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Understanding of psychopathology
Psychopathology has had differentiated opinions from variant psychologists. Warner's opinion of relabeling people's process and Prouty's therapy that offers a mentally unwell person are both discussed in depth for better understanding. Also, the effects of language barrier to collaborating psychologists and psychiatrists in dealing with person-centered therapies have been reviewed in this article. Communication enhancement is fundamental for the relaying of information between the different medical practitioners is what will help in the scientific research on matters dealing with brain functionality, and the enhancement of methods to counter the dysfunctional elements in human ability. This paper aims at examining closely the person-centered approach, and its efficiency in dealing with the brain disorders and other physical impairments.
Psychopathology is a study that deals with behaviors, human feelings and thoughts that either causes depression or anxiety (distress), forces one to indulge in dangerous activities, which can be against…… [Read More]
Conceptions of psychopathology help "to delineate which human experiences are considered psychopathological and which are not," (Maddux, Gosselin & Winstead, 2008, p. 3). One conception of psychopathology is that deviation from the norm measured statistically is a valid means by which to label a behavior, condition, or person as psychopathological. This conception is flawed in that a great number of behaviors, conditions, and people deviate from the norm but should not be considered deviant or abnormal. However, this concept has the benefit of being measurable, which many scientists like. Another conception of psychopathology is whether a behavior or condition is functional or dysfunctional. This concept highlights the difference between a functioning alcoholic who has no ill effects at work or home, and the dysfunctional alcoholic who is abusive and cannot keep a job. The concept of harmful dysfunction has also been suggested, as it refers only to cases in…… [Read More]
Abnormality: A Legal Concept
One of the earliest explanations of mental illnesses and abnormality, dating as far back to the late sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, was possession by evil spirits and acts of devil himself. Even in modern times, it is difficult to define abnormality as it can take many different forms and involve various different features.
Abnormality can be defined in a number of ways. Considered as a deviation from the ideal mental health, it can be characterized as unusual behavior that is different from the norm and/or doesn't conform to the social expectations. It also involves the failure of a person to function effectively or that there is a presence of pronounced psychological suffering or distress (Kagan, 2008). Psychopathology is a term that refers to the study of mental illnesses or mental distress and how it manifests on a person in terms of behavior and experiences. Such a…… [Read More]
He suggested the ritish model of profiling instead, based on the "bottom up" type of processing, which analyzes existing evidence of specific similarities between offense and offender characteristics. The CSA uses the reverse, the "top down" processing, which relies on subjective conclusions derived from investigative experience of crimes and criminal interviews by the police and investigators (Hayden).
Motive is the reason behind the commission of a crime (Zandt 2006). It is not an element of a crime, which needs to be proven in court. ut some utterly heinous or unnatural crime may require it for the jury to understand and appreciate why it is committed. An example is the killing of one's own spouse or child. Prosecutors must clearly establish the motive, which is the offender's reason for committing what is considered unreasonable, heinous or unnatural. The prosecution must prove and convince the jury, explain and show how anyone can…… [Read More]
Freud was ight, Peter Muris discusses Freud's analysis of abnormal behavior. He acknowledges that Freud's research methods were flawed because he focused on case studies rather than empirical analysis to try to determine causation. Despite that, Muris suggests that Freud's theories about the etiology of psychological disorders and abnormal behavior being rooted in childhood and showing emerging behavior in children and adolescents may be supported by what is known of abnormal psychology. This does not mean that Muris believes that Freud's explanations for abnormal behavior, specifically his Oedipal theories, explain abnormal behavior; he does not believe that abnormal behavior is necessarily rooted in sexual impulses towards parents as Freudian theories would explain. However, he does believe that Freud's studies began to explain the origins of abnormal human behavior and may provide insight into helping those who engage in abnormal behavior.
Muris believes that many patterns of abnormal adult behavior have…… [Read More]
Psychopathology has been viewed differently throughout history and throughout various cultures. The ancient Chinese, Greeks and Romans viewed it psychopathology as a spiritual issue, and they all had their own ways of treating it—from dietary interventions to music interventions to getting more fresh air out of doors and in a natural setting, and so on (Kyziridis, 2005). The Egyptians viewed it as a physical disorder. The Hindus viewed it as an issue of finding the right balance between the physical and the spiritual. In the Middle Ages, it could be viewed as anything from demonic possession to a sign of holiness (Smith, 2007). Indeed, nothing really has changed because as Wedge (2011) points out, “there is no consensus in the medical community about what behaviors constitute a particular ‘disorder’.” Bleuler helped to popularize the idea of the “split mind” in modern times, which has been used to characterize schizophrenia—but…… [Read More]
" (Weiss, Goebel, Page, Wilson and Warda, 1998)
However, it is stated that 7% of the children in the study "had scores indicating risk for mental health problems and 14$ showed enough symptoms to warrant substantial clinical concern." (Weiss, Goebel, Page, Wilson and Warda, 1998) it is reported that the study was focused on the determination of the degree to which behavioral and emotional problems may be related to the family's financial status, cultural heritage, degree of acculturation, and family functioning." (Weiss, Goebel, Page, Wilson and Warda, 1998)
Results stated in the work of Weiss, Goebel, Page, Wilson and Warda (1998) are stated to suggest that "...as a group, Latino preschoolers are quite well adjusted, experiencing a range of emotional and behavioral problems typical for their age group. However, a small proportion of the sample demonstrated behaviors indicative of substantial mental health problems. oys seem more likely to warrant clinical…… [Read More]
Aldao, Nolen-Hoeksema, and Schweize (2010) define emotional regulation as the process, unconscious or conscious, through which individuals modulate their emotions. Models of psychopathology and treatment have incorporated emotional regulation (E) into their paradigms. Treatment interventions concentrate on aspects of mindfulness in emotional regulation (e.g., reappraisal, acceptance, and problem solving), whereas models of psychopathology are more apt to concentrate on automatic processes such as the paradoxical effects of trying to suppress unwanted thoughts, as well as rumination, and avoidance. Alado et al. was interested in the relationship of the aforementioned six strategies to the specific psychopathologies of depression, anxiety, substance abuse eating disorders, in terms of each one's sensitivity and specificity.
