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Three Themes in Neo Freudian Theory and Therapy
Words: 2038 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63339607
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Introduction
Few 20th century thinkers were as controversial, or as influential, as Sigmund Freud. Freud’s writings, his contributions to the field of psychology, and his therapeutic techniques have been influential not just in psychology, but in all the social sciences. At the same time, many of Freud’s theories and practices proved problematic or in need of revision. Thus, a cadre of important social science researchers the likes of Adler, Fromm, Jung, and even Skinner borrowed the best of Freud’s theories while advancing the field and study of psychology. Known as the neo-Freudians because of their revisionist approach to updating Freud’s substantive contributions, this informal group of theorists helped to refine Freudian psychoanalytic theory and methods. Some of the main themes in Neo-Freudian discourse include self-awareness, the drivers of behavior, and the application of therapeutic techniques. Self-awareness had been one of the goals of Freudian psychoanalysis. The Neo-Freudians helped show why…

References

Axelrod, S. D. (2012). \\"Self-awareness: At the interface of executive development and psychoanalytic therapy. Psychoanalytic Inquiry, 32(4), 340–357.
Eagle, M. N. (2007). Psychoanalysis and its critics. Psychoanalytic Psychology, 24(1), 10–24.
Hall, C. S., & Lindzey, G. (1957). Social psychological theories: Adler, Fromm, Horney, and Sullivan. In Theories of personality (pp. 114-156). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons Inc. doi:10.1037/10910-004
Overskeid, G. (2007). Looking for Skinner and finding Freud. American Psychologist, 62(6), 590–595.
Scaturo, D. J. (2005). Clinical dilemmas in psychotherapy: A transtheoretical approach to psychotherapy integration. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Weaver, Y. (2009). Mid-life - A time of crisis or new possibilities? Existential Analysis, 20(1), 69–78.

Analyzing Yalom's if Rape Were Legal
Words: 1541 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 13288052
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Psychoanalysis

The opening phase of dynamic psychotherapy helps the therapist to understand why the patient is seeking treatment; what kind of triggers to current problems are present; and house troubled the patient is in terms of both physical and psychological health (text p. 41). Yalom (1989) allows for several sessions of introductory therapy, also in keeping with the psychodynamic model. At this introductory phase, the therapist gets an idea of what treatment options to present and how to proceed. Yalom (1989) also determines the frequency of the treatment in the introductory phase (text p. 41). The core way that the relationship between Yalom (1989) and Carlos exemplifies psychodynamic therapy is in regards to the transference neurosis, which intensifies in therapy (text p. 53). However, transference is worked through as a core element of the therapeutic process. In the case with Carlos, neurotic transference is exemplified most clearly in the way…

References

Corsini & Wedding (n.d.). Textbook.

Yalom (1989), I.D. (1989). "2 - If Rape Were Legal..." In Love's Executioner and Other Tales of Psychotherapy. New York: Basic, 1989. 59-78.

Cather a Quote From a
Words: 2302 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 65365355
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This reveals the more liberated ideals of the west and of the pioneer culture. First, Alexandra envisions herself "being lifted and carried lightly by some one very strong. He was with her a long while this time, and carried her very far, and in his arms she felt free from pain." The masculine figure takes the place of the gossamer female angel. She is about to be subsumed by the ethereal lover. "hen he laid her down on her bed again, she opened her eyes, and, for the first time in her life, she saw him, saw him clearly, though the room was dark, and his face was covered." Here, gender roles are again reversed as they are in the previous passage when the man is the angel. The man is now being veiled, his "face was covered." Veil is usually used to conceal the woman's but not the man's…

Works Cited

Brown, Dee Alexander. The Gentle Tamers: Women of the Old Wild West. University of Nebraska Press, 1958.

Cather, Willa. O Pioneers! Searchable online version:  http://www.gutenberg.org/files/24/24-h/24-h.htm 

The Chronicle, San Francisco. "The Foremothers Tell of Olden Times." 9 Sept, 1900. Retrieved online:  http://www.sfmuseum.org/hist5/foremoms.html 

Jameson, Elizabeth. "Women as Workers, Women as Civilizers: True Womanhood in the American West." Frontiers: A Journal of Women Studies. Vol. 7, No. 3, Women on the Western Frontier (1984), pp. 1-8

Post-Modern to Contemporary Psychology
Words: 3161 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 16183152
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Diversity and Psychology

There were two major developments that influenced the field of psychology and the professions' views regarding multicultural competence, emphasized in 2003. The American Psychological Associations' 2002 Ethical Principles and Code of Conduct and the Guidelines on Multicultural Education, Training, Research, Practice and Organizational Change for Psychologists published in 2003 both stressed the importance of moving from a mono-cultural school of thought to a multicultural perspective and that these 'new rules' acknowledge an appreciation of differences as well as an "understanding of the inherent ambiguity and complexity in psychological practice (Pack-rown & Williams, 2003; Manesse, Saito, & Rodolfa, 2004). Knapp and VandeCreek (2003) said of these new guidelines that they articulate a need for greater sensitivity regarding linguistic and cultural minorities. The development of the new Code of Ethics and the APA's positioning were purported to be in response to a long awaited recognition of the need for…

Bibliography

American Psychological Association (2003). Guidelines on multicultural education, training, research, practice, and organizational change for psychologist. American Psychologist, 58(5), 377-402.

Barbour, I. (2000). When science meets religion: Enemies, strangers, partners? San

Francisco: Harper.

Blumenthal, A. (2001). A Wundt primer: The operating characteristics of consciousness.

