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Psychological Stress Can Result From

Words: 897 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 79766285

For that reason, employers routinely provide stress-management programs for their employees (Archer, 2005; Probst, 2005; ichardson & othstein, 2008) and some hospitals have begun implementing stress-relieving programs and services because patient stress has been demonstrated empirically to inhibit recovery and suppress the immune system (Archer, 2005).

Strategies for educing Stress

There are many different strategies for reducing stress, depending on the type of stress involved and the source of its origin (Probst, 2010). In general, some kinds of stress can be reduced by making changes that address their source; meanwhile, other kinds of stress cannot necessarily be reduced at their source but their negative effects on the individual can be reduced through the use of coping strategies (Probst, 2005; ichardson & othstein, 2008). For example, certain kinds of self-induced stress (such as fear of failure, social anxiety, and performance anxiety) can be addressed by cognitive psychological therapy. Other kinds of…… [Read More]

References

Archer, R. (2005). "Hospitals design stress-reduction treatment to speed recovery."

Westchester County Business Journal. Westfair Communications, Inc. Retrieved

November 30, 2010 from HighBeam Research:  http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-132120351.html 

Jancin, B. (2005). "Bright light therapy also looks promising for primary insomnia."
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Psychological Experiment The Experiment in Question Studied

Words: 1635 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 99981362

psychological experiment. The experiment in question studied the effect of maternal stress reduction, during pregnancy, on the health of their children, at one year of age. In this paper, I will apply my understanding of some fundamental principles of proper psychological research and the principles of critical thinking.

First, I will discuss the independent variable, and possible ways the researchers' treatment of this variable may have invalidated their claimed outcome. Further, I will discuss construct and internal validity. Finally, I will investigate possible extraneous variables that may invalidate the researchers' claimed outcome of the research study. I conclude that the researchers claimed outcome results from flawed research practices and design, and that their claimed outcome is therefore, highly questionable.

The experiment analysed in a research study about preparing for parenthood. The research study focuses on the effect of maternal meditation and stress reduction on the health of their children. The…… [Read More]

References

Christensen, L.B. 1991. Experimental Methodology, 5th Edition. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
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Psychological Analysis Barrack Obama Analysis

Words: 603 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 64402288

However, his sense of self-respect is rendered incomplete because of his father. The struggle he experienced demonstrated this and though it did not define his whole being as he is now, it was the primary component in his life that made it a challenge to meet his need for esteem.

2. As the current president of the United States, Obama can be said as a successful person. However, it cannot be said that he is fulfilled and has achieved self-actualization. The absence of a father figure in Obama's life remains a struggle in his life that could determine his successful realization for self-actualization.

3. Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs demonstrates how individual needs are categorized by levels and are comprised of different factors that may or may not apply to the individual. Using the Hierarchy of Needs alone, the theory cannot explain fully Obama's psyche, personality and behavior. Maslow's theory…… [Read More]

References

Barak Obama. (2012). Biography. Retrieved:  http://www.biography.com/people/barack-obama-12782369 

MacFarquhar, Larissa. (2007). The conciliator. The New Yorker. Retrieved:  http://www.newyorker.com/reporting/2007/05/07/070507fa_fact_macfarquhar#ixzz1pbLlZHPI
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Psychological Sequelae of Childhood Sexual

Words: 6079 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 85748070

It is also interesting to note that the correlation between depression and childhood sexual abuse was found to be higher among females in many studies.

However, the issue of the relationship between depression and sexual abuse may not be as clear-cut as the above studies suggest. Recent research has begun to question this correlation and has produced findings that suggest that there are many other parameters and variables that should be considered. This is especially the case with regard to the view that childhood sexual abuse necessarily leads to depression in adulthood. As one report claims, "...there is accumulating evidence to contradict these claims" (Roosa,

Reinholtz, (Angelini, 1999). However the majority of studies indicate that there is a strong possibility that children who are sexually abused experience symptoms of depression that can extend into adulthood.

PTSD

3.1. What is PTSD?

Post Traumatic Stress Disorder is a disorder that has shown…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Abused Children Face Depression Risk as Adults. Retrieved March 3, 2009 at  http://www.healthyplace.com/abuse/abuse-and-depression/abused-children-face-depression-risk-as-adults/menu-id-52/ 

Association between Childhood Sexual Abuse History and Adverse

Psychosocial Outcomes in controlled studies. Retrieved March 6, 2009, at  http://www.leadershipcouncil.org/1/res/csa.html 

Barker J. Adult Sequelae of Child Sexual Abuse. Retrieved March 6, 2009, at http://www.medicineau.net.au/clinical/psychiatry/SexualAbuse.html
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Psychological and Socio-Cultural Theories of Risk

Words: 4457 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67940104

Psychological and Socio-Cultural Theories of isk

Definition of isk

The term "risk" is often defined differently depending on the particular paradigm. For example, risk is economics is typically defined in terms of differences in possible monetary outcomes and individuals/corporations involved in risk -- seeking behavior are typically seeking higher monetary payoffs (Markowitz 1952). When clinical psychologists, sociologists, law enforcement officials, and lay individuals identify "risky behaviors" they are referring to a broader meaning of the term "risk." In this context behaviors and involve risk are typically defined as behaviors that can be of potential harm to the person performing them or to other people (Steinberg 2008). In this sense the term "risk" is typically viewed in terms of possible negative outcomes as opposed to some other positive outcome such as the potential monetary gain.

This particular paper will assume that the definition of risky behavior includes some type of a…… [Read More]

References

Aristotle .1998. Aristotle: The Nicomachean ethics. In Ackrill J. et al. eds. Oxford World' s

Classics. York: Oxford, pp. 229-301.

Beck, U. 1992. Risk society: Towards a new modernity. New Delhi: Sage.

Boholm, A. 1996. Risk perception and social anthropology: Critique of cultural Theory. Ethnos 61, pp. 64-84.
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Psychological Affects Sexual Abuse Has

Words: 1547 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 23779142



In conclusion, both juvenile sex offenders and victims of sexual abuse need to undergo treatment and counselling. The importance of treating victims of sex abuse is to ensure that the "cycle of abuse" ceases and that they can recover from their ordeal and lead normal lives. The treatment of juvenile sex offenders is to ensure their rehabilitation, depending on the problem and also separate them from the rest of society.

eferences

California Dept. Of Justic, (n.d). Megan's Law - Facts about Sex Offenders -- California

Department of Justice. etrieved April 13, 2010, from http://www.meganslaw.ca.gov/facts.htm

Harrison, L. (2009). The Ambiguity of Juvenile Sexual Offenders. Internet Journal of Criminology, 7, 1-29. etrieved April 14, 2010, from http://www.internetjournalofcriminology.com/Harrison_Juvenile_Sexual_Offenders_J

uly_09.pdf

Herrmann B, Navratil F. (2004). Sexual Abuse in Pre-pubertal Children and Adolescents.

Sultan C (Editor) Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology: Evidence-Based Clinical

Practice. Pakistan: Endocr Dev, Basel, Karger

Hunter, J.A. (2000). Understanding Juvenile Sex Offenders:…… [Read More]

References

California Dept. Of Justic, (n.d). Megan's Law - Facts about Sex Offenders -- California

Department of Justice. Retrieved April 13, 2010, from  http://www.meganslaw.ca.gov/facts.htm 

Harrison, L. (2009). The Ambiguity of Juvenile Sexual Offenders. Internet Journal of Criminology, 7, 1-29. Retrieved April 14, 2010, from  http://www.internetjournalofcriminology.com/Harrison_Juvenile_Sexual_Offenders_J 

uly_09.pdf
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Psychological Theories of Crime Similarities

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 36139053

For instance a child performs poorly in examination and the parent decides to withdraw his promise to take the child to the zoo during the holiday.

Positive punishment; it is a process by which stimulus is immediately added after a specific behavior so that future frequency of the behavior is decreased. A good example is of a pick pocket is taken to prison and subjected to learning of a given artwork so that when he comes out of prison he can make his own money through the artwork learned.

Negative punishment; it is a process by which stimulus is removed immediately after a given behavior so that future frequency of that behavior is decreased. Example is when a student performs poorly in class and the parent decides to cut down the student pocket money, the pocket money acts as the stimulant that has been removed hence a negative punishment.

The…… [Read More]

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Psychological Disorder ADHD ADHD Is

Words: 1806 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 61198795

My final recommendation was that the parents and Adam's teachers should work as a team to help Adam manage his condition. In other words, the parents should communicate with the teachers to determine if the interventions have been effective. I would then talk to the parents themselves every two months to make further recommendations as necessary.

CONCLUSION

While drug interventions for ADHD, especially in children, have been increasingly controversial because of their possible side-effects, their main advantage is the speed and efficacy with which they work. Those who have benefited reported that the effects were almost immediately visible, on the same day the drug was used.

