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Psychoanalysis offered main traditions exploring human development. Freud introduced psychosexual stages development Erikson introduced psychosocial stages development. Based information gathered weeks reading researching Brandman library formulate a 2 3-page APA style paper addressing: a.
Sigmund Freud's theory of psychosexual development and Erik Erikson's theory of psychosocial development
Sigmund Freud's theory of psychosexual development promotes the concept that each person possesses a form of sexual energy from the moment when he or she is born and that the respective energy develops in five stages as the individual becomes older. From Freud's point-of-view, all stages present in his theory of psychosexual development need to be completed in the order he devised in order for the individual to develop healthily. If they are not completed in a predetermined order, the individual is likely to experience problems integrating the social order, taking into account that he or she failed to develop correctly.
Corey, Gerald, "Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy," (Cengage Learning, 01.01.2012)
Pressley, Michael, and McCormick, Christine B., "Child And Adolescent Development for Educators," (Guilford Press, 2007)
Nevid, Jeffrey S., "Psychology: Concepts and Applications," (Cengage Learning, 01.10.2008)
"Freud's Stages of Psychosexual Development," Retrieved March 12, 2013, from the Allpsych Website: http://allpsych.com/psychology101/sexual_development.html
Edward Albee's Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf and Tennessee Williams' a Cat on a Hot Tin oof
Words communicate ideas but beautiful words live forever and may keep telling a different story every time. The English literature has a rich heritage of dramas and plays that are often written in early or mid-20th century yet they are as applicable today as they were at the time these were written. The two texts are taken for psychoanalysis namely Who is Afraid of Virginia Woolf by Edward Albee and A Cat on a Hot Tin oof by Tennessee Williams. The dramas are plotted against the American modern lifestyle where people have issues in their relationships as well as work life that affects the quality of life. The Lacanian psychoanalysis approach is used to comment on the two texts. This approach guides that the human conscious self is different from the…
Drury, E., (2012), "Teaching Cat on a Hot Tin Roof: the play with a pull students can't resist,"
Retrieved from: http://www.theguardian.com/teacher-network/teacher-blog/2012/oct/12/cat-on-a-hot-tin-roof-teaching-challenges-rewards
Fox, A.M., (2011), "Edward Albee's Eugenic Theatrics: Disability Presence in Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf?" Disability Studies Quarterly, 3(2)
Literary Theory and Criticism, (2011), Retrieved from:
And the principle of social interest refers to an individual's coping with society. Social interest is a transcendence of the self. It is the opposite of self-centeredness. It develops into a trait and the most important one within his lifestyle. Adler identified social interest as the very criterion of mental health, as his experience in psychiatry revealed to him by mentally healthy persons who felt at home on the earth. He viewed neurotics, failures, psychotics and offenders as suffering from intense inferiority, which held them back to themselves. They are unable to cope with life, struggle for personal superiority, according to a private sense. They cushion their existence with a pampered lifestyle wherein they expect to get without giving. Opposite these unfortunate individuals are those who have acquired maturity. They have grown away from a sense of helplessness and into a taking responsibility for others. They have become an asset…
Encyclopedia of childhood and Adolescence (1998). 3 pages. Psychoanalysis. Gale Encyclopedia of Childhood and Adolescence: Gale Research
Fine, S. (2003). Psychoanalysis. 3 pages. Gale Encyclopedia of Mental Disorders: Gale Research
Frey, R.J. (1999). Psychoanalysis. 3 pages. Encyclopedia of Medicine: Gale Research
Toney, E.F. (1992). Oedipal Wrecks. 11 pages. Washington Monthly: Washington Monthly Company
Graphic design often plays upon the id, or the primal feelings of desire -- the mouthwatering golden M. Of the golden arches that suggest the pure pleasure of eating McDonald's French Fries for wish fulfillment, for example. The ego is the force that enacts the steps that get the id's desire, like driving through a McDonald's, an action that is also encouraged subconsciously by the welcoming openness of the arches. However, in some cases, graphic design does evoke a more super-ego type of control, such as the warning red of a stop sign that is ingrained in an individual's consciousness as something that must be obeyed -- because it is red, forcefully shaped, and above all an accepted cultural image. But to be truly effective as an advertisement, the id is usually 'teased' to elicit pleasure or fear on the part of the observer. For example, the bubbly, pleasurable soft…
(Hobdell; Fordham, 1998)
Freud also contributed to sociology and closely linked the works with psychoanalysis. The consideration that Freud's work is about individuals has alienated sociologists from considering the work as a sociological Inquiry. While the psychoanalysis was progressing and gaining ground in Europe and America, Sociologists were being influenced by the theories that related to socialization. This was more related to the gender roles in children, and about sexuality. The social group life was also analyzed with the backdrop of psychoanalysis but not in the direct way. (Bocock, 2002)
The theory of infantile sexuality was published in 1905 although Freud has talked of it earlier. It became the basis of psychoanalytic investigations. The letters he wrote to Fliess from 1896 shows the ideas shaping up it was in 1905 that infantile sexuality as a concept was published. The biogenetic laws and the theory of infantile sexuality shaped later speculations…
Bakan, David. (1958) "Sigmund Freud and the Jewish Mystical Tradition" D. Van Nostrand:
Bocock, Robert. (2002) "Sigmund Freud"
Routledge: New York.
Erikson believed that having faith in others is key at this developmental stage. During this stage, the adolescent and/or young adult continually attempts to make the different aspects of oneself congruent (Friedman & Schustack, 2006). A person who successfully negotiates this stage has a clear understanding of who they are and all of the many facets of their personality. This person will have a clear identity and sense of self (Friedman & Schustack, 2006). This identification was helpful as it motive me to begin to envision as well as set career goals for myself.
Model 6: Topic 2
The life stage proposed by Erickson that best matches my own current situation is that of generativity vs. stagnation. Generativity is concerned with establishing and guiding the next generation (Slater, 2003). During this stage the individual develops an understanding of the importance of giving of oneself to others and ensuring the success…
Adams, K. (2003). Children's dreams: An exploration of Jung's concept of big dreams. International Journal of Children's Spirituality, 8(2), 105-115.
Aanstoos, C.M. (2003). The Relevance of Humanistic Psychology. Journal of Humanistic Psychology. 43(3), 121-132.
Bohart, A.C., Greening, T. (2001). Humanistic Psychology and Positive Psychology. American Psychologist. 56(1), 81-83.
Criswell, E. (2003). A Challenge to Humanistic Psychology in the 21st Century. Journal of Humanistic Psychology. 43(3), 42-52.
These interactions then act as a second "mirror," as it were. Not only are the characters and events on the screen used for identification, but this identification process is also modified via interaction between the subjects. It is therefore a more complex process than cinema viewing.
Metz's process of identification in the movie theater is therefore all-encompassing, individual and absolute, while home viewing is a much more complex process. Indeed, home viewing is subject to a number of change factors. The identification process is influenced by the number of subjects present in the room as well as the type of interaction between viewers. If the viewer is for example distracted by noise and non-relevant conversation, the identification process is not as complete as when conversation revolves around the images projected. Identification is also more complete and absolute when the subject is alone than when a partner joins the viewing. Such…
Humanistic psychology is primarily associated with existentialism and the belief in the innate goodness of all human beings. The concept of transpersonal psychology falls within this category, as it emphasizes personal experiences that transcend the typical human experiences, and enter a spiritual dimension. Transpersonal psychology shares the humanistic goal of "self-actualization" put forth by Abraham Maslow (1970). From Maslow's perspective, self-actualization is achieved when one has progressed through developmental stages that increase personal enlightenment and individuality with each step. Therefore, Lamanda would become self-actualized after progressing through the hierarchy that begins with basic needs such as shelter and sustenance, progresses through needs of safety, belonging and esteem, and ultimately ends up with reaching her full potential in both her career and her social life.
Carl Jung has also influenced the development of transpersonal psychology, not only because he coined the term "transpersonal" when referring to consciousness, but also because…
Aronoff, J. & J.P. Wilson (1985) Personality in the social process, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates
Erikson E. (1968). Identity: Youth and crisis. New York: Norton.
Goldstein, E.G. (1995). Ego psychology and social work practice. 2d ed. New York: Free Press.