Anna Freud
Words: 796 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 8484054
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Anna Freud: Psychoanalyst and Pioneer

Anna Freud is considered a pioneer in the development of child psychoanalysis. Her work focused on how the ego functions in averting anxiety and painful ideas, impulses and feelings. Many credit her as being one of the primary ego psychoanalysts that stepped 'outside of the block' and delivered a fresh and new perspective on the psychology of personality.

Among her more memorable works included" The Ego and the Mechanisms of Defence" which challenges traditional psychoanalytic thought. Her contributions are primarily in the realm of child therapy. Anna Freud is credited with developing a theory that helps explain among other things, communication patterns and personality/behavioral development in children.

Biographical Sketch

An Austrian-British psychoanalyst, Anna Freud was the youngest daughter of Sigmund Freud and his wife Martha (Wesley, 1992). She is most well-known for her work with children. Born in Vienna in 1895, Freud first worked as…

References:

Freud Museum. (2004). "Life and Work of Anna Freud." Retrieved: 25, November,

2004, from:  http://www.freud.org/uk/fmanna.htm 

Boeree, C.G. (1998). "Anna Freud." Retrieved: November 22, 2004, from:

 http://www.ship.edu/~cgboeree/annafreud.html

Psychology and Behavior Discuss Antipsychotic
Words: 1555 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 39699085
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Therapeutic communities are important and valuable tools, but certainly not for all patients. Often, the community is made up of a certain ward or unit of the hospital, rather than the entire facility. Clearly, some patients, such as those suffering from serious debilitating diseases such as dementia or severe schizophrenia might not be physically or mentally able to exist in such a facility. However, for others, who have specific issues or health problems, and are in the facility hoping for a cure, the community concept can help them become more sure of themselves, more able to function outside the facility, and give them confidence in their decision-making abilities.

Often this term describes those in a substance abuse facility, but it can relate to other disorders and treatment facilities as well. Some of these communities are all group based, while others combine individual counseling and therapy with group activities. The main…

References

Butler, Gillian, and Freda McManus. Psychology: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000.

Smith, David L. Approaching Psychoanalysis: An Introductory Course. London: Karnac Books, 1999.

Woman Who Has the Qualities
Words: 870 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 78667422
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This meant that men held positions of power and authority in all the public spheres including economics/business, politics/the law, and the bearing of arms. Men also possessed social status that women did not have, enabling the perpetuation of a patriarchal society.

y applying Freudian psychoanalysis and feminist theory, I will analyze the personality of the independent, strong, risk taker, and smart Alexandra ergson in Willa Cather's O Pioneer! As Smith points out in Freud's Philosophy of the Unconscious, the psychoanalytic model lends insight into the underlying psychic forces promoting personal and collective change. With regards to a singular female like Alexandra ergson, psychoanalysis takes into account the protagonist's family background, tracing her ego development across the course of her lifetime starting with childhood. The significance of my research is that it studies the possibility of female's success in life under certain circumstances and refutes the outmoded opinion that suggests the…

By applying Freudian psychoanalysis and feminist theory, I will analyze the personality of the independent, strong, risk taker, and smart Alexandra Bergson in Willa Cather's O Pioneer! As Smith points out in Freud's Philosophy of the Unconscious, the psychoanalytic model lends insight into the underlying psychic forces promoting personal and collective change. With regards to a singular female like Alexandra Bergson, psychoanalysis takes into account the protagonist's family background, tracing her ego development across the course of her lifetime starting with childhood. The significance of my research is that it studies the possibility of female's success in life under certain circumstances and refutes the outmoded opinion that suggests the leadership is a male-specific quality. Cather creates an overtly political novel with O Pioneer! As her protagonist single-handedly proves that women can be completely self-determined and self-reliant. This would have been a revolutionary view when Cather first published her novel.

The 1913 novel O Pioneer! By Willa Cather, one of the greatest American women writers, is a good illustration for the frontier literature in general, regardless of its political views on gender. However, Cather differentiates herself from her contemporaries and other writers in the Wild West genre, by stressing the other half of the human race: the half that is typically excluded from histories and literature alike. Cather accomplishes what Robinson comments on in "Treason Our Text," a feminist challenge to the accepted and established literary canon. The established canon of literature propagated by mainstream academia is a decidedly and unapologetically patriarchal one; that is, until the second wave of feminism (Robinson). It is therefore important to appreciate Cather's novel within her own historical context, which makes O Pioneer! truly revolutionary. Cather, although certainly not the first or only female American novelist, expands the canon of American literature by addressing the social, political, and economic worldviews from a more global and inclusive perspective, one that takes into account the lives of half of humanity. Patriarchal literature limits itself to constructing women out of stereotypes and projections of feminine ideals and mystiques; Cather simply tells it like it is (Duby, Perrot and Pantel).

The novels heroine embodies all feminine characters who disregard the complex American West during the time the novel was written. The narratives reveals out the difficulties experienced by women

Freud and His Complete Theory of Grief Bereavement
Words: 3008 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Chapter Paper #: 50942874
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Grief

Freud's theory of Grief and bereavement

Grade Course

Id, Ego and the Superego or the conscious and the unconscious mind are some of the terms which are well-known by almost every individual. These words not only point out to the field of Psychology but also to the man who coined them and proposed a new realm of theories behind each of it; Sigmund Freud. He is famous for being the father of psychoanalysis and the techniques of hypnosis, dream interpretation and free association which he has used to successfully treat his patients. Psychology is devoid without Freud. This is not only because of the theories which he proposed but also because of his followers and those who extended his basic concept with a new touch. Freud in all his theories talks about the past to be affecting the present. In other words, the unconscious mind which is the hidden…

REFERENCES

Butler, J. (1997). The Psychic Life of Power: Theories in Subjection. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

Freud, S. (1914). On narcissism: An introduction. Standard Edition. 14:73 -- 102.

