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Psychological effects of aging on African-Americans
The field of study on the aging process has gained significance in the United States of America in the recent past. The reason for this is that there is a rapid increase in the number of citizens of the United States of America who are above the age of sixty five and the quickest growing age segment is those who are above the age of eighty five years. The population of these two age groups in the United States of America is estimated to be about thirty four million. These figures are expected to rise in a significant manner as the highest fertility period between 1946 and 1964 in the form of the Baby Boomers grow older. It has been estimated that by the year of 2030 the number of citizens of the United States of America over the age of sixty five will…
Booth, Evangeline. "Chapter 13: The Resiliency of Older Ethnic Minorities" Retrieved from http://www.accd.edu/sac/soci/gpimente/lecture.htm Accessed on March 20, 2005
"Chapter 1: The Growth of Social Gerontology" Retrieved from http://www.accd.edu/sac/soci/gpimente/lecture.htm Accessed on March 20, 2005
Plowden, Keith O. (1999) "Health Behavior of African-American Men" Retrieved from http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3919/is_199901/ai_n8832886 Accessed on March 20, 2005
Scharlach, Andrew E; Fuller-Thomson, Esme; Kramer, Josea. B. "Curriculum Module on Aging and Ethnicity: African-American Elderly." Retrieved from http://ist-socrates.berkeley.edu/~aging/ModuleMinority1.html Accessed on March 20, 2005
When viewed in this light, the psychological effects of racism are actually fairly similar to those of other abusive, oppressive, or otherwise threatening attitudes, actions, and situations. The disposition toward negative affect encouraged by the perception of racism is in many ways the same kind of damaging psychological reinforcement experienced by individuals in an abusive household or people suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder, because in all of these cases many of the neuroses and psychological traits exhibited in response are a direct result of a kind of negative affect conditioning, with the only difference being the particular threat that comes to be expected. This comparison is also helpful in understanding one of the more tragic effects of racism, which is its influence on children.
A 2004 study on the experiences of racism among African-American parents and its effect on their children's mental health revealed that parental experiences of racism directly…
Bobo, L., & Fox, C. (2003). Race, racism, and discrimination: bridging problems, methods, and theory in social psychological research. Social Psychology Quarterly, 66 (4), 319-332.
Brondolo, E., Brady, N., Thompson, S., Tobin, J.N., Cassells, a., et al. (2008). Percevied racism and negative affect: analyses of trait and state measures of affect in a community sample.
Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 27 (2), 150-173.
Caughy, M.O., O'Campo, P., & Mutaner, C. (2004). Experiences of racism among African-American parents and the mental health of their preschool-aged children. American Journal of Public Health, 94 (12), 2118-24.
Adult children who are forced to take on the responsibility of caring for a parent with Alzheimer's are specially vulnerable to bouts of depression, both severe and mild, which may be prolonged until well after the period of caring for the individual with Alzheimer's disease is over. In research reviewing the psychological impact of adult children caring for their parent's with Alzheimer's, "studies have found that caregivers of people with Alzheimer's disease often have higher depression levels than controls, or they may experience elevated average levels of depressive symptoms," (Sanders & Adams 289). Higher rates of depression are common in children who are forced to see their parents slowly unwind and loose sight of who they once were. There are heavy feelings of guilt for not being able to do more to help save the mind of the person who brought them into this life and cared for them when…
Durant, Thomas J. & Christian, Ollie G. "Caregiving to Aging Patients." Forum on Public Policy: A Journal of the Oxford Round Table. Questia.com. 2007.
Powell, Lenore S. & Courtice, Katie. Alzheimer's Disease: A Guide for Families." Perseus Publishing. Redding MA. 1993.
Rubio, Doris McGartland; Berg-Weger, Maria; & Tebb, Susan S. "Assessing the Validity and Reliability of Well-Being and Stress in Family Caregivers." Social Work Research. 1999. 23(1):54-68.
Sanders, Sandra & Adams, Kathryn Betts. "Grief Reactions and Depression in Caregivers of Individuals with Alzheimer's Disease: Results from a Pilot Study in an Urban Setting." Social Work. 2005. 30(4):287-293.
Thus, the longer a woman delays becoming pregnant, the more she is susceptible to suffering psychological ramifications.
Of course, the biological clock, or that which determines the best period of time in a woman's life to become pregnant and experience a successful pregnancy, plays a major role in fertility treatments. However, some young women, due to a lack of education early in life, may not realize that such a thing as a biological clock exist. According to Michael Fox, the absence of not knowing about this clock may exclude some women from receiving fertility treatments, due to waiting too long. Fox adds that as a result doctors and fertility specialists should "be more aggressive in the counseling of women who are in (their) early to mid thirties and beyond who consider delaying childbearing" (2000, Internet).
When a woman decides to wait until her mid forties or beyond to have…
Berkowitz, G.S., et al. (1990). "Delayed Childbearing and the Outcome of Pregnancy." New England Journal of Medicine. 322.
Domar, A.D., et al. (2000). "Impact of Group Psychological Intervention on Pregnancy Rates in Infertile Women." Fertil Steril. 73.
Kearney, Brian. (1998). High-Tech Conception. New York: Bantam Books.
Fox, Michael. "Age and Fertility: The Biological Clock: Fact or Fiction?" Duval County Medical Society. Internet. May, 2000. Accessed September 29, 2005. http://www.dcmsonline.
The more removed they perceive the criteria for advancement to be from teaching and the greater the competition from their extrinsically motivated colleagues, the less likely they are to devote the necessary effort to those endeavors just for the purpose of achieving a higher professional "rank" and the associated transactional benefits. However, it would be both appropriate and beneficial to the educational community to recognize the objective merit of the work as educators of some professors purely on the basis of their genuine commitment to educating and on their contribution to the intellectual development of their students.
Teaching, like many other professions with altruistic elements, provides more in the way of both tangible and intangible transactional benefits based on professional status within the field. Educators who genuinely love teaching and who devote their entire professional energies to the essential purpose of their profession often lose their enthusiasm gradually when…
George, J.M. And Jones, G.R. (2008). Understanding and Managing Organizational
Behavior. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Kinicki, a. And Williams, B. (2005). Management: A Practical Approach. New York:
Psycological Effects of War
Erich Maria Remarque's novel "All Quiet on the Western Front" discusses matters regarding the effects that warfare can have on an individual. The writer wants to emphasize the fact that war is frequently overvalued and that leaders are typically ignorant concerning the experiences of simple soldiers. Warfare makes it possible for one to enter a world that is very different from the one that he or she is accustomed to, influencing the respective person in slowly but surely detaching him or herself from the normal part of society. The novel provides readers with the idea that it is very difficult and practically impossible for someone who experienced warfare firsthand to return home and reintegrate society, given that he or she had experienced traumatizing episodes while fighting.
Virtually every scene of the book puts across feelings related to the horror of war, as the writer refrains from…
Horror and misery dominate battlefields as Baumer sees his friends dying one by one and as he is continuously forced to live in horrible conditions that further damage his psyche. Baumer's everyday experiences involve staying in trenches containing water, rotting corpses, and rats that "have shocking, evil, naked faces, and it is nauseating to see their long nude tails" (Remarque 46). The soldier has no choice other than to put normal feelings behind and accept that he faces terrible conditions. Although it might seem that this can be somewhat beneficial for an individual because it assists him in being better prepared in dealing with circumstances, it actually damages his humanity and his emotional side as a whole. Baumer knows that he has no future beyond warfare and he has difficulty thinking about his past life as a civilian. He is unable to converse with his family members at the time when he returns home, this making it possible for readers to understand his complete emotional detachment. The only feelings that Baumer manages to keep are related to the connections that he forms with his companions, given that he considers that warfare has become a part of his life and that his friends are like family to him.
Remarque highlights that there is nothing glorious about the war, as killing someone and seeing other people killed can have a particularly damaging effect on an individual. Baumer is desensitized as a result of his experiences on the front and his insignificance is stressed in the last part of the novel, as it is revealed that conditions are peaceful of the Western Front, even with the fact that he is dead.
Maria Remarque, Erich. "All quiet on the western front and related reading," Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, 2000
Autism: Characteristics, Causes, And Treatments
Autism is a complex developmental disorder that generally emerges before the age of three. Individuals with autism demonstrate difficulties in communication, both verbal and non-verbal, as well as difficulties in socially interacting with others, as well as leisure and play activities (Autism Society of America, 2003). Autism is one five disorders that are classified as Pervasive Developmental Disorders in the DSM-IV, which are all neurological disorders that are characterized by severe and ubiquitous impairments in many areas of development.
As the most common Pervasive Developmental Disorder, Autism affects approximately 2 to 6 out of every 1,000 individuals, which translates into as many as 1.5 million Americans (Autism Society of America, 2003). The number of cases of autism appear to be increasing at a rate of about 10 to 17% per year, which means that the number of cases of autism could reach 4 million in…
Autism Society of America (2003). All about autism. http://www.autism-society.org/site/PageServer?pagename=allaboutautism .
Volkmar, F. & Pauls, D. (2003). Autism. Lancet, 362(9390), 1133-1202.
No Author Given (2003). Autism mysteries: New clues. Harvard Mental Health Letter, 20(6), 1-2.