Kohlberg, L. (1971). From is to ought. In T. Mischel (ed.), Cognitive development and epistemology. New York: Academic, pp. 151-165
Psychoanalysis and Literature
Narrative and Psychoanalytic Approaches to Mother Daughter Relationships in Literature
There are several different types of narrative forms utilized by authors in texts and short stories to describe mother daughter relationships. Traditional forms include personal experience narratives where characters are traditionally well defined with personalities and unique identities.
The extent to which modern authors have employed narrative techniques to create true to life characters has been well researched throughout history. The aim of this study is to examine mother daughter relationships from not only a narrative perspective but also a psychoanalytic approach, to determine the extent to which psychoanalytic perspectives and theories may be applied to the mother daughter bond presented in many well-known literary works. The study aims to fill a gap in the research regarding mother daughter relationships currently available.
To that extent, the short stories of Katherine Mansfield will be compared to two novels…
Body, C.J. (1989). "Mothers and Daughters: A Discussion of Theory and Research." Journal of Marriage and the Family, (May) pp. 291-301
Bonheim, H. (1982) "The Narrative Modes: Techniques of the Short Story." Cambridge University Press.
Jiska. (2004). "Mother-Daughter Fictions." [Online] Available:
Controversy of Love in Psychoanalysis
One of the most controversial issues within psychoanalysis is human love. The implications of this issue are profound to the effectiveness of psychoanalysis as a treatment for mental disorders or even simple psychological and social difficulties which one might seek psychological treatment for. Love, in and of itself is a concept that is very personal and relative, additionally there are many forms of human love and psychoanalysis by its very nature, conflicts with the depth of the human expression of love and rejects anything that is not within a certain mold. In a clinical setting patients have often been left with increasingly negative feelings about the inherently base motivations that psychoanalysis determines to be the unwavering cause for feelings of love and longing. Freud, in Civilization and its Discontents clearly reduces love and even the seeking of happiness to simple sexual gratification.
A am, of…
Works Cited www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5803654
Freud, Sigmund. Civilization and Its Discontents: Newly Translated from the German and Edited by James Strachey. 1st ed. New York W.W. Norton, 1962.
Freud, Sigmund. Group Psychology and the Analysis of the Ego. Trans. James Strachey. Ed. Ernest Jones. New York: Norton, 1951.
1. Neo-Freudian theories are no more or less valid than Freud’s, just revised versions. Freud helped lay the groundwork for psychoanalysis, and other psychologists have built upon Freud’s substantial body of work to provide new ways of examining, analyzing, and treating clients. While it may be easy to focus solely on the differences between Freud and neo-Freudian theorists like Adler, Horney, and Sullivan, it is equally as important to recognize that these theorists and others built their work on Freud’s foundation.
One of the reasons why subsequent theorists refuted some of what Freud originally said was that Freud was fixated on infantile sexuality. While not the only contribution Freud made to theories of the subconscious mind, neo-Freudians recognized that psychoanalysis had potential to be and do much more than just guide clients to the sexual symbolism in their dreams or help clients become aware of their Oedipal urges. Some neo-Freudians…
Eagle, M. N. (2007). Psychoanalysis and its critics. Psychoanalytic Psychology, 24(1), 10–24.
Overskeid, G. (2007). Looking for Skinner and finding Freud. American Psychologist, 62(6), 590–595.
Schultz, W.T. (2009). Why Freud and Jung broke up. Retrieved online: https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/genius-and-madness/200905/why-freud-and-jung-broke
Few 20th century thinkers were as controversial, or as influential, as Sigmund Freud. Freud’s writings, his contributions to the field of psychology, and his therapeutic techniques have been influential not just in psychology, but in all the social sciences. At the same time, many of Freud’s theories and practices proved problematic or in need of revision. Thus, a cadre of important social science researchers the likes of Adler, Fromm, Jung, and even Skinner borrowed the best of Freud’s theories while advancing the field and study of psychology. Known as the neo-Freudians because of their revisionist approach to updating Freud’s substantive contributions, this informal group of theorists helped to refine Freudian psychoanalytic theory and methods. Some of the main themes in Neo-Freudian discourse include self-awareness, the drivers of behavior, and the application of therapeutic techniques. Self-awareness had been one of the goals of Freudian psychoanalysis. The Neo-Freudians helped show why…
Axelrod, S. D. (2012). \\"Self-awareness: At the interface of executive development and psychoanalytic therapy. Psychoanalytic Inquiry, 32(4), 340–357.
Eagle, M. N. (2007). Psychoanalysis and its critics. Psychoanalytic Psychology, 24(1), 10–24.
Hall, C. S., & Lindzey, G. (1957). Social psychological theories: Adler, Fromm, Horney, and Sullivan. In Theories of personality (pp. 114-156). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons Inc. doi:10.1037/10910-004
Overskeid, G. (2007). Looking for Skinner and finding Freud. American Psychologist, 62(6), 590–595.
Scaturo, D. J. (2005). Clinical dilemmas in psychotherapy: A transtheoretical approach to psychotherapy integration. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Weaver, Y. (2009). Mid-life - A time of crisis or new possibilities? Existential Analysis, 20(1), 69–78.
1. Freud’s five stages of psychosocial development include the oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital. Although Freud did not test his theories empirically, on a conceptual level, these five stages do make some sense. Progression through the five stages is impeded when a person becomes fixated, their libido or drive directed towards self-fulfillment. Tension between what the id wants (especially instant gratification of any desire), and what the superego believes it should have creates neuroses, according to Freud. The ego is positioned like a mediator between the id’s desires and the superego’s restrictions and rules, creating a sense of self based on how one chooses to act upon or suppress desire.
While I believe all of these stages have relevance to all people, some people are impacted by the stages differently. Common lore in psychoanalysis is that oral fixations can lead to oral habits in adults, such as overeating or…
The church had taught Luther that the Earth was the center of the universe and he pretty much had bought into everything that was laid before him in schools and church. Then, after receiving his master or arts (in 1505), and while still willing to pursue his father's dream for him (to go into law), he began to become melancholy (a best friend died; two of his brothers died of the plague) and very sad.
On July 2, 1505, while on his way back to college at Erfurt, he encountered a thunderstorm (as mentioned earlier in the paper) and when lightning struck the ground near him he was "seized by a severe, some say convulsive, state of terror" (p. 91). Luther claims to have called out at that moment, "Help me, St. Anne...I want to become a monk." Nobody of course heard him cry out, but his family and colleagues…
Erikson, Erik H. Young Man Luther: A Study in Psychoanalysis and History. New York W.W.
Norton & Company Inc.
Sharkey, Wendy. "Erik Erikson: 1902-1994." Psychology History / Muskingum College. Retrieved 25 Oct. 2006 at http://muskingum.edu/~psych/psycweb/history/erikson.htm .
Wikipedia. "Erik Erikson." Retrieved 26 Oct. 2006 at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Erik_Erikson .
Cognitive-behavioral therapy is a more current theory than classical psychotherapy. This theory is based upon the reaction of the mind to external stimuli, and how this is internalized. The cognitive reaction to stimuli then manifests as behavior. When behavior becomes extreme or destructive, it is unacceptable, and therapy becomes necessary.
Therapy focuses upon finding the stimuli that originally caused the behavior. Much like client-centered therapy, the responsibility for healing lies with the client. The therapist's role is merely to guide the client towards the target behavior. One of the ways in which to do this is to provide the client with gradual behavior modification exercises until the target behavior is reached.
The role of the subconscious is based upon habit-forming cognitive activities. Perpetual external stimuli will for example form habits. Good habits can be formed by means of gradual cognitive-behavioral therapy.
My tendency is to prefer the cognitive-behavioral theory. The…
Humanism takes the position that the human intellect is sufficient to deduce moral principles and that all human beings have the same natural right to dignity and personal autonomy.
The humanistic perspective does not absolutely reject the underlying principles of psychoanalytical theory, but places more focus on conscious self-reflection than on any assumption that the roots of all human conduct is necessarily a function of repressed trauma, sexual urges, and unresolved psychological conflicts. Humanism also rejects anthropocentrism in that it does not consider human life to be different in kind from other biological life forms, but only different in degree of development and complexity.
