the author's study suggests…

In this highly-detailed article, prepared by Melina Gattellari and Jeanette E. Ward of the University of New South Wales in Sydney, Australia, the overall goal is to evaluate a number of current resources used to "facilitate informed decisions about prostate cancer screenings," a subject that has rarely been addressed in recent years. In order to accomplish this goal, the authors conducted a study of 421 men who randomly were given a leaflet, a booklet or a video concerning how to make informed decisions on whether or not to have prostate cancer surgery or some other type of treatment. What the authors found is very interesting, for after testing these men on their increased knowledge on prostate cancer alternatives, "scores were significantly higher... among those who had received (the) booklet, compared with men who received the leaflet or video." Thus, the results of the author's study suggests that men "require detailed information about the pros and cons" of PSA testing, surgery and chemotherapy "in order to make an informed decision," one that could potentially affect the rest of their lives. This article certainly demonstrates that most men are not very knowledgeable on the topic of prostate cancer and shows that all men need to become more informed about the dangers of not being tested for prostate cancer.

Glouberman, Sholom and Henry Mintzberg. Managing the Care of Health and the Cure of Disease -- Part I: Differentiation. Aspen Publishers, 2001.

In this highly-detailed article, Sholom Glouberman and his colleague Henry Mintzberg concern themselves with a problem that has plagued the medical profession for many years, namely, "Why are the so-called systems of health care so notoriously difficult to manage?" In order to answer this question, the authors explore exactly why health care systems are currently under examination, due in part to almost all Western nations, including the United States, being unsatisfied with the current state of their systems which has mandated a broad spectrum of reforms, particularly in the area of finances. Since health care systems are "the most complex systems known to contemporary society," it appears that "fixing" the ills of these systems will require a great deal of research and exploration. The authors also point out that hospitals "are considered to be extraordinarily complicated organizations," especially when one takes into account the enormous pressures linked to an ever-growing and aging American public. Thus, this article is certainly necessary reading for anyone wishing to examine the various health care systems worldwide.

New Ethical Dilemmas in Healthcare
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3%) are very satisfied with their health care services, compared to only 41.5% of Canadians; a lower proportion of Americans are dissatisfied (6.8%) than Canadians (8.5%).

Atlas (2009) acknowledge that Americans have much better access to important new technologies like medical imaging than patients in Canada or the U.K. Maligned as a waste by economists and policymakers naive to actual medical practice, an overwhelming majority of leading American physicians identified computerized tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MI) as the most important medical innovations for improving patient care during the previous decade (Fuchs & Sox, 2001). This is justifiable in the presented table showing the most important recent medical innovations, below. Hence, Atlas (2009) claim that the United States has nearly 27 MI machines per million compared to about 6 per million in Canada and Britain.

According to" The U.S. Health Care System as an Engine of Innovation," 2004 Economic…

Reference:

Association of American Medical Colleges. (2010). Healthcare Innovation Zones: A True

Platform for Reform. Retrieved on 29th March, 2010 from  http://www.aamc.org/ 

Atlas, S. (2009). Ideals Changing the World: 10 Surprising Facts about American Health Care.

National Center for Policy Analysis (NCPA) No. 649

Why Do the Japanese Live Longer
Words: 2874 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 63437076
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Japanese Nutrition

Japanese

WHY DO THE JAPANESE LIVE LONGE?

NUTITIONAL BENEFITS OF SOY:

As an annual Asian legume (meaning that it grows in a pod), soy is one of the most amazing members of the bean family, due mostly to its significant health benefits. Many studies done by nutritionist worldwide have confirmed that a plant-based diet is the most healthful choice. Soybean and its extracts, such as soybean oil, provide high-quality protein that is equal to that found in poultry, milk and other animal-based foods. However, not all soyfoods are low in fat, but most of them are cholesterol-free. An added bonus is that soybean and its byproducts do not contain saturated fat unless it is added during the processing stage or is combined with other ingredients containing saturated fat.

Because many forms of soy are low or modest in total fat, a person's overall diet will be inclined toward…

REFERENCES

Davidson, Alan. (1989). The Oxford Companion to Food. New York: Oxford University Press.

Ling, Wen Hua, et al. (2001). "Black and Red Rice Decreases Atherosclerotic Plaque Formation and Increases Antioxidant Status." Journal of Nutrition. Vol. 131. 1421-26.

London, Sheryl. (1992). The Versatile Grain and the Elegant Bean. New York: Simon & Schuster.

Marks, Leonard S., et al. (2004). "Prostate Cancer in Native Japanese and Japanese-American Men: Effects of Dietary Differences on Prostatic Tissue." Urology. 64. 4. 765-71.

Dangers of Marijuana Is a
Words: 1798 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 3899599
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, and otjak, C. (2006). Cannabinoid CB1 Receptor Mediates Fear Extinction via Habituation-Like Processes. The Journal of Neuroscience 26(25): 6677-6686.

Kim, S., on, S., Mao, X., Ledent, C., Jin, K. And Greenberg, D. (2006). Role for Neuronal Nitric-Oxide Synthase in Cannabinoid-Induced Neurogenesis. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther., October 1, 2006; 319(1): 150-154

Kogan, N., Blazquez, C., Alvarex, L., Gallily, R., Schlesinger, M., Guzman, A., and Mechoulam, R. (2006). A Cannabinoid Quinone Inhibits Angiogenesis by Targeting Vascular Endothelial Cells. Mol Pharmacol 70:51-59.