Knivsberg, A., Reichelt, K., Hoien, T., Nodland, M. (2003). Effect of a dietary intervention on autistic behavior. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 18(4), 247-56.
Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the primary psychoactive component in marijuana. Chief qualities of THC include its high solubility and bioavailabilty, rapid absorption rate, long-term storage in fatty tissue, leading to a lengthy elimination process ("Marijuana," Slide 37). Although there are dozens of psychoactive compounds called cannabinoids in cannabis, THC receives the most attention in research due to its being the primary compound associated with most of the psychoactive effects of the drug. Other cannabinoids that have been researched include cannabinol, canabidiol, 2-AG, and arachidonic acid, or anandamide. Most compounds have interactive or synergistic effects.
Research into the psychoactive properties of cannabis has led to the discovery of a neurotransmitter system that is distributed throughout brain and central nervous system, and which accounts for numerous psychological and biological functions (Atakan). The system is known as the endocannabinoid system, and reveals the ways particular agonists like THC bind with specific receptor sites in…
Atakan, Zerrin. "Cannabis: A Complex Plant." Therapeutic Advances in Psychopharmacology 2(6): 241-254.
Bradford, Alina. "What is THC?" Live Science. Retrieved online: http://www.livescience.com/24553-what-is-thc.html
"Marijuana." MedLine. Retrieved online: https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/marijuana.html
"Marijuana." Slide Presentation.
This point also emphasizes a cardinal aspect in the recent literature. There has been an increasing research focus on a more discursive and holistic approach which should be adopted in dealing with PTSD and related areas of psychological concern. At present the research into the field is an ongoing process which must be continually updated. The literature also leaves little doubt that PTSD and other related psychological problems as result of the Iraq war can no longer be ignored.
Casualties of war. April 21, 2007. http://www.theage.com.au/news/world/casualties-of-war/2005/10/26/1130302840559.html?page=3
Hare M. 2007. Army psychologist using new ways to treat
Stress. April 20, 2007. http://www.democratandchronicle.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20070422/NES0201/704220321/-1/COLUMNS
Finer J. 2006. Frontline Care for 'At Risk' Soldiers: Army Effort Treats
Psychological Trauma at Source. April 20, 2007. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/06/07/AR2006060702390_pf.html
Friedman M.J. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: An Overview. Retrieved April 20, 2007, at http://www.vac-acc.gc.ca/clients/sub.cfm?source=mhealth/factsheets/overview
Foa, E., & Meadows, E. (1997). Psychosocial Treatments for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Critical…
Casualties of war. April 21, 2007. http://www.theage.com.au/news/world/casualties-of-war/2005/10/26/1130302840559.html?page=3
Hare M. 2007. Army psychologist using new ways to treat
Stress. April 20, 2007. http://www.democratandchronicle.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20070422/NEWS0201/704220321/-1/COLUMNS
Finer J. 2006. Frontline Care for 'At Risk' Soldiers: Army Effort Treats
but, the interesting thing is that their peers, family, friends and young boys are basing their opinion of what these girls should look like from what they see in the media.
Main Cause of Poor ody Images in Young Girls
The media has been with us for years and it is here to stay. There are good aspects of this industry because it serves to keep us informed and aware of what is happening in the world around us. The media can also be viewed negatively because of some of the television programs that are out there today. Technology is so advanced that we can now watch our favorite television shows and read our favorite fashion magazines right from our cell phones. We can assume that as the years go by, technology will get more advanced and the role of the media will become even more prominent.
Such outlets as…
Ata, R.N., Ludden, AB. And Lally, M.M. (2007). The effects of gender and family, friend, and media influences on eating behaviors and body image during adolescence. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 36(8), 1024-1037.
Bell, B.T., Lawton R., and Dittmar, H. (2007). The impact of thin models in music videos on adolescent girls' body dissatisfaction. Body Image, 4(2), 137-145.
Dohnt, H.K. And Tiggemann, M. (2006). Body image concerns in young girls: The role of peers and media prior to adolescence. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 35(2), 141-151.
Worell, J., & Goodheart, C.D. (2006). Body Image. Handbook of Girls' and Women's Psychological Health (pp. 68-75). New York: Oxford University Press.
It is also interesting to note that the correlation between depression and childhood sexual abuse was found to be higher among females in many studies.
However, the issue of the relationship between depression and sexual abuse may not be as clear-cut as the above studies suggest. Recent research has begun to question this correlation and has produced findings that suggest that there are many other parameters and variables that should be considered. This is especially the case with regard to the view that childhood sexual abuse necessarily leads to depression in adulthood. As one report claims, "...there is accumulating evidence to contradict these claims" (Roosa,
Reinholtz, (Angelini, 1999). However the majority of studies indicate that there is a strong possibility that children who are sexually abused experience symptoms of depression that can extend into adulthood.
3.1. What is PTSD?
Post Traumatic Stress Disorder is a disorder that has shown…
Abused Children Face Depression Risk as Adults. Retrieved March 3, 2009 at http://www.healthyplace.com/abuse/abuse-and-depression/abused-children-face-depression-risk-as-adults/menu-id-52/
Association between Childhood Sexual Abuse History and Adverse
Psychosocial Outcomes in controlled studies. Retrieved March 6, 2009, at http://www.leadershipcouncil.org/1/res/csa.html
Barker J. Adult Sequelae of Child Sexual Abuse. Retrieved March 6, 2009, at http://www.medicineau.net.au/clinical/psychiatry/SexualAbuse.html
In conclusion, both juvenile sex offenders and victims of sexual abuse need to undergo treatment and counselling. The importance of treating victims of sex abuse is to ensure that the "cycle of abuse" ceases and that they can recover from their ordeal and lead normal lives. The treatment of juvenile sex offenders is to ensure their rehabilitation, depending on the problem and also separate them from the rest of society.
California Dept. Of Justic, (n.d). Megan's Law - Facts about Sex Offenders -- California
Department of Justice. etrieved April 13, 2010, from http://www.meganslaw.ca.gov/facts.htm
Harrison, L. (2009). The Ambiguity of Juvenile Sexual Offenders. Internet Journal of Criminology, 7, 1-29. etrieved April 14, 2010, from http://www.internetjournalofcriminology.com/Harrison_Juvenile_Sexual_Offenders_J
Herrmann B, Navratil F. (2004). Sexual Abuse in Pre-pubertal Children and Adolescents.
Sultan C (Editor) Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology: Evidence-Based Clinical
Practice. Pakistan: Endocr Dev, Basel, Karger
Hunter, J.A. (2000). Understanding Juvenile Sex Offenders:…
California Dept. Of Justic, (n.d). Megan's Law - Facts about Sex Offenders -- California
Department of Justice. Retrieved April 13, 2010, from http://www.meganslaw.ca.gov/facts.htm
Harrison, L. (2009). The Ambiguity of Juvenile Sexual Offenders. Internet Journal of Criminology, 7, 1-29. Retrieved April 14, 2010, from http://www.internetjournalofcriminology.com/Harrison_Juvenile_Sexual_Offenders_J
Listening to Music on orker Productivity:
Music can basically serve various purposes with some of these purposes being fulfilled at the individual level while others at the level of the society. For an individual, music can be a platform for expressing emotions, promoting relaxation, offering stimulation, facilitating mood change, and being a source of comfort. In some case, music can be used to entertain, in therapy, improve the effect of the other arts, and offer aesthetic enjoyment. In the past few years, there have been increased concerns and analyses regarding the impact of music on work quality and worker productivity. This is primarily because workers tend to listen to music to accomplish certain purposes while doing their work. hile some workers like to listen to music when they are seemingly losing focus, others listen to music when involved in increasingly repetitive job or when working in a noisy or too…
LESIUK, TERESA. "The Effect of Music Listening on Work Performance." Psychology of Music 33.2 (2005): 173-91. SAGE Publications. Society for Education, Music and Psychology Research, 7 Feb. 2008. Web. 24 Oct. 2012. .
Magloff, Lisa. "The Effect of Radios on Workplace Productivity." Chron - Small Business. Hearst Communications, Inc., n.d. Web. 24 Oct. 2012. .
Padnani, Amisha. "The Power Of Music, Tapped In a Cubicle." The New York Times. The New York Times, 12 Aug. 2012. Web. 24 Oct. 2012. .
Young, Gregory. "EFFECTS OF MUSIC ON TASK PERFORMANCE." Breakthrough Systems. Breakthrough Systems., 31 July 2003. Web. 24 Oct. 2012. .
Terrorism and the American Psyche
The attacks of September 11, 2001 not only affected those who were killed and injured, but also millions of ordinary Americans. The impact of this act of terrorism, along with a constant stream of attacks and threats of attacks have substantially altered the American psyche. Immediately after the attacks, Americans across the nation began to suffer from symptoms of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder. In addition to this, Americans have suffered through a number of psychological effects of terrorism including fear, anger, and vulnerability. All in all, the effect of terrorism on American society has been one of altering the way Americans feel about their safety and their place in the world. In a sense, Americans no longer viewed their world as predictable, orderly, and controllable.
ell known psychologist, illiam E. Schlenger, stated that the attacks of 9/11 "represent an unprecedented exposure to trauma" within the…
Hamblin, Jessica and Laurie Slone. "Research Findings of the Traumatic Stress Effects
Of Terrorism." U.S. Dept. Of Veteran Affairs: National Center for PTSD. Web.