Existentialism rejects many of the same concepts as humanism in the realm of religious or supernatural sources of human morality. Whereas humanists start with an assumption that human beings are inherently good and that the prosperity of human societies is necessarily good, existentialism recognizes no…
Grey with a way to accommodate the needs of their Ids and their Superegos. Their Superegos imposed the societal constraints on sexual relationships, which would drive both Lee and Mr. Grey to enter into monogamous sexual relationships. Their Ids drove Lee and Mr. Grey to seek immediate gratification of their aggressive urges through sexual behavior. By entering into a relationship with each other that allows them to fulfill both needs, Lee and Mr. Grey allow their Egos to reconcile the needs of their Ids and Superegos.
Furthermore, the Secretary addresses the issue of sexuality, and highlights the intimate relationship between sexuality and aggression. The unusual thing about the Secretary is that it demonstrates that a relationship that might be viewed as deviant was actually helpful to both members of the relationship. Prior to becoming involved with one another, Lee and Mr. Grey are both in pretty bad shape. Lee was…
ehavioral Therapy vs. Freud's Psychoanalysis
Amazing advances have been made in the treatment of mental illness throughout the years (Merck, 2004). An understanding of what causes some mental health disorders has resulted in a greater sophistication in customizing treatment to the underlying basis of specific disorders. Thus, many mental health disorders can now be treated almost as successfully as physical disorders.
Most treatment methods for mental health disorders are either categorized as somatic or psychotherapeutic (Merck, 2004). Somatic treatments include drug therapy and electroconvulsive therapy. Psychotherapeutic treatments include individual, group, or family and marital psychotherapy; behavior therapy techniques; and hypnotherapy. There are many others, as well
Research reveals that for major mental health disorders, a treatment plan involving both drugs and psychotherapy is more effective than either treatment method on its own. This paper will discuss two treatment methods -- behavioral therapy and psychoanalysis -- in an effort to…
American Psychoanalytic Association (1998). About psychoanalysis. Retrieved from the Internet at: http://www.apsa.org/pubinfo/about.htm .
Beystehner, K. (1997). Psychoanalysis: Freud's Revolutionary Approach to Human Personality. Northwestern University. Retrieved from the Internet at: http://www.personalityresearch.org/papers/beystehner.html .
Guterman, J. (July 1996). Doing mental health counseling: A social constructionist re-vision. Journal of Mental Health Counseling. American Mental Health Counselors Association. Retrieved from the Internet at: http://www.jeffreyguterman.com/writing/solution.html .
HealthinMind.com. (2004). Individual Therapies. Retrieved from the Internet at: http://healthinmind.com/english/individth.htm .
If Freud, in his Psychoanalysis Theory, believes that each person - from infancy - represses impulses or desires, which its parents reject - and shuts these unwanted impulses out into the unconscious. These are what he calls repressed thoughts. He suggests that, since this process happens throughout life, that infant grows into adulthood, doing things out of the command of those repressed impulses and desires in the unconscious mind. He concludes that the only way a person with overwhelming repressed material can be cured is for an expert therapist to access his unconscious and bring these repressed material to his conscious awareness. And because it is not conscious, and therefore not within the conscious control of the person, he cannot be responsible for what he does from the irresistible command of his unconscious. This makes Freud a determinist in that he believes that human nature, rather than reason, determines…
Lavine, Thelma Z. From Socrates to Sartre: the Philosophic Quest. reissue edition.
Bantam Books, 1985
Stevenson, Leslie. SevenTheories of Human Nature. New York: Oxford University Press, second edition, 1987
It also means that people don't have free will necessarily because behaviorism believes that feelings and thoughts don't cause people to behave in certain ways. Classical conditioning can be best understood by the example of Pavlov's dogs. Pavlov's dogs were discovered salivating by the mere sound of the people with food coming rather. In other words, they were reacting to a neutral stimulus. Operant conditioning, on the other hand, is more about reward and punishment (Donaldson 2008). Operant conditioning works because sometimes the subject is rewarded and sometimes not and this has found to be very successful (the most successful, in fact) in conditioning. For example, if one sometimes gives dogs food off their plate and sometimes not, the dog will be conditioned to wait always for the food because sometimes he gets it.
The term 'mental illness' is a culturally bound term. What is considered a mental illness in…
American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. (4th edition).
Donaldson, J. (2008). Oh, behave!: Dogs from Pavlov to Premack to Pinker. Dogwise Publishing.
Mitchell, S.A. & Black, M.J. (1996). Freud and beyond: A history of modern psychoanalytic thought. Basic Books.
Piaget, J. (2001). The psychology of intelligence. (2nd edition). Routledge.
slang term for psychoanalysis in popular culture is 'talk therapy.' This is because the first forms of psychoanalytic discourse, as developed by Sigmund Freud, relied upon a release of verbal free associations on the part of the patient to enable the analyst to better understand the patient's mind. However, various other forms of psychological counseling have developed and evolved since psychoanalysis was conceived in Vienna, Austria. It has become acknowledged that human beings are not simply minds attached to bodies, but that the treatment of the body affects the mind and vice versa. Perhaps the most famous examples of Freud's determination that the mind was an isolated entity was his insistence that women alleging sexual abuse at the hands of male relatives were merely expressing female fantasies of sexual involvement with their attackers rather than recounting actual episodes. Now, the difficulty of healing the body and the mind that have…
Brown, Molly Young. The Unfolding Self: Psychosynthesis and Counseling. New York:
Psychosynthesis Press, 1984.
Levy, Fran J. Dance Movement Therapy: A Healing Art. New York: American Alliance
for Health, 1992.
Psychoanalysis, behaviorism, and humanistic, transpersonal, and existential (HTE) psychology are the three primary movements in the study of the human experience. Each of these movements uses different research methodologies and epistemologies, and each focuses on different aspects of the human experience. Moreover, each of these movements presents unique therapeutic interventions and goals in the field of psychology. With each having contributed tremendously to the social sciences, psychoanalysis, behaviorism, and humanistic psychology can also be integrated for a richer understanding of human consciousness and the human condition. Historical context of the science and practice of psychology helps illuminate the field’s core values.
Historical Context and Rationale
Although inquiries into the human experience can be traced through the disciplines of philosophy and religion, the first scientific, empirical studies of human nature and behavior began more concertedly in the nineteenth century. William Wundt opened the first real laboratory dedicated exclusively to psychology…
Discusses the foundations and components of psychoanalysis
People today are familiar with psychoanalysis after its wide rejection as well as adulation for years. Paradoxically, the success realized in the 5th decade, particularly in Europe, divorced it from its core principles. It spread widely but not because of the attention drawn for its therapy methods. It can be said that therapy was duly overshadowed due to its application in other fields. Psychoanalysis is used in sociology, literature, anthropology, mythology, religion and ethnology. Psychoanalysis is applied jointly in three areas: as a way of investigating the mind, particularly the unconscious mind; a neurosis therapy that is inspired by the method above; as an independent discipline which is based on knowledge gotten from the application of investigative methods as well as clinical experiences. Psychoanalytical science is highlighted by Freud in his study Totem and Taboo where he dives into anthropological and…
Abend, S.M. (1979), Unconscious fantasy and theories of cure. J. Amer. Psychoanal. Assn., 27:579-596.
Arlow, J.A. (198 1), Theories of pathogenesis. Psychoanal. Quart., 50:488-514.
Grossman, W.I. (1986). Freud and Horney: A Study of Psychoanalytic Models via the Analysis of a Controversy[. The Analytic Press. Retrieved from: http://internationalpsychoanalysis.net/wp-content/uploads/2011/02/FreudHorney1.pdf
(2008). Psychoanalysis in Theory and Practice. Retrieved from: http://www.sagepub.com/upm-data/23240_Chapter_5.pdf
Psychoanalytic Theory Approach
The first step in determining the goals of any counselling is to determine whether the individual needs counselling or other forms of interventions and in this case study, it is apparent that the 24-year-old client whose origin is Guatemala needs counselling. There are several goals that are to be met in the counselling session, one of them being the enhancement of the coping skills of the new mother with a one-year-old son who just lost her job as a loan officer as well as the coping with the new life in the U.S.A. The intervention tat will be used here is strengthening the ties between the mother and the son through designing schedule of activities that will make the social life of the two more interactive and interdependent. This interdependency will make the mother develop close ties that she would not want to see the son suffer…
Hongu Nobuko et.al, (2015). Behavior Change Strategies for Successful Long-Term Weight Loss: Focusing on Dietary and Physical Activity Adherence, Not Weight Loss. Retrieved 12 September 2015 from http://www.joe.org/joe/2011february/tt5.php
Institute of Contemporary Psychoanalysis, (2015). Contemporary Psychoanalysis. Retrieved 12 September 2015 from http://icpla.edu/contemporary-psychoanalysis/
Mourning and Melancholia," the "father of psychoanalysis" meditated on how the human psyche deals with loss. While melancholia and mourning share many of the same surface traits, the two are very different.