Lundqvist, T. (2005). Cognitive Consequences of Cannabis Use: Comparison with use of Stimulants and heroin with regard to attention, memory and executive functions. Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior. 81: 319-330.

Maccarrone, M., Lorenzon, T., Bari, M., Melino, G., and Finazzi-Agro, A. (2000). Anandamide Induces Apoptosis in Human Cells via Vanilloid Receptors

Evidence For A Protective Role Of Cannabinoid Receptors. J. Biol. Chem., 275 (41): 31938-31945.

Massi, P., Vaccani, A., Ceruti, S.,…

Works Cited

Bolla, K., Brown, K., Eldreth, D., Tate, B., and Cadet, J. (2002). Dose-related neurocognitive effects of marijuana use. Neurology 59:1337-1343.

Farthing, G. (1992) The Psychology of Consciousness. Prentice Hall

Gazzaniga, M., Ivry R., and Mangun, G. (1998) Cognitive Neuroscience: The Biology of the Mind W.W. Norton & Company.

Grant, I., Gonzalez, R., Carey, C., Natatajan, L., and Wolfson, T. (2003). Non-acute (residual) neurocognitive effects of cannabis use: A meta-analytic study.

Atrazine Banned in Europe Atrazine
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And for good reason: it's still one of the most effective, affordable and trusted products in agriculture today.

(Syngenta)

The company points out that this herbicide is 'safe' and that it is essential for increased crop production at a time of critical demand in the United States and the world. Syngenta also refers to the fact that in 2006 the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency "…re-registered atrazine in 2006, based on the overwhelming evidence of safety from nearly 6,000 studies" (Syngenta).

While the main reason for the EU ban on this product was the indication of contaminated drinking water supplies, Syngenta denies this claim. It supports this view by referring to a 2008 study in which 122 Community Water Systems monitored in 10 states were monitored. This study found that the federal standards set for Atrazine were not exceeded in any of the states.

One should however bear in mind that…

References

Ackerman F. ( 2007)the Economics of Atrazin. Retrieved from  http://ase.tufts.edu/gdae/Pubs/rp/EconAtrazine.pdf 

Ackerman F. ( 2010) With weed killer atrazine, the benefits are small, the risks are huge. Retrieved from http://www.kansascity.com/2010/09/14/2224213/with-weed-killer-atrazine-the.html

A Field of Nightmares Updated: Atrazine, Corn, and Frogs. Retrieved from  http://frogsaregreen.com/tag/effect-of-atrazine-on-frogs/ 

Atrazine. Retrieved from  http://www.pan-uk.org/pestnews/Actives/atrazine.htm

Afro-Caribbeans What Works Best Adherence Intervention for
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Afro-Caribbeans

WHAT WORKS EST

Adherence Intervention for Afro-Caribbeans

Recent improvements on prescription medications are beneficial only if patients adhere to them faithfully. Non-adherence is common and results in adverse conditions (Ho et al., 2009). This is a problem both to patients and heir care providers as well as the healthcare system itself. The solution consists of identifying the causes and motivations of non-adherence and the design and implementation of better interventions to improve adherence (Ho et al.). The following studies present and suggest more effective interventions for a variety of health conditions among Afro-Caribbean people who have been reported to have a high level of non-adherence to therapy.

Literature Review

Culture-Specific Interventions

Many health providers contend that more effective interventions in reducing risks for diseases, especially HIV / AIDS, through greater adherence need to culturally conform to the specific culture of the subject population (Archibald, 2011). This study used a…

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Adams, O.P. And Carter, A.O. (2010). Diabetes and hypertension guidelines and the primary health care practitioners in Barbados: knowledge, attitudes, practices and barriers -- a focus group study. Vol 11 # 96, BMC Family Practice: BioMed Central.

Retrieved on February 1, 2013 from  http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2296/11/96 

Archibald, C. (2011). Cultural tailoring for an Afro-Caribbean community: a naturalistic approach. Vol 18 # 4, Journal of Cultural Divers: Pubmed. Retrieved on January 27,

2013 from  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3408883

Tumor Invasion and Metastasis
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Tumor Invasion and Metastasis

Tumor Invasion

This is a paper that concentrates on tumor invasion and metastasis. There are five references used for this paper.

Cancer is one of the deadliest diseases faced by mankind today. It is important to look at tumor invasion and metastasis to understand how cancer can spread and ways in which the progress of cancer can be arrested.

Tumor Invasion

A substantial problem in the treatment of carcinoma patients is tumor invasion and metastasis. Approximately "30% of patients with newly diagnosed solid tumors already have clinically detectable metastases (herkules.oulu.fi/isbn9514254023/html/x446.html)." The production of "extracellular matrix degrading enzymes, such as serine proteinases, metalloproteinases, cysteine proteinases, threonine proteinases, and aspartic proteinases (herkules.oulu.fi/isbn9514254023/html/x446.html)" is linked with tumor invasion.