On the other hand, drug therapies for any mental disorder have been imperfect and frequently plagued by side-effects and non-compliance. Continuous research is therefore necessary to improve not only drug therapies and identify potential harmful effects in the long-term, but also to find possible…… [Read More]

References

ADHD Information Library (2008). ADHD Treatment Options: many Good Choices. Newideas.Net. Retrieved from: http://newideas.net/adhd/treatment

Martin, B. (2011). Treatment for Attention Deficit Disorder (ADHD). PsychCentral. Retrieved from:  http://psychcentral.com/ lib/2007/treatment-for-attention-deficit-disorder-adhd/

Personal Health Lifestyles, Inc. (2001). Attention Deficit Disorder: Facts, Prevention and Treatment Strategies. Retrieved from:  http://www.healingwithnutrition.com/adisease/add-adhd/add-adhd.html#A1
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Psychological Foundations Towards Education

Words: 1898 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 57954418

Psychological Foundations Towards Education

Major characteristics of Freud's theory and Erikson's theory

Looking at pages 143-164 of the article, Freud and Erikson address the basic issue of self-definition. According to Freud believes that a person's sense of self stems from parental projections in the course of the genesis of super-ego. In addition, he argues that these introjects form the foundation of a person's self-definition in childhood and that such parental identifications are not significantly updated or revised during childhood or adolescence. Either way, an individual's self-concept is believed to be a function of the fundamental identification process, which takes place during one's pre-school years. Although Freud has extensively written on the human development process, Erikson was the pioneer in writing about the formation of identities. In his works, Erikson has gone far and beyond Freud's parental introjects and childhood identifications (Austrian 37). He argues that the presence of self-selected identity…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Austrian, Sonia G. Developmental Theories Through the Life Cycle. New York: Columbia University Press, 2008. Print.

Lipsitt, Lewis P, and David S. Palermo. Research Readings in Child Psychology. New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 2011. Print.

Miller, Patricia H, and Ellin K. Scholnick. Toward a Feminist Developmental Psychology. New York: Routledge, 2010. Print.

Harris, Margaret. Exploring Developmental Psychology: Understanding Theory and Methods. Los Angeles: SAGE Publications, 2008. Print.
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Psychological Testing Psychological Tests Are an Important

Words: 994 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31249734

Psychological Testing

Psychological tests are an important aspect of clinical psychology. Psychological tests are normally administered by professional psychologists as a way of learning fact on how people function or in predicting their future. The paper will look at the definition of the term test, give a description of the major categories of tests while identifying the major uses and users of these tests. There will also be comparing and contrasting the concepts of validity and reliability and a discussion of how they affect the psychological testing field.

Definition of tests

A test or examination is defined as an assessment aimed at measuring the knowledge, aptitude, skill, physical fitness or classification in other different topics. Tests can be administered orally, by use of a paper, computer or in the confinement of a specific area which requires the person taking the test to physically perform a specific set of skills. Tests…… [Read More]

References

Renate, R. (2010).The Real Difference between Reliability and Validity. Retrieved September 14, 2013 from http://www.ehow.com/info_8481668_real-difference-between-reliability-validity.html

Dority, J. (2011).Five Common Types of Psychological Tests. Retrieved September 14, 2013 from  http://www.livestrong.com/article/101417-five-common-types-psychological-tests/ 

Edu.com. (2009).psychological Testing. Retrieved September 14, 2013 from http://users.ipfw.edu/abbott/120/PsychTesting.html
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Psychological Barriers to Effective Decision-Making

Words: 1226 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 64399352



The recency effect: most manager at times have an overreliance on the most readily available information to make decisions, it commonly occurs when carrying out annual performance evaluations of employees where recent performance of the employees plays a major role than accomplishments that have taken place in the earlier periods of review, this has an adverse effect has it may lead to the deviation of the set desired goals. (John k.bochardt 2010)

Anchoring bias: in most cases the price tags on products often if not always affect the purchasing negations between consumers and retailers, and most of the time consumer's end up paying higher prices for the product than necessary. This notion that sometimes leads us to allow initial reference point to distort our estimates is what professor oberto refers to anchoring bias.

From a marketing point-of-view anchoring bias can come about when negotiating the renewal of a contract with…… [Read More]

References

John k.borchardt (2010): overcoming barriers to effective deciosion making. An examination of cognitive bses that cause us to make poor decisions

Retrieved from: http://www.ncmahq.org/files/Articles/CM0610%20-%2054-61.pdf 

Andrew T. Chadwick and Matthew D. Segall: Overcoming psychological barriers to good discovery

Decisions:
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Psychological Effect the Media Has

Words: 3154 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 95044860

but, the interesting thing is that their peers, family, friends and young boys are basing their opinion of what these girls should look like from what they see in the media.

Main Cause of Poor ody Images in Young Girls

The media has been with us for years and it is here to stay. There are good aspects of this industry because it serves to keep us informed and aware of what is happening in the world around us. The media can also be viewed negatively because of some of the television programs that are out there today. Technology is so advanced that we can now watch our favorite television shows and read our favorite fashion magazines right from our cell phones. We can assume that as the years go by, technology will get more advanced and the role of the media will become even more prominent.

Such outlets as…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Ata, R.N., Ludden, AB. And Lally, M.M. (2007). The effects of gender and family, friend, and media influences on eating behaviors and body image during adolescence. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 36(8), 1024-1037.

Bell, B.T., Lawton R., and Dittmar, H. (2007). The impact of thin models in music videos on adolescent girls' body dissatisfaction. Body Image, 4(2), 137-145.

Dohnt, H.K. And Tiggemann, M. (2006). Body image concerns in young girls: The role of peers and media prior to adolescence. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 35(2), 141-151.

Worell, J., & Goodheart, C.D. (2006). Body Image. Handbook of Girls' and Women's Psychological Health (pp. 68-75). New York: Oxford University Press.
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Psychological Capital and Learners K-12

Words: 4962 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 33447575

Physical and mental disorders are often comorbid, reflecting an entire system that is out of balance. A healthy state, both physically and mentally reflects a state of equilibrium and stability that every organism wishes to achieve (Wallace, 2008).When one portion of the system is out of balance, the entire system can be out of balance. The degree to which the system is out of balance determines the degree of the disturbance.

A child that has greater resilience skills can recover from a greater disturbance than a child with little resiliency. Everyone has heard stories of the rich and famous who rose up from situations of poverty and despair to become something great. This is exactly what this research is about. Eriksson's psychosocial model sets up the situation that the person must overcome. Wallace's theory on resiliency provides an understanding of what the child needs to overcome these circumstances to become…… [Read More]

References

Anthony, E., Alter, C. & Jenson, J. (2009). Development of a Risk and Resilience-Based Out-of-

School Time Program for Children and Youths. Social Work. 54 (1): 45+. Retrieved from Questia Database.

Brendtro, L. & Larson, S. (2004). The Resilience Code: Finding Greatness in Youth. Reclaiming Children and Youth. 12 (4): 194 +. Retrieved from Questia Database.

Brown, W. (2006). The Value of Role Models in Inspiring Resilience. Reclaiming Children and Youth. 14 (4): 199+. Retrieved from Questia Database.
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Psychological Factors in Health Traditional

Words: 1772 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80328946

Ultimately, it may be the greatest measure of humanity that we recognize that the relevance of animal sentience in relation to our needs is not a function of their similarity to us or of our chosen relationships with them.

orks Cited

Coren, Stanley. (1995). The Intelligence Of Dogs: A Guide To The Thoughts, Emotions,

And Inner Lives Of Our Canine Companions. New York: Bantam

Gatchel, Robert J.; Polatin, Peter B.; and Kinney, Regina K. "Predicting Outcome of Chronic Back Pain Using Clinical Predictors of Psychopathology: A Prospective Analysis." Health Psychology, 1995 14 (5): 415-420.

Hoffman, Benson M.; Papas, Rebecca K.; Chatkoff, David K.; and Kerns, Robert D.

"Meta-Analysis Of Psychological Interventions For Chronic Low Back Pain."

Health Psychology, 2007 26 (1): 1-9.

Jensen, Maureen C.; Brant-Zawadzki, Michael N.; Obuchowski, Nancy; Modic, Michael

T. Malkasian, Dennis, and Ross, Jeffrey S. "Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Lumbar Spine in People without Back…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Coren, Stanley. (1995). The Intelligence Of Dogs: A Guide To The Thoughts, Emotions,

And Inner Lives Of Our Canine Companions. New York: Bantam

Gatchel, Robert J.; Polatin, Peter B.; and Kinney, Regina K. "Predicting Outcome of Chronic Back Pain Using Clinical Predictors of Psychopathology: A Prospective Analysis." Health Psychology, 1995 14 (5): 415-420.

Hoffman, Benson M.; Papas, Rebecca K.; Chatkoff, David K.; and Kerns, Robert D.
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Psychological Ethical Conduct Asppb Purpose

Words: 1449 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 42124850

It also promotes research in the field and therefore the improvement of the research methods and applications. Other ways in which the Association improves the understanding and use of knowledge in the field is by means of meetings, contacts, reports, papers, discussion and publication (American Psychological Association, 2012).