A meta-analysis of studies using self-report measures of E dispositional tendencies in participants between the years 1985-2008 was performed. Inclusion criteria for the studies included at least one cross sectional relationship between an E and pathology; E was assessed via…… [Read More]
Lamanda has an etiology that has causal factors gathered right from her childhood. She is behaving in a manner likely to indicate an abnormal psychological problem. No wonder the social worker, she meets at the restaurant she currently works as a waiter, advises her to seek for professional assistance. Lamanda seems confused, disorganized, withdrawn and is living in denial of herself and origin. There is an observable trend in her recent lifestyle, where she has chosen to lead a sedentary lifestyle and her health and physical stature seems to be deteriorating. She dislikes her job and is disinterested in looking for another. She has withdrawn from the other employees at the restaurant and her social circles. She has acquired a new trend of lousiness and laziness. She has lost interest in her physical appearance and personal grooming. She seems to have lost interest in the important things in…… [Read More]
Psychopathology Criminal Behavior Part
What might be some of the implications for the forensic field of the differences between the "low-fear hypothesis" and the "high-impulsive" subtypes of psychopathy? In other words, how might the differences in the models help inform us about best practices for such activities as police work on the streets, interrogation methods, trial and sentencing practices, providing treatment, or evaluating recidivism risks?
In retrospect, theorists view Lykken's conceptual framework as a first step toward distinguishing between primary and secondary psychopathy (Baskins-Sommers, 2010). As theory building continues in this decade, the typology is supported by the notion of trait-like sensitivities and trait-like cognitive capacities that suggest the following implications for criminal justice procedures. Primary psychopathy is characterized by disinhibition, which is an inability to abort a dominant response, integrate socialization, or adopt alternative objectives. An individual who is considered to have primary psychopathy will fail to consider emotional…… [Read More]
Psychopathology of Criminal Behavior -- Part II
Psychopathology of Criminal Behavior
Each question must be 300 words long.
Look carefully and honestly at some of your own age, gender, ethnic, cultural beliefs, and/or attitudes and discuss how such factors may impact your functioning in the work of responding to psychopathy.
I feel fortunate to have taken classes in college that have allowed me to meet and mix with people who are quite different from me in terms of age, ethnicity, cultural beliefs, and mindset. In addition, I participate in community activities that bring me in contact with people who come from different socio-economic and religious groups. My own family has experienced quite a few change-ups from what my parents' and my grandparents' generation experienced. Academically, I have studied about variables that contribute to the development of psychopathy in vulnerable people, and I believe I have a robust understanding of mental…… [Read More]
Aldao, a., Nolen-Hoeksema, S., and Schweizer, S. "Emotion-regulation strategies
across psychopathology: A meta-analytic review." Clinical Psychology
Review, Vol. 30, No. 2 (2010): 217 -- 237.
This article considered of a meta-analytic review of data pertaining to six typical strategies of regulating emotion in relation to four different types of psychopathology. More specifically, the researchers considered the following emotion-regulation strategies: acceptance, avoidance, problem solving, reappraisal, rumination, and suppression; and they considered them in the context of each of the following psychological disorders: anxiety, depression, eating, and substance-related disorders. The method employed by the researchers consisted of primarily of systematic literature searches of studies presenting data about any of the six emotion-regulation strategies in the context of any of the four types of psychological disorders. The authors also conducted various supplementary searches of available databases, articles with potentially relevant literature cited as references, and solicited colleagues for their experience and recommendations…… [Read More]
Abnormal psychology is a field in psychology that addresses dysfunctions in behavior which are determined abnormally by standards of behavior .These standards have been established by clinical professionals in the field such as medical doctors, psychiatrists and psychologists. Behaviors considered to be abnormal are; schizophrenia, depression, attention deficit disorder, eating disorder, sexual deviance, obsessive compulsive disorder and anti-social disorder (Cherry, 2012). These disordered function outside the normal parameters of the functional behaviors considered to be standard. The paper will look at the origins of abnormal psychology and challenges when it comes to the classification and definition of normal and abnormal behavior. It will also look at how abnormal psychology has evolved into a scientific discipline. It will finally look at the theoretical models that have led to the advancement of understanding psychopathology.
Origins of Abnormal psychology
Abnormal psychology has been undergoing tremendous changes and progress. It is a very controversial…… [Read More]
Deconstructing the Utility of the orschach as a Measure of Personality and Psychopathology
This paper explores the enduring relvance of the orschach and finds that this instrument deserves such appositeness. It examines its strengths and weaknesses, and provides a review of literature that elucidates its value. This instrument is useful in numerous fields.
The orschach Inkblot Test is one of the most time honored and widespread assessment instruments within the field of psychology. It has endured in numerous forms ever since its inception in the early part of the 20th century (Meyer and Eblin, 2012, p. 107). During its tenure, it has experienced substantial amounts of criticism as well as various deployments in a number of diverse vertical industries and applications (Wood et al., 2003, p. 30). However, it is worth noting that this instrument has been revised and reformed on a number of occasions to continue delivering value to…… [Read More]
For a person working through a shadowy part of him- or herself, the goal can be as generic as better self-knowledge and self-management.