The transition from "in situ tumor growth to mestastic disease is defined by the ability of tumor cells at the primary site to invade local tissue and to cross tissue barriers…

References

(Castells, Antoni and Anila K. Rustgi. Tumor Invasion and Metastasis. (accessed 27 October,

2003). <  http://www.harcourt-international.com/e-books/pdf/478.pdf >).

Couzin, Jennifer. (14 February, 2003). MEDICINE: Tracing the Steps of Metastasis, Cancer's

Menacing Ballet. Science.

African-American Healthcare Needs A Plan
Words: 850 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 60321878
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LEADING CAUSES OF MOBIDITY:

Some of the diseases which often result in early death in African-Americans, provided that the go untreated or undiagnosed, include hypertension, coronary heart disease, stroke, kidney failure, dementia (i.e., Alzheimer's disease), diabetes and certain types of cancer, most notably lung cancer, breast cancer, colon cancer and prostate cancer (in men). Exactly why the morbidity rates for these disease are so much higher in African-Americans than in other ethnic/racial groups include a lack of education, lower incomes and the inability to access professional health care providers and clinics ("Health and Health Care," 2009, Internet). At the top of the list, there is hypertension, coronary heart disease (especially arterial blockage), stroke and some major types of cancer. With hypertension, some studies have shown that if a black male lives in poverty, his chances of being stricken with high blood pressure increases, perhaps because of the stress which goes…

REFERENCES

"Health and Health Care of African-American Elders." (2009). Internet. Accessed June 24,

2009 from  http://www.stanford.edu/group/ethnoger/african.html .

Spector, Rachel E. (2008). Cultural Diversity in Health and Illness. New York: Pearson

Prentice-Hall.

Cow's Milk Got Milk This
Words: 1270 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 19762355
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Some studies posit that casein consumption has a direct correlation to cancer cell growth, and patients with any form of cancer are counseled not to drink milk, and to limit the consumption of milk products. This is contradicted in terms of using milk to help with certain stomach and colon cancers (Hakkak, 2001). Men who drink large amounts of milk and consume numerous dairy products are at a higher risk for Parkinson's disease, and high levels of calcium intake (6 or more glasses of milk per day), also increase the chance for prostate cancer (Chen, 2007; Giovannucci, et.al. 1998). Additionally, a number of links have been made to digestive disorders such Crohn;'s disease and Hirschprung's disease, which are serious conditions of the digestive system and the bowel ("How Bacteria in Cow's Milk…" 2007).

The idea that the human body requires milk in order to produce calcium and create a stronger…

REFERENCES and WORKS CONSULTED

Champe, P. (2008). "Introduction to Carbohydrates." Lippincott's Illustrated

Reviews: Biochemistry. Williams and Williams.

Chen, H., et.al. (2007). "Consumption of Dairy Products and Risk of Parkinson's

Disease." American Journal of Epidemiology. 165 (9): 998+.

Growth Hormones in Our Food
Words: 2875 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 95346274
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More objectivity is however expected from scientists, but their opinions also vary. Specifically, the opinions of those who support growth hormones and those who reject them are all derived from scientific evidence. This in turn means that the results of scientific research could be manipulated and influenced so that the findings are indicative of the desires of those who initiated the study. In this particular sense, the most pertinent situation is revealed by the beef and dairy producers, who hire their own scientists to lead the research process in the direction desired by them.

Aside from these situations however, the scientists who have conducted studies tend to link various health problems with the growth hormones. Some of the side effects to consuming products with residual matters from growth hormones include the onset of early puberty in girls, an increase in the risk of breast cancer, an increase in the risk…

References:

Leonard, a., the story of stuff, the Story of Stuff Project,  http://www.storyofstuff.org  / last accessed on February 21, 2012

McLaughlin, a. 2011, the effects of growth hormones in food, Live Strong,  http://www.livestrong.com/article/98816-effects-growth-hormones  / last accessed on February 21, 2012

Artificial hormones, Sustainable Table, http://www.sustainabletable.org/issues/hormones / last accessed on February 21, 2012

EU scientists confirm health risks of growth hormones in meat, Organic Consumer Association, http://www.organicconsumers.org/toxic/hormone042302.cfm last accessed on February 21, 2012

Resnick Self-Efficacy
Words: 2158 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59212199
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Nursing

One mid-range nursing philosophy is that of Barbara esnick, with her "Middle ange Theory of Self-Efficacy." This theory states that 'self-efficacy expectations and outcome expectations are not only influenced by behavior, but also by verbal encouragement, physiological sensations and exposure to role models or self-modeling" (Nurses.info, 2014).

esnick is an Associate Professor at the University of Maryland School of Nursing. She is also a geriatric nurse practitioner at oland Park Place. Her research is focused on motivation, particularly with older adults. She has written papers on motivation for older adults to recover from disabling events, for example, noting that where motivation is high recovery is more likely to be successful, and life prolonged. She found support for her theory in this study (esnick, 1998), for example, lending credence to her prior work on finding ways to enhance the likelihood of recovery in all populations, but particularly in older and…

References

Nurses.info. (2014). Barbara Resnick. Nurses.info. Retrieved March 21, 2014 from http://www.nurses.info/nursing_theory_midrange_theories_barbara_resnick.htm

Resnick, B. (1998). Efficacy beliefs in geriatric rehabilitation. Journal of Gerontological Nursing. Vol. 24 (7) 34-44

Resnick, B. & Jenkins, L. (2000) Testing the reliability and validity of the self-efficacy for exercise scale. Nursing Research. Vol. 49 (3) 154-159.

