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The purpose is to determine whether the "face-processing system of humans" and in this case, the tamarin, share characteristics.
By finding out if humans' face-processing systems and the face-processing systems of the tamarin are similar, the researchers will be more readily be able to allow "early and quick processing of socially salient stimuli" (Neiworth, et al., 2003). Do humans and primate share sensitivity toward "conspecific faces" (i.e., faces of the same species), and do they share an ability to "generalize changes in the face that do not suggest a new identity" (Neiworth). The researchers presented the subjects (a human and taramin) with "a human face, chimpanzee face, taramin face, or an object as a sample." The faces were either in an upright position, or inverted in the next phase of the research.
Conclusion: The above-mentioned research is an example of a totally ethical, well-managed psychological experiment. The results showed that…… [Read More]
Psychological Research and Patient-Practitioner Interaction
The work of Like and Zyzanski (2002) reports that patient-practitioner transactions in the ambulatory setting have gained in importance in the research as there is "empirical support for our anecdotal, common-sense notions that clinical encounter experiences are a major determinant of outcomes such as the patient's satisfaction with the encounter. The study is reported to examine the issue of patient-physician encounter and asks the questions of: 1) Is there a relationship between fulfillment of patient requests for services and patient satisfaction with the clinical encounter? And (2) What degree of satisfaction is explained by the qualities of the encounter as compared to the characteristics of the patient, physician, and system of health care? (Like and Zyzanski, 2002) A study of 144 adult patients and their physicians was conducted and it is reported "at least 19% of the variance in patient satisfaction could be attributed to…… [Read More]
We have also talked about the "blue print" of a study, or the logical model of proof which guides the researcher throughout the entire study -- i.e. The research design. It is by which the investigator determines the relationships between variables being tested. We have discussed true experiments, its nature and validity issues as well as quasi-experimental designs. We also provided a discussion of the difference between these two designs.
What is worth nothing, I believe, is the importance of a good research design. A good research design theoretically leads to good data. Hence, during the conceptualization of research design, careful thought needs to be employed.
Lastly, our research considerations, on which kind of statistical tool to use, whether to use sample or population, and/or which research design to employ, should always be anchored in our research objectives, on the things that we aim to know through the study.
eferences…… [Read More]
According to Batson, when does this happen?
According to Batson, one of the core reasons that human tend to help others is out of a sense of empathy. This is an emotional trigger that causes us to relate to the needs of others.
How do sociobiologists use the concepts of kin selection and the reciprocity norm to explain human prosocial behavior?
Sociobiologists argue that in the acts of both kin selection and reciprocity norm, human beings are motivated to good behavior by the interest of survival. For instance, with kin selection, perpetuation of the species promotes civil behavior in the interests of courtship.
Are school shootings such as the Columbine Massacre simply the result of deranged individuals acting independently? hat does social psychology suggest about why school shootings occur and about how the problem might be addressed?
School shooting are the product of a sociocultural environment where exclusion and alienation…… [Read More]
This literature review upon human memory will cover a fairly wide spectrum of ideas regarding the subject. While there will be a number of connections among the divisions or categories of this literature review, there will certainly be several distinctions or differences among them. The psychological research a part of the review will span, roughly, the duration of the 21st century thus far, with a few sources of research having taken place in 1999, just before the turn of the century. The review will approach the selected body of psychological research on human memory by dividing the research loosely into the following sections: memory distortion, repressed memories, body memory, and the changes in perspective on memory with respect to appropriate psychological/psychotherapeutic treatment.
The section of the review that focuses upon memory distortion will identify that memory distortion does, in fact, occur. The research presented in that section…… [Read More]
For that reason, employers routinely provide stress-management programs for their employees (Archer, 2005; Probst, 2005; ichardson & othstein, 2008) and some hospitals have begun implementing stress-relieving programs and services because patient stress has been demonstrated empirically to inhibit recovery and suppress the immune system (Archer, 2005).
Strategies for educing Stress
There are many different strategies for reducing stress, depending on the type of stress involved and the source of its origin (Probst, 2010). In general, some kinds of stress can be reduced by making changes that address their source; meanwhile, other kinds of stress cannot necessarily be reduced at their source but their negative effects on the individual can be reduced through the use of coping strategies (Probst, 2005; ichardson & othstein, 2008). For example, certain kinds of self-induced stress (such as fear of failure, social anxiety, and performance anxiety) can be addressed by cognitive psychological therapy. Other kinds of…… [Read More]
psychological experiment. The experiment in question studied the effect of maternal stress reduction, during pregnancy, on the health of their children, at one year of age. In this paper, I will apply my understanding of some fundamental principles of proper psychological research and the principles of critical thinking.
First, I will discuss the independent variable, and possible ways the researchers' treatment of this variable may have invalidated their claimed outcome. Further, I will discuss construct and internal validity. Finally, I will investigate possible extraneous variables that may invalidate the researchers' claimed outcome of the research study. I conclude that the researchers claimed outcome results from flawed research practices and design, and that their claimed outcome is therefore, highly questionable.
The experiment analysed in a research study about preparing for parenthood. The research study focuses on the effect of maternal meditation and stress reduction on the health of their children. The…… [Read More]
However, his sense of self-respect is rendered incomplete because of his father. The struggle he experienced demonstrated this and though it did not define his whole being as he is now, it was the primary component in his life that made it a challenge to meet his need for esteem.
2. As the current president of the United States, Obama can be said as a successful person. However, it cannot be said that he is fulfilled and has achieved self-actualization. The absence of a father figure in Obama's life remains a struggle in his life that could determine his successful realization for self-actualization.
3. Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs demonstrates how individual needs are categorized by levels and are comprised of different factors that may or may not apply to the individual. Using the Hierarchy of Needs alone, the theory cannot explain fully Obama's psyche, personality and behavior. Maslow's theory…… [Read More]
It is also interesting to note that the correlation between depression and childhood sexual abuse was found to be higher among females in many studies.
However, the issue of the relationship between depression and sexual abuse may not be as clear-cut as the above studies suggest. Recent research has begun to question this correlation and has produced findings that suggest that there are many other parameters and variables that should be considered. This is especially the case with regard to the view that childhood sexual abuse necessarily leads to depression in adulthood. As one report claims, "...there is accumulating evidence to contradict these claims" (Roosa,
Reinholtz, (Angelini, 1999). However the majority of studies indicate that there is a strong possibility that children who are sexually abused experience symptoms of depression that can extend into adulthood.
3.1. What is PTSD?
Post Traumatic Stress Disorder is a disorder that has shown…… [Read More]
Psychological and Socio-Cultural Theories of isk
Definition of isk
The term "risk" is often defined differently depending on the particular paradigm. For example, risk is economics is typically defined in terms of differences in possible monetary outcomes and individuals/corporations involved in risk -- seeking behavior are typically seeking higher monetary payoffs (Markowitz 1952). When clinical psychologists, sociologists, law enforcement officials, and lay individuals identify "risky behaviors" they are referring to a broader meaning of the term "risk." In this context behaviors and involve risk are typically defined as behaviors that can be of potential harm to the person performing them or to other people (Steinberg 2008). In this sense the term "risk" is typically viewed in terms of possible negative outcomes as opposed to some other positive outcome such as the potential monetary gain.
This particular paper will assume that the definition of risky behavior includes some type of a…… [Read More]
In conclusion, both juvenile sex offenders and victims of sexual abuse need to undergo treatment and counselling. The importance of treating victims of sex abuse is to ensure that the "cycle of abuse" ceases and that they can recover from their ordeal and lead normal lives. The treatment of juvenile sex offenders is to ensure their rehabilitation, depending on the problem and also separate them from the rest of society.
California Dept. Of Justic, (n.d). Megan's Law - Facts about Sex Offenders -- California
Department of Justice. etrieved April 13, 2010, from http://www.meganslaw.ca.gov/facts.htm
Harrison, L. (2009). The Ambiguity of Juvenile Sexual Offenders. Internet Journal of Criminology, 7, 1-29. etrieved April 14, 2010, from http://www.internetjournalofcriminology.com/Harrison_Juvenile_Sexual_Offenders_J
Herrmann B, Navratil F. (2004). Sexual Abuse in Pre-pubertal Children and Adolescents.
Sultan C (Editor) Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology: Evidence-Based Clinical
Practice. Pakistan: Endocr Dev, Basel, Karger
Hunter, J.A. (2000). Understanding Juvenile Sex Offenders:…… [Read More]
For instance a child performs poorly in examination and the parent decides to withdraw his promise to take the child to the zoo during the holiday.
Positive punishment; it is a process by which stimulus is immediately added after a specific behavior so that future frequency of the behavior is decreased. A good example is of a pick pocket is taken to prison and subjected to learning of a given artwork so that when he comes out of prison he can make his own money through the artwork learned.
Negative punishment; it is a process by which stimulus is removed immediately after a given behavior so that future frequency of that behavior is decreased. Example is when a student performs poorly in class and the parent decides to cut down the student pocket money, the pocket money acts as the stimulant that has been removed hence a negative punishment.
The…… [Read More]
My final recommendation was that the parents and Adam's teachers should work as a team to help Adam manage his condition. In other words, the parents should communicate with the teachers to determine if the interventions have been effective. I would then talk to the parents themselves every two months to make further recommendations as necessary.
While drug interventions for ADHD, especially in children, have been increasingly controversial because of their possible side-effects, their main advantage is the speed and efficacy with which they work. Those who have benefited reported that the effects were almost immediately visible, on the same day the drug was used.
On the other hand, drug therapies for any mental disorder have been imperfect and frequently plagued by side-effects and non-compliance. Continuous research is therefore necessary to improve not only drug therapies and identify potential harmful effects in the long-term, but also to find possible…… [Read More]
Psychological Foundations Towards Education
Major characteristics of Freud's theory and Erikson's theory
Looking at pages 143-164 of the article, Freud and Erikson address the basic issue of self-definition. According to Freud believes that a person's sense of self stems from parental projections in the course of the genesis of super-ego. In addition, he argues that these introjects form the foundation of a person's self-definition in childhood and that such parental identifications are not significantly updated or revised during childhood or adolescence. Either way, an individual's self-concept is believed to be a function of the fundamental identification process, which takes place during one's pre-school years. Although Freud has extensively written on the human development process, Erikson was the pioneer in writing about the formation of identities. In his works, Erikson has gone far and beyond Freud's parental introjects and childhood identifications (Austrian 37). He argues that the presence of self-selected identity…… [Read More]
Psychological tests are an important aspect of clinical psychology. Psychological tests are normally administered by professional psychologists as a way of learning fact on how people function or in predicting their future. The paper will look at the definition of the term test, give a description of the major categories of tests while identifying the major uses and users of these tests. There will also be comparing and contrasting the concepts of validity and reliability and a discussion of how they affect the psychological testing field.