The APA is governed by volunteer governance members, who are responsible for the direction of the advocacy, publishing, member service, and other functions of the APA. Specifically, the governance members include a Council of epresentatives, whose responsibility includes approving policy and the appropriation of revenues. The Board of Directors is elected by members and administers the functions of the Council of epresentatives. The APA president is an annual position that is filled by a person who is elected by the membership. The president provides a leadership contact for the Association. Other ruling parties include committees, boards and task forces with specific functions…… [Read More]

References

Association of State and Provincial Psychology Boards. (2012). About ASPPB. Retrieved from:  http://www.asppb.net/i4a/pages/index.cfm?pageid=3285 

American Psychological Association Code of Ethics, Chapter 5.

American Psychological Association (2012). About APA. Retrieved from: http://www.apa.org/about/index.aspx

American Psychological Association (2010, Feb 20). Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct.
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Psychological Contracts Are a Good Way of

Words: 808 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 43331186

Psychological contracts are a good way of thinking when it comes to the exchange or relationship between an organization and employees. Psychological contracts refer to the perception an employee has when it comes to his or her exchange relationship with the organization; the outcomes promised by the organization and the contribution an employee is obliged to make (Pp 4)

Organizations can play an active and important role in shaping their members' Psychological Contracts. This is because there are outcomes that are part and parcel of employees' psychological contracts and thus central when it comes to the exchange of relationships with their employees.one such outcome is career opportunities not only to the job an individual holds currently but the job one expects to advance into over the course of their career. Career opportunities include getting promotions, having the opportunity of working in the kind of work one wants to do, receiving…… [Read More]

Reference

College of the Redwoods, (2013). Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs. Retrieved September 11, 2013 from  http://redwoods.edu/Departments/Distance/Tutorials/MaslowsHierarchyPDF/maslows_hierarchy.pdf
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Psychological Trauma of Colonization the

Words: 1642 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87537705

You drove him to kill himself; and now he will be buried like a dog...

" This statement shows that the once great leader is nothing in the eyes of the white colonists. This has a trickle-down affect on those around him. When Okonkwo gave in to the struggle, those around him lost their final hope of every overcoming the colonialists.

Through an examination of two African historical novels, one can see many similarities in the psychology of change between colonialism and change management in corporate take-overs. Change begins slowly and there are always some that will readily accept the new regime and others that will put up a resistance. The reasons for resistance to change are similar to corporate change.

One can find examples of the same psychological reactions in both novels. The resistance becomes more violent as it loses ground and the total change and loss of familiar…… [Read More]

References

Achebe, C. Things Fall Apart. New York, NY: Anchor Books.

Ngugi, wa Thiong'o. Petals of Blood. New York, NY: Penguin Books.

Sdiffgy-krenke, I. Coping Styles: Does intervention change anything? Eurpoean Journal of Developmental Psychology. 1 (4): 367-382.

Winn, G.A Change in employee attitude IS possible! Change Management, Retrieved April 11,
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Psychological Influence of Diabetes the National Diabetes

Words: 1779 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66212281

Psychological Influence of Diabetes

Diabetes

The National Diabetes Educational Program is under the sponsorship of the Disease control and prevention and the National institutes of health. The purpose of this joint interaction is to reduce the effects of diabetes and delay the onset of diabetes. The target audience for this program is children, Adults, families, caregivers, healthcare professionals, promoters and peers.

Diabetes as a health related issue has diverse effects on the psychological aspects of people infected. Diabetes as a disease falls into two categories: Type 1 and Type 2. Type 1 Diabetes mellitus also known as juvenile diabetes or insulin dependent diabetes is as a result of destruction of insulin producing cells of the pancreas. The lack of insulin results to an increased urine or blood glucose (Penckofer et. al., 2007). If left untreated the disease may turn out being fatal. The illness may, however, be treated by administration…… [Read More]

References

Penckofer, S., Ferrans, C.E., Velsor-Friedrich, B., & Savoy, S. (2007). The psychological impact of living with diabetes women's day-to-day experiences. The Diabetes

Educator, 33(4), 680-690.

Sepa, A., Frodi, A., Vaarala, O., & Ludvigsson, J. (2005). Diabetes-related autoimmunity in infancy Psychological stress . Diabetes care, 28(2), 290-295.

Funnell, M.M., Brown, T.L., Childs, B.P., Haas, L.B., Hosey, G.M., Jensen, B., ... & Weiss, M.A. (2009). Self-management education and National standards for diabetes. Diabetes care, 32 (1), 87-94.
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Psychological Approaches to Analyzing Terrorism

Words: 439 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 36140288

Christ Stout (2002), writing on the psychology of terrorism in his book, the Psychology of Terrorism: Programs and Practices in Response and Prevention Vol. 4, discusses in detail the social-psychological considerations in the emergence and proliferation of terrorist activity (p. 23). He writes, "Terrorist usually act as groups or in groups that have common interests and goals. They also act as individuals when overwhelmingly backed and inspired by their groups. Terrorist acts can also be carried out overtly or covertly and violently or nonviolently (p. 24)."

Applying psychological understanding to the forecasting process, using this kind of information, it becomes possible to focus on the sources, and, from those sources, to trace information that can lead to planned acts of terrorism against an unsuspecting public. Combining the psychological understanding of the nature of the terrorists, in conjunction with the source, such as the internet, and using high technology, "chatter" can…… [Read More]

Ours is a high tech world, where mass communications has made possible the ability to connect with someone on the other side of the world in the time it takes to push a button on a computer keyboard (Thomas, Timothy, 2003). This has facilitated the goals of extremists, who must physically conceal themselves in order to perpetrate terrorism on the rest of the world populations who move about in the public sphere with never so much as a thought as to harming others on the basis of their religion, race, or cultural traditions. Psychology has taken on a new importance in analyzing terrorism in order to sort through the bogus messages that are sent via the internet and other means of mass communications containing encrypted messages of intent to harm others. Psychological analysis of these messages has become a new tool in the realm of intelligence gathering and forecasting terrorism.

Fortunately, the starting points as to where to begin an analysis are often times clear when it comes to forecasting terrorism. There are distinct and very public differences of opinion, philosophy, politics and religion about which certain groups are very vocal, because the intent is to win support for their cause amongst the masses; even if ultimately those masses are put in harm's way in order for the shadow forces to accomplish their subversive goals of perpetrating what really amount to hate crimes. Christ Stout (2002), writing on the psychology of terrorism in his book, the Psychology of Terrorism: Programs and Practices in Response and Prevention Vol. 4, discusses in detail the social-psychological considerations in the emergence and proliferation of terrorist activity (p. 23). He writes, "Terrorist usually act as groups or in groups that have common interests and goals. They also act as individuals when overwhelmingly backed and inspired by their groups. Terrorist acts can also be carried out overtly or covertly and violently or nonviolently (p. 24)."

Applying psychological understanding to the forecasting process, using this kind of information, it becomes possible to focus on the sources, and, from those sources, to trace information that can lead to planned acts of terrorism against an unsuspecting public. Combining the psychological understanding of the nature of the terrorists, in conjunction with the source, such as the internet, and using high technology, "chatter" can be analyzed for keywords, phrases, and ideas that lead to decoding and forecasting terrorist acts (Thomas, Timothy, 2003). However, research and analyst Timothy Thomas warns, the terrorists have access to and utilize the same tools; it then becomes a game really of whose psychological analysis is more extensive, and more capable of identifying one before the other.
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Psychological Precursors for Impulsive Shopping

Words: 2330 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 6962965

Psychological Parameters of Impulse Buying

Personality -- Impulse Buying

Defining the Psychological Parameters of Impulse Buying

Impulse buying (IB) represents unplanned, impulsive purchases that make little economic sense. The occasional, inexpensive impulsive purchase may do little harm and may even be healthy, but a pattern of chronic IB can lead to financial ruin. For this reason, understanding the psychological precursors for IB will be important for the creation of effective interventions. Towards this goal, the psychological states that predict IB behaviors were examined. In addition to the cognitive and affective domains included in the Impulse Buying Tendency Scale (IBTS), this study includes for the first time an analysis of the relationship between IB and the two most relevant time perspective domains of future-oriented and present-hedonistic-oriented from the Zimbardo Time Perspective Instrument (ZTPI). In addition, six questions were incorporated into the questionnaire to assess a consumer's perspective on IB consequences that…… [Read More]

References

Lin, Y.H. & Chen, C.F. (2013). Passengers' shopping motivations and commercial activities at airports -- The moderating effects of time pressure and impulse buying tendency. Tourism Management, 36, 426-34.

Silvera, DH, Lavack, A.M., & Kropp, F. (2008). Impulse buying: The role of affect, social influence, and subjective well-being. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 25(1), 23-33.

Verplanken, B. & Herabadi, A. (2001). Individual differences in impulse buying tendency: Feeling and no thinking. European Journal of Personality, 15, S71-83.