Weber, B., Roberts, B., Resnick, M., Deimling, G., Zauszniewski, J., Musil, C. & Yarandi, H. (2004). The effect of dyadic intervention on self-efficacy, social support, and depression for men with prostate cancer. Psycho-oncology. Vol. 13 (2004) 47-60.

Skin Blood Flow Thermoregulation Is
Words: 6746 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 92554129
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The picture to the left depicts the various elements that are responsible for thermoregulation in human skin. The illustrations shows the various layers of skin along with the veins, arteries and capillaries of the circulatory system that assist in insuring that the thermoregulatory system works properly. The sweat glands are responsible for selectively removing materials from the blood the sweat glands then concentrates or alters these toxins, and secretes them for elimination from the body. The perspiration or sweat is then removed through the sweat pore. This has a twofold purpose: to remove toxins and thermoregulation (in this case cooling the body).

Thermoregulation involving perspiration is brought about by both internal and environmental heat and exercise. As it relates to the latter, there have been many studies related to exercise and thermoregulation. According to Marino (2004)

"thermoregulatory effector responses of humans and concluded that temperature regulation during exercise is dissimilar…

Works Cited

Caterina MJ, Schumacher MA, Tominaga M, Rosen TA, Levine JD, Julius D. The capsaicin receptor: a heat-activated ion channel in the pain pathway. Nature. 1997;389:816-824.

Dugan SA, Powell LH, Kravitz HM, Everson Rose SA, Karavolos K, Luborsky J (2006)

Musculoskeletal pain and menopausal tatus. Clin J. Pain 22: 325 -- 331

Deecher, D.C.K. Dorries (2007)Understanding the pathophysiology of vasomotor symptoms

Ground Breaking and Innovative Instances
Words: 2229 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 71397766
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The exchange of the defective gene could be brought about by a process called homologous recombination. One of the first gene therapy experiments, though well intentioned, caused the death of the patient. esearchers at the University of Pennsylvania introduced a normal gene into a boy's body by using the rhino virus as a carrier. The body's immune system attacked this as a pathogen. This led to eventual organ failure and death. Gene therapy projects all over the world were largely abandoned. But more recently, gene therapy is beginning to make a comeback. (ONL, 2009)

Gene therapy has been tested in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. This is not a treatment that targets amyloid beta proteins or the tangles, but protects the brain cells from destruction. The regenerative properties of skin cells (stem cells) have been used to prevent the brain cells from "withering" away. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scans reveal…

References

 http://www.alzforum.org/drg/drc/detail.asp?id=84Alzforum . (2009). Retrieved April 18, 2009, from BBC. (2003). Alzheimer's vaccine 'promising'. Retrieved April 18, 2009, from Alzheimer's vaccine 'promising'

ChemoCare. (2005). Taxol. Retrieved April 18, 2009, from  http://www.chemocare.com/bio/taxol.asp 

Elements4health. (2009). PET Scans Reveal Plaques and Tangles In Alzheimer's Retrieved April 18, 2009, from  http://www.elements4health.com/pet-scans-reveal-plaques-and-tangles-in-alzheimers.html 

Feng, J.A., Crasto, C.J., & Matsumoto, Y. (1998). Deoxyribose phosphate excision by the N-terminal domain of the polymerase beta: the mechanism revisited. Biochemistry, 37(27), 9605-9611.

Nature Verses Nurture One of
Words: 1792 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 88332443
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(We've never had it so good - and it's all thanks to science) Thus the question of genes is an effect on certain humans and their behavior; in short their physical and behavioral traits. That does not change the view of society on what a well nurtured human is.

Conclusion:

Thus we still expect "other people" in society to be upright, polite, incorruptible, generous, are honest, hard working, well-informed, broadminded, who are conscious about society, sensitive to environment, non-violent and self-restraint. In short, those are the objectives of good nurturing, but does it happen all the time? Even in the Old Testament we had the tale of Cane and Abel. Society involves both nature and nurture.

eferences

Bad Gene Ups Prostate Cancer isk in Black Men. 9 July, 2003. etrieved at http://www.hon.ch/News/HSN/513973.html. Accessed on 10 August, 2005

Did the march of progress bring Aids to Africa? Sydney Morning Herald. 15…

References

Bad Gene Ups Prostate Cancer Risk in Black Men. 9 July, 2003. Retrieved at  http://www.hon.ch/News/HSN/513973.html . Accessed on 10 August, 2005

Did the march of progress bring Aids to Africa? Sydney Morning Herald. 15 September 2000.

Retrieved at  http://www.uow.edu.au/arts/sts/bmartin/dissent/documents/AIDS/rs/SMH.html . Accessed on 10 August, 2005

Lemonick, Michael. D. Gene Mapper. December 17, 2000. Retrieved at  http://www.time.com/time/poy2000/mag/venter.html . Accessed on 10 August, 2005

Levels of Prevention
Words: 794 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40241845
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Public health screening activities in programs are also essential in ensuring this level of prevention is ensured. A good example is organized screening programs targeted at the community.