Definition of tests
A test or examination is defined as an assessment aimed at measuring the knowledge, aptitude, skill, physical fitness or classification in other different topics. Tests can be administered orally, by use of a paper, computer or in the confinement of a specific area which requires the person taking the test to physically perform a specific set of skills. Tests…… [Read More]
The recency effect: most manager at times have an overreliance on the most readily available information to make decisions, it commonly occurs when carrying out annual performance evaluations of employees where recent performance of the employees plays a major role than accomplishments that have taken place in the earlier periods of review, this has an adverse effect has it may lead to the deviation of the set desired goals. (John k.bochardt 2010)
Anchoring bias: in most cases the price tags on products often if not always affect the purchasing negations between consumers and retailers, and most of the time consumer's end up paying higher prices for the product than necessary. This notion that sometimes leads us to allow initial reference point to distort our estimates is what professor oberto refers to anchoring bias.
From a marketing point-of-view anchoring bias can come about when negotiating the renewal of a contract with…… [Read More]
but, the interesting thing is that their peers, family, friends and young boys are basing their opinion of what these girls should look like from what they see in the media.
Main Cause of Poor ody Images in Young Girls
The media has been with us for years and it is here to stay. There are good aspects of this industry because it serves to keep us informed and aware of what is happening in the world around us. The media can also be viewed negatively because of some of the television programs that are out there today. Technology is so advanced that we can now watch our favorite television shows and read our favorite fashion magazines right from our cell phones. We can assume that as the years go by, technology will get more advanced and the role of the media will become even more prominent.
Such outlets as…… [Read More]
Physical and mental disorders are often comorbid, reflecting an entire system that is out of balance. A healthy state, both physically and mentally reflects a state of equilibrium and stability that every organism wishes to achieve (Wallace, 2008).When one portion of the system is out of balance, the entire system can be out of balance. The degree to which the system is out of balance determines the degree of the disturbance.
A child that has greater resilience skills can recover from a greater disturbance than a child with little resiliency. Everyone has heard stories of the rich and famous who rose up from situations of poverty and despair to become something great. This is exactly what this research is about. Eriksson's psychosocial model sets up the situation that the person must overcome. Wallace's theory on resiliency provides an understanding of what the child needs to overcome these circumstances to become…… [Read More]
Ultimately, it may be the greatest measure of humanity that we recognize that the relevance of animal sentience in relation to our needs is not a function of their similarity to us or of our chosen relationships with them.
Coren, Stanley. (1995). The Intelligence Of Dogs: A Guide To The Thoughts, Emotions,
And Inner Lives Of Our Canine Companions. New York: Bantam
Gatchel, Robert J.; Polatin, Peter B.; and Kinney, Regina K. "Predicting Outcome of Chronic Back Pain Using Clinical Predictors of Psychopathology: A Prospective Analysis." Health Psychology, 1995 14 (5): 415-420.
Hoffman, Benson M.; Papas, Rebecca K.; Chatkoff, David K.; and Kerns, Robert D.
"Meta-Analysis Of Psychological Interventions For Chronic Low Back Pain."
Health Psychology, 2007 26 (1): 1-9.
Jensen, Maureen C.; Brant-Zawadzki, Michael N.; Obuchowski, Nancy; Modic, Michael
T. Malkasian, Dennis, and Ross, Jeffrey S. "Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Lumbar Spine in People without Back…… [Read More]
It also promotes research in the field and therefore the improvement of the research methods and applications. Other ways in which the Association improves the understanding and use of knowledge in the field is by means of meetings, contacts, reports, papers, discussion and publication (American Psychological Association, 2012).
The APA is governed by volunteer governance members, who are responsible for the direction of the advocacy, publishing, member service, and other functions of the APA. Specifically, the governance members include a Council of epresentatives, whose responsibility includes approving policy and the appropriation of revenues. The Board of Directors is elected by members and administers the functions of the Council of epresentatives. The APA president is an annual position that is filled by a person who is elected by the membership. The president provides a leadership contact for the Association. Other ruling parties include committees, boards and task forces with specific functions…… [Read More]
Psychological contracts are a good way of thinking when it comes to the exchange or relationship between an organization and employees. Psychological contracts refer to the perception an employee has when it comes to his or her exchange relationship with the organization; the outcomes promised by the organization and the contribution an employee is obliged to make (Pp 4)
Organizations can play an active and important role in shaping their members' Psychological Contracts. This is because there are outcomes that are part and parcel of employees' psychological contracts and thus central when it comes to the exchange of relationships with their employees.one such outcome is career opportunities not only to the job an individual holds currently but the job one expects to advance into over the course of their career. Career opportunities include getting promotions, having the opportunity of working in the kind of work one wants to do, receiving…… [Read More]
You drove him to kill himself; and now he will be buried like a dog...
" This statement shows that the once great leader is nothing in the eyes of the white colonists. This has a trickle-down affect on those around him. When Okonkwo gave in to the struggle, those around him lost their final hope of every overcoming the colonialists.
Through an examination of two African historical novels, one can see many similarities in the psychology of change between colonialism and change management in corporate take-overs. Change begins slowly and there are always some that will readily accept the new regime and others that will put up a resistance. The reasons for resistance to change are similar to corporate change.
One can find examples of the same psychological reactions in both novels. The resistance becomes more violent as it loses ground and the total change and loss of familiar…… [Read More]
Psychological Influence of Diabetes
The National Diabetes Educational Program is under the sponsorship of the Disease control and prevention and the National institutes of health. The purpose of this joint interaction is to reduce the effects of diabetes and delay the onset of diabetes. The target audience for this program is children, Adults, families, caregivers, healthcare professionals, promoters and peers.