Working through must be recognized as a process, but also as a process with a certain goal in mind. To successfully work through any part of the self, it must also be recognized that certain unpleasant elements may be uncovered before the goal is reached. The therapist must be able to help the client adhere to the process.
Stages of Development
According to object relations theory, human development entails a lifelong effort to break away from the dependency established in early childhood in order to reach the adult states of mutuality and exchange. The goal is to break the limitations of dependency in order to reach the autonomy that might be expected from the stage of adulthood. If a person does not break away from these bonds,…… [Read More]
Likewise, managers and supervisors in vocational situations vary in their ability to handle relationships with subordinates appropriately. Furthermore, any significant change in, and (especially) reversal of the power differential may present more challenges, particularly in conjunction with any concurrent issues such as a prior history of abuse of power earlier in the relationship, such as before the change or reversal (Wallace, 2005).
Family Stress Theory
Even under the best of circumstances, providing for the fulltime needs of a mentally incompetent and physically dependent elder patient can be tremendously stressful (Wallace, 2005). Caretakers in this situation frequently experience difficulty maintaining an appropriate demeanor in some situations or simply as a result of the prolonged stresses associated with being responsible for elder patients. Mentally impaired patients can be uncooperative and difficult and test the patience of caretakers (Wallace, 2005). This particular caretaker is hardly an ideal candidate to cope with those stressors…… [Read More]
Psychology Discussion: Psychopathology
Read the introduction to Reading 1: Beaver, Rowland, Schwartz & Nedelec (2011). The genetic origins of psychopathic personality traits in adult males and females: Results from an adoption-based study. Journal of Criminal Justice, 39, 426-432.
Characterise psychopathy: What are the defining features?
Psychopathy is a disorder of the personality that based on three prongs of traits: affective, behavioral, and interpersonal. Perhaps because they are so striking, are observed early in a person's life, or are reliably exhibited across people with psychopathy, the affective trait domain is key to identifying and measuring the incidence of psychopathy in a population. In particular, psychiatrists and psychologists look for callousness, absence of empathy, lack of feelings of guilt or remorse, reactive short-tempers, and indifference to punishment -- other than an association with revenge seeking.
State two findings from the reading that indicate that psychopathic personality traits are inherited.
Beaver, et al.…… [Read More]
Jamison's work, Allen notes, has drawn public attention to the intertwined relationship or creativity and manic depressive disorder.
Poets, out of all the artists, appear to suffer most often from mood disorders. One study Jamison notes, estimates that 50% of poets are adversely affected. A recent study of poets, however, at the famous Iowa Writers' Workshop, reported 80% are affected. Jamison likely felt confusion at one time regarding this contention. Strong evidence also indicates that mental illness impedes the creative process. Gwyneth Jones writes -- and a number of others appear to concur: "There is a very close connection between depression and creativity, but it's not of the crudely co not be the most representative" (Evans, 2006, ¶ 7). One common theme linking depression and creativity appears to concur that the depression contributes to vision while it impedes creation. David Budbill, another bipolar survivor, however, stated he had come to…… [Read More]
The subject promises to
approach issues of theology, sociology, ethicality and behavior with
sychology: rofessional Ethics and Legal Issues (523), though an elective,
seems to be an absolutely indispensable channeling of study time. The
examination of issues of ethical and legal centrality to the research or
practice of psychology should arm future professionals with the underlying
information and philosophical orientation needed to approach this complex
field with sensitivity, objectivity and integrity.
Teaching Introduction to sychology (GIDS 524) is an elective which should
serve to further the knowledge and information obtained in Advanced
Educational sychology (GIDS 521), continuing to refine the ideas and
theories instructed through my larger course of study into a set of tools
for the demonstration of this knowledge. Here, I anticipate sharpening the
skills which I already possess to serve in the instructional capacity on
the interdisciplinary relevance of psychology.
This first phase…… [Read More]
The field of clinical psychology emerged as a viable method through which the theoretical foundations of cognitive studies could be effectively applied within the clinical setting to prevent and treat psychological syndromes. Derived from the first clinical psychology work conducted by Lightner Witmer in the late 19th century, and expanding throughout the 20th century as diagnostic tools were refined and classification systems for mental disorders were standardized, modern clinical psychology has been adapted to fulfill a niche within a whole host of divergent fields, including criminal justice, the social sciences and gender relations. Clinical psychologists premise their work on the use of empirical analysis to accurately investigate matters of cognitive processing, psychological assessment and mental illness, with the administration of personality tests, neurological scans and clinical interviews the most frequently utilized diagnostic resources. As clinical psychology expanded the base of knowledge pertaining to the human brain's highly refined…… [Read More]
1529). Linked to but separate from attachment theory, cognitive theories focus on identifying deficient or distorted cognitive structures and processes that may contribute to a disorder (Mash & Barkley, 2003). Taken together, the foregoing findings suggest that both attachment theory and cognitive theory could be used to help identify internal and external factors that may contribute to the development of Munchausen's syndrome.
Buchanan, G.M. & Seligman, M.E.P. (1995). Explanatory style. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence
Ford, C.V. (1996). Lies!, Lies!! Lies!!! The psychology of deceit. Washington, DC: American
Gomez, J. (1993). Psychological and psychiatric problems in men. London: outledge.
Holmes, J. (1993). John Bowlby and attachment theory. London: outledge.