The third level of prevention, tertiary prevention, involves bother rehabilitative and therapeutic measures once the person already has the symptoms and signs of the disease. Tertiary prevention has several goals, which include preventing damage and pain that may arise from the disease, slowing down the progression of the disease, preventing the disease from causing complications, giving optimum care to people with signs of the disease, and helping those with the disease to live healthy lives afterwards. A quintessential example of tertiary preventive activities includes treating diabetics to prevent complications that occur as a result of the disease such as liver and kidney failure. Other examples are management of patients with chronic heart disease with therapy and medication, physical and occupational therapy as…

References

Baker, J.E.L. (1992). Primary, Secondary, and Tertiary Prevention in Reducing Pesticide-Related Illness in Farmers. Journal of Community Health Nursing, 9(4), 245-254. doi: 10.2307/3427201

Flaskerud, J.H. (1992). HIV Disease and Levels of Prevention. Journal of Community Health Nursing, 9(3), 137-150. doi: 10.2307/3427251

Green, M.M. (1971). The Expanded Role of the Public Health Nurse. Canadian Journal of Public Health / Revue Canadienne de Sante'e Publique, 62(2), 147-152. doi: 10.2307/41984635

Ureda, J., & Yates, S. (2005). A SYSTEMS VIEW of HEALTH PROMOTION. Journal of Health and Human Services Administration, 28(1), 5-38. doi: 10.2307/41288055

What Are the Real Benefits of Eating Chili Peppers
Words: 1184 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 66660599
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Peppers in the Mexican Culture

Chili peppers are a member of the Capsicum food group; the principal pigment is chlorophylls a and b (chlorophylls are "a complex macrocyclic compounds with an extensive system of conjugated double bonds") (Roth, 2014). There are 27 different species of Capsicum. The hot taste comes from alkaloid chemicals (capsaicinoids -- capsaicin C18H27NO3).

On January 1, 1493, Christopher Columbus was exploring the north coast of what is today Haiti when he found a plant that he figured must be related to the black pepper. He wrote in his log: "This pepper that local Indians use as seasoning grows everywhere here and is more valuable than black pepper or melegueta pepper" (Roth, p. 1). Columbus brought chili peppers to Europe and they were widely dispersed into Asia. Benefits: rich in vitamins A and C; carotene is an antioxidant that helps reduce cholesterol and triglycerides in the blood…

Works Cited

Garden Guides. "How to Store Peppers." Retrieved August 19, 2015, from  http://www.gardenguides.com . 2011.

Health Aliciousness "Health Benefits of Chili Peppers." Retrieved August 19, 2015, from http:www.healthaliciousness.com. 2010.

Lynn, Andrea. "Serious Heat: A Guide to Chile Substitutions." Serious Eats. Retrieved August 19, 2015, from  http://www.seriouseats.com . 2009.

Physics. "Early uses of chili peppers in Mexico." Retrieved August 19, 2015, from  http://phys.org . 2013.

Baldness and Thinning Hair Are Common and
Words: 1673 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 66118409
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aldness and thinning hair are common and the ultimate fate of almost all men and women as they age. In fact, hair loss is genetic in origin, and as we come to a greater understanding of the biology and genetics of hair loss, we are beginning to find novel solutions to this age-old "problem" of the human condition. We have come a long way from the treatments for hair loss in ancient Egypt, which used a mixture of crocodile fat and hippopotamus dung to combat baldness. Another ancient cure for baldness included eating fried leeches. Men have been attempting to treat their hair loss for over 5000 years, beginning in approximately 3500 C, when a list of treatments was passed on from generation to generation and incorporated into the medical libraries of Egyptian healers. In 1553 C, the Ebers Papyrus, discovered in Luxor, Egypt, suggested a baldness prescription of iron,…

Bibliography

Bruning, Nancy Paul. What You Can Do About Chronic Hair Loss (The Dell Medical Library) Dell, 1993.

Jacobs, Sheila. The Big Fall: Living With Hair Loss Next Century Books, 1992

Kobren, Spencer David; Eisman, Diane B; Eisman, Eugene H. The Bald Truth: The First Complete Guide to Preventing and Treating Hair Loss, Pocket Books. 2000

Kobren, Spencer David; Christiano, Angela. The Truth About Women's Hair Loss: What Really Works for Treating and Preventing Thinning Hair. Mcgraw Hill, 2000.

Finding the Right Balance of Omega-3 Fatty Acids
Words: 1018 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Article Paper #: 60537756
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Omega-3 Fatty Acids for Fitness and Wellness

Fat is back. The American public is no longer fat-phobic. Fat is essential for the body to function in a healthy manner. The low-fat craze is dead and fortunately the supermarket shelves are no longer lined with cookies and crackers proudly proclaiming themselves to be healthy because they are low in fat. But it is critical that people get the right kind of fats, in the right balance. And that is where omega-3 fatty acids come into play.