Diabetes as a health related issue has diverse effects on the psychological aspects of people infected. Diabetes as a disease falls into two categories: Type 1 and Type 2. Type 1 Diabetes mellitus also known as juvenile diabetes or insulin dependent diabetes is as a result of destruction of insulin producing cells of the pancreas. The lack of insulin results to an increased urine or blood glucose (Penckofer et. al., 2007). If left untreated the disease may turn out being fatal. The illness may, however, be treated by administration…… [Read More]
Christ Stout (2002), writing on the psychology of terrorism in his book, the Psychology of Terrorism: Programs and Practices in Response and Prevention Vol. 4, discusses in detail the social-psychological considerations in the emergence and proliferation of terrorist activity (p. 23). He writes, "Terrorist usually act as groups or in groups that have common interests and goals. They also act as individuals when overwhelmingly backed and inspired by their groups. Terrorist acts can also be carried out overtly or covertly and violently or nonviolently (p. 24)."
Applying psychological understanding to the forecasting process, using this kind of information, it becomes possible to focus on the sources, and, from those sources, to trace information that can lead to planned acts of terrorism against an unsuspecting public. Combining the psychological understanding of the nature of the terrorists, in conjunction with the source, such as the internet, and using high technology, "chatter" can…… [Read More]
Psychological Parameters of Impulse Buying
Personality -- Impulse Buying
Defining the Psychological Parameters of Impulse Buying
Impulse buying (IB) represents unplanned, impulsive purchases that make little economic sense. The occasional, inexpensive impulsive purchase may do little harm and may even be healthy, but a pattern of chronic IB can lead to financial ruin. For this reason, understanding the psychological precursors for IB will be important for the creation of effective interventions. Towards this goal, the psychological states that predict IB behaviors were examined. In addition to the cognitive and affective domains included in the Impulse Buying Tendency Scale (IBTS), this study includes for the first time an analysis of the relationship between IB and the two most relevant time perspective domains of future-oriented and present-hedonistic-oriented from the Zimbardo Time Perspective Instrument (ZTPI). In addition, six questions were incorporated into the questionnaire to assess a consumer's perspective on IB consequences that…… [Read More]
This point also emphasizes a cardinal aspect in the recent literature. There has been an increasing research focus on a more discursive and holistic approach which should be adopted in dealing with PTSD and related areas of psychological concern. At present the research into the field is an ongoing process which must be continually updated. The literature also leaves little doubt that PTSD and other related psychological problems as result of the Iraq war can no longer be ignored.
Casualties of war. April 21, 2007. http://www.theage.com.au/news/world/casualties-of-war/2005/10/26/1130302840559.html?page=3
Hare M. 2007. Army psychologist using new ways to treat
Stress. April 20, 2007. http://www.democratandchronicle.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20070422/NES0201/704220321/-1/COLUMNS
Finer J. 2006. Frontline Care for 'At Risk' Soldiers: Army Effort Treats
Psychological Trauma at Source. April 20, 2007. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/06/07/AR2006060702390_pf.html
Friedman M.J. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: An Overview. Retrieved April 20, 2007, at http://www.vac-acc.gc.ca/clients/sub.cfm?source=mhealth/factsheets/overview
Foa, E., & Meadows, E. (1997). Psychosocial Treatments for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Critical…… [Read More]
present this article in a scholarly fashion, which lends credibility to the authors -- an issue that is extremely crucial considering their audience. hile Germano et al. cite nearly no evidence for their argument, Lehr's article is packed with research regarding not only how students see revision and the writing process, but also about how teachers can address the problem. The information is specific, pointing to certain grade levels, activities, etc.
A closer look at these two articles, then, reveals that they have more similarities than differences. In fact, the only major difference between the two is the audience and factual information contained in the articles. In addition, these differences are warranted given the articles' different purposes. Germano et al.' s article can almost be seen as an extension of Lehr's -- encouraging professionals to take the same advice that they give their students. In fact, it is expressly because…… [Read More]
Portfolio: Patients who express suicidal ideation should always be taken seriously. I have read that the greatest risk factor for suicide in previous attempts. Sometimes suicide can be considered a cry for help, and everyone who expresses some time of suicidal ideation deserves evaluation.
The form of psychotherapy I find the most appealing is the cognitive behavioral approach. It appeals to me since the focus if reparative and based on a desire to change one's behaviors which contribute to the problem which prompted therapy in the first place. Patients who engage in cognitive behavioral therapy require a certain degree of insight into how their behaviors contribute to their own emotions or feelings. The interaction of mind and body can be especially telling; many psychological disorders have physical manifestations and conversely, many chronic medical problems can also manifest emotional symptoms. Cognitive behavioral therapy allows the individual to recognize patterns…… [Read More]
In this way, they have become familiar with each other's behavioral traits and the reasons behind these traits.
Psychodynamic aspects (Cherry, 2010) did play a role since the beginning of the relationship, but became significant only while Eric and Amanda were learning about each other on a cognitive level. Eric's fundamental insecurity regarding Amanda's relationships with other men stem not only from his first disappointment, but also from the fact that his mother abandoned him as a baby. aised by his father and stepmother, who did provide him with plenty of love and security, Eric always experienced a sense of loss and abandonment from the female gender. This broken mother-child relationship, reinforced by his disappointment at 19, has informed his relationships in later life.
Amanda in turn did not have traumatic childhood experiences. Her parents are still together and provided her with plenty of love and security during her formative…… [Read More]
Psychological tests are commonly used to establish individual capabilities and characteristics. Such inference is derived as a result of collecting, integrating and interpreting information about a person (Marnat, 2009). It constitutes measuring variables through the use of procedures and devices crafted to demonstrate a person's behavior (Cohen & Swerdlik, 2009). Assessment of personality is, ideally, the measuring and evaluating of psychological aspects such as one's values, states, world view, personal identity, acculturation, behavior styles, sense of humor and the related characteristics of an individual (Cohen & Swerdlik, 2009). Personality tests are designed to determine the character of a human being or their disposition. The initial personality tests were designed to examine and predict disorders of clinical nature. The tests are still useful today and are applied to determine cases in need of counseling. The latest personality tests are used to measure normal characteristics (Miller, Mclntire, & Lovler, 2011).…… [Read More]
It is essential that such risks be managed in an appropriate and targeted way.