11 Oct. 2012. http://www.ptsd.va.gov/professional/pages/research-findings-traumatic-stress-terrorism.asp
Silke, Andrew. "The Psychological Impact of the Continued Terrorist Threat."
Japan Tsunami Disaster March 2011 -- Present
Societal Consequences Discussion
The earthquake and following tsunami that hit Japan was truly a disaster -- part natural and part technological. It affected the Japanese population in many ways. There were the initial consequences that included massive loss of life and population displacement. However, there are also lasting consequences that can even include factors such as the mental health, physical health, and other societal consequences that can be long lasting. This analysis will look at the impact to the citizenry from multiple perspectives, discuss the roles of non-governmental agencies (NGOs) in the after math of the disaster, and discuss what organization would lead a recovery response if such an event occurred in the United States.
Societal Consequences Discussion
The societal consequences that have come as a result of the disaster can be thought of from different perspectives and on many different…
IASC. (2007). IASC Guidelines on Mental Health and Psychosocial Support in Emergency Settings. Retrieved from IASC: http://admin.psychology.org.au/Assets/Files/IASC-Guidelines-Mental-Health-Psychosocial.pdf
Kormino, T. (2015). Role of International NGO in an Uprecedented Disaster in Japan. Disaster Risk Reduction, 13-26.
Pietrangelo, A. (2011, April 12). Feeling for Japan: Coping and Recovering from Disaster. Retrieved from Natural Choice: http://www.naturalchoice.net/blogs/greenies_0411.html
PSID. (N.d.). Recovery. Retrieved from Psychosocial Support in Disasters: http://www.psid.org.au/recovery
Territoriality, Privacy, and Personal Space
In order to comprehend territory's significance- or that of any manifestation of territory, such as states, nations, homelands or landscapes - it is expedient to start by considering the raw material that supports these structures. The raw material mentioned above is known as 'space'; it is extraordinarily difficult to give a definition to space. Through territoriality, individual places are built, and this process enables individuals to utilize the emotional and material scope of space. oundaries are created when individuals create territories; these unite as well as divide space together with all that it encompasses. y combining particular resources and some individuals and detaching them from others, symbolic meaning is given to the notion of them and us, and theirs and ours (Penrose, 2002).
With regard to space's material power, this signifies that territoriality converts resources essential to survival of human beings into our own…
Altman, I. Privacy as an interpersonal boundary process. In M. von Cranoch, K. Foppa, W. Lepenies, & D. Ploog (Eds.), Humunefhology. New York: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1979. Pp. 95- 132.
Augustin, S. (2009). Place Advantage: Applied Psychology for Interior Architecture. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell
Both, C., & Visser, M. (2003). Density Dependence, Territoriality, and Divisibility of Resources: From Optimality Models to Population Processes. The American Naturalist.
Gavison, R. (1980). Privacy and the Limits of Law. The Yale Law Journal Company, 421-471.
Corporate Social Responsibility: Its Extension to Consumer Advertising Imagery
The last few decades have seen the emergence of two trends that have important implications for the field of consumer advertising. The first trend, as indicated in Gulas and Mckeage's literature review, is a growing body of research evidence that the imagery projected in consumer advertising has psychological and sociological effects.
This indicates that consumer advertising imagery is now being measured for its possible effect on consumer psychology and social behavior. The second trend, which is related to the first, can be seen in the widely acknowledged public demand that businesses need to demonstrate their social responsibility and conscience in all forms of organizational activity. These two trends make it evident that advertisers and their agencies can no longer defend socially irresponsible advertising imagery by using the traditional argument that consumer advertising merely mirrors society. Instead, as this paper will establish,…
"The Alcoholic Beverage Industry's Commitment to Responsible Drinking." Black
Enterprise. March 1994, 24.8, 79+. Available: Questia; http:/ / www.questia.com (May 13, 2005).
Bates, Clive, and Pauline Doyle. "Tobacco Explained: Advertising." Action on Smoking and Health. Available: Internet; http://www.ash.org.uk/html/conduct/html/tobexpld4.html (March 19, 2005).
Biocca, Frank A., and Philips N. Myers, Jr. "The Elastic Body Image: The Effect of Television Advertising and Programming on Body Image Distortions in Young Women." Journal of Communication 42.3 (1992): 108 -- 130. Available: Questia; http://www.questia.com (March 19, 2005).
Psychological & Cultural Experience of the Victims of Japanese Internment
Executive Order 9066 was signed by President Roosevelt on February 19, 1942 ordering all Japanese-Americans and Americans of Japanese descent out of the Western United States and into "internment" camps in the Central region of the United States.
A public law was subsequently passed by Congress ratifying the Executive Order; Congress did not even deliberate on the passage of the law.
One hundred and twenty thousand people were ultimately incarcerated in ten internment camps without due process of law.
There, they were locked up behind barbed wire and lived in shacks unfit for human living. They were fed only at a sustenance level, and had no idea when or if they would return home.
They lost their jobs, their homes, their possessions, their pets, and their liberty -- not because of the hostile actions of a foreign power, but due…
December 3, 2002. http://www.pbs.org/childofcamp/project/index.html .
Ina, Satsuki Dr. "Symposium Comments: Tule Lake Reunion Symposium."
Internment History." PBS: Children of the Camps. PBS Organization. December 3, 2002. http://www.pbs.org/childofcamp/project/remarks.html .
Psychological and Socio-Cultural Theories of isk
Definition of isk
The term "risk" is often defined differently depending on the particular paradigm. For example, risk is economics is typically defined in terms of differences in possible monetary outcomes and individuals/corporations involved in risk -- seeking behavior are typically seeking higher monetary payoffs (Markowitz 1952). When clinical psychologists, sociologists, law enforcement officials, and lay individuals identify "risky behaviors" they are referring to a broader meaning of the term "risk." In this context behaviors and involve risk are typically defined as behaviors that can be of potential harm to the person performing them or to other people (Steinberg 2008). In this sense the term "risk" is typically viewed in terms of possible negative outcomes as opposed to some other positive outcome such as the potential monetary gain.
This particular paper will assume that the definition of risky behavior includes some type of a…
Aristotle .1998. Aristotle: The Nicomachean ethics. In Ackrill J. et al. eds. Oxford World' s
Classics. York: Oxford, pp. 229-301.
Beck, U. 1992. Risk society: Towards a new modernity. New Delhi: Sage.
Boholm, A. 1996. Risk perception and social anthropology: Critique of cultural Theory. Ethnos 61, pp. 64-84.
The recency effect: most manager at times have an overreliance on the most readily available information to make decisions, it commonly occurs when carrying out annual performance evaluations of employees where recent performance of the employees plays a major role than accomplishments that have taken place in the earlier periods of review, this has an adverse effect has it may lead to the deviation of the set desired goals. (John k.bochardt 2010)
Anchoring bias: in most cases the price tags on products often if not always affect the purchasing negations between consumers and retailers, and most of the time consumer's end up paying higher prices for the product than necessary. This notion that sometimes leads us to allow initial reference point to distort our estimates is what professor oberto refers to anchoring bias.
From a marketing point-of-view anchoring bias can come about when negotiating the renewal of a contract with…
John k.borchardt (2010): overcoming barriers to effective deciosion making. An examination of cognitive bses that cause us to make poor decisions
Retrieved from: http://www.ncmahq.org/files/Articles/CM0610%20-%2054-61.pdf
Andrew T. Chadwick and Matthew D. Segall: Overcoming psychological barriers to good discovery
Purpose: The Woodcock-Johnson III Diagnostic eading Battery's designation is for assessment and measurement of the important dimensions of phonological oral language abilities and phonological awareness, both in adult and children.
Population: Both adults and children (age of 3-80 years).
Date of Publication: 2004.
Acronym(s): WJ III (DB).
Score Scales: eading Comprehension, Basic eading Skills, Phonics Knowledge, Broad eading, Brief eading, Total eading, eading Fluency, Spelling of Words, Oral Comprehension, eading Vocabulary.
Time: 50-60 minutes.
Author (s): Fredrick, S.A., Nancy, M. & Woodcock, .C.
Publisher: iverside Publishing, Inc.
Comments: Software Scoring and Paper-and-Pencil.
Sub-tests: Passage Comprehension, Word-Letter Identification, Sound Awareness, Spelling of Sounds, Oral Vocabulary, Sound Blending.
elated eview: 1713318.
The Woodcock-Johnson III Diagnostic eading Battery is for the assessment and measurement of the important dimensions of phonological oral language abilities and phonological awareness, in both adult and children (Brande, 2008). By utilization of software scoring and the…
Risk & Needs Assessment Group. (1986). Substance Abuse Questionnaire (SAQ)-Adult
Probation III. In R.J. Nagle. (Ed.), the ninth mental measurement yearbook (Electronic
version). Retrieved from the Buros University Mental Measurement Yearbook online database.
You drove him to kill himself; and now he will be buried like a dog...
" This statement shows that the once great leader is nothing in the eyes of the white colonists. This has a trickle-down affect on those around him. When Okonkwo gave in to the struggle, those around him lost their final hope of every overcoming the colonialists.