Freud, S. (1917). Mourning and melancholia. Standard Edition 14:243 -- 258

Freud, S. (1923). The ego and the id. Standard Edition 19:12 -- 66.

Winnicott Critical Evaluation of Donald
Words: 4113 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 33959755
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6-25). Winnicott's clinical experiences in this capacity eventually gave him the raw materials "from which he subsequently built his psychoanalytic theories" (Donald Woods Winnicott 1876-1971-2000).

Winnicott's Influences and Challenges

Winnicott's theories and method were far from unchallenged by his professional peers, however, including several renowned European child psychoanalysts who had first immigrated to London during the war years. Among his chief challengers, and major professional competitors of that period were the likes of Melanie Klein and Anna Freud:

child analyst Melanie Klein, moved to London in 1926 and soon had many followers: Winnicott had further analysis with one of them, Joan iviere. The Kleinians' belief in the paramount importance, for psychic health, of the first year of a child's life, was shared by Winnicott. But this view diverged somewhat from that of Freud and his daughter Anna (herself a child analyst!) who both came to London in 1938, refugees from…

References

Casement, P. (1994). On Learning from the Patient. Tavistock/Rutledge London & New York. pp. ix-xiv.

Goldman, D. (2002). D.W. Winnicott's Mirror-role of mother and family in child

Development. Commentary on Winnicott Article. Retrieved Dec. 19, 2004 at http://www.sectionfive.org/wincomment.htm.

Rodman, F. (1987). The Spontaneous Gesture: Selected Letters of D.W. Winnicott.

Anna Freud the Life of
Words: 1051 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 93305477
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Many fellow psychoanalysts, mostly men who were several years her senior, courted her, the most notable of whom was Ernest Jones, the British analyst who is best remembered for being Sigmund Freud's biographer. The budding romance between the nineteen-year-old Anna and Jones was, however, nipped in the bud by Freud's suspicions and hostility toward Jones' interest in his daughter. (Gardner and Stevens, 1992)

Her Major Contribution

Anna Freud's contribution in the fields of 20th century psychiatry and psychoanalysis is second, perhaps, only to that of her father. Her genial nature apart from the quality of her work made her popular among her colleagues despite her professional differences with psychoanalysts such as Melanie Klein. (Fine 1992)

Anna Freud started her writings by translating her father's works into English and helped him to articulate his current works. She, however, had too much intellect to remain under her illustrious father's shadow all her…

Reference

"Anna Freud." (n.d.) Women's Intellectual Contributions to the Study of Mind and Society. . Retrieved on May 6, 2005 from  http://www.webster.edu/~woolflm/annafreud.html 

Boeree, Dr. C.G. (1998). "Anna Freud." Personality Theories. Retrieved on May 6, 2005 from  http://www.ship.edu/~cgboeree/annafreud.html 

Gardner, S. & Stevens, G. (1992). Red Vienna and the Golden Age of Psychology, 1918-1938. New York: Paraeger Publishers.

"Life and Work of Anna Freud." (2005). Freud Museum. . Retrieved on May 6, 2005 from  http://www.freud.org.uk/fmanna.htm

Philosophy Sigmund Freud Enumerates That the Human
Words: 1182 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 71356461
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Philosophy

Sigmund Freud enumerates that the human psyche consists of the unconscious id, the ego (which is partly conscious and partly unconscious), and the superego (also partly conscious and partly unconscious). At first, a newborn has only an id, which consists of blind drives that seek satisfaction. In a few months, the ego is developed when the newborn experiences resistance and frustration of its drives by the outside world: it realizes that it is separate from that external world and develops a sense of self. The superego will develop later, when it has internalized the rules, prohibitions and ideals of its parents. In the meantime, the ego is the infant's structure that relates with the outside world on the basis of the reality principle, whereby the developing child learns to weigh its choices according to the consequences. This it does while pursuing or fulfilling the innate pleasure principle, whereby it…

Bibliography

Lavine, Thelma Z. From Socrates to Sartre: the Philosophic Quest. reissue edition. Bantam Books, 1985

Stevenson, Leslie. SevenTheories of Human Nature. New York: Oxford University Press, second edition, 1987

Freud vs Mead a Comparative Study
Words: 1698 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 78664398
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Mead and Freud

One of the most fundamental questions for the field of psychology - indeed of all human questing for knowledge - is how it is that we come to be the way that we are. What is it that makes us human? And to what extent is human nature shared and to what extent are we each unique? Two of the founding scholars of the discipline of psychology - Sigmund Freud and George Herbert Mead - both created models to explain how fundamental and arguably universal human psychic structures developed. Their models do not entirely refute each other, but they do propose distinctly different interior roadmaps of the human psyche as well as very different pathways by which core psychic structures develop.

We may begin by examining Mead's model, which was an Interactionist one. Interactionism was one of the most important developments in psychological (as well as educational…

References

Freud, S. (1989). Introductory Lectures on Psychoanalysis. New York: Liveright.

Freud, S. (1965). New Introductory Lectures on Psychoanalysis. New York: Norton.

Mead, G.H. (1967). Mind, Self and Society. Chicago: University of Chicago.

Mead, G.H. (a. Strauss, ed.) (1964). On social psychology. Chicago: University of Chicago.

Psychological Theories It Uses 3 Sources and
Words: 942 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 36035897
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psychological theories. It uses 3 sources and is in MLA format.

Psychologists have researched personality disorders and have formulated different theories presenting their own reasoning established via comprehensive research over a lifetime. I have attempted to draw similarities and contrasts between the psychoanalytical theory of Sigmund Freud and social cognition theory of Carl ogers. They are both known figures in the field of psychoanalysis. Both the theories are logical and applicable in varied circumstances.