One way in which to mitigate the risk of problematic interpersonal relationships within the workplace is by means of both formal and informal gatherings. Informal gatherings are beneficial in terms of helping employees to become familiar with each other in a context other than work. Work parties and lunches can for example be used in this way. This kind of informal gathering is perhaps best instituted when there is not a large amount of tension between workers.
For greater tension levels, more formal measures can be taken. Seminars presented by human relations experts can for example help to teach employees the importance of functioning within a diverse environment. Such seminars should be presented in such a way as to not threaten employees or their attitudes, but rather to gradually change their attitudes. Seminars can for example…… [Read More]
" (Grabel, 2004) Good institutions serve as the basis for economic growth due to right market-based and market-guided incentives being created which include those stated in this study and specifically: (1) rule of law; (2) competitive markets; (3) low taxation (4) noninflationary monetary policies; and (5) free trade. (2002) Good institutions serve to "Foster other cultural patterns of conduct, hard work, savings and industriousness, honesty and trustworthiness, creativity, and self-responsibility. These are the bases of the wealth of nations." (Easterly, 2002; as cited in: Ebeling, 2002) These tools are helpful in avoiding and mitigating economic risks in development.
Easterly, W (2002) the Elusive Quest for Growth: An Economists Adventures and Misadventures in the Tropics (Cambridge, MIT Press) Chapter 2
Krueger, a.O (1998) Why Trade Liberalization Is good for Growth, Economic Journal 108
Demetriades, P. And Hussein, K.A (1996) Does Financial Development Cause Economic Growth? Time-Series Evidence From 16 Countries,…… [Read More]
Ethics of Marketing esearch in the Internet Era
Increasingly, management is being taken to be a critical production factor alongside the other factors of production. It therefore follows that the success of a business enterprise is largely hinged on the ability of management to make superior decisions. However, for managers to make effective decisions, they not only need a supportive decision making environment but also a set of tools to enhance their ability to correctly analyze and interpret information so as to advance the agenda of the business in an increasingly competitive marketplace. Marketing research is one such tool.
Marketing esearch as a Management Tool
The relevance of marketing research as a decision making tool for management cannot be overstated. According to Blankenship, Breen and Dutka (1998), marketing research can be taken to be "the systematic design, collection, analysis, and reporting of data and findings relevant to a specific situation…… [Read More]
What are the most important requisite skills required of organizational leaders? Why? How do effective and ineffective leadership behaviors affect employees both positively and negatively?
The most important skill of an organizational leader is to be able to motivate people, contrary to the assumption leadership is synonymous with telling people what to do in an authoritative fashion. Although in some limited instances, when a matter is urgent and followers are inexperienced, authoritarian leadership may be required, for the most part, people work best when they feel empowered to do so. According to Hersey-Blanchard leadership theory (2018), the four dominant modes of leadership include telling, selling, supporting and delegating. All too often, leaders assume that more telling is needed than actually is required. Employees need to be empowered and motivated to make positive choices to act autonomously, and even when they are inexperienced, coaching and mentorship is often more effective than…… [Read More]
Psychology -- Contribution of Psychological Experiments
Philip anyard explains how Stanley Milgram came to be involved with research regarding the Nazi slaughter of millions of people in Europe during World War II. Milgram's obedience study of course had emotional and cultural meaning for him because he is Jewish. In fact he feels blessed that even though his family roots were in Europe in proximity to where the Holocaust took place, he was born in the U.S. And hence avoided the Nazi madness. What is the value of Milgram's research experiments? That is the crux of this section -- the value of Milgram's research into why people are obedient at pivotal moments -- including moments when human lives are at stake.
What does this particular method allow psychologists to study? In the first place, having someone in a room by himself giving shocks to a person he cannot see, a person…… [Read More]
There are several ethical responsibilities that psychologists need to consider when conducting a research with adult human participants. The first is to follow APA (American Psychological Association) ethics standards for rights of the participants (Zechmeister, n.d., p. 53). Second, the researchers must conduct a risk-benefit analysis before carrying out the study. Third, the researchers must take informed consent of the participant, which is the critical ethical responsibility in every exploration. Fourth, maintaining the participant's confidentiality is another major ethical task. Privacy should be maintained in order to gain true data from the respondents. Fifth, deception should be avoided. Last, a quick but comprehensive debriefing should be given to the human adults so that any possible misconceptions could be avoided.
Historical Example of Psychological esearch
One historical example of psychological research that raised serious ethical questions is Milgram Obedience Study (Cherry, 2016). It was conducted after World War 2,…… [Read More]
ace and Academic Disengagement
Psychological disengagement represents a coping mechanism that preserves a person's sense of self-worth in the face of negative feedback. For example, a student may discount a bad grade on an exam by framing it as an aberration, thereby preserving a 'good student' self-identity. Employing this coping mechanism has specific advantages, such as allowing the student to be persistent about achieving academic success despite receiving negative feedback (Nussbaum and Steele, 2007). On the other hand, psychological disengagement could facilitate a student framing academic success as irrelevant to their personal goals and future. Such students tend to perform poorly in school and suffer from increased dropout rates (reviewed by Stephan, Caudroit, Boiche, and Sarrazin, 2011). In contrast, students who are academically successful tend not to disengage, despite receiving a negative evaluation, and self-perceptions of their academic competency suffers accordingly. Understanding the mechanisms that encourages psychological disengagement…… [Read More]
psychological testing and its uses in practical situations. This essay will examine the intelligence test, as means to help illuminate how these assessments can be used for in a given situation. Specifically, this essay will examine how these intelligence tests can be used in the workplace for human resources purpose such as hiring and promotion.