Through an examination of two African historical novels, one can see many similarities in the psychology of change between colonialism and change management in corporate take-overs. Change begins slowly and there are always some that will readily accept the new regime and others that will put up a resistance. The reasons for resistance to change are similar to corporate change.
One can find examples of the same psychological reactions in both novels. The resistance becomes more violent as it loses ground and the total change and loss of familiar…
Achebe, C. Things Fall Apart. New York, NY: Anchor Books.
Ngugi, wa Thiong'o. Petals of Blood. New York, NY: Penguin Books.
Sdiffgy-krenke, I. Coping Styles: Does intervention change anything? Eurpoean Journal of Developmental Psychology. 1 (4): 367-382.
Winn, G.A Change in employee attitude IS possible! Change Management, Retrieved April 11,
However, his sense of self-respect is rendered incomplete because of his father. The struggle he experienced demonstrated this and though it did not define his whole being as he is now, it was the primary component in his life that made it a challenge to meet his need for esteem.
2. As the current president of the United States, Obama can be said as a successful person. However, it cannot be said that he is fulfilled and has achieved self-actualization. The absence of a father figure in Obama's life remains a struggle in his life that could determine his successful realization for self-actualization.
3. Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs demonstrates how individual needs are categorized by levels and are comprised of different factors that may or may not apply to the individual. Using the Hierarchy of Needs alone, the theory cannot explain fully Obama's psyche, personality and behavior. Maslow's theory…
Barak Obama. (2012). Biography. Retrieved: http://www.biography.com/people/barack-obama-12782369
MacFarquhar, Larissa. (2007). The conciliator. The New Yorker. Retrieved: http://www.newyorker.com/reporting/2007/05/07/070507fa_fact_macfarquhar#ixzz1pbLlZHPI
Physical and mental disorders are often comorbid, reflecting an entire system that is out of balance. A healthy state, both physically and mentally reflects a state of equilibrium and stability that every organism wishes to achieve (Wallace, 2008).When one portion of the system is out of balance, the entire system can be out of balance. The degree to which the system is out of balance determines the degree of the disturbance.
A child that has greater resilience skills can recover from a greater disturbance than a child with little resiliency. Everyone has heard stories of the rich and famous who rose up from situations of poverty and despair to become something great. This is exactly what this research is about. Eriksson's psychosocial model sets up the situation that the person must overcome. Wallace's theory on resiliency provides an understanding of what the child needs to overcome these circumstances to become…
Anthony, E., Alter, C. & Jenson, J. (2009). Development of a Risk and Resilience-Based Out-of-
School Time Program for Children and Youths. Social Work. 54 (1): 45+. Retrieved from Questia Database.
Brendtro, L. & Larson, S. (2004). The Resilience Code: Finding Greatness in Youth. Reclaiming Children and Youth. 12 (4): 194 +. Retrieved from Questia Database.
Brown, W. (2006). The Value of Role Models in Inspiring Resilience. Reclaiming Children and Youth. 14 (4): 199+. Retrieved from Questia Database.
Psychological Element in Drug Use and Dependence
Placebo, the Latin term for "I will please," refers to the psychological positive response that a patient exhibits to a non-specific treatment. It is a purely psychological element, which arises out of the patient's trust in the physician, or the belief in the positive medicinal effects of the drug. Researcher Henry eecher's famous study in 1955 showed that more than 30% of patients respond positively to a placebo. Since then, numerous studies that were focused on the effects of placebo have reported mixed results. The brain imaging study conducted by Leuchter, in 2002, revealed distinct patterns of cerebral blood flow as a response to placebo among depressed subjects. Similarly Evans (2004) reported that placebo effect was quite marked in medical conditions that involved acute phase response. (inflammtion, acute sensitivity, etc.). [Wikipedia] Since placebo trials report significant positive response (at least in one third…
1) Wikipedia, " Placebo effect," Accessed on 14th Oct 2005, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Placebo_effect
2) University of Colorado, "Psychoactive Drugs and Addiction,"
Accessed on 14th Oct 2005, psych.colorado.edu/~campeaus/2012/StudyguideExam4.PDF
3) University of Waterloo, "Biological and Psychological Models of Drug Use," Accessed on 14th Oct 2005,
My final recommendation was that the parents and Adam's teachers should work as a team to help Adam manage his condition. In other words, the parents should communicate with the teachers to determine if the interventions have been effective. I would then talk to the parents themselves every two months to make further recommendations as necessary.
While drug interventions for ADHD, especially in children, have been increasingly controversial because of their possible side-effects, their main advantage is the speed and efficacy with which they work. Those who have benefited reported that the effects were almost immediately visible, on the same day the drug was used.
On the other hand, drug therapies for any mental disorder have been imperfect and frequently plagued by side-effects and non-compliance. Continuous research is therefore necessary to improve not only drug therapies and identify potential harmful effects in the long-term, but also to find possible…
ADHD Information Library (2008). ADHD Treatment Options: many Good Choices. Newideas.Net. Retrieved from: http://newideas.net/adhd/treatment
Martin, B. (2011). Treatment for Attention Deficit Disorder (ADHD). PsychCentral. Retrieved from: http://psychcentral.com/lib/2007/treatment-for-attention-deficit-disorder-adhd/
Personal Health Lifestyles, Inc. (2001). Attention Deficit Disorder: Facts, Prevention and Treatment Strategies. Retrieved from: http://www.healingwithnutrition.com/adisease/add-adhd/add-adhd.html#A1
present this article in a scholarly fashion, which lends credibility to the authors -- an issue that is extremely crucial considering their audience. hile Germano et al. cite nearly no evidence for their argument, Lehr's article is packed with research regarding not only how students see revision and the writing process, but also about how teachers can address the problem. The information is specific, pointing to certain grade levels, activities, etc.
A closer look at these two articles, then, reveals that they have more similarities than differences. In fact, the only major difference between the two is the audience and factual information contained in the articles. In addition, these differences are warranted given the articles' different purposes. Germano et al.' s article can almost be seen as an extension of Lehr's -- encouraging professionals to take the same advice that they give their students. In fact, it is expressly because…
Germano William et al. "Revision as Writing, Writing as Revision." Modern Language
Association. 2007. 15 May 2009.
Lehr, Fran. "Revision in the Writing Process." B. NET. n.d. 15 May 2009.
What is the null and alternate hypothesis?
3. What is the correlation between student anxiety scores and number of study hours? Select alpha and interpret your findings. Make sure to note whether it is significant or not and what the effect size is.
4. How would you interpret this?
5. What is the probability of a type I error? What does this mean?
6. How would you use this same information but set it up in a way that allows you to conduct a t-test? An ANOVA?
Assignment 1 Grading Criteria
Explain why a correlation is the most appropriate statistic.
List the null and alternate hypothesis.
Compute and correctly present the correlation between student anxiety scores and number of study hours.
List the alpha, statistical significance of the results and the effect size. Provide an interpretation of the results.
List the probability of a type I error and explain what…
For instance a child performs poorly in examination and the parent decides to withdraw his promise to take the child to the zoo during the holiday.
Positive punishment; it is a process by which stimulus is immediately added after a specific behavior so that future frequency of the behavior is decreased. A good example is of a pick pocket is taken to prison and subjected to learning of a given artwork so that when he comes out of prison he can make his own money through the artwork learned.
Negative punishment; it is a process by which stimulus is removed immediately after a given behavior so that future frequency of that behavior is decreased. Example is when a student performs poorly in class and the parent decides to cut down the student pocket money, the pocket money acts as the stimulant that has been removed hence a negative punishment.
Psychological Influence of Diabetes
The National Diabetes Educational Program is under the sponsorship of the Disease control and prevention and the National institutes of health. The purpose of this joint interaction is to reduce the effects of diabetes and delay the onset of diabetes. The target audience for this program is children, Adults, families, caregivers, healthcare professionals, promoters and peers.
Diabetes as a health related issue has diverse effects on the psychological aspects of people infected. Diabetes as a disease falls into two categories: Type 1 and Type 2. Type 1 Diabetes mellitus also known as juvenile diabetes or insulin dependent diabetes is as a result of destruction of insulin producing cells of the pancreas. The lack of insulin results to an increased urine or blood glucose (Penckofer et. al., 2007). If left untreated the disease may turn out being fatal. The illness may, however, be treated by administration…
Penckofer, S., Ferrans, C.E., Velsor-Friedrich, B., & Savoy, S. (2007). The psychological impact of living with diabetes women's day-to-day experiences. The Diabetes
Educator, 33(4), 680-690.
Sepa, A., Frodi, A., Vaarala, O., & Ludvigsson, J. (2005). Diabetes-related autoimmunity in infancy Psychological stress . Diabetes care, 28(2), 290-295.
Funnell, M.M., Brown, T.L., Childs, B.P., Haas, L.B., Hosey, G.M., Jensen, B., ... & Weiss, M.A. (2009). Self-management education and National standards for diabetes. Diabetes care, 32 (1), 87-94.
Portfolio: Patients who express suicidal ideation should always be taken seriously. I have read that the greatest risk factor for suicide in previous attempts. Sometimes suicide can be considered a cry for help, and everyone who expresses some time of suicidal ideation deserves evaluation.