Mourning," he wrote, "is regularly the reaction to the loss of a loved person." Freud believed that the normal way to deal with grief is to mourn and after a period of time, the loss will be overcome. If anything interferes with mourning, the result can be damaging.
Melancholia, on the other hand, is identified by Freud as a pathological illness, which results from an inability to recover from a loss and return to normalcy. Therefore, "the complex of melancholia behaves like an open wound," a wound that will not heal.
Douglas Crimp, an art critic, used Freud's essay in promoting AIDS activism. In 1989, Crimp wrote and essay of his own, titled "Mourning and Militancy" which implied…
Freud's Collected Papers. "Mourning and Melancholia." 1917.
Crimp, Douglas. "Mourning and Militancy." 1989.
Archer, John. The Nature of Grief. 1998.
The opening phase of dynamic psychotherapy helps the therapist to understand why the patient is seeking treatment; what kind of triggers to current problems are present; and house troubled the patient is in terms of both physical and psychological health (text p. 41). Yalom (1989) allows for several sessions of introductory therapy, also in keeping with the psychodynamic model. At this introductory phase, the therapist gets an idea of what treatment options to present and how to proceed. Yalom (1989) also determines the frequency of the treatment in the introductory phase (text p. 41). The core way that the relationship between Yalom (1989) and Carlos exemplifies psychodynamic therapy is in regards to the transference neurosis, which intensifies in therapy (text p. 53). However, transference is worked through as a core element of the therapeutic process. In the case with Carlos, neurotic transference is exemplified most clearly in the way…
Corsini & Wedding (n.d.). Textbook.
Yalom (1989), I.D. (1989). "2 - If Rape Were Legal..." In Love's Executioner and Other Tales of Psychotherapy. New York: Basic, 1989. 59-78.
1. As people progress through the stages of psychosocial development, they may get fixated due to suppressed desires. As all desires is driven by libido, according to Freud, any fixation can become a sexual fixation. Thus, being fixated at the oral stage would theoretically predispose one to have some type of oral fetish. Abnormal sexual behavior can be traced to fixation or stagnation, a neurosis that is due to a previous difficulty at one of the stages of development.
Freud’s theory is interesting, certainly, and has its own internal logic. However, Freud’s model is not at all scientific. Freud also focused almost exclusively on male libido, being personally perplexed by female sexual desire and by women in general (“Modules on Freud: On Psychosexual Development,” n.d.). Without any substantial research to back up his theories, Freud’s work remains theoretical. Therefore, I do not necessarily agree with the details of the theory.…
This reveals the more liberated ideals of the west and of the pioneer culture. First, Alexandra envisions herself "being lifted and carried lightly by some one very strong. He was with her a long while this time, and carried her very far, and in his arms she felt free from pain." The masculine figure takes the place of the gossamer female angel. She is about to be subsumed by the ethereal lover. "hen he laid her down on her bed again, she opened her eyes, and, for the first time in her life, she saw him, saw him clearly, though the room was dark, and his face was covered." Here, gender roles are again reversed as they are in the previous passage when the man is the angel. The man is now being veiled, his "face was covered." Veil is usually used to conceal the woman's but not the man's…
Brown, Dee Alexander. The Gentle Tamers: Women of the Old Wild West. University of Nebraska Press, 1958.
Cather, Willa. O Pioneers! Searchable online version: http://www.gutenberg.org/files/24/24-h/24-h.htm
The Chronicle, San Francisco. "The Foremothers Tell of Olden Times." 9 Sept, 1900. Retrieved online: http://www.sfmuseum.org/hist5/foremoms.html
Jameson, Elizabeth. "Women as Workers, Women as Civilizers: True Womanhood in the American West." Frontiers: A Journal of Women Studies. Vol. 7, No. 3, Women on the Western Frontier (1984), pp. 1-8
Diversity and Psychology
There were two major developments that influenced the field of psychology and the professions' views regarding multicultural competence, emphasized in 2003. The American Psychological Associations' 2002 Ethical Principles and Code of Conduct and the Guidelines on Multicultural Education, Training, Research, Practice and Organizational Change for Psychologists published in 2003 both stressed the importance of moving from a mono-cultural school of thought to a multicultural perspective and that these 'new rules' acknowledge an appreciation of differences as well as an "understanding of the inherent ambiguity and complexity in psychological practice (Pack-rown & Williams, 2003; Manesse, Saito, & Rodolfa, 2004). Knapp and VandeCreek (2003) said of these new guidelines that they articulate a need for greater sensitivity regarding linguistic and cultural minorities. The development of the new Code of Ethics and the APA's positioning were purported to be in response to a long awaited recognition of the need for…
American Psychological Association (2003). Guidelines on multicultural education, training, research, practice, and organizational change for psychologist. American Psychologist, 58(5), 377-402.
Barbour, I. (2000). When science meets religion: Enemies, strangers, partners? San
Blumenthal, A. (2001). A Wundt primer: The operating characteristics of consciousness.
Anna Freud: Psychoanalyst and Pioneer
Anna Freud is considered a pioneer in the development of child psychoanalysis. Her work focused on how the ego functions in averting anxiety and painful ideas, impulses and feelings. Many credit her as being one of the primary ego psychoanalysts that stepped 'outside of the block' and delivered a fresh and new perspective on the psychology of personality.
Among her more memorable works included" The Ego and the Mechanisms of Defence" which challenges traditional psychoanalytic thought. Her contributions are primarily in the realm of child therapy. Anna Freud is credited with developing a theory that helps explain among other things, communication patterns and personality/behavioral development in children.
An Austrian-British psychoanalyst, Anna Freud was the youngest daughter of Sigmund Freud and his wife Martha (Wesley, 1992). She is most well-known for her work with children. Born in Vienna in 1895, Freud first worked as…
Freud Museum. (2004). "Life and Work of Anna Freud." Retrieved: 25, November,
2004, from: http://www.freud.org/uk/fmanna.htm
Boeree, C.G. (1998). "Anna Freud." Retrieved: November 22, 2004, from:
Therapeutic communities are important and valuable tools, but certainly not for all patients. Often, the community is made up of a certain ward or unit of the hospital, rather than the entire facility. Clearly, some patients, such as those suffering from serious debilitating diseases such as dementia or severe schizophrenia might not be physically or mentally able to exist in such a facility. However, for others, who have specific issues or health problems, and are in the facility hoping for a cure, the community concept can help them become more sure of themselves, more able to function outside the facility, and give them confidence in their decision-making abilities.
Often this term describes those in a substance abuse facility, but it can relate to other disorders and treatment facilities as well. Some of these communities are all group based, while others combine individual counseling and therapy with group activities. The main…
Butler, Gillian, and Freda McManus. Psychology: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000.
Smith, David L. Approaching Psychoanalysis: An Introductory Course. London: Karnac Books, 1999.
This meant that men held positions of power and authority in all the public spheres including economics/business, politics/the law, and the bearing of arms. Men also possessed social status that women did not have, enabling the perpetuation of a patriarchal society.
y applying Freudian psychoanalysis and feminist theory, I will analyze the personality of the independent, strong, risk taker, and smart Alexandra ergson in Willa Cather's O Pioneer! As Smith points out in Freud's Philosophy of the Unconscious, the psychoanalytic model lends insight into the underlying psychic forces promoting personal and collective change. With regards to a singular female like Alexandra ergson, psychoanalysis takes into account the protagonist's family background, tracing her ego development across the course of her lifetime starting with childhood. The significance of my research is that it studies the possibility of female's success in life under certain circumstances and refutes the outmoded opinion that suggests the…
By applying Freudian psychoanalysis and feminist theory, I will analyze the personality of the independent, strong, risk taker, and smart Alexandra Bergson in Willa Cather's O Pioneer! As Smith points out in Freud's Philosophy of the Unconscious, the psychoanalytic model lends insight into the underlying psychic forces promoting personal and collective change. With regards to a singular female like Alexandra Bergson, psychoanalysis takes into account the protagonist's family background, tracing her ego development across the course of her lifetime starting with childhood. The significance of my research is that it studies the possibility of female's success in life under certain circumstances and refutes the outmoded opinion that suggests the leadership is a male-specific quality. Cather creates an overtly political novel with O Pioneer! As her protagonist single-handedly proves that women can be completely self-determined and self-reliant. This would have been a revolutionary view when Cather first published her novel.