Jacoby, D.B. & Youngson, .M. (2005). Encyclopedia of family health. New York: Marshall
Mash, E.J. & Barkley, .A. (2003). Child psychopathology. New York: Guilford Press.
Murray, J.B. (1997). Munchausen syndrome/Munchausen syndrome by proxy. Journal of Psychology, 131(3),…… [Read More]
Over the last several years, many health care professionals have been focusing on wide variety of approaches to fully understand the impact that depression having on people. At the heart of this area of research, has been studying the way that a person is reacting to a particular event. This is because there are certain genetic factors and traits that can have an effect on how they are interpreting a variety of situations. As a result, there has been an emphasis on comprehending how these elements can influence an individual's thinking. Evidence of this can be seen by looking no further than, observations from Plomin (2003) who observed, "We are rapidly approaching the postgenomic era in which we will know all of the 3 billion DNA bases in the human genome sequence and all of the variations in the genome sequence that are ultimately responsible for genetic influence…… [Read More]
Discussion -- Textbook approach gives a great deal of theory; value of the article is in taking the material and applying it to situations that are relevant to one's current profession and/or understanding different approaches to conflict.
Review -- the Million Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI) - the MCMI is a psychological assessment tool that was written to provide information on psychopathology including specifics outlined in the DSM-IV. It is intended for adults over 18 who have at least an 8th grade reading level and who are seeking mental health services. The test was actually developed and standardizes on clinical populations in psychiatric hospitals or individuals with current existing mental health issues. The authors are quite specific about it not being used with the general population or with adolescents, as values will likely not be appropriate for extrapolation (Pearson, 2012).
History -- Published in 1977 by Theodore Millon based on his…… [Read More]
Jung and auditory hallucinations
Meyer (2003), in a discussion of Jungian symbolism in the movie, Spider-Man, notes that both masks and voices are essential to the movement of heroic characters through the plotline. Meyer is not, however, a psychologist, nor even an anthropologist; rather, she is a write about communications. Still, her work on Spider-Man tied several of the movie's themes to Jungian thought.
Halifax's work goes farther in bringing Jungian thought into the mainstream of psychological study. His work with shamans and shamanic ritual, important subjects to Jungians, posited aspects of schizophrenia in the initiatory journey of the shaman. Halifax cited Julian Silverman's conclusions in which schizophrenia was characterized as a disorder in which the "individual withdraws form society and the outer world and becomes preoccupied by internal processes with a resulting disintegration of the personality. The symptoms, broadly described, include autism and unreal ideation, disturbed perception and thinking,…… [Read More]
Emotional regulation is the manner in which people adapt and/or adjust their feelings both knowingly and unconsciously to the changes or events in their experiences and surroundings. Emotional regulation has become an important topic in psychological models of psychopathology and in hypothesized treatment strategies for various types of mental disorders. There are several different aspects of emotional regulation that have been targeted as important explanatory factors or targets of intervention for psychopathology. In addition, these maladaptive emotional regulation strategies (or lack of a strategy) have also served as areas of focus for psychological interventions for disorders involving alterations of mood or anxiety. Three of these strategies are rumination, reappraisal, and response modulation.
Rumination, in its most basic sense is repetitive thinking. Rumination is most often thought of as the focus on distressing events that occurred in the past, whereas worrying is more focused on distress associated with potential future events.…… [Read More]
Kenneth Kotovsky and Herbert A. Simon are concerned with the "Human acquisition of concepts for sequential patterns." Their goal is to understand how an individual can produce a serial pattern. The process is based upon a rule which was learned by the individual under discussion through induction. Their research involves the use of computer programming and formal languages. Its goal is to understand which problems are likely to be more challenging for the human mind. The program is presented in various types and its results are evaluated as being successful.
B.F. Skinner in "About behaviorism" presents his views regarding the human behaviour patterns. According to him, the manner in which people behave is deeply influenced by the environment where they live. One of the things which differentiates his view is the importance given to subjective factors, such as the individuals' personal thoughts and feelings (which the author considers to be…… [Read More]
This is discussed at length by Fusick and ordeau (2004) "...school-based counselors need to be aware of the disturbing inequities that exist in predominantly Afro-American urban school districts, where nearly 40% of Afro-American students attend school in the United States" (Fusick and ordeau, 2004) This again places emphasis on the need for mental health programs in these areas of concern. This is also related to findings from a study by McDavis et al. (1995) Counseling African-Americans, which refers to research that stresses the "...widening achievement gap between Afro-American and Euro-American students." (McDavis, et al. 1995)
An important study Laura a. Nabors, Evaluation of Outcomes for Adolescents Receiving School-ased Mental Health Services (2002) refers to the particular issue and problems experience at inner-city schools. The author states that, "School mental health (SMH) programs are an important setting for providing mental health services to adolescents, especially urban youth who typically face in-…… [Read More]
As a result they demand more convenient means of addressing communications needs like text messaging and are more prone to use Blackberry-like devices for their SMS needs. The development of the Blackberry came far after Hong Kong users had mastered the art of SMS on standard cellphones. The product "mapping," as Norman (1996) describes, is more intuitive on the Blackberry but the technology arrived too late to compete with the Hong Kong market. This supports what (author of "Do Artifacts Have Politics") describes as the "social determination of technology."