Zimbardo, P.G. & Boyd, J.N. (1999). Putting time in perspective: A valid, reliable individual-differences metric. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 77(6), 1271-88.
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Psychological Effects the Iraqi War

Words: 1880 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 90420779



This point also emphasizes a cardinal aspect in the recent literature. There has been an increasing research focus on a more discursive and holistic approach which should be adopted in dealing with PTSD and related areas of psychological concern. At present the research into the field is an ongoing process which must be continually updated. The literature also leaves little doubt that PTSD and other related psychological problems as result of the Iraq war can no longer be ignored.

orks Cited

Casualties of war. April 21, 2007. http://www.theage.com.au/news/world/casualties-of-war/2005/10/26/1130302840559.html?page=3

Hare M. 2007. Army psychologist using new ways to treat

Stress. April 20, 2007. http://www.democratandchronicle.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20070422/NES0201/704220321/-1/COLUMNS

Finer J. 2006. Frontline Care for 'At Risk' Soldiers: Army Effort Treats

Psychological Trauma at Source. April 20, 2007. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/06/07/AR2006060702390_pf.html

Friedman M.J. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: An Overview. Retrieved April 20, 2007, at http://www.vac-acc.gc.ca/clients/sub.cfm?source=mhealth/factsheets/overview

Foa, E., & Meadows, E. (1997). Psychosocial Treatments for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Critical…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Casualties of war. April 21, 2007.  http://www.theage.com.au/news/world/casualties-of-war/2005/10/26/1130302840559.html?page=3 

Hare M. 2007. Army psychologist using new ways to treat

Stress. April 20, 2007.  http://www.democratandchronicle.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20070422/NEWS0201/704220321/-1/COLUMNS 

Finer J. 2006. Frontline Care for 'At Risk' Soldiers: Army Effort Treats
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Psychological Reactions to Writing Revisions

Words: 2212 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8341957

present this article in a scholarly fashion, which lends credibility to the authors -- an issue that is extremely crucial considering their audience. hile Germano et al. cite nearly no evidence for their argument, Lehr's article is packed with research regarding not only how students see revision and the writing process, but also about how teachers can address the problem. The information is specific, pointing to certain grade levels, activities, etc.

A closer look at these two articles, then, reveals that they have more similarities than differences. In fact, the only major difference between the two is the audience and factual information contained in the articles. In addition, these differences are warranted given the articles' different purposes. Germano et al.' s article can almost be seen as an extension of Lehr's -- encouraging professionals to take the same advice that they give their students. In fact, it is expressly because…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Germano William et al. "Revision as Writing, Writing as Revision." Modern Language

Association. 2007. 15 May 2009.

Lehr, Fran. "Revision in the Writing Process." B. NET. n.d. 15 May 2009.

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Psychological the Most Creative Person

Words: 3872 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 20626197



Portfolio: Patients who express suicidal ideation should always be taken seriously. I have read that the greatest risk factor for suicide in previous attempts. Sometimes suicide can be considered a cry for help, and everyone who expresses some time of suicidal ideation deserves evaluation.

Question 14.2

The form of psychotherapy I find the most appealing is the cognitive behavioral approach. It appeals to me since the focus if reparative and based on a desire to change one's behaviors which contribute to the problem which prompted therapy in the first place. Patients who engage in cognitive behavioral therapy require a certain degree of insight into how their behaviors contribute to their own emotions or feelings. The interaction of mind and body can be especially telling; many psychological disorders have physical manifestations and conversely, many chronic medical problems can also manifest emotional symptoms. Cognitive behavioral therapy allows the individual to recognize patterns…… [Read More]

Reference:

Moscicki EK. Identification of suicide risk factors using epidemiologic studies. Psychiatr Clin North Am 1997; 20:499-517.

Bushman BJ, Peterson WC, Bonacci EA, Vasquez EA, Miller N. (2005) Chewing on it Can Chew You Up: Effects of Rumination on Triggered Displaced Aggression. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology Copyright 2005 by the American Psychological Association. Vol. 88, No. 6, 969-983

Caprara, G.V., Barbaranelli, C., & Comrey, a.L. (1992). A personological approach to the study of aggression. Personality and Individual Differences,
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Psychological Perspectives the Relationship to

Words: 1341 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 42218794

In this way, they have become familiar with each other's behavioral traits and the reasons behind these traits.

Psychodynamic aspects (Cherry, 2010) did play a role since the beginning of the relationship, but became significant only while Eric and Amanda were learning about each other on a cognitive level. Eric's fundamental insecurity regarding Amanda's relationships with other men stem not only from his first disappointment, but also from the fact that his mother abandoned him as a baby. aised by his father and stepmother, who did provide him with plenty of love and security, Eric always experienced a sense of loss and abandonment from the female gender. This broken mother-child relationship, reinforced by his disappointment at 19, has informed his relationships in later life.

Amanda in turn did not have traumatic childhood experiences. Her parents are still together and provided her with plenty of love and security during her formative…… [Read More]

References

Appraiser Central (2010). 5 Major Perspectives. Retrieved from http://www.appraisercentral.com/research/5%20Major%20Perspectives.htm

Cherry, Kendra. (2010). Perspectives in Modern Psychology. Retrieved from  http://psychology.about.com/od/psychology101/a/perspectives.htm 

Matheson, Kelly (2009, Jul. 27). The Psychology Behind Romantic Relationship. Retrieved from  http://www.slideshare.net/guestab8f5a1/the-psychology-behind-romantic-relationships
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Psychological Testing

Words: 1536 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 64787182

Psychological Testing

Psychological tests are commonly used to establish individual capabilities and characteristics. Such inference is derived as a result of collecting, integrating and interpreting information about a person (Marnat, 2009). It constitutes measuring variables through the use of procedures and devices crafted to demonstrate a person's behavior (Cohen & Swerdlik, 2009). Assessment of personality is, ideally, the measuring and evaluating of psychological aspects such as one's values, states, world view, personal identity, acculturation, behavior styles, sense of humor and the related characteristics of an individual (Cohen & Swerdlik, 2009). Personality tests are designed to determine the character of a human being or their disposition. The initial personality tests were designed to examine and predict disorders of clinical nature. The tests are still useful today and are applied to determine cases in need of counseling. The latest personality tests are used to measure normal characteristics (Miller, Mclntire, & Lovler, 2011).…… [Read More]

References

Cattell, H. E., & Mead, A. D. (2008). The sixteen-personality factor questionnaire (16PF). The SAGE handbook of personality theory and assessment, 2, 135-178.

Cohen, R. & Swerdlik, M. (2009). Psychological testing and assessment (7th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

Friedman, M. (1996). Type A Behavior: Its Diagnosis and Treatment. New York: Plenum Press (Kluwer Academic Press)

Groth-Marnat, G. (2009). Handbook of psychological assessment. John Wiley & Sons.
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Psychological Attitudes Toward Risk Is

Words: 626 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 57486549

It is essential that such risks be managed in an appropriate and targeted way.

One way in which to mitigate the risk of problematic interpersonal relationships within the workplace is by means of both formal and informal gatherings. Informal gatherings are beneficial in terms of helping employees to become familiar with each other in a context other than work. Work parties and lunches can for example be used in this way. This kind of informal gathering is perhaps best instituted when there is not a large amount of tension between workers.

For greater tension levels, more formal measures can be taken. Seminars presented by human relations experts can for example help to teach employees the importance of functioning within a diverse environment. Such seminars should be presented in such a way as to not threaten employees or their attitudes, but rather to gradually change their attitudes. Seminars can for example…… [Read More]

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Psychological View of Investment &

Words: 1828 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44339313

" (Grabel, 2004) Good institutions serve as the basis for economic growth due to right market-based and market-guided incentives being created which include those stated in this study and specifically: (1) rule of law; (2) competitive markets; (3) low taxation (4) noninflationary monetary policies; and (5) free trade. (2002) Good institutions serve to "Foster other cultural patterns of conduct, hard work, savings and industriousness, honesty and trustworthiness, creativity, and self-responsibility. These are the bases of the wealth of nations." (Easterly, 2002; as cited in: Ebeling, 2002) These tools are helpful in avoiding and mitigating economic risks in development.

ibliography

Easterly, W (2002) the Elusive Quest for Growth: An Economists Adventures and Misadventures in the Tropics (Cambridge, MIT Press) Chapter 2

Krueger, a.O (1998) Why Trade Liberalization Is good for Growth, Economic Journal 108

Demetriades, P. And Hussein, K.A (1996) Does Financial Development Cause Economic Growth? Time-Series Evidence From 16 Countries,…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Easterly, W (2002) the Elusive Quest for Growth: An Economists Adventures and Misadventures in the Tropics (Cambridge, MIT Press) Chapter 2

Krueger, a.O (1998) Why Trade Liberalization Is good for Growth, Economic Journal 108

Demetriades, P. And Hussein, K.A (1996) Does Financial Development Cause Economic Growth? Time-Series Evidence From 16 Countries, Journal of Development Economics 51, pp387-411.