The 1913 novel O Pioneer! By Willa Cather, one of the greatest American women writers, is a good illustration for the frontier literature in general, regardless of its political views on gender. However, Cather differentiates herself from her contemporaries and other writers in the Wild West genre, by stressing the other half of the human race: the half that is typically excluded from histories and literature alike. Cather accomplishes what Robinson comments on in "Treason Our Text," a feminist challenge to the accepted and established literary canon. The established canon of literature propagated by mainstream academia is a decidedly and unapologetically patriarchal one; that is, until the second wave of feminism (Robinson). It is therefore important to appreciate Cather's novel within her own historical context, which makes O Pioneer! truly revolutionary. Cather, although certainly not the first or only female American novelist, expands the canon of American literature by addressing the social, political, and economic worldviews from a more global and inclusive perspective, one that takes into account the lives of half of humanity. Patriarchal literature limits itself to constructing women out of stereotypes and projections of feminine ideals and mystiques; Cather simply tells it like it is (Duby, Perrot and Pantel).
The novels heroine embodies all feminine characters who disregard the complex American West during the time the novel was written. The narratives reveals out the difficulties experienced by women
Freud's theory of Grief and bereavement
Id, Ego and the Superego or the conscious and the unconscious mind are some of the terms which are well-known by almost every individual. These words not only point out to the field of Psychology but also to the man who coined them and proposed a new realm of theories behind each of it; Sigmund Freud. He is famous for being the father of psychoanalysis and the techniques of hypnosis, dream interpretation and free association which he has used to successfully treat his patients. Psychology is devoid without Freud. This is not only because of the theories which he proposed but also because of his followers and those who extended his basic concept with a new touch. Freud in all his theories talks about the past to be affecting the present. In other words, the unconscious mind which is the hidden…
Butler, J. (1997). The Psychic Life of Power: Theories in Subjection. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
Freud, S. (1914). On narcissism: An introduction. Standard Edition. 14:73 -- 102.
Freud, S. (1917). Mourning and melancholia. Standard Edition 14:243 -- 258
Freud, S. (1923). The ego and the id. Standard Edition 19:12 -- 66.
6-25). Winnicott's clinical experiences in this capacity eventually gave him the raw materials "from which he subsequently built his psychoanalytic theories" (Donald Woods Winnicott 1876-1971-2000).
Winnicott's Influences and Challenges
Winnicott's theories and method were far from unchallenged by his professional peers, however, including several renowned European child psychoanalysts who had first immigrated to London during the war years. Among his chief challengers, and major professional competitors of that period were the likes of Melanie Klein and Anna Freud:
child analyst Melanie Klein, moved to London in 1926 and soon had many followers: Winnicott had further analysis with one of them, Joan iviere. The Kleinians' belief in the paramount importance, for psychic health, of the first year of a child's life, was shared by Winnicott. But this view diverged somewhat from that of Freud and his daughter Anna (herself a child analyst!) who both came to London in 1938, refugees from…
Casement, P. (1994). On Learning from the Patient. Tavistock/Rutledge London & New York. pp. ix-xiv.
Goldman, D. (2002). D.W. Winnicott's Mirror-role of mother and family in child
Development. Commentary on Winnicott Article. Retrieved Dec. 19, 2004 at http://www.sectionfive.org/wincomment.htm.
Rodman, F. (1987). The Spontaneous Gesture: Selected Letters of D.W. Winnicott.
Many fellow psychoanalysts, mostly men who were several years her senior, courted her, the most notable of whom was Ernest Jones, the British analyst who is best remembered for being Sigmund Freud's biographer. The budding romance between the nineteen-year-old Anna and Jones was, however, nipped in the bud by Freud's suspicions and hostility toward Jones' interest in his daughter. (Gardner and Stevens, 1992)
Her Major Contribution
Anna Freud's contribution in the fields of 20th century psychiatry and psychoanalysis is second, perhaps, only to that of her father. Her genial nature apart from the quality of her work made her popular among her colleagues despite her professional differences with psychoanalysts such as Melanie Klein. (Fine 1992)
Anna Freud started her writings by translating her father's works into English and helped him to articulate his current works. She, however, had too much intellect to remain under her illustrious father's shadow all her…
"Anna Freud." (n.d.) Women's Intellectual Contributions to the Study of Mind and Society. . Retrieved on May 6, 2005 from http://www.webster.edu/~woolflm/annafreud.html
Boeree, Dr. C.G. (1998). "Anna Freud." Personality Theories. Retrieved on May 6, 2005 from http://www.ship.edu/~cgboeree/annafreud.html
Gardner, S. & Stevens, G. (1992). Red Vienna and the Golden Age of Psychology, 1918-1938. New York: Paraeger Publishers.
"Life and Work of Anna Freud." (2005). Freud Museum. . Retrieved on May 6, 2005 from http://www.freud.org.uk/fmanna.htm
Sigmund Freud enumerates that the human psyche consists of the unconscious id, the ego (which is partly conscious and partly unconscious), and the superego (also partly conscious and partly unconscious). At first, a newborn has only an id, which consists of blind drives that seek satisfaction. In a few months, the ego is developed when the newborn experiences resistance and frustration of its drives by the outside world: it realizes that it is separate from that external world and develops a sense of self. The superego will develop later, when it has internalized the rules, prohibitions and ideals of its parents. In the meantime, the ego is the infant's structure that relates with the outside world on the basis of the reality principle, whereby the developing child learns to weigh its choices according to the consequences. This it does while pursuing or fulfilling the innate pleasure principle, whereby it…
Lavine, Thelma Z. From Socrates to Sartre: the Philosophic Quest. reissue edition. Bantam Books, 1985
Stevenson, Leslie. SevenTheories of Human Nature. New York: Oxford University Press, second edition, 1987
Mead and Freud
One of the most fundamental questions for the field of psychology - indeed of all human questing for knowledge - is how it is that we come to be the way that we are. What is it that makes us human? And to what extent is human nature shared and to what extent are we each unique? Two of the founding scholars of the discipline of psychology - Sigmund Freud and George Herbert Mead - both created models to explain how fundamental and arguably universal human psychic structures developed. Their models do not entirely refute each other, but they do propose distinctly different interior roadmaps of the human psyche as well as very different pathways by which core psychic structures develop.
We may begin by examining Mead's model, which was an Interactionist one. Interactionism was one of the most important developments in psychological (as well as educational…
Freud, S. (1989). Introductory Lectures on Psychoanalysis. New York: Liveright.
Freud, S. (1965). New Introductory Lectures on Psychoanalysis. New York: Norton.
Mead, G.H. (1967). Mind, Self and Society. Chicago: University of Chicago.
Mead, G.H. (a. Strauss, ed.) (1964). On social psychology. Chicago: University of Chicago.
Melancholia sat in, as the loss I felt became less and less related to my body. I began to court death first symbolically and then literally. Freud would have noted the presence of the death wish in addition to describing the symptoms of "melancholia," or depression. Symptoms include "a profoundly painful dejection, cessation of interest in the outside world, loss of the capacity to love, inhibition of all activity," as well as self-loathing (Freud 1947, p. 39). The symptoms of depression are skin to the symptoms of mourning the loss of a loved one, with the key difference being that in mourning the reason for the despair is clearer and within the conscious realm.
The only means to discover the reason for melancholia is to explore the unconscious realm. My descent into a dark state of mind parallels the stories of Eurydice and Persephone who both longed to remain submerged…
Downing, C. (2006). Looking back at Orpheus. Chapter 10. Gleanings. New York: Universe, 238-267
Downing, C. (2006. Journeys to the underworld. Chapter 13 Gleanings. New York: Universe, 129-44
Freud, S. (1947). Mourning and melancholia.