Personality disorders stem from the fact that personal satisfaction is not achieved due to the societal norms that humans have entrapped themselves in. Dissatisfaction creates conflicts and thus anxieties occur which cause personality disorders.

Discussion

Sigmund Freud was a one of the most eminent psychologists of all times. Freud is termed as the father of psychoanalysis. His theory of psychoanalysis entails the conscious and the unconscious. The conscious is what we are aware of like one's…

References

1.Boeree, George, 2002. Abraham Maslow. Theories of Personality. Accessed 4th Dec 2003:

 http://allpsych.com/personalitysynopsis/maslow.html , 2. Boeree, George, 2002. Sigmund Freud. Theories of Personality. Accessed 4th Dec 2003:  http://www.ship.edu/%7Ecgboeree/freud.html , accessed 4th Dec 2003.

3. Monte, Christopher, Beneath The Mask.

Dr. Boeree, George, 2002,

Underworld Journeys and Depression the
Words: 2926 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52470896
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Melancholia sat in, as the loss I felt became less and less related to my body. I began to court death first symbolically and then literally. Freud would have noted the presence of the death wish in addition to describing the symptoms of "melancholia," or depression. Symptoms include "a profoundly painful dejection, cessation of interest in the outside world, loss of the capacity to love, inhibition of all activity," as well as self-loathing (Freud 1947, p. 39). The symptoms of depression are skin to the symptoms of mourning the loss of a loved one, with the key difference being that in mourning the reason for the despair is clearer and within the conscious realm.

The only means to discover the reason for melancholia is to explore the unconscious realm. My descent into a dark state of mind parallels the stories of Eurydice and Persephone who both longed to remain submerged…

References

Downing, C. (2006). Looking back at Orpheus. Chapter 10. Gleanings. New York: Universe, 238-267

Downing, C. (2006. Journeys to the underworld. Chapter 13 Gleanings. New York: Universe, 129-44

Freud, S. (1947). Mourning and melancholia.

Jung, C. (1963). Confrontation with the unconscious. Chapter 6. Memories Dreams, Reflections.

Freud vs Rogers Sigmund Freud
Words: 1022 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 37605637
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revos (2005) further states,

"…A person's identity is formed through a series of personal experiences, which reflect how the individual is perceived by both him or herself and the outside world -- the phenomeno-logical field. Individuals also have experiences of which they are unaware and the phenomenological field contains both conscious and unconscious perceptions. The concept of the self is, according to Rogers, however, primarily conscious. The most important determinants of behavior are the one's that are conscious or are capable of becoming conscious. Roger argues that a definition of the self that includes a reference to the unconscious (as with Freud) can not be studied objectively as it can not be directly known."

This perfect description given by revos (2005) is precisely what Rogers would have envisioned of his theory. His aims, unlike Freud, were to allow humanity to return, instead of alienating individuals by placing them in categories…

Prevos, P. (2005). Hidden Personalities According to Freud and Rogers. Retrieved September 29, .

Prevos, P. (2005). Hidden Personalities According to Freud and Rogers. Retrieved September 29, .

Ansbacher, Corey, Phillips and Schultz. (2005). Freud's Strengths and Weaknesses. Retrieved September 30, .

Freud vs Rogers the World
Words: 1698 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 43467015
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This means that other aspects which could be affecting the mood of the individual (such as: a chemical imbalance) are overlooked. This is when the chances rise of some kind of misdiagnosis taking place. As a result, the strengths of this theory will provide everyone with a basic background. However, it cannot be applied to every situation involving patients. Instead, only select elements will offer a better understanding of human behavior. (ider, 2012, pp. 39 -- 40) (Greene, 2009, pp. 31 -- 58)

The biggest strength of oger's theory is that it is providing specific aspects of human behavior that will influence everyone's thoughts (i.e. The desire to move away from pain and into pleasure). This is occurring by feeling positive emotions such as love and companionship. During a clinical setting, this can help to explain human emotion and behavior from a certain basic point-of-view. This is when therapists can…

References

Engler, B. (2008). Personality Theories. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.

Freud, S. (2007). The Origin and Development of Psychoanalysis. Sioux Falls, SD: Nu Vision Publications.

Greene, R. (2009). Human Behavior Theory. New Brunswick, NJ: Aldine Transaction.

Rider, E. (2012). Lifespan Human Development. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Learning.

Psychodynamic Paradigm
Words: 532 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: A-Level Coursework Paper #: 30045694
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Psychodynamic Approach or Paradigm

The Psychodynamic Approach incorporates theories and methods originating with Freud and expanded by his followers. Freud's original approach was referred to as Psychoanalysis; which can be considered both a theory as well as a therapy method. The Psychodynamic Approach is founded upon the influence that internal processes and past experience have in determining a person's personality. These theorists believe that behavior is driven by individual's unconscious urges not necessarily rational thought. One intuitive illustration of this can be found in the contemporary field of marketing. Advertisements rarely appeal to the rational side of consumers by offering information about products; instead they target to the emotional needs and wants of individuals (Samuel, 2010).

Freud's theories developed from interactions what his patients during treatment sessions. These interactions led Freud to believe that adult behavior is driven by instinctual impulses and desires that originated in their childhood. Most of…

Works Cited

Boag, S. (2010). Repression, suppression, and conscious awareness. Psychoanalytic Psychology, 164-181.

Samuel, L. (2010). Freud on Madison Avenue: Motivation Research and Subliminal Advertising in America. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Taylor, E. (2009). The Mystery of Personality: A History of Psychodynamic Theories. New York: Springer.