Grabel, I. (2003) International Private Capital Flows and Developing Countries, in H-J. Chang (ed.) Rethinking Development Economics, London: Anthem Press.
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Ethics of Marketing Research in the Internet

Words: 1757 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72402322

Ethics of Marketing esearch in the Internet Era

Increasingly, management is being taken to be a critical production factor alongside the other factors of production. It therefore follows that the success of a business enterprise is largely hinged on the ability of management to make superior decisions. However, for managers to make effective decisions, they not only need a supportive decision making environment but also a set of tools to enhance their ability to correctly analyze and interpret information so as to advance the agenda of the business in an increasingly competitive marketplace. Marketing research is one such tool.

Marketing esearch as a Management Tool

The relevance of marketing research as a decision making tool for management cannot be overstated. According to Blankenship, Breen and Dutka (1998), marketing research can be taken to be "the systematic design, collection, analysis, and reporting of data and findings relevant to a specific situation…… [Read More]

References

Blankenship, A.B., Breen, G.E. & Dutka, A.F. (1998). State of the Art Marketing Research. McGraw-Hill Professional.

Boone, L.E. & Kurtz, D.L. (2011). Contemporary Marketing. Cengage Learning.

Evans, A.N., & Rooney, B.J. (2010). Methods in Psychological Research. SAGE

Haugtvedt, C.P., Machleit, K.A. & Yalch, R. (2005). Online Consumer Psychology: Understanding and Influencing Consumer Behavior in the Virtual World. Routledge Keillor, B.D. (2007). Marketing in the 21st Century: Interactive and Multi-Channel Marketing. Greenwood Publishing Group.
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Workplace Psychological Testing and Measurement

Words: 736 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29703287

What are the most important requisite skills required of organizational leaders? Why? How do effective and ineffective leadership behaviors affect employees both positively and negatively?

The most important skill of an organizational leader is to be able to motivate people, contrary to the assumption leadership is synonymous with telling people what to do in an authoritative fashion. Although in some limited instances, when a matter is urgent and followers are inexperienced, authoritarian leadership may be required, for the most part, people work best when they feel empowered to do so. According to Hersey-Blanchard leadership theory (2018), the four dominant modes of leadership include telling, selling, supporting and delegating. All too often, leaders assume that more telling is needed than actually is required. Employees need to be empowered and motivated to make positive choices to act autonomously, and even when they are inexperienced, coaching and mentorship is often more effective than…… [Read More]

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Psychology -- Contribution of Psychological Experiments Philip

Words: 2079 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73324050

Psychology -- Contribution of Psychological Experiments

Philip anyard explains how Stanley Milgram came to be involved with research regarding the Nazi slaughter of millions of people in Europe during World War II. Milgram's obedience study of course had emotional and cultural meaning for him because he is Jewish. In fact he feels blessed that even though his family roots were in Europe in proximity to where the Holocaust took place, he was born in the U.S. And hence avoided the Nazi madness. What is the value of Milgram's research experiments? That is the crux of this section -- the value of Milgram's research into why people are obedient at pivotal moments -- including moments when human lives are at stake.

What does this particular method allow psychologists to study? In the first place, having someone in a room by himself giving shocks to a person he cannot see, a person…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Banyard, Philip. Just Following Orders? Chapter 2.

Edgar, Helen, and Edgar, Graham. Paying Attention. Chapter 8.

Toates, Frederick. Changing Behaviour. Chapter 4
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Analyzing Qualitative Research Paper

Words: 4338 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27733643

Successful Are Clinicians in the Treatment of Comorbid Depression and Anxiety in Adult Patients, With DBT Skills Application?

Depression and anxiety are two of the most common mental health problems in the United States. These two conditions affect a significant percentage of the United States population, meaning that billions of dollars are spent every year to care for the conditions and related problems. Additionally, depression and anxiety are behind the significant declines in patient social functioning and well-being. The two disorders have also been found to cause great suffering and pain to both patients and their close friends and family. In spite of the fact that proven treatments exist, both conditions remain undertreated (izvi, 2011 -- ). The diagnosis and subsequent treatment of the disorders are made even more difficult by the fact that the two disorders share many signs and symptoms. For instance, data from the National Comorbidity Survey…… [Read More]

References

Ballenger, J. C. (2000). Anxiety and Depression: Optimizing Treatments. Primary Care Companion to The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 2(3), 71-79.

Campbell, (2000).A framework for development and evaluation of RCTs for complex interventions to improve health, Medical Research Council Health Services and Public Health Research Board

Chapman, A. L. (2006). Dialectical Behavior Therapy: Current Indications and Unique Elements. Psychiatry (Edgmont), 3(9), 62-68.

Farrell, J. M., Shaw, I. A., & Webber, M. A. (2009). A schema-focused approach to group psychotherapy for outpatients with borderline personality disorder: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 40, 317-328.
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Analyzing Qualitative Research Paper

Words: 2100 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66967919

Successful Are Clinicians in the Treatment of Comorbid Depression and Anxiety in Adult Patients, With DBT Skills Application?

Depression and anxiety are two of the most common mental health problems in the United States. These two conditions affect a significant percentage of the United States population, meaning that billions of dollars are spent every year to care for the conditions and related problems. Additionally, depression and anxiety are behind the significant declines in patient social functioning and well-being. The two disorders have also been found to cause great suffering and pain to both patients and their close friends and family. In spite of the fact that proven treatments exist, both conditions remain undertreated (izvi, 2011 -- ). The diagnosis and subsequent treatment of the disorders are made even more difficult by the fact that the two disorders share many signs and symptoms. For instance, data from the National Comorbidity Survey…… [Read More]

References

Ballenger, J. C. (2000). Anxiety and Depression: Optimizing Treatments. Primary Care Companion to The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 2(3), 71-79.

Farrell, J. M., Shaw, I. A., & Webber, M. A. (2009). A schema-focused approach to group psychotherapy for outpatients with borderline personality disorder: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 40, 317-328.

Garber, J., & Weersing, V. R. (2010). Comorbidity of Anxiety and Depression in Youth: Implications for Treatment and Prevention. Clinical Psychology: A Publication of the Division of Clinical Psychology of the American Psychological Association, 17(4), 293-306. doi. 10.1111/j.1468-2850.2010.01221.x

Kvarstein, E. H., Pedersen, G., Urnes, O., Hummelen, B., Wilberg, T. and Karterud, S. (2015), Changing from a traditional psychodynamic treatment programme to mentalization-based treatment for patients with borderline personality disorder -- Does it make a difference? Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theo, Res, Pra, 88: 71-86. doi: 10.1111/papt.12036
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Analyzing Research Methods and Statistics

Words: 734 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13719648

Ethical esponsibility

There are several ethical responsibilities that psychologists need to consider when conducting a research with adult human participants. The first is to follow APA (American Psychological Association) ethics standards for rights of the participants (Zechmeister, n.d., p. 53). Second, the researchers must conduct a risk-benefit analysis before carrying out the study. Third, the researchers must take informed consent of the participant, which is the critical ethical responsibility in every exploration. Fourth, maintaining the participant's confidentiality is another major ethical task. Privacy should be maintained in order to gain true data from the respondents. Fifth, deception should be avoided. Last, a quick but comprehensive debriefing should be given to the human adults so that any possible misconceptions could be avoided.

Historical Example of Psychological esearch

One historical example of psychological research that raised serious ethical questions is Milgram Obedience Study (Cherry, 2016). It was conducted after World War 2,…… [Read More]

References

Cherry, K. (2016, April 19). The Milgram obedience experiment. Very Well. Retrieved from  https://www.verywell.com/the-milgram-obedience-experiment-2795243 

Cherry, K. (2016, April 20). The Stanford prison experiment. Very Well. Retrieved from  https://www.verywell.com/the-stanford-prison-experiment-2794995 

Ethical Research Involving Children (ERIC). (n.d.). Ethical guidance. Retrieved from  http://childethics.com/ethical-guidance/ 

Zechmeister. (n.d.). Essentials of research methods in psychology. India: Tata McGraw-Hill Education.
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Psychological Disengagement

Words: 1426 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 44849136

ace and Academic Disengagement

Psychological Disengagement

Psychological disengagement represents a coping mechanism that preserves a person's sense of self-worth in the face of negative feedback. For example, a student may discount a bad grade on an exam by framing it as an aberration, thereby preserving a 'good student' self-identity. Employing this coping mechanism has specific advantages, such as allowing the student to be persistent about achieving academic success despite receiving negative feedback (Nussbaum and Steele, 2007). On the other hand, psychological disengagement could facilitate a student framing academic success as irrelevant to their personal goals and future. Such students tend to perform poorly in school and suffer from increased dropout rates (reviewed by Stephan, Caudroit, Boiche, and Sarrazin, 2011). In contrast, students who are academically successful tend not to disengage, despite receiving a negative evaluation, and self-perceptions of their academic competency suffers accordingly. Understanding the mechanisms that encourages psychological disengagement…… [Read More]

References

Major, Brenda, Spencer, Steven, Schmader, Toni, and Wolfe, Connie. (1998). Coping with negative stereotypes about intellectual performance: The role of psychological disengagement. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 24, 34-50.