Omega-3 fatty acids are called essential fatty acids. This means that your body cannot make them and you have to either get them through food or supplements (Ehrlich 2011). The best and most easily-absorbed omega-3s are found in fish. Salmon, tuna, and sardines are some of the most popular sources of omega-3s. All of these can be easily purchased at your local supermarket in canned…

References

Ehrlich, S. (2011). Omega-3 fatty acids. University of Maryland Medical Center. Retrieved  http://umm.edu/health/medical/altmed/supplement/omega3-fatty-acids 

LeWine, F. (2013). Fish oil: Friend of foe? Harvard Medical School. Retrieved from:

 http://www.health.harvard.edu/blog/fish-oil-friend-or-foe-201307126467

Explaining Racial Profiling
Words: 3138 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17154888
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Race and Arrests

Racial Profiling, according to the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU), is a "longstanding and deeply troubling national problem." It involves police and private security personnel targeting people of color based on suspicions, in most cases, that the individual being targeted is up to something illegal. The ACLU states that racial profiling "occurs every day," and the result for the innocent person of color is often a "frightening detention, interrogation, and searches without evidence of criminal activity." The basis for the stop in many cases is a person's perceived race, ethnicity, and national origin -- and in some cases the clothing a person is wearing in addition to the color of his skin. This paper delves into a few of the questions that surround racial profiling: a) why do police feel the need to racially profile people? b) Is it just part of the work of a cop…

Works Cited

American Civil Liberties Union. (2011). Racial Profiling. Retrieved December 2, 2014, from  https://www.aclu.org .

Blair, L. (2014). Michigan Police Officer Detains Man for 'Making People Nervous' by Walking With Hands in Pockets in Near Freezing Cold. The Christian Post.

Retrieved December 2, 2014, from  http://www.christianpost.com .

Brumback, K. (2014). Holder Announces Plan to Target Racial Profiling. ABC News.

Health Care Disparity in Maryland
Words: 18449 Length: 67 Pages Document Type: Dissertation Paper #: 96057578
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Figure 1 portrays the state of Maryland, the location for the focus of this DR.

Figure 1: Map of Maryland, the State (Google Maps, 2009)

1.3 Study Structure

Organization of the Study

The following five chapters constitute the body of Chapter I: Introduction

Chapter II: Review of the Literature

Chapter III: Methods and Results

Chapter IV: Chapter V: Conclusions, Recommendations, and Implications

Chapter I: Introduction

During Chapter I, the researcher presents this study's focus, as it relates to the background of the study's focus, the area of study, the four research questions, the significance of the study, and the research methodology the researcher utilized to complete this study.

Chapter II: Review of the Literature in Chapter II, the researcher explores information accessed from researched Web sites; articles; books; newspaper excerpts; etc., relevant to considerations of the disparity in access to health care services between rural and urban residence in Maryland…

Potter, S. (2002) Doing Postgraduate Research. London: Sage.

Qualitative research: Approaches, methods, and rigour, (2008, Nov. 7). Microsoft PowerPoint Qualitative Research AdvC08 RS.PPT. Retrieved March 10, 2009 from www.unimaas.nl/bestand.asp?id=11629

Wolvovsky, Jay. (2008). Health disparities: Impact on Business and Economics Summit. Maryland's healthcare at a glance. The Heart of Community Health Baltimore Medical Syste. Retrieved March 10, 2009 at  http://dhmh.maryland.gov/hd/pdf/2008/oct08/Jay_Wolvovsky.pdf

Health Maintenance Organization Impact on
Words: 13949 Length: 50 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 80930377
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" (AAF, nd)

The Health Maintenance Organization further should "…negotiate with both public and private payers for adequate reimbursement or direct payment to cover the expenses of interpreter services so that they can establish services without burdening physicians…" and the private industry should be "…engaged by medical organizations, including the AAF, and patient advocacy groups to consider innovative ways to provide interpreter services to both employees and the medically underserved." (AAF, nd)

One example of the community healthcare organization is the CCO model is reported as a community cancer screening center model and is stated to be an effective mechanism for facilitating the linkage of investigators and their institutions with the clinical trials network. It is reported that the minority-based CCO was approved initially by the NCI, Division of Cancer revention Board of Scientific Counselors in January 1989. The implementation began in the fall of 1990 and the program was…

Principles for Improving Cultural Proficiency and Care to Minority and Medically-Underserved Communities (Position Paper) (2008) AAFP -- American Academy of Family Physicians  http://www.aafp.org/online/en/home/policy/policies/p/princcultuproficcare.html 

Volpp, Kevin G.M. (2004) The Effect of Increases in HMO Penetration and Changes in Payer Mix on In-Hospital Mortality and Treatment Patterns for Acute Myocardial Infarction" The American Journal of Managed Care. 30 June 2004. Issue 10 Number 7 Part 2. Onlineavaialble at:  http://www.ajmc.com/issue/managed-care/2004/2004-07-vol10-n7Pt2/Jul04-1816p505-512 

Darby, Roland B. (2008) Managed Care: Sacruificing Your Health Care for Insurance Industry Profits: Questions You must ask before joning an HMO. Online available at: http://www.rolanddarby.com/br_managedhealth.html

Decline of the American Diet
Words: 5127 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 39593950
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The meat comes from a local independent packing company that doesn't buy beef that has been injected with growth hormones; the buns are from a bakery in Pueblo, Colorado; and two hundred pounds of potatoes are "peeled every morning in the kitchen and then sliced with an old crank-operated contraption." The cooks make $10 an hour, and all other employees earn $8.00 an hour. hen asked why the Conway family provides health insurance for all full time employees, Rich Conway said, "e want to have healthy employees."