Jung, C. (1963). Confrontation with the unconscious. Chapter 6. Memories Dreams, Reflections.
revos (2005) further states,
"…A person's identity is formed through a series of personal experiences, which reflect how the individual is perceived by both him or herself and the outside world -- the phenomeno-logical field. Individuals also have experiences of which they are unaware and the phenomenological field contains both conscious and unconscious perceptions. The concept of the self is, according to Rogers, however, primarily conscious. The most important determinants of behavior are the one's that are conscious or are capable of becoming conscious. Roger argues that a definition of the self that includes a reference to the unconscious (as with Freud) can not be studied objectively as it can not be directly known."
This perfect description given by revos (2005) is precisely what Rogers would have envisioned of his theory. His aims, unlike Freud, were to allow humanity to return, instead of alienating individuals by placing them in categories…
Prevos, P. (2005). Hidden Personalities According to Freud and Rogers. Retrieved September 29, .
Prevos, P. (2005). Hidden Personalities According to Freud and Rogers. Retrieved September 29, .
Ansbacher, Corey, Phillips and Schultz. (2005). Freud's Strengths and Weaknesses. Retrieved September 30, .
This means that other aspects which could be affecting the mood of the individual (such as: a chemical imbalance) are overlooked. This is when the chances rise of some kind of misdiagnosis taking place. As a result, the strengths of this theory will provide everyone with a basic background. However, it cannot be applied to every situation involving patients. Instead, only select elements will offer a better understanding of human behavior. (ider, 2012, pp. 39 -- 40) (Greene, 2009, pp. 31 -- 58)
The biggest strength of oger's theory is that it is providing specific aspects of human behavior that will influence everyone's thoughts (i.e. The desire to move away from pain and into pleasure). This is occurring by feeling positive emotions such as love and companionship. During a clinical setting, this can help to explain human emotion and behavior from a certain basic point-of-view. This is when therapists can…
Engler, B. (2008). Personality Theories. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.
Freud, S. (2007). The Origin and Development of Psychoanalysis. Sioux Falls, SD: Nu Vision Publications.
Greene, R. (2009). Human Behavior Theory. New Brunswick, NJ: Aldine Transaction.
Rider, E. (2012). Lifespan Human Development. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Learning.
Psychodynamic Approach or Paradigm
The Psychodynamic Approach incorporates theories and methods originating with Freud and expanded by his followers. Freud's original approach was referred to as Psychoanalysis; which can be considered both a theory as well as a therapy method. The Psychodynamic Approach is founded upon the influence that internal processes and past experience have in determining a person's personality. These theorists believe that behavior is driven by individual's unconscious urges not necessarily rational thought. One intuitive illustration of this can be found in the contemporary field of marketing. Advertisements rarely appeal to the rational side of consumers by offering information about products; instead they target to the emotional needs and wants of individuals (Samuel, 2010).
Freud's theories developed from interactions what his patients during treatment sessions. These interactions led Freud to believe that adult behavior is driven by instinctual impulses and desires that originated in their childhood. Most of…
Boag, S. (2010). Repression, suppression, and conscious awareness. Psychoanalytic Psychology, 164-181.
Samuel, L. (2010). Freud on Madison Avenue: Motivation Research and Subliminal Advertising in America. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
Taylor, E. (2009). The Mystery of Personality: A History of Psychodynamic Theories. New York: Springer.
Sublimation refers to this channeling of emotional intensity into creative work: to transform basic psychological or sexual urges into sublime revelations.
2. The collective unconscious is a term most commonly associated with the work of Carl Jung, a student of Freud's. Jung posited the existence of a grand database of human thought to which all persons have access. The idea that there is "nothing new under the sun" reflects the widespread belief in a collective unconscious. Common dreams, shared imagery, and similarity among world religions are extensions of the collective unconscious. The collective unconscious also serves as a wellspring of images, thoughts, sounds, and ideas that artists, musicians, and creative thinkers draw from during the creative process.
3. Archetypes are in fact part of the collective unconscious. Universal symbols or proto-ideas like "mother" or "father" are archetypal. Archetypes are what Plato referred to as the Forms. Jung deepened the theory…
Nash, J.F. (1994). "Autobiography." NobelPrize.org. Retrieved Aug 1, 2008 at http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/economics/laureates/1994/nash-autobio.html
Watts, T. (1997). "Sublimation." Retrieved Aug 1, 2008 at http://www.hypnosense.com/Sublimation.htm
Integrated Counseling Orientation
Key Concepts of the Integrated Approach
My theoretical orientation as a counselor will be based on an integration between the psychoanalytical approach, the cognitive-behavior therapy approach and the reality therapy approach. These approaches complement one another and serve to address issues of concern in a multicultural society. The key concepts in the psychoanalytical approach are the conflict between the id, ego and superego. This conflict is created as an individual tries to balance needs with social norms and expectations, pleasure and reality. These conflicts are generally present in the unconscious but psychoanalysis helps to bring these issues into the conscious of the client so that their ego strength is increased and they can take better control of their behavior.
In cognitive-behavior therapy, the key concepts are learning and skill acquisition. A number of interventions are formulated, administered and evaluated to enable the client to acquire…
Corey, G. (2012). Theory and practice of counseling and psychotherapy (9th ed.). Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning
Hofmann, S.G. (2012). An introduction to modern CBT: Psychological solutions to mental health problems. John Wiley & Sons
Wubbolding, R.E. (2010). Reality therapy. American Psychological Association
It is for this reason that one could reasonably argue that Precious' entire life, and particularly the trials and tribulations she must endure, including her violent family life, her poverty, and her illiteracy, all ultimately stem from her racial and ethnic background, because the pervasive, institutional racial inequalities that still exist in America served to structure her entire life. Even before she began she was already disadvantaged by being born a black woman in the United States, because the United States maintains a system of social, economic, and political inequality that disproportionately impoverishes the black population. Thus, in broad strokes, one can say that all of the major events in Precious' life are a result of her ethnic background and the meaning American society places on that category of difference.
Perhaps more than any of the novels discussed here, Push manages to make the idea of difference as a form…
Chattalas, Michael, and Holly Harper. "Navigating a Hybrid Cultural Identity: Hispanic
Teenagers' Fashion Consumption Influences." The Journal of Consumer Marketing 24.6
Chodorow, Nancy. Feminism and psychoanalytic theory. New Haven [Conn.]: Yale University
Alfred Hitchcock's fascination with psychology and the manipulation of the human mind greatly influenced early spy-thriller masterpieces. During his British sound film period, Hitchcock explored the effect of being unwillingly pulled into a psychologically complex environment has on an individual and the consequences that he or she must deal with. These concepts can be found in The 39 Steps (1935) and in The Lady Vanishes (1938), both spy-thrillers that highlight the dangers of espionage and serve as a warning of the impending social and political threat posed by spies. Hitchcock's infusion of psychoanalytic concepts, and the influence thereof, emerge through The 39 Steps's and The Lady Vanishes's narratives, characters, and film structure and style.
Thriller films aim to "promote intense excitement, suspense, a high level of anticipation, ultra-heightened expectation, uncertainty, anxiety, and nerve wracking tension" (Dirks). The 39 Steps, a tale of an innocent man, Richard Hanney (Robert Donat), is…
The 39 Steps. Dir. Alfred Hitchcock. United Kingdom: Gaumont British, 1935. DVD.
Dirks, Tim. "Thriller-Suspense Films." AMC Filmsite. Web. 24 September 2012.
"Hitchcock and Psychoanalysis, 1." Catholic University of America. Web. 24 September 2012.
The Lady Vanishes. Dir. Alfred Hitchcock. United Kingdom: United Artists, 1938. DVD.
Gestalt theory according to Koffka (Kurt Koffka, Excerpt from "Perception: An introduction to Gestalt-theories" 1922), an act psychology in the tradition of Brentano?