Creative Process Incubation Is One
Words: 647 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 59321846
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Sublimation refers to this channeling of emotional intensity into creative work: to transform basic psychological or sexual urges into sublime revelations.

2. The collective unconscious is a term most commonly associated with the work of Carl Jung, a student of Freud's. Jung posited the existence of a grand database of human thought to which all persons have access. The idea that there is "nothing new under the sun" reflects the widespread belief in a collective unconscious. Common dreams, shared imagery, and similarity among world religions are extensions of the collective unconscious. The collective unconscious also serves as a wellspring of images, thoughts, sounds, and ideas that artists, musicians, and creative thinkers draw from during the creative process.

3. Archetypes are in fact part of the collective unconscious. Universal symbols or proto-ideas like "mother" or "father" are archetypal. Archetypes are what Plato referred to as the Forms. Jung deepened the theory…

References

Nash, J.F. (1994). "Autobiography." NobelPrize.org. Retrieved Aug 1, 2008 at  http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/economics/laureates/1994/nash-autobio.html 

Watts, T. (1997). "Sublimation." Retrieved Aug 1, 2008 at  http://www.hypnosense.com/Sublimation.htm

Counseling Orientation Integrated Counseling Orientation Key Concepts
Words: 1561 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82672828
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Counseling Orientation

Integrated Counseling Orientation

Key Concepts of the Integrated Approach

My theoretical orientation as a counselor will be based on an integration between the psychoanalytical approach, the cognitive-behavior therapy approach and the reality therapy approach. These approaches complement one another and serve to address issues of concern in a multicultural society. The key concepts in the psychoanalytical approach are the conflict between the id, ego and superego. This conflict is created as an individual tries to balance needs with social norms and expectations, pleasure and reality. These conflicts are generally present in the unconscious but psychoanalysis helps to bring these issues into the conscious of the client so that their ego strength is increased and they can take better control of their behavior.

In cognitive-behavior therapy, the key concepts are learning and skill acquisition. A number of interventions are formulated, administered and evaluated to enable the client to acquire…

References

Corey, G. (2012). Theory and practice of counseling and psychotherapy (9th ed.). Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning

Hofmann, S.G. (2012). An introduction to modern CBT: Psychological solutions to mental health problems. John Wiley & Sons

Wubbolding, R.E. (2010). Reality therapy. American Psychological Association

Female Identity Formation in New
Words: 6659 Length: 18 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 18095462
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It is for this reason that one could reasonably argue that Precious' entire life, and particularly the trials and tribulations she must endure, including her violent family life, her poverty, and her illiteracy, all ultimately stem from her racial and ethnic background, because the pervasive, institutional racial inequalities that still exist in America served to structure her entire life. Even before she began she was already disadvantaged by being born a black woman in the United States, because the United States maintains a system of social, economic, and political inequality that disproportionately impoverishes the black population. Thus, in broad strokes, one can say that all of the major events in Precious' life are a result of her ethnic background and the meaning American society places on that category of difference.

Perhaps more than any of the novels discussed here, Push manages to make the idea of difference as a form…

Works Cited

Chattalas, Michael, and Holly Harper. "Navigating a Hybrid Cultural Identity: Hispanic

Teenagers' Fashion Consumption Influences." The Journal of Consumer Marketing 24.6

(2007): 351-.

Chodorow, Nancy. Feminism and psychoanalytic theory. New Haven [Conn.]: Yale University

Style of Hitchcock in His British Period
Words: 1713 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 12745472
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Alfred Hitchcock's fascination with psychology and the manipulation of the human mind greatly influenced early spy-thriller masterpieces. During his British sound film period, Hitchcock explored the effect of being unwillingly pulled into a psychologically complex environment has on an individual and the consequences that he or she must deal with. These concepts can be found in The 39 Steps (1935) and in The Lady Vanishes (1938), both spy-thrillers that highlight the dangers of espionage and serve as a warning of the impending social and political threat posed by spies. Hitchcock's infusion of psychoanalytic concepts, and the influence thereof, emerge through The 39 Steps's and The Lady Vanishes's narratives, characters, and film structure and style.

Thriller films aim to "promote intense excitement, suspense, a high level of anticipation, ultra-heightened expectation, uncertainty, anxiety, and nerve wracking tension" (Dirks). The 39 Steps, a tale of an innocent man, Richard Hanney (Robert Donat), is…

Works Cited

The 39 Steps. Dir. Alfred Hitchcock. United Kingdom: Gaumont British, 1935. DVD.

Dirks, Tim. "Thriller-Suspense Films." AMC Filmsite. Web. 24 September 2012.

"Hitchcock and Psychoanalysis, 1." Catholic University of America. Web. 24 September 2012.

The Lady Vanishes. Dir. Alfred Hitchcock. United Kingdom: United Artists, 1938. DVD.

Gestalt Theory According to Koffka
Words: 770 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 10625368
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Gestalt theory according to Koffka (Kurt Koffka, Excerpt from "Perception: An introduction to Gestalt-theories" 1922), an act psychology in the tradition of Brentano?