The author also calls for changes in the way the U.S. Congress oversees advertising, asserting on page 262 that Congress "should immediately ban all advertisements aimed at children that promote foods high in fat and sugar." The justification for that ban would be that 30 years ago, congress banned cigarette ads from TV and radio, because of course cigarettes were seen as a…

Works Cited

Robbins, John. (2001). The Food Revolution: How Your Diet Can Help Save Your Life and Our

World. Boston: Conari Press.

Schlosser, Eric. (2001). Fast Food Nation: The Dark Side of the All-American Meal. New York:

Houghton Mifflin Company.

Nutrigenomics Is an Important Field of Study
Words: 4560 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 10230829
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Nutrigenomics is an important field of study. It finds in roots in modern times, because of the direct relation to advances in science and technology. Nutrigenomics also straddles the nature vs. nurture divide. The publication of the relatively preliminary results of the Human Genome has given greater impetus to the idea of Nutrigenomics. One might assuredly say that the publication of the Human Genome is preliminary because the current versions of the genome are merely representatives of a very select group of individuals. (Lander et al., 2001; Venter et al., 2001) What makes individuals unique of course is the presence of single nucleotide polymorphisms or SNPs. It is these SNPs that give each of us our individuality. Hence each individual's genome is his or her genotype. A genotype is an individual's genome -- the genetic coding that identifies the character traits that govern existence. In the context of Nutrigenomics, a…

Bibliography

Antshel, K.M., & Waisbren, S.E. (2003). Timing is everything: executive functions in children exposed to elevated levels of phenylalanine. Neuropsychology, 17(3), 458-468.

Arn, P.H. (2003). Galactosemia. Curr Treat Options Neurol, 5(4), 343-345.

Buttke, T.M., & Sandstrom, P.A. (1995). Redox regulation of programmed cell death in lymphocytes. Free Radic Res, 22(5), 389-397.

Collins, F.S., Guyer, M.S., & Charkravarti, A. (1997). Variations on a theme: cataloging human DNA sequence variation. Science, 278(5343), 1580-1581.

Tea as an Antioxidant
Words: 1465 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 3658590
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Tea as an Antioxidant

Tea is an aromatic drink that is usually prepared by soaking or pouring water over plant products, typically the tea plant, but also may be infused with other dried herbs, roots, or extracts. After plain water, tea is consumed more than any other drink globally, including soft drinks. It has a slightly bitter, astringent flavor, sometimes floral, sometimes metallic, that people find enjoyable and often relaxing or, in some cases, medicinal (Martin, 2007). The consumption of tea is said to have a number of beneficial health effects based on the properties it has including antioxidants, flavinols, flavonoids, polyphenols, and catechins. The catechins, particularly, are known for anti-inflammatory and cellular detoxicity. In addition, these catechins have proven neuroprotective activities that can bond with cannabinoid receptors and suppress pain and nausea and provide a relaxing effect (Korte, G., et.al., 2010). Medical studies have also shown that green tea…

REFERENCES

AAICAD. (2010, July 12). Large-Scale, Long-Term Studies Support Roles of Physical Activity and Diet in Dementia and Cognitive Decline. Retrieved from Medical News Today:  http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/194407.php 

Biotech Week. (2011, January 19). Protective Properties of Green Tea Uncovered. Retrieved from High Beam Research:  http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-247694008.html 

Feruzzi, M. (2010). The influence of beverage composition on delivery of phenolic compounds from coffee and tea. Physiological Behavior, 100(1), 33-41.

Fontaine, K. (2010). Complementary & Alternative Therapies for Nursing Practice. New York: Prentice Hall.

Nurse Strategies for Informed Decisions
Words: 741 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76128204
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This can also include aspects such as taboos, perceptions of pain as well as concomitant factors such as education and socioeconomic status, language barriers, and advance health care planning. ( Mitty and Post, 2008).

Good examples that can be given are the strategies employed by the nurse in oncology in helping cancer patients to make informed decisions about their treatment. The nurse can assist these patients by providing access to informed decision making; which implies making sure that the patient understands both the nature as well as the risks of cancer treatment. This can include explaining to the patient the risks and benefits of aspects such as alternatives to screening for cancer; and by helping the patient to make various decisions in relation to his or her values and preferences. For example, the nurse can clarify the difference between screenings for various types of cancer; for instance the fact that…

References

Marquis B. And Huston C. ( 2008) Leadership Roles and Management Functions in Nursing: Theory and Application. New York: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Oncology nurses are key to ensuring that patients' decision making is truly informed.