Nussbaum, A. David and Steele, Claude M. (2007). Situational disengagement and persistence in the face of adversity. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 43, 127-134.

Schmader, Toni, Major, Brenda, and Gramzow, Richard, H. (2001). Coping with ethnic stereotypes in the academic domain: Perceived injustice and psychological disengagement. Journal of Social Issues, 57, 93-111.

Stephan, Yannick, Caudroit, Johan, Boiche, Julie, and Sarrazin, Philippe. (2011). Predictors of situational disengagement in the academic setting: The contribution of grades, perceived competence, and academic motivation. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 81, 441-455.
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Psychological Testing and Its Uses in Practical

Words: 521 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 3013789

psychological testing and its uses in practical situations. This essay will examine the intelligence test, as means to help illuminate how these assessments can be used for in a given situation. Specifically, this essay will examine how these intelligence tests can be used in the workplace for human resources purpose such as hiring and promotion.

Psychological Testing

The role of psychological testing is to provide a tool to further evaluate the mental frame work of an individual. While there are several types of these assessments such as screening, personality and achievement, this essay will examine how intelligence testing can be utilized in the workplace. Intelligence testing attempts to measure the ability of a person's ability to understand the world around them in their environment. These tests use questions that measures the intellectual potential of the person being evaluated and does not reflect a total or comprehensive model of one's totally…… [Read More]

References

Flynn, J.R. (1987). Massive IQ gains in 14 nations: What IQ tests really measure. Psychological bulletin, 101(2), 171.

Framingham, J. (2011). Types of Psychological Testing. Psych Central. Retrieved on September 26, 2014, from  http://psychcentral.com/ lib/types-of-psychological-testing/0005924

Richardson, K. (2002). What IQ tests test. Theory & Psychology, 12(3), 283-314. Retrieved from http://www.swisswuff.ch/files/richardson2002whatiqteststest.pdf
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Psychological Diagnosis Related Children Topic Generalized Anxiety

Words: 3739 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 71398487

psychological diagnosis related children. TOPIC: GENERALIZED ANXIETY DISORDER. Topics selected Diagnostic Statistical Manual Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR). The research paper discuss: a.

Anxiety disorders are presently responsible for interfering in people's lives and preventing them from being able to successfully integrate society. hen considering the Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD), matters are particularly intriguing as a result of the fact that many people have trouble identifying it and actually go through their lives thinking that their thinking is perfectly normal. In spite of the fact that there are no motives to provoke the exaggerated worry seen in people with GAD, they are unable to realize that they are overstressed. Millions of people from around the world are currently suffering from GAD, with the malady affecting virtually everything about their lives.

hile some individuals actually acknowledge the fact that their worries are unfounded, it is very difficult for them to put across rational…… [Read More]

Works cited:

Gliatto, M.F. "Generalized Anxiety Disorder." American Family Physician. October 1, 2000.

Kendall, Philip C. Pimentel, Sandra Moira Rynn, A. Angelosante, Aleta and Webb, Alicia "12 Generalized Anxiety Disorder," Phobic and Anxiety Disorders in Children and Adolescents: A Clinician's Guide to Effective Psychosocial and Pharmacological Interventions, ed. Thomas H. Ollendick andJohn S. March (New York: Oxford University Press, 2004)

Murray, Megan "Treading Water: Self-reflections on Generalized Anxiety Disorder," Human Architecture 2.1 (2003)

Nutt, David; Bell, Caroline; Masterson, Christine and Short, Clare Mood and Anxiety Disorders in Children and Adolescents: A Psychopharmacological Approach (London: Martin Dunitz, 2001)
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Psychological Process That Leads to Terrorism The

Words: 1156 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 55338255

psychological process that leads to terrorism. The author achieves this through using a metaphor that narrows down a staircase that leads to the act of terrorism at the top of a building. This staircase usually leads to higher and higher floors, one remaining on a particular floor is dependent on doors, and spaces, which the person imagines, are going to open to them on that particular floor. This staircase of terrorism has a ground floor and five higher floors. A particular psychological process characterizes the behavior in each of the floor. The ground floor is occupied by majority of the people here what matters most are fairness and just treatment perceptions. People then climb to the first floor and they try out different floors in search of solutions to their perceived unjust treatment. The second floor is where the individuals have misplaced aggressions that influence their terrorist acts. Those who…… [Read More]

Resources

Fathali, M.(2009).The staircase to terrorism. A psychological exploration.
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Psychological Testing Ethical and Legal Use of

Words: 1185 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60730390

Psychological Testing

Ethical and legal use of psychological testing has a significant impact on the standards and practices of psychological testing to demonstrate intervention for those being tested. The purpose of the ethical boundaries of psychological testing is to ensure that clinicians are utilizing the best test possible and then applying the results ethically to demonstrate assistance with diagnosis and intervention modes in a way that best meets the needs of the subject. This work will discuss the ethical application and utilization of psychological testing instruments to demonstrate the best possible outcomes and interventions for subjects in a way that recognizes tests strengths and limitations and ultimately leads to the appropriate and essential answers needed to aid people with diagnosis and treatment objectives. There are a significant number of psychological tests at the disposal of clinicians and they are in a constant state of revision by the entities that develop…… [Read More]

References

Emanuel, E.J., & Menikoff, J. (2011). Reforming the regulations governing research with human subjects. The New England Journal Of Medicine, 365(12), 1145-1150. doi:10.1056/NEJMsb1106942

Green, B., Li, L., Morris, J., Gluzman, R., Davis, J.L., Wang, M., & Katz, R.V. (2011). Detailed knowledge of the Tuskegee Syphilis Study: Who knows what? A framework for health promotion strategies. Health Education & Behavior, 38(6), 629-636. doi:10.1177/1090198110391529

Hogan, T.P. (2007). Psychological testing: A practical introduction (2nd ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

Nagy, T.F. (2011). Ethics in psychological assessment. In T.F. Nagy (Ed.), Essential ethics for psychologists: A primer for understanding and mastering core issues (pp. 171-183). Washington, DC U.S.: American Psychological Association. doi:10.1037/12345-009
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Psychological Criticism Approach

Words: 2151 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 46111217

atership Down, Psychological Criticisms

Psychological Criticisms, Figures & Concepts

Psychological critics of literary works approach a novel by looking at it through a psychological lense. Critics will usually look at the motivations of the characters themselves, or, if there is enough known about the author (for example, Shakespeare), they will analyze the authors motivation, or purpose, for the novel. There are several methods to a psychological criticism; some critics use the Freudian approach, where characters, concepts, and even the setting are broken down into various parts (the id, symbols, sexuality, etc.). Some critics use the Jungian approach, where most of the analysis is focused on the main character and villain, such as the different parts of the self and the persona (Burris). There is yet another method, by Charles Mauron, which focuses on the literary works of an author as though they were a dream, and the final stage of…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Adams, Richard. Watership Down. 1st. New York, NY: Scribner, 1972. 3-429. Print.

Burris, Skylar. "Literary Criticism: An Overview of Approaches." Literary Criticism Study Guide. Skylar Hamilton Burris, n.d. Web. 24 Mar 2011.

.

Dobie, Ann. Theory into Practice: Psychological Criticism. Boston, Mass: Heinle & Heinle, 2002. 47-67. eBook.
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Psychological Testing and Assessment

Words: 980 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 83254250

assist counselors in selecting psychological tests and/or assessments?

There are a number of psychology test directories available in reference libraries. Thee directories typically contain a directory of psychology tests organized according to subject matter. For example, there will be separate sections for self-concept, cognitive ability, personality traits, etc. Each reference book will have its own system of classification so this must be taken into account.

For each entry, there is typically a general profile of the psychology tests and related links. The nature of these entries will vary depending on whether the book is a bibliography or whether it is in-depth directory. The four most popular reference book titles are Tests, Tests in Print (TIP), the Mental Measurements Yearbook (MMY), and Test Critiques (APA).

Tests In Print is a bibliographic encyclopedia of information on every published and commercially available test in psychology and achievement. It is published by uros Institute…… [Read More]

Bibliography

American Psychological Association - FAQ/Finding Information About Psychological Tests

http://www.apa.org/science/programs/testing/find-tests.aspx#

Psych Central

 http://psychcentral.com/
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Psychological Testing Movement History and

Words: 2251 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 1536882

The opposing side, which sports a more eclectic set of disciplinary backgrounds and prides itself on a more sophisticated and inclusive perspective, divides human abilities into broad classes -- logical, spatial, interpersonal, verbal, etc. -- and labels each class an "intelligence." The two sides then proceed to talk past each other. (Casse, 1998, p. 33)

The resulting controversy then falls back to the idea of socio-cultural differences, and race/gender/culture/environment. (Skidmore & Aagaard, 2004, p. 304) Casse claims that by differing on core definitions of intelligence scientists are not good at comparing anything but data or defining concepts,

Scientists make bad dictionary writers and worse philosophers. Their main skills are in constructing experiments and generating explanations for what they observe. Neither of these endeavors requires agreement on what the words involved "mean" in any deep or absolute sense, only on ways of converting the elements of the theory at issue into…… [Read More]

References

Casse, D. (1998, August). IQ since "The Bell Curve." Commentary, 106, 33.