The form of psychotherapy I find the most appealing is the cognitive behavioral approach. It appeals to me since the focus if reparative and based on a desire to change one's behaviors which contribute to the problem which prompted therapy in the first place. Patients who engage in cognitive behavioral therapy require a certain degree of insight into how their behaviors contribute to their own emotions or feelings. The interaction of mind and body can be especially telling; many psychological disorders have physical manifestations and conversely, many chronic medical problems can also manifest emotional symptoms. Cognitive behavioral therapy allows the individual to recognize patterns…
Moscicki EK. Identification of suicide risk factors using epidemiologic studies. Psychiatr Clin North Am 1997; 20:499-517.
Bushman BJ, Peterson WC, Bonacci EA, Vasquez EA, Miller N. (2005) Chewing on it Can Chew You Up: Effects of Rumination on Triggered Displaced Aggression. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology Copyright 2005 by the American Psychological Association. Vol. 88, No. 6, 969-983
Caprara, G.V., Barbaranelli, C., & Comrey, a.L. (1992). A personological approach to the study of aggression. Personality and Individual Differences,
Only a minority of studies have found advantages in social adjustment (four of 16) or employment (three of nine, and these jobs represented mostly sheltered rather than competitive employment)."
A psychological aspect of schizophrenia involves the intervention of patients with the use of cognitive behavior therapy or CBT. Such treatment is used for those whose psychotic symptoms constantly occur despite consumption of medication. The objective of CBT is for schizophrenics who do not respond to their medication and to have their episodes of delusions and hallucinations or other distress to be decreased. As well, CBT's goal is to reduce the risk of relapse and social dysfunction. Bustillo (2001) noted such therapy centers on "rationally exploring the subjective nature of the psychotic symptoms, challenging the evidence for these, and subjecting such beliefs and experiences to reality testing."
n a study led by Kuipers, it was discovered that CBT schizophrenics demonstrated a…
In a study led by Kuipers, it was discovered that CBT schizophrenics demonstrated a significant decrease in their symptoms compared to standard treatment. In an investigation led by Tarrier, CBT has reduced incidences of patients' delusions and hallucinations compared to the results of supportive counseling and routine care. As a result, eleven out of thirty-three patients who received CBT reduced the aforementioned symptoms by 50%, and were maintained at the twelve-month follow-up. In Drury's study, CBT's effect with antipsychotic medicine on acutely psychotic inpatients recovered from their psychotic episodes more rapidly and complete. At their nine-month follow-up, 95% of CBT patients had minor or no incidences of hallucinations and delusions. However, those in the control group, 44% of schizophrenics experienced minimal aforementioned symptoms and episodes. In a study led by Buchkremer, it compared four types of interventions, two of which were CBT, to routine care. Such treatment was given over eight months, assessed after one year, and follow-up of two years. It was shown the group that received CBT with individual and family psychoeducational therapy experienced reduced hospitalizations.
In a study led by Sensky, CBT helped improve the negative and depressive symptoms of schizophrenia. As well, such stance was maintained for at least nine months post treatment. In another investigation led by Kemp, CBT treatment involving motivational interviewing techniques with adherence to the consumption of antipsychotic medication displayed improvements in patients' demeanor toward drug treatment and understanding of their illness compared to those who didn't receive such intervention.
Lewis (2005) described motivational interviewing aimed at psychotic symptom control, substance misuse, and family intervention is that is has, "been used to treat uncomplicated substance dependence. Patients are encouraged to explore the problems of their substance misuse causes and the ways in which it prevents them achieving their goals. They are also encouraged to explore how they could address these problems, including reduction in substance
Thus instrumental condition would rely on the notion that a person generates a response rather than an environmental stimulus. I have found that both people and stimulus may elicit certain behaviors both in and outside of the classroom.
Instrumental conditioning is modeled after animal experiments which showed that the individual's environment can reinforce response controls, thus the best responses occur when reinforcement of a particular behavior is given. This I have learned to be the case in the classroom most assuredly, where students are more likely to exhibit positive behaviors more frequently when they are reinforced immediately for demonstrating positive behaviors. Generally the patterns that emerge from such conditioning are self-directed, meaning that I have found that most students engage in behaviors and continue to engage in behaviors which they find result in a positive response regardless of the environment they are placed in.
With regard to controlling adverse behavior,…
Chang, Min-Yu S. (1998). "Learning Theory and Advertising." CIA Advertising. 23,
October 2004, Available: http://www.ciadvertising.org/studies/student/98_spring/theory/learning.html
Klein, S.B. (2002). "Principles and Applications of Appetitive Conditioning." Mississippi
State University. McGraw Hill. Education. 22, October, 2004, Available:
Clearly, the films Shadows, Cleo from 5 to 7 and Memories of Underdevelopment; highlights a shift that would occur in film making from: the late 1950's to the late 1960's. Where, a variety of cinematographers have begun to focus on a new type of genre that would be radically different, from the traditional films that were produced by Hollywood. As these kinds of features would discuss various social issues, that could be affecting society and the individual. This would have an impact upon film making in the future, as it would highlight vast disparities that were occurring through the use a different characters and subtle themes. This is important, because the use of these techniques, along with small hand held cameras would create a new way of entertaining a host of audiences. As it would give them the actual feelings of the main character and how the various events being…
Bradshaw, Peter.: Cleo from 5 to 7." Guardian. 29 Apr. 2010. Web. 31 Oct. 2010
Burton, Julia. "Film and Revolution in Cuba." N.d.123- 142. Print.
Carney, Ray. "The Searcher." Guardian. 21 Feb. 2004. Web. 31 Oct. 2010 .
James, David. "Underground Film: Leapfrogging from the Grave." Allgories of Cinema: American Film in the 1960's. Princeton NJ: Princeton UP, 1989. 85 -- 110. Print.
In this way, they have become familiar with each other's behavioral traits and the reasons behind these traits.
Psychodynamic aspects (Cherry, 2010) did play a role since the beginning of the relationship, but became significant only while Eric and Amanda were learning about each other on a cognitive level. Eric's fundamental insecurity regarding Amanda's relationships with other men stem not only from his first disappointment, but also from the fact that his mother abandoned him as a baby. aised by his father and stepmother, who did provide him with plenty of love and security, Eric always experienced a sense of loss and abandonment from the female gender. This broken mother-child relationship, reinforced by his disappointment at 19, has informed his relationships in later life.
Amanda in turn did not have traumatic childhood experiences. Her parents are still together and provided her with plenty of love and security during her formative…
Appraiser Central (2010). 5 Major Perspectives. Retrieved from http://www.appraisercentral.com/research/5%20Major%20Perspectives.htm
Cherry, Kendra. (2010). Perspectives in Modern Psychology. Retrieved from http://psychology.about.com/od/psychology101/a/perspectives.htm
Matheson, Kelly (2009, Jul. 27). The Psychology Behind Romantic Relationship. Retrieved from http://www.slideshare.net/guestab8f5a1/the-psychology-behind-romantic-relationships
The genders mentioned here are not entirely rigid, but it is far more common to see mothers exhibiting such behavior in these arenas. The same basic principles apply, however, where the parent uses derogatory or abusive language to drive children past what are perceived as their shortcomings. Pushing children to succeed is not abuse, but when it is done in a way that is unnecessarily cruel, it's psychological abuse.
Not all psychological abuse is situation specific, these two examples are simply easily recognized by most members of society. Many cases of psychological abuse occur across all situations, especially behind closed doors. It is the most common form of child abuse, not only because it occurs with both sexual and physical abuse but because it is often not perceived as harmful behavior simply because it leaves no outer bruises (Cook & Cook 2005, pp. 142).
Although half of all abuse cases…
Cook, J.L., & Cook, G. (2005). Child Development: Principles and Perspectives (2nd edition). New York: Allyn & Bacon Publishers.
Kairys, S. & Johnson, C. (2002). "The psychological maltreatment of children -- technical report." Pediatrics 109(4).
Psychological Parameters of Impulse Buying
Personality -- Impulse Buying
Defining the Psychological Parameters of Impulse Buying
Impulse buying (IB) represents unplanned, impulsive purchases that make little economic sense. The occasional, inexpensive impulsive purchase may do little harm and may even be healthy, but a pattern of chronic IB can lead to financial ruin. For this reason, understanding the psychological precursors for IB will be important for the creation of effective interventions. Towards this goal, the psychological states that predict IB behaviors were examined. In addition to the cognitive and affective domains included in the Impulse Buying Tendency Scale (IBTS), this study includes for the first time an analysis of the relationship between IB and the two most relevant time perspective domains of future-oriented and present-hedonistic-oriented from the Zimbardo Time Perspective Instrument (ZTPI). In addition, six questions were incorporated into the questionnaire to assess a consumer's perspective on IB consequences that…
Lin, Y.H. & Chen, C.F. (2013). Passengers' shopping motivations and commercial activities at airports -- The moderating effects of time pressure and impulse buying tendency. Tourism Management, 36, 426-34.
Silvera, DH, Lavack, A.M., & Kropp, F. (2008). Impulse buying: The role of affect, social influence, and subjective well-being. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 25(1), 23-33.
Verplanken, B. & Herabadi, A. (2001). Individual differences in impulse buying tendency: Feeling and no thinking. European Journal of Personality, 15, S71-83.
Zimbardo, P.G. & Boyd, J.N. (1999). Putting time in perspective: A valid, reliable individual-differences metric. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 77(6), 1271-88.