The basic principle behind Gestalt theory is that the whole is greater than the sum of its parts. Gestalt theory focuses on the structures of the mind As an alternative to Gestalt theory Franz Brentano stressed that it is the activities of the mind that are worthy of scientific study, not mental structures: "When one sees a color, the color itself is not mental. It is the seeing, the act that is mental....every act always refers to (or intends) something outside of itself (intentionality); thus, acts are inseparable from the objects to which they intend" (Act psychology, 2012, Psychology History Timeline). However, Gestalt psychologists like Koffka stressed how it was the mind itself, not the object or the activity that should be the target of study. "I…
Act psychology. (2012). Psychology History Timeline. Retrieved:
Koffka, Kurt. (1922). Perception: An introduction to the Gestalt-theorie Psychological Bulletin,
19, 531-585. Retrieved:
Karl Popper's Proposed Solution To The Demarcation Problem:
Popper vs. Kuhn
According to the philosopher Karl Popper, "the central problem in the philosophy of science is that of demarcation, i.e., of distinguishing between science and what he terms 'non-science'" (Thornton 2009). Colloquially, of course, all of us think we know what science is -- it is the scientific method, or the proving of a hypothesis. But even here there is confusion, given that what constitutes a scientific 'theory' is not what is meant by 'theory' when a layperson speaks. And much of what we intuitively believe to be science may not be science at all, given that it may be based more upon observed correlations and observed, personal experiences than the proving and disproving of hypotheses. According to Popper, what we call science is largely a web of hypotheses, rather than 'truth.'
Popper called the problem of distinguishing between science…
Beisecker, Dave. "Induction." Philosophy 101. [30 Jan 2011]
Bird, Alexander. "Thomas Kuhn." The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 2011.
S., experts estimate the genuine number of incidents of abuse and neglect ranges three times higher than reported. (National Child Abuse Statistics, 2006) in light of these critical contemporary concerns for youth, this researcher chose to document the application of Object elation, Attachment Theories, and Self-Psychology to clinical practice, specifically focusing on a patient who experienced abuse when a child. Consequently, this researcher contends this clinical case study dissertation proves to be vital venture, which will contribute to enhancing research in the field of psychology.
For this clinical case study dissertation exploring Object elation, Attachment Theories, and Self-Psychology, along with researching information for the application of these theories to clinical practice, this researcher answered the following research questions.
What is Winnicott's elational Model Theory?
What is Bowlby's Attachment Theory?
What is Kohut's Self-Psychology?
How may components of these three theories be applied to the clinical case chosen for…
American Psychiatric Association, (2004). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Test Revised. Washington DC.
Blatt, S. (1974). Levels of object representation in anaclytic and introjective depression. New York: International University Press.
Bowlby, J. (1969) Attachment. Volume One of Attachment and Loss, New York: Basic
"The work of civilization has become increasingly the business of men, it confronts them with ever more difficult tasks and compels them to carry out instinctual sublimations of which women are little capable" (Rosenfels 21).
When considering leaders and their followers, Freud believed that some people were meant to be controlled as a result of their laziness and of their instinctual abandonment. These individuals influence each-other in adopting an indifferent attitude with regard to their own fate. They are saved by people who are capable to set an example through their strength of will and who take on managerial positions in order to control the masses (Rosenfels 21).
One of the reasons for which Freud expressed dissatisfaction with his experience in the U.S. was the fact that he did not appreciate the attitude that American husbands had in regard to their wives. He believed that one had to control his…
Rosenfels, P. (1980). Freud and the scientific method. Ninth Street Center.
Paul Rosenfels discuses Freud's determination to consider that inequality governed the human society. In addition to expressing his opinion regarding the "men are superior to women" concept that was common at the time, he also related to a series of other relationships that he considered imbalanced. Freud practically considered that there was no relationship that did not involve an inequality rapport, as he typically focused on people's problems and tried to emphasize them in order for individuals to understand the reason for their inferiority while in a relationship. Rosenfels also speaks about how Freud used personal experience in producing theories regarding social inequalities.
Boeree, George. "Sigmund Freud." Retrieved October 16, 2011, from the Shippensburg University Website: http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/freud.html
Boeree describes some of the basic characteristics of Freud's personality theory and focuses on the importance of the unconscious in comparison to the conscious and the preconscious. The doctor also relates to how Freud came to consider that human behavior is determined by factors that are not immediately accessible. Boeree also relates to each trait of the personality theory in particular and explains the way that it functions in regard to people's activities. This source recounts Freud's determination to discuss a subject that people living contemporary to him generally considered to be unimportant, especially given that most individuals were inclined to favor easy explanations when trying to come up with a solution for some mental illnesses.
& #8230; in its heyday there was elitism and arrogance among psychoanalysts, a sense of having superior knowledge that set us up for a fall" (Altman, ¶ 3). In a field that claims to possess knowledge of the unconscious, Altman asserts, this constitutes an occupational hazard. To counter the temptation to feel more knowledgeable than others, whether patients or the public in general, therapists who practice psychoanalytic therapy, need to remember that the depths of their own unconscious realms are as unfathomable as those they treat.
Psychoanalysis, nevertheless, possesses particularly valuable offerings, despite numerous attacks on meaning. Due to the fact that people currently, continuing to move faster and faster as they pursue success and security. Consequently, "thoughtfulness and self-reflection get crowded out. People are instrumentalized, working around the clock, on their cell phones and e-mail and Blackberries, allowing themselves to be exploited in the service of the corporate bottom…
Altman. N. (2007). Renewing psychoanalysis for the 21st century. Psychoanalysis & Psychotherapy. Heldref Publications. Retrieved October 01, 2009 from HighBeam
Bacal, H.A. (2007). Discussion of Judy Pickles's case presentation from the perspective of psychoanalytic specificity theory. Psychoanalytic Inquiry. The Analytic Press, Inc.
Retrieved October 01, 2009 from HighBeam Research:
Psychodynamic and Psychoanalytic theory suggest that early stages of human development have a significant impact on our relationships and our ego throughout the life span. According to Freudian theories, manifested behavior is based on latent problems of the past. The therapeutic process of psychoanalysis is designed to help the client become aware of past problems or latent desires that have been suppressed during the process of psychological development. Key themes that emerge in the literature on psychoanalytic theory include the role of the unconscious mind in shaping self-concept and behavior, dreams as the language of the unconscious mind, and the development of ego defense mechanisms as psychological coping mechanisms.
Dream analysis is one of the hallmarks of Freudian theory and central to psychoanalysis. In this article, Hebbrecht (2013) presents several case studies from clinical practice to illustrate some of the ways dream recollection can be stimulated during therapy, and how…
It was a compilation of all her lectures, and a straight assault at Melanie Klein's theories. (Women's Intellectual Contributions to the Study of Mind and Society) The contradicting theoretical and technical differences between Melanie Klein's and Anna Freud's approaches resulted in the formation of two parallel groups by The British Psychoanalytical Society to avert a major separation in the institution. (Anna Freud: (http://www.geocities.com)
As Anna continued her analysis on children, it turned out to be obvious that her analysis of children varied from her father's analysis of adults. She disproved her father's Little Hans analysis and employed separate techniques with the children. Her father's statement that symptoms give a basis for diagnosis was not acceptable as children's symptoms are not the same as those of adults as per Anna. They are linked to specific developmental phases, and they are frequently temporary in subject. At the time her practice was rising,…
Anna Freud: Distinguished Women of Past and Present." Retrieved at http://www.distinguishedwomen.com/biographies/freud.html . Accessed on 14 February, 2005
Anna Freud. Retrieved at http://www.crystalinks.com /freuda.html. Accessed on 14 February, 2005
Anna Freud. Retrieved at http://www.geocities.com/~mhrowell/anna_freud.html. Accessed on 14 February, 2005
Anna Freud. (17. February, 2004) Retrieved at http://d2blog.typepad.com/psych_311/2004/02/anna_freud.html . Accessed on 14 February, 2005
transference and transference love, as it is manifest in the psychoanalytic environment. Different therapists have recommended different methods of dealing with this love, which range from simple, knowing transference to idealized transference, and erotic transference. These range from exploring such issues verbally, to the use of surrogates for sex therapy, to sexual involvement with patients. Certain factions within the therapeutic community advocate some or none of these methodologies.