The basic principle behind Gestalt theory is that the whole is greater than the sum of its parts. Gestalt theory focuses on the structures of the mind As an alternative to Gestalt theory Franz Brentano stressed that it is the activities of the mind that are worthy of scientific study, not mental structures: "When one sees a color, the color itself is not mental. It is the seeing, the act that is mental....every act always refers to (or intends) something outside of itself (intentionality); thus, acts are inseparable from the objects to which they intend" (Act psychology, 2012, Psychology History Timeline). However, Gestalt psychologists like Koffka stressed how it was the mind itself, not the object or the activity that should be the target of study. "I…

References

Act psychology. (2012). Psychology History Timeline. Retrieved:

 http://psych.athabascau.ca/html/Glossary/demo_glossary.cgi?mode=history&term_id=922&color_id=3 

Koffka, Kurt. (1922). Perception: An introduction to the Gestalt-theorie Psychological Bulletin,

19, 531-585. Retrieved:

Karl Popper's Proposed Solution to the Demarcation
Words: 1320 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Admission Essay Paper #: 48955199
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Karl Popper's Proposed Solution To The Demarcation Problem:

Popper vs. Kuhn

According to the philosopher Karl Popper, "the central problem in the philosophy of science is that of demarcation, i.e., of distinguishing between science and what he terms 'non-science'" (Thornton 2009). Colloquially, of course, all of us think we know what science is -- it is the scientific method, or the proving of a hypothesis. But even here there is confusion, given that what constitutes a scientific 'theory' is not what is meant by 'theory' when a layperson speaks. And much of what we intuitively believe to be science may not be science at all, given that it may be based more upon observed correlations and observed, personal experiences than the proving and disproving of hypotheses. According to Popper, what we call science is largely a web of hypotheses, rather than 'truth.'

Popper called the problem of distinguishing between science…

Works Cited

Beisecker, Dave. "Induction." Philosophy 101. [30 Jan 2011]

 http://faculty.unlv.edu/beisecker/Courses/Phi-101/Induction.htm 

Bird, Alexander. "Thomas Kuhn." The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 2011.

 http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/thomas-kuhn/

Object Relation Attachment Theories And
Words: 26278 Length: 90 Pages Document Type: Dissertation Paper #: 34405449
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S., experts estimate the genuine number of incidents of abuse and neglect ranges three times higher than reported. (National Child Abuse Statistics, 2006) in light of these critical contemporary concerns for youth, this researcher chose to document the application of Object elation, Attachment Theories, and Self-Psychology to clinical practice, specifically focusing on a patient who experienced abuse when a child. Consequently, this researcher contends this clinical case study dissertation proves to be vital venture, which will contribute to enhancing research in the field of psychology.

For this clinical case study dissertation exploring Object elation, Attachment Theories, and Self-Psychology, along with researching information for the application of these theories to clinical practice, this researcher answered the following research questions.

esearch Questions

What is Winnicott's elational Model Theory?

What is Bowlby's Attachment Theory?

What is Kohut's Self-Psychology?

How may components of these three theories be applied to the clinical case chosen for…

References

American Psychiatric Association, (2004). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Test Revised. Washington DC.

Blatt, S. (1974). Levels of object representation in anaclytic and introjective depression. New York: International University Press.

Bowlby, J. (1969) Attachment. Volume One of Attachment and Loss, New York: Basic

Books.

Personality Theorist Sigmund Freud's Period
Words: 3767 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 74750464
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"The work of civilization has become increasingly the business of men, it confronts them with ever more difficult tasks and compels them to carry out instinctual sublimations of which women are little capable" (Rosenfels 21).

When considering leaders and their followers, Freud believed that some people were meant to be controlled as a result of their laziness and of their instinctual abandonment. These individuals influence each-other in adopting an indifferent attitude with regard to their own fate. They are saved by people who are capable to set an example through their strength of will and who take on managerial positions in order to control the masses (Rosenfels 21).

One of the reasons for which Freud expressed dissatisfaction with his experience in the U.S. was the fact that he did not appreciate the attitude that American husbands had in regard to their wives. He believed that one had to control his…

Bibliography:

Rosenfels, P. (1980). Freud and the scientific method. Ninth Street Center.

Paul Rosenfels discuses Freud's determination to consider that inequality governed the human society. In addition to expressing his opinion regarding the "men are superior to women" concept that was common at the time, he also related to a series of other relationships that he considered imbalanced. Freud practically considered that there was no relationship that did not involve an inequality rapport, as he typically focused on people's problems and tried to emphasize them in order for individuals to understand the reason for their inferiority while in a relationship. Rosenfels also speaks about how Freud used personal experience in producing theories regarding social inequalities.

Boeree, George. "Sigmund Freud." Retrieved October 16, 2011, from the Shippensburg University Website:  http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/freud.html 

Boeree describes some of the basic characteristics of Freud's personality theory and focuses on the importance of the unconscious in comparison to the conscious and the preconscious. The doctor also relates to how Freud came to consider that human behavior is determined by factors that are not immediately accessible. Boeree also relates to each trait of the personality theory in particular and explains the way that it functions in regard to people's activities. This source recounts Freud's determination to discuss a subject that people living contemporary to him generally considered to be unimportant, especially given that most individuals were inclined to favor easy explanations when trying to come up with a solution for some mental illnesses.

Counseling Theories & 8230 THERE Is No
Words: 2699 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 41114157
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& #8230; in its heyday there was elitism and arrogance among psychoanalysts, a sense of having superior knowledge that set us up for a fall" (Altman, ¶ 3). In a field that claims to possess knowledge of the unconscious, Altman asserts, this constitutes an occupational hazard. To counter the temptation to feel more knowledgeable than others, whether patients or the public in general, therapists who practice psychoanalytic therapy, need to remember that the depths of their own unconscious realms are as unfathomable as those they treat.

Psychoanalysis, nevertheless, possesses particularly valuable offerings, despite numerous attacks on meaning. Due to the fact that people currently, continuing to move faster and faster as they pursue success and security. Consequently, "thoughtfulness and self-reflection get crowded out. People are instrumentalized, working around the clock, on their cell phones and e-mail and Blackberries, allowing themselves to be exploited in the service of the corporate bottom…

REFERENCES

Altman. N. (2007). Renewing psychoanalysis for the 21st century. Psychoanalysis & Psychotherapy. Heldref Publications. Retrieved October 01, 2009 from HighBeam

Research:  http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-171440479.html 

Bacal, H.A. (2007). Discussion of Judy Pickles's case presentation from the perspective of psychoanalytic specificity theory. Psychoanalytic Inquiry. The Analytic Press, Inc.