Client: Thank you Christina, I look forward to seeing you next week.
Zal (1990, p. 136) states that it can indeed be a very fragile and emotionally battered individual that comes to your office for evaluation. An adequate treatment plan for panic disorder must therefore comprise many specific aspects. The first of course is to make the diagnosis and share it confidently and directly with the patient. As the first person to encounter the patient with some understanding of his or her symptoms, you are in a unique position to do an enormous therapeutic service by giving them a clear, precise definition of their illness and once and for all showing them that their symptoms have meaning. Let them know that it is only since 1980 that panic disorder has a name and that it is only during this decade that even psychiatry is beginning to understand this malady.…
Austrian, S.G. (2000). Mental Disorders, Medications, and Clinical Social Work. New York: Columbia University Press. Retrieved October 4, 2005, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com /PM.qst?a=o&d=100339938 www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=85908719
Barber, J.P. & Crits-Christoph, P. (Eds.). (1995). Dynamic Therapies for Psychiatric Disorders: Axis I. New York: Basic Books. Retrieved October 4, 2005, from Questia database:
According to a 2002 survey conducted under the auspices of NIH, ecstasy abuse among college and university students in general is a widespread trend that impedes academic performance (Bar-on, 2002). The NIH survey targeted 66 4-year American universities and colleges alike. The projected findings indicated a diminishing trend in undergraduate academic performance amongst students who indulge in binge drinking and abuse ecstasy in the process. Elsewhere, a Harvard College drug study indicated persistent drug users were more likely to miss lectures and delay in their coursework than the average student (Montgomery & Fisk, 2008).
A parallel IP esearch dubbed "Predictors of academic achievement and retention among college freshmen" projected that while certain students manage to cope with the new life role upon entering college, a good number of students flunk out of college before completing their freshman year. According to this research, 75% of the freshman drop out is related…
Bar-on, R. (2002). Bar-on Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-I): Technical Manual. Toronto, Canada: Multi-Health Systems
Erikson, E (1956) "The problem of ego identity" (pdf) Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association 4: 56 -- 121
Kotter, J & Cohen, D (2002) the Heart of Change: Real-Life Stories of How People Change Their Organizations Harvard Business Review Press
Montgomery C. & Fisk J.E. (2008) "Ecstasy-related deficits in the updating component of executive processes" Human Psychopharmacology 23 (6): 495 -- 511
" (Grabel, 2004) Good institutions serve as the basis for economic growth due to right market-based and market-guided incentives being created which include those stated in this study and specifically: (1) rule of law; (2) competitive markets; (3) low taxation (4) noninflationary monetary policies; and (5) free trade. (2002) Good institutions serve to "Foster other cultural patterns of conduct, hard work, savings and industriousness, honesty and trustworthiness, creativity, and self-responsibility. These are the bases of the wealth of nations." (Easterly, 2002; as cited in: Ebeling, 2002) These tools are helpful in avoiding and mitigating economic risks in development.
Easterly, W (2002) the Elusive Quest for Growth: An Economists Adventures and Misadventures in the Tropics (Cambridge, MIT Press) Chapter 2
Krueger, a.O (1998) Why Trade Liberalization Is good for Growth, Economic Journal 108
Demetriades, P. And Hussein, K.A (1996) Does Financial Development Cause Economic Growth? Time-Series Evidence From 16 Countries,…
Easterly, W (2002) the Elusive Quest for Growth: An Economists Adventures and Misadventures in the Tropics (Cambridge, MIT Press) Chapter 2
Krueger, a.O (1998) Why Trade Liberalization Is good for Growth, Economic Journal 108
Demetriades, P. And Hussein, K.A (1996) Does Financial Development Cause Economic Growth? Time-Series Evidence From 16 Countries, Journal of Development Economics 51, pp387-411.
Grabel, I. (2003) International Private Capital Flows and Developing Countries, in H-J. Chang (ed.) Rethinking Development Economics, London: Anthem Press.
This revision, they note, was "partly in recognition of research demonstrating that traumatic events were in fact not uncommon. DSM-IV defines the traumatic stressor as when a person 'experienced, witnessed, or was confronted with an event or events that involved actual or threatened death or serious injury, or a threat to the physical integrity of self or others" (Vasterling and Brewin 6).
The diagnostic criteria established by the Fourth Edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) for PTSD state that an individual must have:
itnessed, experienced, or otherwise been confronted with an event that involved actual or possible death, grave injury, or threat to physical integrity; and,
The individual's response to such a traumatic event must include severe helplessness, fear or horror (cited in Clancy 2004).
According to Clancy (2004), a number of professions such as law enforcement, firefighters and combat veterans tend to experience a…
Baum, Andrew, Tracey a. Revenson and Jerome E. Singer. Handbook of Health Psychology. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2001.
Breton, J.J., Valla, J.P. And J. Lambert. (1993). "Industrial disaster and mental health of children and their parents. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 32: 438-445 in Richman and Fraser at 134.
Browne, Ivor. (1990). "Psychological Trauma, or Unexperienced Experience." Re-vision 12(4): 25.
Clancy, Kris. (2004, March). "Reducing Trauma's Toll: Managers in Fields Such as Security Must Be Aware of Trauma-Related Stress and Find Ways to Assist Employees in Dealing with it." Security Management 48(3): 30-31.
Long-Term Effects of Bullying
The issue of bullying has garnered increasing publicity in the media, as it is more widely acknowledged to be a serious problem and is not just a matter of 'boys being boys' or 'girls being girls.' A number of shocking cases of students who committed suicide as a result of being bullied motivated President Barak Obama to create a federal task force on the subject which cumulated in the first National Bullying Summit in August 2010. The purpose of the summit was to gather information to understand how to prevent bullying; to find better ways to intervene when it is taking place; and help students recover from the emotional damage caused by bullying.
Current existing research suggests that victims of bullying are more apt to suffer from depression and social isolation (Farrington, Loeber, Stallings, & Ttofi, 2011; Klomek, Marrocco, Kleinman, Schonfeld, & Gould, 200; Nansel et…
72% of college students self-identified as the targets of bullying during their K-12 years (Chapell, Hasselman, Kitchin, Lomon, MacIver, & Sarulla 2006). College health clinicians must be aware of long-term effects of bullying to be able to anticipate any mental health issues which arise during the transition of adolescents from high school to college (Jantzer, Hoover, & Narloch 2006). The current study will contribute to the existing literature on the phenomenon by specifically focusing on the long-term aftereffects of bullying on young adults. Social and psychological disturbances that manifest themselves during the college years and afterward must be fully comprehended by clinicians and researchers to better design both remedies and treatments (Ireland & Power, 2004; Schafer et al., 2004; Duffy & Nesdale, 2009).
Curtailing bullying and remedying its aftereffects remains an issue for schools and workplaces (O'Connell, Calvert, & Watson 2007). Bullying not a discrete problem: its can continue to haunt the victims many years later (Losel et al. 2012). Bullied college students may be inhibited in their professional and personal aspirations as a result of the psychological trauma of bullying and this victimization can continue to affect them later in life (Kshirsager, et al. 2007). This study will specifically explore freshman college students' perceptions of the long-term effects of bullying and perceptions of the severity of bullying, stratifying the opinions by gender and ethnicity. It will also seek to determine the aftereffects of being a bully and if this leads to dating or marital violence or a greater likelihood of participating in workplace harassment (Currie & Spatz Widom 2010; Farrington, Trofi & Losel 2011).
Psychology -- the Effects of Population Density and Noise
Population density affects territoriality, privacy, personal space and noise levels. These four psychological elements involve perception and high population density affects all of them in ways that are physiologically and psychologically harmful to humans. Through decades of experience and study, experts have learned to use perception to reduce the harmful effects of high population density. The introduction of nature and the use of design to create the perception of ample space can dramatically reduce the harmful effects of high population density on territoriality, privacy and personal space. In addition, the uses of noise masking and noise-absorbing materials have reduced the harmful effects of noise. Just as perception can increase harm, perception can also decrease harm.
a. Population Density
"Population density" is the number of people residing in an area divided by the size of that area (National Geographic Society). Population…
Lebednik, Christine. "Types of Noise-Absorbing Materials." n.d. www.ehow.com Web site. Web. 6 July 2014.
Merriam-Webster, Inc. "Proxemics." 2014. www.merriam-webster.com Web site. Web. 6 July 2014.
National Geographic Society. "A Look at the Population Density of the United States." 2008. http://education.nationalgeographic.com Web site. Web. 6 Hykt 2014.
ProAudioSupport. "What is auditory masking?" 2014. www.proaudiosupport.com Web site. Web. 6 July 2014.
The researcher will gather all of the information collected from the self report questionnaires and analyze using a variety of techniques including summary, interpretation, classifying and describing. The author will use the data to measure change that occurs among the populations using HT therapy.
In conducting the study the researcher will undoubtedly run into some obstacles including determining how to measure change in the participants health and well being, examining the extent of change and the attributes of change for purposes of the study (King, 2001). Measuring change is a key concept vital to longitudinal research design (Kind, 2001). As this study is qualitative in nature the data will be presented via narratives, observations and transcripts from the survey to record and measure data appropriately (King, 2001).