Sociological theories of technology suggest that artifacts may reflect political and cultural realities. Differential cellular phone usage between North America and Canada reflects a political and cultural reality: telecommunications infrastructure in the United States and Canada continues to emphasize land lines, and cellular phone services are less entrenched as a result. In Hong Kong the reverse is true: land lines were…… [Read More]
Instead of canceling the visit, the person grudgingly gets ready to go and at the train station accidentally gets on the train that takes home back home instead of the one that takes him to the relative's house. This in Freud's mind would be a bundled action because the person did not feel comfortable canceling so instead his subconscious took over and provided a way for him to get out of going by doing what he secretly wanted to do in the first place, which was to remain at home.
Accidental self-injury has long been attributed to the theory of bungled actions. If a person gets into a car accident and is killed or almost killed one may later discover that the person in the wreck was depressed and was facing a court date, or a divorce or financial ruin. The accident in the car according to Freud would not…… [Read More]
e., unreasonable expectations of especially favorable treatment or automatic compliance with his or her expectations" (DSM-IV, 2000));
d) has no empathy for those he has taken advantage of, such as family members (asking for a loan), landlords (failure to pay rent on time), investors (when the company goes "belly up" (DSM-IV, 2000)).
American Psychiatric Association (2000) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Fourth Edition. Desk Reference. (ashington, DC: American Psychiatric Association).
Assumptions held by BPD Sufferers." BPD Central ebsite. Retrieved November 20, 2003 at http://www.bpcentral.com/resources/basics/assumptions.shtm
Bardi, Jason Socrates. "Molecules on the Mind." News & View section. Vol. 3, Issue 5, Feb. 10, 2003. The Scripps Research Institute eb site retrieved November 24, 2003 at http://www.scripps.edu/newsandviews/e_20030210/sutcliffe.html
Borderline Personality Disorder - Fear: A Roller-Coaster Ride." Retrieved November 20, 2003 at http://www.borderlinepersonality.ca/borderrollercoaster.htm
From the Inside Out by a.J. Mahari)
Diagnostic Criteria for Narcissistic Personality Disorder
Dysthymia Symptoms." Retrieved…… [Read More]
working for a community mental health agency that serves male adolescents aged 14-16 who have received a diagnosis of conduct disorder. You have been asked by your director of clinical training to answer the following questions (choose only one): a) What family treatment modes have been found to be effective (best practices, evidence-based) for treating this population?
Submit an annotated bibliography with an entry for each of your resources. Include the references in proper APA format. Write a brief summary highlighting the theory, treatment, intervention, and research methodology discussed in each resource.
Authors conducted thorough review of existent studies on psychosocial conduct disorder and interventions in regards to children and adolescents. They also investigated oppositional defiant disorder. 82 experimental studies were evaluated using certain criteria created by the Clinical Psychology Task Force on Promotion and Dissemination of Psychological Procedures. Authors concluded that the two most effective programs that met all…… [Read More]
The other principal difference between the sources reviewed is that the first included narratives authored by different clinicians and experts and incorporated their anecdotal professional experiences as well as their description of the manner in which their treatment approaches relies on empirical research in each of their different areas of clinical expertise. As a result, that work is an appropriate reference for the available treatment options for PTSD and for the optimal combination of different approaches in specific types of cases.
By contrast, the second source consists only of a literature review of previous research without any narrative contribution from experts apart from the conclusions in each of the studies reviewed. More importantly, this source does not address or consider any non-pharmacological PTSD interventions, much less any combinations of multiple modalities concurrently. In fact, the authors expressly reference the apparent absence in the available literature of any studies specifically investigating…… [Read More]
Avoidant Personality Disorder
As per the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV), a certain case of avoidant personality disorder (APD) is featured by the existent sign of social inhibition, feeling of being short of requirement, and hypersensitivity to negative valuation. (American Psychiatric Association, 1994, p.1) Even though personality disorders are not often discovered in persons below age 18, children who come within the condition of APD are recurrently portrayed as being aloof to the core, fearful in arising circumstances, and afraid of dissention and social boycott. The proportion of the signs and the inability is way behind the practice of inhibition that is prevalent in as much as 40% of the populace. Hence it is of great relevance of examining the disorder as it relates to professional counseling.
Exploration of disorder
Bearing a semblance to other personality disorders, the state of Avoidant Personality disorder turns out…… [Read More]
Psychosocial Development Theory
In the history of psychoanalysis, Sigmund Freud was the first to delve into the unknown recesses of the human mind to identify reasons for neuroses. As such, he identified infantile sexuality to lie at the heart of most problems in the relationship with the self and others and used the three-dimensional model of the id, the ego, and superego to describe the various ways in which these neuroses manifested themselves. Today, many theorists use Freud's theories to build their own derivative theories. Even though many today reject some or most of the early philosopher's ideas, it is thanks to him that these theories have a reason for existence in themselves. Today, the theory known as psychosocial development bases many of its concepts on the early ideas conceptualized by Freud. As such, theorists like Erik Erikson, Alfred Adler, and Karen Horney have developed their own concepts of what…… [Read More]
Psychology of Marriage and Family Systems
The literal meaning of the word "psychopathology" is a mind disorder or disease. Psychological diagnosticians, while assuming that the illness is located inside a person, always use the medical model in treating or studying patients with 'mental illnesses'. In comparison with the approach they take, I present two converging and related psychopathology perspectives. The two perspectives give an analysis based on context from the family's viewpoint. The first approach, the "family systems" approach, is a conception that came up in the 1950s as a substitute to the traditional focus of psychopathology on individuals (Goldenberg & Goldenberg, 1996).