Intelligence. (2004). In the Columbia Encyclopedia (6th ed.). New York: Columbia University Press.

Daly, W.C. (1997). Some Mentally Retarded Children Can Benefit from Placement with Peers. Education, 117(4), 553.

Figueroa, R.A. (1989). Psychological Testing of Linguistic-Minority Students: Knowledge Gaps and Regulations. Exceptional Children, 56(2), 145.
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Psychological Efficacy of Debriefing for Trauma &

Words: 1093 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60475847

Psychological Efficacy of Debriefing for Trauma & Stress

Author's Note with contact information and more details of collegiate affiliation, etc.

The paper will describe what debriefing is. The paper will discuss the nature and prevalence of trauma in American life and culture. The paper will go on to estimate what psychologists are doing to combat this epic rise in traumatic experience, which can lead to stress disorders affecting the daily lives of many. Thus, not only are people victims of trauma, but also, with improper or no treatment, these people can fall victim again to a trauma related disorder. The paper will talk about why and how psychologists are dealing with all these instances of trauma. The paper will summarize two scholarly articles that offer perspective on the issue of trauma and debriefing as treatment. After providing concise summaries of the articles, the paper will provide a comparative analysis of…… [Read More]

References

Raphael, B., Meldrum, L., & McFarlane, A.C. (June 10, 1995) Does debriefing after psychological trauma work?: Time for randomised controlled trials. British Medical Journal. 310(1). 1479 -- 1480.

Rose, S.C., Bisson, J., & Wessely, S. (2009) Psychological debriefing for preventing post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The Cochrane Collaboration. The Cochrane Library, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 1(1). 1 -- 46.
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Psychological Condition That Is Increasingly

Words: 1055 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Article Critique Paper #: 62200534

(Hornbl, 1999)

How this related to other ideas on the subject?

When you look at other ideas on the subject, it is clear that those people who are suffering from gender dysphoria, have other conditions that are affecting them as well. Where, psychologist Richard Carroll has identified a number of issues that need to be examined when someone suffers from these conditions. To include: helping patients understand themselves, letting them know what options they have available, looking for other conditions they could suffer from and establishing life goals. This is significant, because this information can be used to show how the school handled the situation wrong. Where, if Rivers was sent to counseling once he expressed these intentions, the odds would have declined dramatically that he would violate the wishes of the school board. As the counseling, would address the underlying psychological decisions that were pushing him to make this…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Hornbl, M. (1999). He? She? Whatever!. Retrieved July 19, 2010 from Time website:  http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,992203,00.html 

Lieblum, L. (2007). Gender Dysphoria Principals and Practice of Sex Therapy. (pp. 477 -- 479). New York, NY: Guliford Press.
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Psychological and Emotional Stress Experienced

Words: 1292 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 50588820

As one study states, "Suicide rates for te elderly, tirty-five per 100,000 are iger tan any oter age group..." (Oriol W.) a study by Butler, Lewis and Sunderland (1991) also amplifies tis data and refers to te increase of depressive moods in te elderly wic can also lead to extreme states of stress. Tese factors are obviously compounded by te events and trauma in natural disasters and can lead to severe psycological problems in te elderly.

Anoter factor tat is often mentioned is transfer trauma. Tis occurs wen te elderly ave to be suddenly moved from teir normal environment or ome during disasters. Tis can cause extreme stress and disorientation in older people, wo ave become dependent and accustomed to teir surrounding and may fear losing teir support system.

In conclusion, all of te above factors empasize tat natural disasters can increase and exacerbate stress and anxiety in te elderly…… [Read More]

http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=107540836 

World Health Organisation. (1995) the world health report 1995: bridging the gaps. Geneva: WHO, 1995.

In the United States the percentage of people 65 or older increased from 4% in 1900 to about 13% in the late 1990s. In 1900, only about 3 million of the nation's people had reached 65. By 1998, the number of senior citizens had increased to about 34 million. Population experts estimate that more than 50 million Americans -- about 17% of the population -- will be 65 or older in 2020." (Old age)
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Psychological Treatment for Gender Dysphoria

Words: 3198 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 11557244

Clinical Psychology and Gender Dysphoria

Advancement of Clinical Psychology with Gender Dysphoria

Clinical psychology is recognized as a psychology branch that deals with the assessment and treatment of abnormal behavior, mental illness, and psychiatric problems (Brennan, 2003). Clinical psychology integrates the science of psychology with treatment of complicated human problems, which makes it a challenging and rewarding field. American psychologist Lightner Witmer introduced the term in 1907. Witmer defined clinical psychology as a field that studies individuals by experimentation or observation, with the intent of promoting change. A clinical psychologist will try to reduce any psychological distress suffered by a patient and enhance their psychological well-being. Previously clinical psychology focused on the psychological assessment of the patients, and there was little or no attention been paid to treatment. This scenario changed after World War II in the 1940s because there was increased demand for trained clinicians. A clinical psychologist will…… [Read More]

References

Brennan, J.F. (2003). History and systems of psychology. Upper Saddle River, N.J: Prentice Hall.

Colomb, J., & Brembs, B. (2010). The biology of psychology:'Simple'conditioning? Communicative & integrative biology, 3(2), 142.

Eliason, M.J., Dibble, S.L., & Robertson, P.A. (2011). Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) physicians' experiences in the workplace. Journal of homosexuality, 58(10), 1355-1371.

Leahey, T.H., Greer, S., Lefrancois, G.R., Reiner, T.W., Spencer, J.L., Wickramasekera, I.E., & Willmarth, E.K. (2014). History of Psychology. San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Education.
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Psychological Work of John B Watson B F

Words: 1128 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23992265

psychological work of John B. atson, B.F. Skinner, and Edward C. Tolman, along with the impacts that these three had on society. This paper will also compare and contrast these three iconic psychologists.

Edward C. Tolman is said by author Bernard J. Baars to have been the "…only major figure" in the emerging field of behaviorism "…who advocated the possibility of mental representation" (Baars, 1986, p. 61). Baars writes that more than any other behaviorist Tolman "anticipated…the cognitive point-of-view… [and] thought it necessary to postulate events other than stimuli and responses" (61). Tolman has made significant contributions to psychology, including: a) the use of cognitive maps in rats; b) the "latent learning" he pioneered though the use of rats; c) the concept of "intervening variables"; and d) the discovery that rats don't just learn their movements "…for rewards" but rather they also learn when no rewards are given, backing up…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Baars, Bernard J. (1986). The Cognitive Revolution in Psychology. New York: Guilford Press.

Geary, Eric. (2002). Psyography: Edward C. Tolman. Psyography. Retrieved October 27, 2012,

from  http://faculty.frostburg.edu/mbradley/psyography/edwardtolman.html .

Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. (2005). Behaviorism / John B. Watson: Early
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Psychological Approach to Sex and Its Use

Words: 482 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 75476197

psychological approach to sex and its use during advertising. Whether it is used in the proper context to promote the product or is aimed at a systemic way to get the viewer to watch the advertisement.

Sexual Advertisements

The use of psychology in advertising is well established. The use of sexual advertising has been seen in a variety of products from cars to ice cream aimed at a wide range of target audiences spread across the demographic ranges. The use of sexuality, which, may include visual or audio images and can be presented in different formats, including nudity, sexual innuendo, or even with humour. The main aim of the advertising is to target the processing of the information regarding the advertisement rather the concentration on the brand. The idea is that the images and feeling they create may then be associated with the product that is being sold, increasing its'…… [Read More]

References

Grazer, William F. And Garland Keesling (1995), The Effect of Print Advertising's Use of Sexual Themes on Brand Recall and Purchase Intention: A Product Specific Investigation of Male Responses, Journal of Applied Business Research, 11(3), 47-58

MacInnis, Deborah J., Christine Moorman and Bernard J. Jaworski (1991, October), Enhancing and Measuring Consumers' Motivation, Opportunity, and Ability to Process Brand Information From Ads, Journal of Marketing, 55 (), 32-53.

Severn, Jessica, George E. Belch and Michael A. Belch (1990), The Effects of Sexual and Non-Sexual Advertising Appeals and Information Level on Cognitive Processing and Communication Effectiveness, Journal of Advertising, 19(1), 14-22.
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Psychological Support for Police Operations

Words: 620 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 33846034

Police Ops

For police officers, undercover work provides a priceless opportunity to help the force achieve its goals and to infiltrate large criminal organizations. However, undercover work can be tremendously stressful. The stress of undercover work often reaches a boiling point, leading the officer to have mental health issues and even suicide attempts. In New York, Detective Margaret Sasso served as an undercover officer successfully, but a failed suicide attempt using doctor-prescribed muscle relaxants served as a wake-up call.