The researcher will attempt to explain change and identify causal relationships between the independent and dependent variables. Data managing, reading, describing,…
Baldo, T.D., Schneider, M.K, & Slyter, M. (2003). "The impact of menopause:
Implications for mental health counselors." Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 25(4): 311.
Gambacciani, M., Ciaponi, M., Cappagli, B., Monteleone, P. Benussi, C., Bevilacqua, G.,
Vacca, F., Genazzani, A.R. (2005, Feb). "Effects of low dose, continuous combined hormone replacement therapy on sleep in symptomatic postmenopausal women." Maturitas, 50(2): 91-7.
Deployment on Military Families
Cause (Deployment) Effect (Stress on Families / Children)
The stress on military families when the father or mother is deployed -- whether the deployment is to a war zone or to another place -- can be very intense and psychologically stressful. There is a great deal of literature on what military families experience before, during, and after deployment, and this paper provides several peer-reviewed articles that discuss and assess the situations that military families must deal with during deployment. Thesis: families left at home when a military parent is deployed face social and psychological issues that do not necessarily end when that parent returns from deployment; however, there are strategies to reduce the stress once the parent returns home from the deployment.
The Literature -- Psychological Adjustment for Children
The psychological adjustments that children must make -- especially children with "…preexisting psychological conditions" such as depression…
Hinojosa, Ramon, Hinojosa, Melanie Sberna, and Hognas, Robin S. "Problems with Veteran-
Family Communication During Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom
Military Deployment." Military Medicine, 177.2 (2012): 191-197.
Lincoln, Alan, Swift, Erika, and Shorteno-Fraser, Mia. "Psychological Adjustment and Treatment of Children and Families With Parents Deployed in Military Combat." Journal
Even children who do not meet the physical criteria of FAS may experience developmental delays. Children manifesting Fetal Alcohol Effects (FAE), now more commonly known as alcohol-related neuro-developmental disorder (AND) and alcohol-related birth defects (ABD), often have learning disabilities, particularly in math (FADS, 2009, CDC). They may have difficulty paying attention or exhibit hyperactive behavior. They are often quick to anger and have difficulty regulating their emotions.
Because of their hyperactivity and low frustration tolerance, children with FAS and FAE often have difficulty relating to adults and their peers in a positive manner. The child's speech and language delays can also create barriers between the child and his or her peers, as can the child's cognitive deficits.
Choosing to adopt an infant known to have FAS or an alcohol-related effect disorder is a considerable challenge. Before adopting, it may be wise to have the child…
Diagnosis: FASD. 2009, August 24). The Centers for Disease Control (CDC). Retrieved January
19, 2010 at http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/fasd/diagnosis.html
Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD). (2009, August 24). The Centers for Disease Control
(CDC). Retrieved January 19, 2010 at http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/fasd/facts.html
Mozart especially did the trick. Einstein loved Mozart's highly organized, intensely patterned sonatas. He felt, as many before him, that music and the reasoning intellect were linked. Music and his scientific work...were 'born of the same source.'" (Dowd, 2008) a report conducted by the German Ministry of Education in 2007 while failing to uphold music having a long-term influence on intelligence did state findings of a "link between musical training and IQ development." (Dowd, 2008) Dowd additionally reports that "...brain mapping has revealed that professional musicians have more grey matter in their right auditory cortex than non-musicians, as if practicing an instrument flexed a muscle in the brain." (2008) Dowd states: "It seems increasingly likely that the long-term practice of playing music, rather than merely listening, can have the kind of impact suggested by the Mozart Effect. Einstein, after all, organized his mind by playing the violin, not listening to…
Bangeter, Adrian and Health, Chip (2005) the Mozart Effect: Tracking the Evolution of a Scientific Legend. Group de Psychologie Appliquee, Universite de Neuchatel, Switzerland.
Braun, Melanie (2005) Exploring the Efficacy of Vowel Intonations. The Rose+Croix Journal 2005. Vol. 2. Online available at http://www.rosecroixjournal.com/issues/2005/articles/vol2_11_21_braun.pdf
Donald Hatch Andrews, the Symphony of Life (Unity Books, 1966), pp. 55, 58.
Dowd, Will (2008) the Myth of the Mozart Effect.- the Skeptic Magazine. 1 Jan 2008. Online Highbeam Research at http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1P3-1419874671.html
Sexual Child Abuse
Child sexual abuse involves a broad range of sexual behaviors that take place between a child and an older person. These sexual behaviors are planned to erotically stir the older person, commonly without concern for the consequences, choices, or outcome of the behavior upon the child. efinite conducts that are sexually offensive frequently involve bodily contact, such as in the state of sexual kissing, touching, fondling of genitals, and oral, anal, or vaginal contact. Nevertheless, behaviors might be sexually abusive even if they do not entail contact, such as in the case of genital exposure, verbal force for sex, and sexual abuse for purposes of prostitution or pornography.
For efinitions propose four main types of child abuse (physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse, and child neglect), but seldom if ever does one form of abuse happen alone. The suggestion in itself is illogical. Physical abuse and sexual…
Diagnostic and Treatment Guidelines on Mental Health Effects of Family Violence. American Medical Association Web Site.
McClendon, Patricia D. November (1991). MSSW candidate. Incest/sexual abuse of children. Internet. p.23. Available: http://www.clinicalsocialwork.com/incest.html
National Association of Social Worker News. (1997, February). States eye domestic abuse welfare option. NASW News, Volume 42, #7, pp11.
Violent TV Effect on Kids
Effects of Violent TV Programming and How to Impose Limitations to Exposure
"Violence on Television -- What Do Children Learn? What Can Parents Do?" By the American Psychological Association (APA) provides an introspective view into how violence on television affects children and presents an argument that exposure to violence should be monitored. Alternately, Tim Goodman provides an argument based upon personal opinions and observations in which he defends television programming and shifts the blame of exposure onto the individual. Both articles provide an insight into violence on television and what can be done to limit exposure to said violence.
In "Violence on Television -- What Do Children Learn? What Can Parents Do?," the American Psychological Association provides evidence that supports their claim that exposure to violence on television has a negative impact on children, provided these children are exposed to violent television programming. According to…
While it is logical that Holocaust survivors underwent severe alterations due to this traumatic experience, 'what is less well-known about Holocaust survivors is that the impact of the Holocaust and trauma was passed on to subsequent generations' (Bender, 205). In other words, although the children of Holocaust survivors did not directly suffer the tragedy, they nevertheless experienced it vicariously through their parents. This transmission of the influences of the Holocaust on the children of survivors has been termed transgenerational effects. 'Transgenerational effects can refer to transmission of trauma (e.g., a second generation child has nightmares of concentration camps although she never experienced the camps) as well as specific thought processes and behaviors that are thought to be passed down because of parental experiences during and after the war (e.g., a third-generation survivor believes that social status is the most important indicator of success in a particular society)' (Bender, 206).
Bender, Sarah, M. (2004). Transgenerational Effects of the Holocaust: Past, Present,
And Future. Journal of Loss and Trauma (9). Brunner-Routledge.
Eitinger, Leo Shua (1990). Survivors of Ghettos and Camps. Encyclopedia of the Holocaust (4). MacMillan Publishing Company: New York.
Kellermann, Natan, P.F. (2001). The Long-Term Psychological Effects and Treatment
hile the other characters wonder why Othello, once so strong and noble, acts horrifically to his wife before murdering her, the audience knows why: it is partially the mechanics of Iago's plot, but also Iago's cunning words and attitude that enable him to prey upon Othello's vulnerable mind. Othello has experienced slavery and discrimination from a young age, and although he tries to create the impression that peoples' racist attitudes do not matter to him, the fact that he is so easily swayed to become jealous and angry suggests that such attitudes do have an influence in shaping his mentality. "Is this the nature/hom passion could not shake?... Could neither graze nor pierce?" wonders those who observe Othello after Iago has used his deceitful persuasive strategies upon Othello's vulnerable psyche (IV.1).
alter Lee is similarly vulnerable because of his insecurities. He works all day in the service to rich individuals…
Hansberry, Lorraine. A Raisin in the Sun. Vintage, 2004.
Shakespeare, William. Othello. Shakespeare Homepage.
http://shakespeare.mit.edu/othello/index.html [February 8, 2011]
It may even be impossible to retroactively identify every influence on the development of personality. However, contemporary psychologists already understand the general patterns in which major areas of psychological influence exert themselves on the individual.
More often than not, more than one avenue of psychological inquiry is helpful. Personality development in the typical patient may have been primarily influenced by Freudian issues in infancy and subsequent specific experiences in middle childhood, and secondarily by a particular negative experience or period of conflict in the nuclear family. Therefore, in the practical sense, measuring personality development means retroactively identifying the conceptually recognized potential influences along the full spectrum of psychological approaches. y matching behavioral (and other outwardly observable) manifestations of personality formation to the identifiable potential influences, it is often possible to pinpoint the most likely route of origin for major observable elements of personality.
Toward a Cross-Culturally Appropriate Theory of Personality…
Bradshaw J. (2002). Bradshaw on: The Family. Deerfield Beach, FL: HCI.
Branden N. (2001). The Psychology of Self-Esteem. New York: Basic Books.
Gerrig R. And Zimbardo P. (2008). Psychology and Life. Princeton, NJ: Pearson.