The role of psychological testing is to provide a tool to further evaluate the mental frame work of an individual. While there are several types of these assessments such as screening, personality and achievement, this essay will examine how intelligence testing can be utilized in the workplace. Intelligence testing attempts to measure the ability of a person's ability to understand the world around them in their environment. These tests use questions that measures the intellectual potential of the person being evaluated and does not reflect a total or comprehensive model of one's totally…… [Read More]
psychological diagnosis related children. TOPIC: GENERALIZED ANXIETY DISORDER. Topics selected Diagnostic Statistical Manual Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR). The research paper discuss: a.
Anxiety disorders are presently responsible for interfering in people's lives and preventing them from being able to successfully integrate society. hen considering the Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD), matters are particularly intriguing as a result of the fact that many people have trouble identifying it and actually go through their lives thinking that their thinking is perfectly normal. In spite of the fact that there are no motives to provoke the exaggerated worry seen in people with GAD, they are unable to realize that they are overstressed. Millions of people from around the world are currently suffering from GAD, with the malady affecting virtually everything about their lives.
hile some individuals actually acknowledge the fact that their worries are unfounded, it is very difficult for them to put across rational…… [Read More]
psychological process that leads to terrorism. The author achieves this through using a metaphor that narrows down a staircase that leads to the act of terrorism at the top of a building. This staircase usually leads to higher and higher floors, one remaining on a particular floor is dependent on doors, and spaces, which the person imagines, are going to open to them on that particular floor. This staircase of terrorism has a ground floor and five higher floors. A particular psychological process characterizes the behavior in each of the floor. The ground floor is occupied by majority of the people here what matters most are fairness and just treatment perceptions. People then climb to the first floor and they try out different floors in search of solutions to their perceived unjust treatment. The second floor is where the individuals have misplaced aggressions that influence their terrorist acts. Those who…… [Read More]
Ethical and legal use of psychological testing has a significant impact on the standards and practices of psychological testing to demonstrate intervention for those being tested. The purpose of the ethical boundaries of psychological testing is to ensure that clinicians are utilizing the best test possible and then applying the results ethically to demonstrate assistance with diagnosis and intervention modes in a way that best meets the needs of the subject. This work will discuss the ethical application and utilization of psychological testing instruments to demonstrate the best possible outcomes and interventions for subjects in a way that recognizes tests strengths and limitations and ultimately leads to the appropriate and essential answers needed to aid people with diagnosis and treatment objectives. There are a significant number of psychological tests at the disposal of clinicians and they are in a constant state of revision by the entities that develop…… [Read More]
atership Down, Psychological Criticisms
Psychological Criticisms, Figures & Concepts
Psychological critics of literary works approach a novel by looking at it through a psychological lense. Critics will usually look at the motivations of the characters themselves, or, if there is enough known about the author (for example, Shakespeare), they will analyze the authors motivation, or purpose, for the novel. There are several methods to a psychological criticism; some critics use the Freudian approach, where characters, concepts, and even the setting are broken down into various parts (the id, symbols, sexuality, etc.). Some critics use the Jungian approach, where most of the analysis is focused on the main character and villain, such as the different parts of the self and the persona (Burris). There is yet another method, by Charles Mauron, which focuses on the literary works of an author as though they were a dream, and the final stage of…… [Read More]
assist counselors in selecting psychological tests and/or assessments?
There are a number of psychology test directories available in reference libraries. Thee directories typically contain a directory of psychology tests organized according to subject matter. For example, there will be separate sections for self-concept, cognitive ability, personality traits, etc. Each reference book will have its own system of classification so this must be taken into account.
For each entry, there is typically a general profile of the psychology tests and related links. The nature of these entries will vary depending on whether the book is a bibliography or whether it is in-depth directory. The four most popular reference book titles are Tests, Tests in Print (TIP), the Mental Measurements Yearbook (MMY), and Test Critiques (APA).
Tests In Print is a bibliographic encyclopedia of information on every published and commercially available test in psychology and achievement. It is published by uros Institute…… [Read More]
The opposing side, which sports a more eclectic set of disciplinary backgrounds and prides itself on a more sophisticated and inclusive perspective, divides human abilities into broad classes -- logical, spatial, interpersonal, verbal, etc. -- and labels each class an "intelligence." The two sides then proceed to talk past each other. (Casse, 1998, p. 33)
The resulting controversy then falls back to the idea of socio-cultural differences, and race/gender/culture/environment. (Skidmore & Aagaard, 2004, p. 304) Casse claims that by differing on core definitions of intelligence scientists are not good at comparing anything but data or defining concepts,
Scientists make bad dictionary writers and worse philosophers. Their main skills are in constructing experiments and generating explanations for what they observe. Neither of these endeavors requires agreement on what the words involved "mean" in any deep or absolute sense, only on ways of converting the elements of the theory at issue into…… [Read More]
Psychological Efficacy of Debriefing for Trauma & Stress
Author's Note with contact information and more details of collegiate affiliation, etc.