In an interview, Detective Sasso claimed that she needed a "rest," which is itself a symptom of the stress experienced as an undercover officer. Undercover officers are new to the force, largely because of the need to ensure their not being recognized. However, their relative inexperience, coupled with the nature of their socially isolating work, causes a large number of undercover officers to experience stress. Dozens request transfers, according to research…… [Read More]

References

Baker, A. & Goldstein, J. (2012). Police working under cover, and under strain. International New York Times. May 6, 2012. Retrieved online:  http://www.nytimes.com/2012/05/07/nyregion/undercover-officers-under-strain-with-no-clear-way-off-the-beat.html?pagewanted=all 

Joh, E.E. (2009). Breaking the law in order to enforce it. 62 Stan. L. Rev. 155 (2009-2010).
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Research Paper Topic and Annotated Bibliography

Words: 2285 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91609216

Selection of Research Paper Topic

An analysis of the link between hopefulness, quality of life (QOL) and internalized stigma among autistic kids' parents is the objective of the current research. Autism impacts the patient as well as their parents, who require wide-ranging support services. The entire family of autism patients gets distressed during its attempts at raising the patient/child, potentially leading to diverse psychological and social problems among family members. Therefore, when catering to special needs kids and developing interventions and initiatives for autism-diagnosed kids, mental healthcare providers and social workers need to consider parental mental health status. Family members who are able to enjoy appropriate levels of societal acceptance and assistance tend to adjust better to challenges encountered in the course of raising autistic kids (Papageorgiou & Kalyva, 2010).

Stigma internalization represents a process wherein patients' family members might exhibit elevated negative emotions, withdrawal from society, negative self-assessment and…… [Read More]

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Research Designs in Developmental Research

Words: 911 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82919925

Development Change Research Issue

Developmental change is a broad topic that incorporate several sub-topics relating to an individual's growth and development. The broad nature of this topic emerges from the fact that its an approach that is geared towards explaining how infants, children, and adults change over a period of time. The process of explaining individuals' developmental changes over time involves examining a wide range of theoretical areas including biological, cognitive, emotional, and social domains. Additionally, there are different research designs that are utilized in developmental research including longitudinal, sequential, and cross-sectional research approaches (Berk & Meyers, 2016). These different approaches are selected based on their effectiveness in exploring a particular issue or aspect of developmental change over time.

An example of a topic that could be examined using one of these research designs is masticatory performance in children across different age groups. This is an important topic of study…… [Read More]

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Psychological Theory

Words: 2096 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 11794677

Alcoholism and Upbringing

Psychological theory

James' father is responsible for James' involvement in crime and burglary. Origin of the problem. Alcoholic parents are the reason for the moral decay of juveniles

Another reason for James' feelings of inadequacy

Effect of alcoholism in the upbringing of a child

The effect of taking James out of his mother's home as a juvenile

eaction formation

An examination of James' denial of his responsibility over his problem

Personality theory

Sociological theory

Personality and sociological theory

An explanation of James' behaviors, and his father using the two frameworks

Thorburn (2005) suggests that a misapprehension that numerous alcoholics seem to have is that their behavior does not affect other people. They deny ever hurting other people but themselves. A great deal of research and huge anecdotal proof suggest otherwise. The behavior of alcoholics can affect those around them, including family members, friends, coworkers and employers. Children…… [Read More]

References

Plant, M.A., Peck, D.F., Samuel, E., & Stuart, R. (2000). Alcohol, drugs, and school-leavers.

London: Tavistock Publications.

Thorburn, D. (2005). Alcoholism myths and realities: Removing the stigma of society's most destructive disease. Northridge, Calif: Galt Pub.

Floyd, M.R., & Seale, J.P. (2002). Substance abuse: A patient-centered approach. Abingdon,
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Psychological Religious Development of a 70 Yr Women

Words: 2567 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 46118517

Interview of 70-year-Old oman

Psychological and Religious Development

This paper represents the results of an interview with a seventy-year-old Caucasian woman named Elma Rose. Research includes her personal background, life experiences and crossroads as well as her beliefs concerning marriage, family and lifestyle.

Elma Rose was born April 13, 1934 in the small Appalachian town of Abingdon in the northwestern corner of Virginia. The youngest of eight children, she now has one surviving sister. Elma Rose has been widowed twice and currently lives alone. She has four children, ten grandchildren, and three great-grandchildren. Her parents were devout Catholics of middle class status who instilled an appreciation of education in their children. However, as Elma Rose explains, this did not mean that she and her siblings all graduated from college or even from high school for that matter. In fact only two brothers graduated from college, while three, two sisters and…… [Read More]

Work Cited

Ellison, Christopher G; Boardman, Jason D; Williams, David R; Jackson,

James S. "Religious involvement, stress, and mental health: Findings from the 1995 Detroit area study." Social Forces. September 01, 2001.

Paloutzian, Raymond F. "The psychology of religion." Annual Review of Psychology. January 01, 2003.

Genia, Vicky. "Religious Issues in Secularly-Based Psychotherapy."
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Research Assumptions Regarding Human Trafficking

Words: 1220 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69522906

infused my original assumptions with greater specificity over the course of the gathering of my information. At first, I conducted a literature review of my topic (human trafficking) to establish that there is a recorded tendency that women are more likely to be trafficked than men. But after exploring the data collection process further of these research studies, I began to understand that certain factors can affect even statistical evidence, such as the fact that certain forms of trafficking may be more likely to be detected than other forms. For example, women seem to be more apt to be trafficked into the sex industry. Since all forms of prostitution are illegal in most states, this makes it easier to detect than coerced labor in the agricultural and garment industries and in domestic service (Hepburn & Simon 2010). This highlighted that there will likely always be gaps in whatever data that…… [Read More]

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Psychological Sociological Cultural and Biological Theories on Depression and Treatments That Take These Into Account

Words: 2590 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 91688277

Depression Theories

Various Theories on Depression, and Respective Treatments

Depression is a complex mood disorder that is characterized by various emotions, including sadness, self-blame, absence of pleasure and an overall sense of worthlessness, and by physical responses relating to sleep, appetite and motor symptoms. According to statistics, one in four adults will suffer from a depressive episode at some point in life. With a quarter of the population affected by depression, it is no wonder that one sees so many advertisements both on television and on billboards relating to the disorder. It is also understandable that many intellectual fields of study would give an opinion on what depression truly means and how it can be treated. This paper will thus examine psychological, sociological, cultural and biological theories on depression and will describe various treatments that take into account expertise from these various areas of study to better understand this complex…… [Read More]

Lastly, with respect to biological theory-based treatments, scientific research is vital. A study conducted in 2010 states that the finding of "various structural and chemical abnormalities in the brain through neuroimaging" has been the foundation in depression research in the last year. This study further states that the research combines various brain areas to arise specific symptoms, and that the new data could contribute to further understanding and treating depression. Specific treatments are not given as part of this study, but "biological" treatments will usually include medication, such as anti-depressants. [20: Papageorgiou, G. (2010). Biological theory of depression in the light of new evidence. Retrieved April 11, 2011, from  http://www.annals-general-psychiatry.com/content/9/S1/S47 . ]

Conclusion

This paper has discussed various theories of depression and has expanded upon treatments that take into account these theories. Some treatments have been proven effective, and others have been illustrated simply as examples or as evidence of much needed field research. Depression has been shown to be a complex illness explained by various intelligent minds in different ways, yet in order to treat this disorder, one must take into account all this knowledge, and hope that advances in scientific research, such as that illustrated above, will provide for better treatments and, finally, more effective relief from depressive symptoms.
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Psychological Basis of Mental Illness Is Certainly

Words: 924 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60673893

psychological basis of mental illness is certainly only half of the story. Though mental illness is genetic, the actual symptoms and condition being presented is based on a careful marriage between biological and environmental factors. In particular, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), is a mental illness in which "people have unwanted and repeated thoughts, feelings, ideas, sensations or obsession, or behaviors that make them feel driven to do something (compulsions)" (National Institute of Mental Health, 2011). This mental illness, like many others is multi-faceted, in that there is a physiological process associated with it, a set of symptoms that manifest, certain diagnostic criterion and then a set of treatment options.

Foremost, the physiological process of mental illness is mainly concerned with the brain and certain regions of it. The physiological process is a process that evaluates the neural mechanisms of perception and behavior. esearch examining the brain has found that "a selective…… [Read More]

Riccardi, Christina J, Timpano, Kiara R, & Schmidt, Norman B (2010). A Case Study Perspective on the Importance of motivation in the Treatment of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder. Clinical Case Studies, Volume 9, (Issue 4), pages 273-284.

Rosenberg, David R. & Keshavan, Matcheri S. (1998). Toward a Neurodevelopment Model of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder. Biological Psychiatry: Official Journal of the Society of Biological Psychiatry, Volume 43 (Issue 9), Pages 623-640.

Swinson, Richard P (2001). Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Theory, Research, and Treatment. New York: The Guilford Press.