Retrieved October 01, 2009 from HighBeam Research:

dreams the unconscious mind and defense mechanisms
Words: 2116 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54763749
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Psychodynamic and Psychoanalytic theory suggest that early stages of human development have a significant impact on our relationships and our ego throughout the life span. According to Freudian theories, manifested behavior is based on latent problems of the past. The therapeutic process of psychoanalysis is designed to help the client become aware of past problems or latent desires that have been suppressed during the process of psychological development. Key themes that emerge in the literature on psychoanalytic theory include the role of the unconscious mind in shaping self-concept and behavior, dreams as the language of the unconscious mind, and the development of ego defense mechanisms as psychological coping mechanisms.

Dream analysis is one of the hallmarks of Freudian theory and central to psychoanalysis. In this article, Hebbrecht (2013) presents several case studies from clinical practice to illustrate some of the ways dream recollection can be stimulated during therapy, and how…

Anna Freud Devoted Herself to
Words: 3088 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 35196742
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It was a compilation of all her lectures, and a straight assault at Melanie Klein's theories. (Women's Intellectual Contributions to the Study of Mind and Society) The contradicting theoretical and technical differences between Melanie Klein's and Anna Freud's approaches resulted in the formation of two parallel groups by The British Psychoanalytical Society to avert a major separation in the institution. (Anna Freud: (http://www.geocities.com)

As Anna continued her analysis on children, it turned out to be obvious that her analysis of children varied from her father's analysis of adults. She disproved her father's Little Hans analysis and employed separate techniques with the children. Her father's statement that symptoms give a basis for diagnosis was not acceptable as children's symptoms are not the same as those of adults as per Anna. They are linked to specific developmental phases, and they are frequently temporary in subject. At the time her practice was rising,…

References

Anna Freud: Distinguished Women of Past and Present." Retrieved at  http://www.distinguishedwomen.com/biographies/freud.html . Accessed on 14 February, 2005

Anna Freud. Retrieved at  http://www.crystalinks.com /freuda.html. Accessed on 14 February, 2005

Anna Freud. Retrieved at http://www.geocities.com/~mhrowell/anna_freud.html. Accessed on 14 February, 2005

Anna Freud. (17. February, 2004) Retrieved at  http://d2blog.typepad.com/psych_311/2004/02/anna_freud.html . Accessed on 14 February, 2005

Transference and Love
Words: 4117 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 50265210
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transference and transference love, as it is manifest in the psychoanalytic environment. Different therapists have recommended different methods of dealing with this love, which range from simple, knowing transference to idealized transference, and erotic transference. These range from exploring such issues verbally, to the use of surrogates for sex therapy, to sexual involvement with patients. Certain factions within the therapeutic community advocate some or none of these methodologies.

Answering his own question, "What are transferences?" he wrote: "A whole series of psychological experiences are revived, not as belonging to the past, but as belonging to the person of the physician at the present moment.... Psychoanalytic treatment does not create transferences, it merely brings them to light.... Transference, which seems ordained to be the greatest obstacle to psychoanalysis, becomes its most powerful ally if its presence can be detected each time and explained to the person" (1895:116-120). Freud went on to…

References

Winnicott, D.W. (1960). "Countertransference." British Journal of Medical Psychology, 33, 17-21.

Balint, M. (1965). Primary love and psychoanalytic technique. London: Tavistock.

Reich, A. (1951). "On countertransference." International Journal of Psychoanalysis, 32, 25-31.

Loewenstein, R.M. (1969). "Developments in the theory of transference in the last fifty years." International Journal of Psychoanalysis, 50, 583-588.

Culture - Memory Freudian Perspective of Memory
Words: 732 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1536996
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Culture - Memory

Freudian Perspective of Memory: Article eview

Freudian Perspectives of Memory: Article eview

This article review is similar to the other article review regarding the nature of memory, yet in this case, the articles to be referenced here, describe the nature of memory with regard to psychoanalysis and the interplay among reality, fantasy, and memory. Though he began writing and practicing psychoanalysis before or concurrently with the advent of the motion picture, many of Sigmund Freud's ideas as presented in the articles to be discussed draw many similarities between the nature of memory and the nature of the screen or projected image. The author's of the articles not written by Freud make arguments and assessments of his ideas in the modern age, particularly with the advent of many digital technologies and a more globalized age. The paper will elucidate the main points drawing parallels and connections among the…

References:

Freud, S. (1899) Screen Memories, 303 -- 322.

Freud, S. (1925) A Note upon the "Mystic Writing-Pad." On Metapsychology: The Theory of Psychoanalysis. Penguin: Harmondsworth, 429 -- 434.

Kennedy, R. Memory and the Unconscious, 179 -- 197.

Terdiman, R. Memory in Freud. 97 -- 109.