The paper will describe what debriefing is. The paper will discuss the nature and prevalence of trauma in American life and culture. The paper will go on to estimate what psychologists are doing to combat this epic rise in traumatic experience, which can lead to stress disorders affecting the daily lives of many. Thus, not only are people victims of trauma, but also, with improper or no treatment, these people can fall victim again to a trauma related disorder. The paper will talk about why and how psychologists are dealing with all these instances of trauma. The paper will summarize two scholarly articles that offer perspective on the issue of trauma and debriefing as treatment. After providing concise summaries of the articles, the paper will provide a comparative analysis of…… [Read More]
As one study states, "Suicide rates for te elderly, tirty-five per 100,000 are iger tan any oter age group..." (Oriol W.) a study by Butler, Lewis and Sunderland (1991) also amplifies tis data and refers to te increase of depressive moods in te elderly wic can also lead to extreme states of stress. Tese factors are obviously compounded by te events and trauma in natural disasters and can lead to severe psycological problems in te elderly.
Anoter factor tat is often mentioned is transfer trauma. Tis occurs wen te elderly ave to be suddenly moved from teir normal environment or ome during disasters. Tis can cause extreme stress and disorientation in older people, wo ave become dependent and accustomed to teir surrounding and may fear losing teir support system.
In conclusion, all of te above factors empasize tat natural disasters can increase and exacerbate stress and anxiety in te elderly…… [Read More]
Clinical Psychology and Gender Dysphoria
Advancement of Clinical Psychology with Gender Dysphoria
Clinical psychology is recognized as a psychology branch that deals with the assessment and treatment of abnormal behavior, mental illness, and psychiatric problems (Brennan, 2003). Clinical psychology integrates the science of psychology with treatment of complicated human problems, which makes it a challenging and rewarding field. American psychologist Lightner Witmer introduced the term in 1907. Witmer defined clinical psychology as a field that studies individuals by experimentation or observation, with the intent of promoting change. A clinical psychologist will try to reduce any psychological distress suffered by a patient and enhance their psychological well-being. Previously clinical psychology focused on the psychological assessment of the patients, and there was little or no attention been paid to treatment. This scenario changed after World War II in the 1940s because there was increased demand for trained clinicians. A clinical psychologist will…… [Read More]
How this related to other ideas on the subject?
When you look at other ideas on the subject, it is clear that those people who are suffering from gender dysphoria, have other conditions that are affecting them as well. Where, psychologist Richard Carroll has identified a number of issues that need to be examined when someone suffers from these conditions. To include: helping patients understand themselves, letting them know what options they have available, looking for other conditions they could suffer from and establishing life goals. This is significant, because this information can be used to show how the school handled the situation wrong. Where, if Rivers was sent to counseling once he expressed these intentions, the odds would have declined dramatically that he would violate the wishes of the school board. As the counseling, would address the underlying psychological decisions that were pushing him to make this…… [Read More]
psychological work of John B. atson, B.F. Skinner, and Edward C. Tolman, along with the impacts that these three had on society. This paper will also compare and contrast these three iconic psychologists.
Edward C. Tolman is said by author Bernard J. Baars to have been the "…only major figure" in the emerging field of behaviorism "…who advocated the possibility of mental representation" (Baars, 1986, p. 61). Baars writes that more than any other behaviorist Tolman "anticipated…the cognitive point-of-view… [and] thought it necessary to postulate events other than stimuli and responses" (61). Tolman has made significant contributions to psychology, including: a) the use of cognitive maps in rats; b) the "latent learning" he pioneered though the use of rats; c) the concept of "intervening variables"; and d) the discovery that rats don't just learn their movements "…for rewards" but rather they also learn when no rewards are given, backing up…… [Read More]
psychological approach to sex and its use during advertising. Whether it is used in the proper context to promote the product or is aimed at a systemic way to get the viewer to watch the advertisement.
The use of psychology in advertising is well established. The use of sexual advertising has been seen in a variety of products from cars to ice cream aimed at a wide range of target audiences spread across the demographic ranges. The use of sexuality, which, may include visual or audio images and can be presented in different formats, including nudity, sexual innuendo, or even with humour. The main aim of the advertising is to target the processing of the information regarding the advertisement rather the concentration on the brand. The idea is that the images and feeling they create may then be associated with the product that is being sold, increasing its'…… [Read More]
For police officers, undercover work provides a priceless opportunity to help the force achieve its goals and to infiltrate large criminal organizations. However, undercover work can be tremendously stressful. The stress of undercover work often reaches a boiling point, leading the officer to have mental health issues and even suicide attempts. In New York, Detective Margaret Sasso served as an undercover officer successfully, but a failed suicide attempt using doctor-prescribed muscle relaxants served as a wake-up call.
In an interview, Detective Sasso claimed that she needed a "rest," which is itself a symptom of the stress experienced as an undercover officer. Undercover officers are new to the force, largely because of the need to ensure their not being recognized. However, their relative inexperience, coupled with the nature of their socially isolating work, causes a large number of undercover officers to experience stress. Dozens request transfers, according to research…… [Read More]
Development Change Research Issue
Developmental change is a broad topic that incorporate several sub-topics relating to an individual's growth and development. The broad nature of this topic emerges from the fact that its an approach that is geared towards explaining how infants, children, and adults change over a period of time. The process of explaining individuals' developmental changes over time involves examining a wide range of theoretical areas including biological, cognitive, emotional, and social domains. Additionally, there are different research designs that are utilized in developmental research including longitudinal, sequential, and cross-sectional research approaches (Berk & Meyers, 2016). These different approaches are selected based on their effectiveness in exploring a particular issue or aspect of developmental change over time.