The second approach, "family risk factors" has been in existence in psychopathology but not in the foreground. It tries to identify a couple family aspects of the functioning of the family that are significant in the treatment as well as etiology of patients that have tested positive…… [Read More]
S., experts estimate the genuine number of incidents of abuse and neglect ranges three times higher than reported. (National Child Abuse Statistics, 2006) in light of these critical contemporary concerns for youth, this researcher chose to document the application of Object elation, Attachment Theories, and Self-Psychology to clinical practice, specifically focusing on a patient who experienced abuse when a child. Consequently, this researcher contends this clinical case study dissertation proves to be vital venture, which will contribute to enhancing research in the field of psychology.
For this clinical case study dissertation exploring Object elation, Attachment Theories, and Self-Psychology, along with researching information for the application of these theories to clinical practice, this researcher answered the following research questions.
What is Winnicott's elational Model Theory?
What is Bowlby's Attachment Theory?
What is Kohut's Self-Psychology?
How may components of these three theories be applied to the clinical case chosen for…… [Read More]
Attachment was believed by owlby to be a critical aspect of the normal development of human behavior. Attachment is inclusive of the following characteristics:
1) Proximity Seeking - the infant seeks to be near the maternal figure;
2) Separation distress or protests - when separated or distant from the material figure the infant becomes distressed and signals this by vocalizing these feelings and changes in affect.
3) a secure base - when the infant develops a healthy attachment, the mother becomes a 'secure base' from which the child can venture forth into the world and securely explore their surroundings.
Ainsworth is noted as the first to conduct empirical research assessing patterns of attachment behaviors in infant attachment relating to the mother being under stress. Infant attachment behavior was categorized as: (1) secure; (2) avoidant; and (3) ambivalent. Since then the behavioral patterns of infants has undergone intensive assessment and study…… [Read More]
AAPT Level IV Cert / Written Test
Anxiety is fear that interferes with normal, daily functioning (Akiskal & enazzi, 2006). There are several different categories, including generalized anxiety, panic disorder, and phobias. While these all present themselves in different ways, they are similar in the problems they can cause in daily life. Theories of anxiety and the psychopathology related to feeling anxious include issues with biological, cognitive, and learning perspectives. The biological perspective addresses the receptors in the brain and how the chemicals there work with one another. Cognitive theories deal more with the way people perceive issues, such as feeling as though they do not have control over something. The learning perspective focuses on how people actually learn to be anxious about something, and the changes they learn to make in their lives in order to lower the levels of anxiety they feel (Hockenbury & Hockenbury, 2004; Kato,…… [Read More]
Therefore, it is necessary to account for the acquisition of habits.
Due to certain limitations of the behaviorism approach, there have been revisions to the theory over the century. For example, although behaviorism helped people to forecast, alter, and change behavior over time, it did not attempt nor intend to understand how or why the theory worked. The present-day social cognitive approach asserts that behavior is results from an ongoing reciprocal three-way relationship among the individual (cognition), the environment (physical context, which consists of the organizational structure and design, social context or other people), and the person's past behavior. This broader view, called cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) incorporates the cognitive in addition to the behavioral approaches to therapy and view people "as active seekers and interpreters of information, not just responders to environmental influences" (Nevid, 2007, p. 484). Many psychologists now believe that behavior is understood best by studying the…… [Read More]
& #8230; in its heyday there was elitism and arrogance among psychoanalysts, a sense of having superior knowledge that set us up for a fall" (Altman, ¶ 3). In a field that claims to possess knowledge of the unconscious, Altman asserts, this constitutes an occupational hazard. To counter the temptation to feel more knowledgeable than others, whether patients or the public in general, therapists who practice psychoanalytic therapy, need to remember that the depths of their own unconscious realms are as unfathomable as those they treat.
Psychoanalysis, nevertheless, possesses particularly valuable offerings, despite numerous attacks on meaning. Due to the fact that people currently, continuing to move faster and faster as they pursue success and security. Consequently, "thoughtfulness and self-reflection get crowded out. People are instrumentalized, working around the clock, on their cell phones and e-mail and Blackberries, allowing themselves to be exploited in the service of the corporate bottom…… [Read More]
Children of Alcoholic Parents
It is generally accepted that alcoholism tends to run in families and that compared with children of non-alcoholics, children of alcoholic parents have approximately four time greater risk of becoming alcoholics themselves (Reich Pp). However, the causal factors that determine the development of alcohol abuse and dependence have not yet been conclusively determined (Reich Pp).