How Have Psychologists Revisited Freud's Theory of Repression
Words: 2910 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 90202356
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Freud's Theory Of Repression

Freud is popularly known as the father of psychoanalysis and the idea of psychological repression of memories and urges, even though he was neither the first psychoanalyst or even the first to posit the existence of repression. His justifiable fame comes both from the way he popularized psychoanalysis, and from his further development of its theories. He is commonly attributed with creating the theory of the conscious and subconscious, of the many sexual complexes and drives which run our lives and our subconscious, and with the idea that things which are not socially acceptable will be hidden away within the subconscious. Freud called this process of burying the unacceptable aspects of life away into the subconscious regression, which he was to eventually succinctly defined thus: "the essence of repression lies simply in the function of rejecting and keeping something out of consciousness." (Rieff, 147) It is…

Bibliography." August 8, 2004.  http://www.usd.edu/~tgannon/jungbio.html 

Matson, Floyd. "Humanistic theory: the third revolution in psychology" The Humanist, March/April 1971. August 8,. 2004 http://web.isp.cz/jcrane/IB/Humcrit.html

Slater, Lauren. "Why Is Repression Possibly Better Than Your Therapist?" New York Times, 23 Feb 2003. August 8, 2004.  http://www.nytimes.com/2003/02/23/magazine/23REPRESSION.htm 

Rieff, P. (Ed.) Freud: General Psychological Theory. New York: Collier, 1963

Webster, Richard. Excerpts from Why Freud was Wrong: Sin, Science and Psychoanalysis (1995). August 8, 2004.  http://www.richardwebster.com

Sigmund Freud to the Science
Words: 2064 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 65632482
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In this regard, Demorest concludes that, "Together these and other theorists have provided accounts of what it means to be a person that all fit within the psychodynamic paradigm, a perspective that holds a vision of people as at their core driven by dynamic forces in their unconscious minds" (2005, p. 3).

Freud's influence on psychoanalytic thought, though, required some time to take hold and many of his methods were rejected outright by the contemporary medical establishment, particularly in the United States. For example, following Freud's only trip to North America in 1909, one psychiatrist believed that, "Many patients were psychotically disturbed and deemed to be beyond the reach of Freud's intellectual 'talk therapy'" (Beam, 2001, p. 94). Not only did others think that Freud's methods were not appropriate for some patients, Freud himself acknowledged their limitations. In fact, Beam points out as well that, "Freud himself thought most schizophrenics…

References

Beam, A. (2001). Gracefully insane: The rise and fall of America's premier mental hospital.

New York: Public Affairs.

Cherry, K. (2010). Freud's patients and therapy. About.com: Psychology. Retrieved from  http://psychology.about.com/od/sigmundfreud/ig/Sigmund-Freud-Photobiography/Freud-s-Patients-and-Therapy.htm .

Demorest, A. (2005). Psychology's grand theorists: How personal experiences shaped professional ideas. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Counseling Can Take Many Forms
Words: 1966 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 13303415
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Ronan must feel welcome and accepted in this setting in order for constructive growth to occur. For this reason, the therapist goes to great lengths to establish a positive rapport with him. This encompasses mutual planning and goal setting. Both determine that behavior shaping is the most feasible and compatible technique to implement. This requires social support, and Ronan finds both his girlfriend and parents equally eager to assist him in his therapy. What's more, his covert receptiveness to treatment enhances therapeutic attempts.

Since success is largely contingent upon the support of family and friends, the therapist encourages Ronan to enlist the aid of his girlfriend and parents. This means engaging their help with specific techniques. All parties are asked to chart the undesired behavior so as to create a more accurate description of the predicament. Then, positive reinforcement should immediately follow the performance of the targeted behavior, in this…

Character From a Movie Gordon
Words: 2170 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 76340301
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obert omano on the TV show "E (obbins, 2005).

The metaphorical significance of greed in combination with selfishness, as currently mistaken for these two disorders combined, and its identification with social, economic, cultural, along with even religious status mistakes CEOs, media giants, and fortunate investors for people with this psychological disorder. In some cases, symbolic of praise; in others, disdain. The psychoanalytic explanation of greedy behavior further misleads people, who misunderstand greedy diplomatic, corporate, and political leaders, with those symptomatic of a disorder in need of treatment. At times the study of its insidious consequences on the self and on society drives a standard of hatred applicable to both.

Conclusion

Applicable Approach: Psychoanalytic Therapy

Clients interested in psychoanalysis must be willing to commit to an intensive and long-term therapy process. The intent of psychoanalytic therapy is to allow access to the unconscious as a source of conflicts and motivations. The…

References

Hiles, D.R. (2009) http://www.psy.dmu.ac.uk/drhiles/pdf's/Hiles%20(2009)%20Envy%20Paper%20(CCPE%20-%2009).pdf" Envy, Jealousy, Greed: A Kleinian approach. Paper presented to CCPE, London.

Winnicott, D.W. (1963) The Development of the matter of concern. In: The Maturational

Process and the Facilitating Environment: Studies in the theory of emotional development. Hogarth Press.

Robbins, MD Lawrence. Personality Disorders. November 2005.

Surrealism and Fashion
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romanticism of man with imagination and the curiosity to attach meaning to inanimate objects spills over in many forms- dreams, art, literature, and of late pervades the space in commercial forms like films, advertisements, fashion exhibitions etc. Surrealism has enamored and consequently influenced intellectual and academic pursuits in the past in all fields- social behavior, politics, religion and culture. The import of psychological realms and psychoanalysis on surrealism has been multivariate. Key historical figures- Marx, Freud, Dadi have shaped surrealism since the beginning of the twentieth century. In modern times, fashion and clothing make use of surrealism to evoke extreme emotions by way of animating the inanimate as well as pushing the subjects (inanimate and women) to the limits of obscenity (over-consumption) and grotesque. An analysis of the travel of surrealism through the times shows that the original concepts continue to have an impact on the thought that goes behind…

References

-- -- . (2015b). The Art Story. Accessed April 20.  http://www.theartstory.org/movement-surrealism.htm .

"Surrealism Movement, Artists and Major Works." (2015a). The Art Story. Accessed April 20.