An example of a topic that could be examined using one of these research designs is masticatory performance in children across different age groups. This is an important topic of study…… [Read More]
Alcoholism and Upbringing
James' father is responsible for James' involvement in crime and burglary. Origin of the problem. Alcoholic parents are the reason for the moral decay of juveniles
Another reason for James' feelings of inadequacy
Effect of alcoholism in the upbringing of a child
The effect of taking James out of his mother's home as a juvenile
An examination of James' denial of his responsibility over his problem
Personality and sociological theory
An explanation of James' behaviors, and his father using the two frameworks
Thorburn (2005) suggests that a misapprehension that numerous alcoholics seem to have is that their behavior does not affect other people. They deny ever hurting other people but themselves. A great deal of research and huge anecdotal proof suggest otherwise. The behavior of alcoholics can affect those around them, including family members, friends, coworkers and employers. Children…… [Read More]
Interview of 70-year-Old oman
Psychological and Religious Development
This paper represents the results of an interview with a seventy-year-old Caucasian woman named Elma Rose. Research includes her personal background, life experiences and crossroads as well as her beliefs concerning marriage, family and lifestyle.
Elma Rose was born April 13, 1934 in the small Appalachian town of Abingdon in the northwestern corner of Virginia. The youngest of eight children, she now has one surviving sister. Elma Rose has been widowed twice and currently lives alone. She has four children, ten grandchildren, and three great-grandchildren. Her parents were devout Catholics of middle class status who instilled an appreciation of education in their children. However, as Elma Rose explains, this did not mean that she and her siblings all graduated from college or even from high school for that matter. In fact only two brothers graduated from college, while three, two sisters and…… [Read More]
infused my original assumptions with greater specificity over the course of the gathering of my information. At first, I conducted a literature review of my topic (human trafficking) to establish that there is a recorded tendency that women are more likely to be trafficked than men. But after exploring the data collection process further of these research studies, I began to understand that certain factors can affect even statistical evidence, such as the fact that certain forms of trafficking may be more likely to be detected than other forms. For example, women seem to be more apt to be trafficked into the sex industry. Since all forms of prostitution are illegal in most states, this makes it easier to detect than coerced labor in the agricultural and garment industries and in domestic service (Hepburn & Simon 2010). This highlighted that there will likely always be gaps in whatever data that…… [Read More]
Various Theories on Depression, and Respective Treatments
Depression is a complex mood disorder that is characterized by various emotions, including sadness, self-blame, absence of pleasure and an overall sense of worthlessness, and by physical responses relating to sleep, appetite and motor symptoms. According to statistics, one in four adults will suffer from a depressive episode at some point in life. With a quarter of the population affected by depression, it is no wonder that one sees so many advertisements both on television and on billboards relating to the disorder. It is also understandable that many intellectual fields of study would give an opinion on what depression truly means and how it can be treated. This paper will thus examine psychological, sociological, cultural and biological theories on depression and will describe various treatments that take into account expertise from these various areas of study to better understand this complex…… [Read More]
psychological basis of mental illness is certainly only half of the story. Though mental illness is genetic, the actual symptoms and condition being presented is based on a careful marriage between biological and environmental factors. In particular, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), is a mental illness in which "people have unwanted and repeated thoughts, feelings, ideas, sensations or obsession, or behaviors that make them feel driven to do something (compulsions)" (National Institute of Mental Health, 2011). This mental illness, like many others is multi-faceted, in that there is a physiological process associated with it, a set of symptoms that manifest, certain diagnostic criterion and then a set of treatment options.
Foremost, the physiological process of mental illness is mainly concerned with the brain and certain regions of it. The physiological process is a process that evaluates the neural mechanisms of perception and behavior. esearch examining the brain has found that "a selective…… [Read More]
psychological theories. It uses 3 sources and is in MLA format.
Psychologists have researched personality disorders and have formulated different theories presenting their own reasoning established via comprehensive research over a lifetime. I have attempted to draw similarities and contrasts between the psychoanalytical theory of Sigmund Freud and social cognition theory of Carl ogers. They are both known figures in the field of psychoanalysis. Both the theories are logical and applicable in varied circumstances.
Personality disorders stem from the fact that personal satisfaction is not achieved due to the societal norms that humans have entrapped themselves in. Dissatisfaction creates conflicts and thus anxieties occur which cause personality disorders.
Sigmund Freud was a one of the most eminent psychologists of all times. Freud is termed as the father of psychoanalysis. His theory of psychoanalysis entails the conscious and the unconscious. The conscious is what we are aware of like one's…… [Read More]
Self as a Mental epresentation
Today, all directions of psychological study recognizes the importance of an individual's understanding of him- or herself in order to achieve and maintain mental health. Indeed, it is often when such a self-concept malfunctions that mental health begins to suffer. Feenstra's concept of self-schema is a good starting point for understanding the self. The concept of self-schema refers to an individual's conscious and unconscious beliefs and assumptions about him- or herself. This can be used not only by each individual to understand the self better and to promote mental health and functioning, but also by professional psychologists and researchers in their aim to understand and assist those whose self-schema have malfunctioned in some way.
Self-schema, by definition, refers to a set of memories about the self created over the long-term. Generally, these memories have achieved stability and refers to a person's beliefs, experiences, and generalizations…… [Read More]
Dawn's presenting problems, such as a sleep-related disorder and anxiety symptoms, it is possible that she may be diagnosed with a mild depression, or to use the DSM-V code, F32.0 Major depressive disorder, single episode, mild. Measured on the Ham-D scale of depression, Dawn's score will likely fall between 9-12 (Weissman, Markovitz & Klerman, 2007). However, monitoring Dawn over time will be necessary to see if the depression is recurrent.
It is unclear when her "feeling stressed" about her grades began, exactly, or when her sleep patterns started to be disrupted. Therefore, if a DSM-V diagnosis is necessary, the F32.0 diagnosis is the most sensible for now. As Hayes, Pistorello & Levin (2012) also point out, the DSM diagnoses are limited in applicability and accuracy. They have "failed to give rise to functional diagnostic entities, which is a major goal of syndromal diagnosis," (p. 976). The process of diagnosis also…… [Read More]