Studies from the 1950's and 1960's generally emphasized psychosocial explanation, such as "poor parenting, lack of good role models. And impoverished home life" (Reich Pp). Beginning in the 1970's, research has investigated heritable components in the familial transmission of alcoholism" (Reich Pp). Adoption studies analyses of half-siblings and studies comparing identical and fraternal twins have all provided evidence that genetic factors play a crucial role in the etiology of alcoholism (Reich Pp). Although there is strong evidence for a genetic contribution, few researchers would deny the influence of environmental factors in…… [Read More]
" (p. 12) According to Cromer (2005) the literature that addresses the relationship between stressful life events and obsessive compulsive disorders does provide some degree of support implicating traumatic life-stress as being a factor in the onset and maintenance of the obsessive compulsive disorders however the exact relationship between the SLE and OCD "remains an empirical questions" specifically relating to "traumatic negative life events" (2005; p.13) Most of studies in this area investigation the association between SLEs and OCD have held limitations of: (1) small sample sizes; and (2) difficulty of establishing retrospectively the temporal relationship between onset and SLEs; and (3) a limited scope with regard to the effect of SLEs on OCD. (2005; p.13) Cromer relates that "mounting evidence suggests that early life-stress, in particular may preferentially incline individuals to develop adult psychiatric disorders." (2005; p.13) McCauley et al. (1997) states evidence from a large epidemiological investigation that…… [Read More]
Over the last five years research has indicated that the brain of an adolescent is not as developed as researchers once thought. In fact, advances in technology have made it possible to further examine the development of the human brain. esearchers have found that part of the frontal lobe, referred to as the pre-frontal cortex that is believed to be the management center for the body, is not fully developed in adolescents (Sowell et al., 2001; Cobb, 1998). The article explains that the lack of development in this part of the brain explains some of the behaviors that are displayed by teenagers because it is responsible for advanced cognition ("Adolescence, Brain Development..,"2004). Advanced cognition permits human beings to prioritize thoughts, visualize, think in the abstract, predict consequences, plan, and manage impulses ("Adolescence, Brain Development..,"2004). With these things being understood the underdevelopment of this part of the brain could explain why…… [Read More]
One interesting way of looking at cultural, historical, and sociological trends is to extrapolate the individual into society and vice versa. Trends that occur within the individual -- birth, childhood, adolescence, adulthood, illness, old age, dementia, and death -- also occur within society, albeit at a different pace and severity. The pathology of an empire, for example, the oman Empire, can be compared to more modern interpretations of the stages and psychopathology of the individual, and not only trends examined and compared, but a clear relationship between the way ome declined from within, eventually to merge into something quite different, and ways of looking at individual self-destructive behaviors.
Emile Durkeim (1858-1917) was a French sociologist who many consider to be one of the founders of sociology and anthropology. He was instrumental in establishing sociology as a true, scientific discipline, and also studied education, crime, religion, suicide, and the manner…… [Read More]
Although international comparison of SC is difficult, the medical implications of the procedure are questionable, a nd, therefore, SC is a method that is best avoided.
Two random samples of prisoners on remand on solitary confinement and non-SC were selectively studied. Age was between 18 to 60, and both genders were included. The SC group consisted of 133 participants. The non-SC group consisted of 95 participants.
Using a parallel study design, participants in both groups were interviewed by psychiatrist after imprisonment and given cognitive assessment day after interview. The assessments were longitudinal repeated assessments.
The interview employed the following aspects: Present State Examination, 10th edn (PSE-10).; Hamilton Anxiety and Depression Scales (HAS & HDS); assessment of usage of drugs; Sociodemographic interview; Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS); General Health Questionnaire; and Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ)
Medical as well as criminal files of each subject were examined.
A three-way analysis…… [Read More]
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-II)
The MMPI-II Test is utilized in the assessment of the individual's personality characteristics that affect the individual's personal and social adjustment.
The MMPI-II is authored by S.R. Hathaway and J.C. McKinely MMPI; J.N. utcher, J.R. Graham, W.G., Dahlstrom, A.M. Tellegren, and . Kaemmer and is published by the Psychological Corporation. (Fischer, 2001)
Cost of the Test
According to Lisa Rochford, Ph.D. The cost of having the MMPI-II administered is $150.00 which includes one to two hours hosting the client at the office with scoring and interpretation costs included. (2012)
Test Users Qualifications and Time To Administer the Test
Cherry (2012) states of the MMPI-II test that The MMPI-2 contains 567 test items and takes approximately 60 to 90 minutes to complete. The MMPI should be administered, scored, and interpreted by a professional, preferably a clinical psychologist or psychiatrist, who has received specific training…… [Read More]
Domestic violence is an ongoing experience of physical, psychological, and even sexual abuse in the home that is often a method used by one adult to establish control and power over another person (Flitcraft et al., 1992). Exposure by children to marital aggression is now a recognized public health concern. The investigation of the effects of the exposure to this type of aggression on the functioning of a child is a significant societal concern. Marital conflict is generally defined as any difference of opinion between martial or domestic partners whether it is minor or major. Marital conflict can assume many different forms including displays of both negative and positive emotions and/or constructive and destructive tactics. Marital aggression is characterized by physical and/or psychological abuse and would fall at the negative extreme on a continuum of marital conflict (Cummings, 1998). Marital psychological/verbal aggression refers to things such as threats, insults, and…… [Read More]
elationship Problems Support Group
Support groups are usually created to bring together individuals facing similar problems or issues such as relationship problems. The concept behind the formulation of a support group is that members can get help for their issues through talking with others in a similar situation. In this case, relationship problems support group exist so that people facing relationship issues can share their experiences and advice each other on how to handle them. Support groups help individuals deal with their problems through providing better ways of coping and making members feel less isolated as they make important connections with others in the same situation. While relationship problems support groups are not group therapy sessions, they help members to deal with relational issues through providing emotional support and shared experiences.
A support group is basically defined as a gathering of individuals who share similar interests or concerns…… [Read More]
Heroin Impact on Caucasian Family?
A large number of Caucasian families are plagued with the issue of heroin use, mostly consumed via injections. This is a major public health issue. Viral hepatitis, HIV and other dangers associated with heroin dependence, as well as social harm resulting from accompanying poverty and crime, exceed those of almost all other drugs used. A majority of Caucasian households are indirectly as well as directly impacted by the aforementioned diseases.
Increased pureness and decreased drug costs are potential factors contributing to the trend of decreased age of first-time consumption and increased initiation into habitual consumption in the Caucasian population. As heroin dependence can be successfully cured, primary care providers need to check their patients for this problem.