Lewis M. And Feiring C. "Infant, Mother, and Mother-Infant Interaction Behavior and Subsequent Attachment" Child Development, Vol. 60, No. 4, (1989): 831-837.
However, as male children transition into late childhood and adolescence, they tend to withdraw from their mothers and confide much more in their fathers. In fatherless households, the male child often withdraws from the mother in much the same way, but without the option of shifting emotional connection to the father. As a result, fatherless male adolescents exhibit substantially higher rates of delinquency, alcoholism, illegal activity, and perform worse academically (Gerrig & Zimbardo, 226).
The Importance of Fatherhood for Female Children:
In female children, absentee fathers predispose them either to negative expectations or to unrealistic idealized expectations in their dating relationships with men that ultimately increase the likelihood of disappointment and by virtue of multiple mechanisms that undermine those relationships (annon & Southern, 22-3). Typically, females raised without their fathers select emotionally unavailable partners who will allow them to reenact the male abandonment they experienced as children. Alternately, they may…
Bannon, Jill a. And Southern, Mara L. "Father-absent women: Self-concept and modes of relating to men" Sex Roles, February, 1980. Branden, Nathaniel. The Psychology of Romantic Love. New York: Bantam (1999).
Gerrig, Richard J. And Phillip G. Zimbardo. Psychology and Life. 17th Edition. New York: Allyn & Bacon (2005).
Kasl, Charlotte Davis. Women, Sex, and Addiction. New York: Harper & Row (1998).
Wen, Ming. "Single-Parent Family Structure, Child Development, and Child's Well- being" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association, Marriott Hotel, Loews Philadelphia Hotel, Philadelphia, PA, Aug 12, 2005.
Method: I will use both the descriptive and the interpretive method. I will use psychological studies discussing the arguments mentioned above, as well as practical case studies. I will use the interview as an instrument in order to perform a small scale research among the people I know to see if the conclusions of other studies in the field are similar to mine. I will try to keep an impartial point-of-view and at the same time provide some relevant personal opinions.
Limitations: he limitations of the research reside in the impossibility to conduct a large scale applied research.
Delimitations: he research will try to reach relevant conclusions regarding the motivation that pushes people to exercise (or not).
Allen, J.B. Sport and exercise psychology, Perception of coaches social environment: supporting or thwarting women coaches pshychological needs-Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 2008, 30(Suppl.), S146-S215, http://hk.humankinetics.com/eJournalMedia/pdfs/15776.pdf
Exercise psychology tip no 5:How…
The journal of sport and exercise psychology, Human Kinetics Journals, http://journals.humankinetics.com/JSEP
Turner, A. An investigation into the relationship between physical activity and happiness in adults, http://chesterrep.openrepository.com/cdr/bitstream/10034/78653/1/introductory%20materials.pdf ,
Why do people exercise? Americanheart.org, http://www.americanheart.org/presenter.jhtml?identifier=3003225
Slavery, and its negative (and positive) effects on society, is not nearly as pervasive in today's modern world as it has been in previous centuries. One expert writes "early Christians repeatedly conceived of sin and salvation in terms of slavery and freedom" (DeWet, 2010, p. 27) and that "in fact, slavery had become so embedded in the ancient conceptual reality that it played an integral part in the cosmologies and theories of politics of even the most prominent of thinkers" (p. 27). A society such as the one described by the prominent thinkers of those days was a society that was far more advanced than most people like to imagine, and much of the overall growth of the society was a direct result of the slavery environment. A vast majority of the citizens owned slaves (while the remaining individuals were likely to be slaves).
Slaves could be bought and sold,…
De Wet, C.L.; (2010) Sin as slavery and/or slavery as sin? On the relationship between slavery and Christian hamartiology in late ancient Christianity, Religion & Theology, Vol. 17, Issue 1/2, pp. 26-39
Martin, B.; (201) Slavery's invisible engine: Mortgaging human property, Journal of Southern History, Vol.76, No. 4, pp. 817 -- 866
Rush, D.; (2011) In remembrance of slavery, African Arts, Vol. 44, Issue 1, pp. 40-51
Traylor, R.D.; (2011) Liberty and slavery: The peculiar institution in Liberty (and Chambers) County, Texas, East Texas Historical Journal, Vol. 49, Issue 1, pp. 109-134
psychological experiment. The experiment in question studied the effect of maternal stress reduction, during pregnancy, on the health of their children, at one year of age. In this paper, I will apply my understanding of some fundamental principles of proper psychological research and the principles of critical thinking.
First, I will discuss the independent variable, and possible ways the researchers' treatment of this variable may have invalidated their claimed outcome. Further, I will discuss construct and internal validity. Finally, I will investigate possible extraneous variables that may invalidate the researchers' claimed outcome of the research study. I conclude that the researchers claimed outcome results from flawed research practices and design, and that their claimed outcome is therefore, highly questionable.
The experiment analysed in a research study about preparing for parenthood. The research study focuses on the effect of maternal meditation and stress reduction on the health of their children. The…
Christensen, L.B. 1991. Experimental Methodology, 5th Edition. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
As one study states, "Suicide rates for te elderly, tirty-five per 100,000 are iger tan any oter age group..." (Oriol W.) a study by Butler, Lewis and Sunderland (1991) also amplifies tis data and refers to te increase of depressive moods in te elderly wic can also lead to extreme states of stress. Tese factors are obviously compounded by te events and trauma in natural disasters and can lead to severe psycological problems in te elderly.
Anoter factor tat is often mentioned is transfer trauma. Tis occurs wen te elderly ave to be suddenly moved from teir normal environment or ome during disasters. Tis can cause extreme stress and disorientation in older people, wo ave become dependent and accustomed to teir surrounding and may fear losing teir support system.
In conclusion, all of te above factors empasize tat natural disasters can increase and exacerbate stress and anxiety in te elderly…
World Health Organisation. (1995) the world health report 1995: bridging the gaps. Geneva: WHO, 1995.
In the United States the percentage of people 65 or older increased from 4% in 1900 to about 13% in the late 1990s. In 1900, only about 3 million of the nation's people had reached 65. By 1998, the number of senior citizens had increased to about 34 million. Population experts estimate that more than 50 million Americans -- about 17% of the population -- will be 65 or older in 2020." (Old age)
Psychological Efficacy of Debriefing for Trauma & Stress
Author's Note with contact information and more details of collegiate affiliation, etc.
The paper will describe what debriefing is. The paper will discuss the nature and prevalence of trauma in American life and culture. The paper will go on to estimate what psychologists are doing to combat this epic rise in traumatic experience, which can lead to stress disorders affecting the daily lives of many. Thus, not only are people victims of trauma, but also, with improper or no treatment, these people can fall victim again to a trauma related disorder. The paper will talk about why and how psychologists are dealing with all these instances of trauma. The paper will summarize two scholarly articles that offer perspective on the issue of trauma and debriefing as treatment. After providing concise summaries of the articles, the paper will provide a comparative analysis of…
Raphael, B., Meldrum, L., & McFarlane, A.C. (June 10, 1995) Does debriefing after psychological trauma work?: Time for randomised controlled trials. British Medical Journal. 310(1). 1479 -- 1480.
Rose, S.C., Bisson, J., & Wessely, S. (2009) Psychological debriefing for preventing post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The Cochrane Collaboration. The Cochrane Library, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 1(1). 1 -- 46.
The opposing side, which sports a more eclectic set of disciplinary backgrounds and prides itself on a more sophisticated and inclusive perspective, divides human abilities into broad classes -- logical, spatial, interpersonal, verbal, etc. -- and labels each class an "intelligence." The two sides then proceed to talk past each other. (Casse, 1998, p. 33)
The resulting controversy then falls back to the idea of socio-cultural differences, and race/gender/culture/environment. (Skidmore & Aagaard, 2004, p. 304) Casse claims that by differing on core definitions of intelligence scientists are not good at comparing anything but data or defining concepts,
Scientists make bad dictionary writers and worse philosophers. Their main skills are in constructing experiments and generating explanations for what they observe. Neither of these endeavors requires agreement on what the words involved "mean" in any deep or absolute sense, only on ways of converting the elements of the theory at issue into…
Casse, D. (1998, August). IQ since "The Bell Curve." Commentary, 106, 33.
Intelligence. (2004). In the Columbia Encyclopedia (6th ed.). New York: Columbia University Press.
Daly, W.C. (1997). Some Mentally Retarded Children Can Benefit from Placement with Peers. Education, 117(4), 553.
Figueroa, R.A. (1989). Psychological Testing of Linguistic-Minority Students: Knowledge Gaps and Regulations. Exceptional Children, 56(2), 145.
How do employees adjust and how might it affect their attitudes toward their jobs? Have you had this type of conversation with a supervisor, and if so, what was the outcome?
Because of the fear of not being hired, few employees (including myself) are willing to discuss initial expectations with a supervisor upon entry into a company. However, during performance reviews, provided the relationship with the supervisor is strong, the topic of opportunities regarding personal growth may be broached. There is always reluctance even then about making the discussion too 'personal.' In some instances, this discussion can be a positive experience for employees, as it can enable them to be more honest in a workplace context. Other employees, particularly if they are not a good fit with the organizational culture to begin with, or do not have warm relations with their supervisor, may feel uncomfortable with such a discussion.