Answering his own question, "What are transferences?" he wrote: "A whole series of psychological experiences are revived, not as belonging to the past, but as belonging to the person of the physician at the present moment.... Psychoanalytic treatment does not create transferences, it merely brings them to light.... Transference, which seems ordained to be the greatest obstacle to psychoanalysis, becomes its most powerful ally if its presence can be detected each time and explained to the person" (1895:116-120). Freud went on to…
Winnicott, D.W. (1960). "Countertransference." British Journal of Medical Psychology, 33, 17-21.
Balint, M. (1965). Primary love and psychoanalytic technique. London: Tavistock.
Reich, A. (1951). "On countertransference." International Journal of Psychoanalysis, 32, 25-31.
Loewenstein, R.M. (1969). "Developments in the theory of transference in the last fifty years." International Journal of Psychoanalysis, 50, 583-588.
Culture - Memory
Freudian Perspective of Memory: Article eview
Freudian Perspectives of Memory: Article eview
This article review is similar to the other article review regarding the nature of memory, yet in this case, the articles to be referenced here, describe the nature of memory with regard to psychoanalysis and the interplay among reality, fantasy, and memory. Though he began writing and practicing psychoanalysis before or concurrently with the advent of the motion picture, many of Sigmund Freud's ideas as presented in the articles to be discussed draw many similarities between the nature of memory and the nature of the screen or projected image. The author's of the articles not written by Freud make arguments and assessments of his ideas in the modern age, particularly with the advent of many digital technologies and a more globalized age. The paper will elucidate the main points drawing parallels and connections among the…
Freud, S. (1899) Screen Memories, 303 -- 322.
Freud, S. (1925) A Note upon the "Mystic Writing-Pad." On Metapsychology: The Theory of Psychoanalysis. Penguin: Harmondsworth, 429 -- 434.
Kennedy, R. Memory and the Unconscious, 179 -- 197.
Terdiman, R. Memory in Freud. 97 -- 109.
Freud's Theory Of Repression
Freud is popularly known as the father of psychoanalysis and the idea of psychological repression of memories and urges, even though he was neither the first psychoanalyst or even the first to posit the existence of repression. His justifiable fame comes both from the way he popularized psychoanalysis, and from his further development of its theories. He is commonly attributed with creating the theory of the conscious and subconscious, of the many sexual complexes and drives which run our lives and our subconscious, and with the idea that things which are not socially acceptable will be hidden away within the subconscious. Freud called this process of burying the unacceptable aspects of life away into the subconscious regression, which he was to eventually succinctly defined thus: "the essence of repression lies simply in the function of rejecting and keeping something out of consciousness." (Rieff, 147) It is…
Bibliography." August 8, 2004. http://www.usd.edu/~tgannon/jungbio.html
Matson, Floyd. "Humanistic theory: the third revolution in psychology" The Humanist, March/April 1971. August 8,. 2004 http://web.isp.cz/jcrane/IB/Humcrit.html
Slater, Lauren. "Why Is Repression Possibly Better Than Your Therapist?" New York Times, 23 Feb 2003. August 8, 2004. http://www.nytimes.com/2003/02/23/magazine/23REPRESSION.htm
Rieff, P. (Ed.) Freud: General Psychological Theory. New York: Collier, 1963
Webster, Richard. Excerpts from Why Freud was Wrong: Sin, Science and Psychoanalysis (1995). August 8, 2004. http://www.richardwebster.com
In this regard, Demorest concludes that, "Together these and other theorists have provided accounts of what it means to be a person that all fit within the psychodynamic paradigm, a perspective that holds a vision of people as at their core driven by dynamic forces in their unconscious minds" (2005, p. 3).
Freud's influence on psychoanalytic thought, though, required some time to take hold and many of his methods were rejected outright by the contemporary medical establishment, particularly in the United States. For example, following Freud's only trip to North America in 1909, one psychiatrist believed that, "Many patients were psychotically disturbed and deemed to be beyond the reach of Freud's intellectual 'talk therapy'" (Beam, 2001, p. 94). Not only did others think that Freud's methods were not appropriate for some patients, Freud himself acknowledged their limitations. In fact, Beam points out as well that, "Freud himself thought most schizophrenics…
Beam, A. (2001). Gracefully insane: The rise and fall of America's premier mental hospital.
New York: Public Affairs.
Cherry, K. (2010). Freud's patients and therapy. About.com: Psychology. Retrieved from http://psychology.about.com/od/sigmundfreud/ig/Sigmund-Freud-Photobiography/Freud-s-Patients-and-Therapy.htm .
Demorest, A. (2005). Psychology's grand theorists: How personal experiences shaped professional ideas. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Ronan must feel welcome and accepted in this setting in order for constructive growth to occur. For this reason, the therapist goes to great lengths to establish a positive rapport with him. This encompasses mutual planning and goal setting. Both determine that behavior shaping is the most feasible and compatible technique to implement. This requires social support, and Ronan finds both his girlfriend and parents equally eager to assist him in his therapy. What's more, his covert receptiveness to treatment enhances therapeutic attempts.
Since success is largely contingent upon the support of family and friends, the therapist encourages Ronan to enlist the aid of his girlfriend and parents. This means engaging their help with specific techniques. All parties are asked to chart the undesired behavior so as to create a more accurate description of the predicament. Then, positive reinforcement should immediately follow the performance of the targeted behavior, in this…
obert omano on the TV show "E (obbins, 2005).
The metaphorical significance of greed in combination with selfishness, as currently mistaken for these two disorders combined, and its identification with social, economic, cultural, along with even religious status mistakes CEOs, media giants, and fortunate investors for people with this psychological disorder. In some cases, symbolic of praise; in others, disdain. The psychoanalytic explanation of greedy behavior further misleads people, who misunderstand greedy diplomatic, corporate, and political leaders, with those symptomatic of a disorder in need of treatment. At times the study of its insidious consequences on the self and on society drives a standard of hatred applicable to both.
Applicable Approach: Psychoanalytic Therapy
Clients interested in psychoanalysis must be willing to commit to an intensive and long-term therapy process. The intent of psychoanalytic therapy is to allow access to the unconscious as a source of conflicts and motivations. The…
Hiles, D.R. (2009) http://www.psy.dmu.ac.uk/drhiles/pdf's/Hiles%20(2009)%20Envy%20Paper%20(CCPE%20-%2009).pdf" Envy, Jealousy, Greed: A Kleinian approach. Paper presented to CCPE, London.
Winnicott, D.W. (1963) The Development of the matter of concern. In: The Maturational
Process and the Facilitating Environment: Studies in the theory of emotional development. Hogarth Press.
Robbins, MD Lawrence. Personality Disorders. November 2005.
romanticism of man with imagination and the curiosity to attach meaning to inanimate objects spills over in many forms- dreams, art, literature, and of late pervades the space in commercial forms like films, advertisements, fashion exhibitions etc. Surrealism has enamored and consequently influenced intellectual and academic pursuits in the past in all fields- social behavior, politics, religion and culture. The import of psychological realms and psychoanalysis on surrealism has been multivariate. Key historical figures- Marx, Freud, Dadi have shaped surrealism since the beginning of the twentieth century. In modern times, fashion and clothing make use of surrealism to evoke extreme emotions by way of animating the inanimate as well as pushing the subjects (inanimate and women) to the limits of obscenity (over-consumption) and grotesque. An analysis of the travel of surrealism through the times shows that the original concepts continue to have an impact on the thought that goes behind…
-- -- . (2015b). The Art Story. Accessed April 20. http://www.theartstory.org/movement-surrealism.htm .
"Surrealism Movement, Artists and Major Works." (2015a). The Art Story. Accessed April 20.
Poor and unproductive interaction was a sign of a problem in one of the ego states. Berne concluded that nearly everyone suffered from a problematic ego, and that most people tried to make up for their defects by "playing games" with other people.
Although Berne's idea of ego states (parent, adult, child) does not correlate to Freud's idea of id, ego, super-ego -- both explanations offer a similar kind of view of the psyche.
However, as each person presents his or her own unique ego-state, no universal ego-state may apply to humanity as a whole. In fact, transactional analysis relies upon the observation of individual patients' manifestation of their own ego-state through interaction with others. Freudian psychoanalysis, however, applies a universal model, sexually oriented in nature, to a universal psyche. While transactional analysis attempts to define the ego-state for the individual so that the individual can be cured, Freudian psychoanalysis…