Retrieved from  http://www.thefreelibrary.com/Oncology+nurses+are+key+to+ensuring+that+patients%27+decision+making+is...-a0187773050 

Mitty E. And Post L. (2008) HEALTHCARE DECISION MAKING: Nursing Standard of Practice Protocol. Retrieved from  http://consultgerirn.org/topics/treatment_decision_making/want_to_know_more

Beef Hormones Are Naturally Produced
Words: 3695 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 66250221
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http://www.maverickranch.com/beef-hormones-mdirf5.htm,2006 para 1)

There is no credible evidence about this statement. It must be noted that it is extremely illegal, not only in the U.S. But also to other or even milk-producing countries, for penicillin to be used specifically in low-level doses in the feed. In fact, penicillin is only use via injection, in concentrated doses, and only if the animals to be injected are sick or with high fever. Penicillin doses are usually once or twice only and the particular animal which has been injected with such medication is separated from other animals and would not be harvested within a certain period. This is to ensure that there is no penicillin residues left in any system or body parts of the animal http://www.maverickranch.com/beef-hormones-mdirf5.htm,2006 para 1).

Moreover, as of latest survey, only 1% (or even less) of the cattle have recorded to ever had any doses of penicillin. Cattleman's Beef…

WTO Dispute Panel Report 1997. European Communities -- Measures Concerning Meat and Meat Products (Hormones): Complaint by the United States, Wr/DS26/R, August 18, 1997.

WTO Appellate Body Report 1998. European Communities Measures Concerning Meat and Meat Products (Hormones), Wr/DS26/AB/R, January 16, 1998.

Zekos, Georgios I. An Examination of GATT/WTO Arbitration Procedures. Dispute Resolution Journal, 54(November): 72-74. 1999.

Culture and Health Care the
Words: 2819 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 81797871
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6% of the respondents stated that this was what they did. This number however is not reflected in lower numbers for life style disease and so it must be given greater scrutiny at another time (See table below).

Fruit and vegetable consumption by ethnicity

Lifestyle diseases

There are a number of diseases and health conditions that have been linked to life style behaviors and belief systems. The prevalence of these diseases demonstate that while persons may report a certain behavior emperical evidence suggests that another behavior may be taking place. This may occur principally because respondents may over estimate what they do on a daily basis since they are not taking active records of their behaviors.

On several indicators African-Americans have higher rates of the disease and death as a consequency than White populations. The data for diabetes shows that African-Americans are twice as likely to report having diabetes than…

References

A religious portrait of African-Americans (2009) Retrieved from  http://pewforum.org/A-Religious-Portrait-of-African-Americans.aspx 

Department of health and senior services New Jersey. (2011).

 http://www.state.nj.us/health/chs/dataindex.htm 

Dowd, K. (1996). Dietary patterns and physical activity among New Jersey adults. Center for health Statistics 1(3):1-4.

Pesticides Which Were Invented to Destroy Large
Words: 1337 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58917154
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Pesticides which were invented to destroy large quantities of insects that were harming crops, are actually causing a great deal of harm to the environment. This has been an issue particularly in the agricultural field. Farmers and those in the agricultural field have for a long time had to deal with insects which try to attack their crops and ruin their potential harvest. To combat these bugs, scientists were able to create chemical combinations which would kill the insects and then protect the crops which could then be sold and given to humans. These chemicals, such as DDT, were very successful and farmers had more to harvest than they had in years past (right 2007). However, there was an unforeseen result of the mass spraying of poisonous chemicals on the food stuffs. Human beings were negatively affected in a multitude of ways including contracting illnesses as a result of ingesting…

Works Cited

Bassil, K.L. et al. (2007). Cancer health effects of pesticides. Canadian Family of Physicians.

The College of Family Physicians of Canada: Canada. (53:10). 1704-11.

Lear, L. (1997). Rachel Carson: Witness for Nature. New York: Henry Hoyten.

Savage, S. (2012). When increased pesticide use is a good thing. Science 2.0.

Analyzing the Endometriosis Phenomenon
Words: 2055 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 89949215
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Endometriosis' is taken from the Greek work endon which means "within," metra, meaning "uterus" and osis, meaning "uncommon or sick state." Endometriosis is said to be very complicated and tiring gynecological sickness. This disease causes the functional endometrial stroma and glands grow outside of uterus that is usually present inside (the endometrium). These areas mostly consist of fallopian tubes, ovaries, gastrointestinal tract, rectovaginalseptum, bladder, pelvic peritoneum and unusually Pleura and pericardium. Endometriosis is a widespread disease most common in women who are in age of reproduction. This disease depends on estrogen and involves a chronic inflammatory component. Sampson was the first person to classify hemorrhagic ovarian lumps. He further explained these cysts as follicular, stromal, endometrial and corpus luteal. He also presented the endometrial hematomas based on thehistologic form. A number of categories have been formed after that, which is based on the histologic appearance, anatomic size, location and the…

Bibliography

1. Batt, R. (2011). A history of endometriosis. Springer Science & Business Media.

2. Burney, R. O., & Giudice, L. C. (2012). Pathogenesis and pathophysiology of endometriosis. Fertility and sterility, 98(3), 511-519.

3. Brown, J., & Farquhar, C. (2015). An overview of treatments for endometriosis. JAMA, 313(3), 296-297.

4. Gupta, S., Harlev, A., & Agarwal, A. (2015). Endometriosis: A Comprehensive Update. Springer.