This paper serves two purposes. Firstly, it attempts to study substance abuse's socio-economic effects on Caucasian people. Secondly, depending on this analysis, it attempts to provide recommendations on…… [Read More]
Apparent health can be generally positive or negative; in spite of how it links with the real health; it may be significant to comprehend its function in certain kinds of psychopathology. Negatively apparent health has been anticipated to symbolize a cognitive risk factor for panic disorder (PD), detached from elevated anxiety feeling. As a result, PD may be more likely to take place on a background of negative perceptions of one's health. A negatively perceived health may also have predictive implications for PD patients, bearing in mind that negatively perceived health has been found to be a considerable predictor of mortality in general and that individuals with panic-like anxiety indications, panic attacks, and PD have elevated mortality rates, mostly due to cardiovascular and cerebrovascular illnesses (Starcevick, Berle, Fenech, Milicevic, Lamplugh and Hannan, 2009).
Studies have suggested that panic attacks (PA) are widespread and connected with an augmented occurrence of…… [Read More]
Sexual assault is an assault which is of a sexual nature done on another person either of the same of different sex. It also includes any form of sexual act that is committed without the consent of the person. Although in most cases, sexual assault is done by a man on a woman but in some cases, it has been documented to also be done by several men, women or children on men and children also Openshaw et al., 1993()
In the U.S. alone, about 300,000 cases of rape of women are reported every year. Additionally, 3.7 million women are usually subjected to other forms of unwilling sexual activity. There are also another 80,000 children in America who are abused sexually every year. Estimates by help agencies say that about one in every six American women has experienced sexual assault or will experience sexual assault at least…… [Read More]
Difficulty in Adulthood in Individuals that were Sexually-Abused as Children
Introduction to Sexual Abuse in Children
Sexually-abused children commonly develop problems that persist into adulthood. Child sexual abuse has come to be regarded as a cause of mental health problems in adult life. The influences of child sexual abuse on interpersonal, social and sexual functioning in adult life has only recently attracted attention. esearch into child sexual abuse was initiated by the self-disclosures of adults who publicly admitted to their abuse as children. These victims, predominantly women, often attributed personal difficulties to their sexual abuse as children.
Early research into the effects of child sexual abuse frequently employed groups of adult psychiatric patients (Jones, 1974), which further reinforced the emergence of an adult-focused psychiatric discourse about child sexual abuse. The manner in which child sexual abuse has been brought to the public's eye and the nature of the advocacy movement…… [Read More]
Terrorism is serious issue which holds different meaning to different people depending on their political beliefs and religious associations. What makes it really contentious in nature is the fact that not everyone sees terrorists as brutal assassins- for some they are national or religious heroes and freedom fighters. While to reach a definition of terrorism is not easy, some attempts have been made to define the term. Title 22 of the United States Code defines terrorism as "premeditated, politically motivated violence perpetrated against noncombatant targets by sub-national groups or clandestine agents" (quoted in U.S. Department of State 1999). Terrorism Act 2000 of Britain views terrorism as "the use or threat . . . designed to influence the government or to intimidate the public or a section of the public and . . . made for the purpose of advancing a political, religious or ideological cause" (United Kingdom 2000). According to…… [Read More]
The authors state: "The amphetamines occasioned dose-related increases in d- amphetamine-appropriate responding, whereas hydromorphone did not. Amphetamines also occasioned dose-related increases in reports of the drug being most like "speed," whereas hydromorphone did not. However, both amphetamines and hydromorphone occasioned dose-related increases in reports of drug liking and in three scales of the ARCI. Thus, some self-report measures were well correlated with responding on the drug-appropriate lever and some were not. Lamb and Henningfield (1994) suggest that self-reports are complexly controlled by both the private event and the subject's history of experience with the drug. Some of the self-reports they observed (e.g., feels like speed) are probably occasioned by a relatively narrow range of stimuli because in the subject's experience with drug administration, these reports have been more selectively reinforced by the verbal community relative to other reports (e.g., drug liking). They also suggest that these results imply…… [Read More]
The ability to regulate one's emotions has been increasingly incorporated into models of psychopathology, distress disorders such as depression and anxiety, eating disorders, and substance abuse. Emotion regulation has been conceptualized as mental processes by which individuals control or temper their emotions in a conscious or unconscious fashion in order to respond environmental demands (Fresco et al., 2007). The process of emotion regulation is believed to be distinct from the emotion generation process; however, the specific distinction between the two processes still remains a source of debate. Theoretical models have been able to associate successful emotion regulation with positive health outcomes, improved personal relationships, and even more productive performances in academic endeavors and work, whereas difficulties with emotion regulation have been associated with mental disorders and emotional distress (Fresco et al., 2007). One emotion regulation strategy is decentering.
Fresco et al. (2007) discuss the concept of decentering as an…… [Read More]
Social Advocacy in Counseling
Social advocacy has been described by some counseling theorists as a "fifth force" paradigm that should be considered to rival if not replace other major counseling psychology paradigms regarding behavior and mental illness (atts, 2009). This paper briefly discusses what social justice/advocacy is, the debate regarding its status as a paradigm in counseling psychology, and how social advocacy can enhance both the client's experience and life and the professional counselor's personal, professional, and ethical obligations to helping others.
Social justice is fairness or impartiality exercised in society, specifically as it is implemented by and within different levels of social classes of a society. A truly socially just populace would be based on the principles of solidarity and equality, would consider and maintain values, human rights, and the dignity of every person in the society (Bell, 1997). Social justice/advocacy theories have in recent years been…… [Read More]
Standards of Care/Mental Health/Cultural Competence
EMEGING STANDADS OF CAE/MENTAL HEALTH/CULTUAL
Sometime in 1999, the Surgeon General released Mental Health: A eport of the Surgeon General. Inside this report, it acknowledged that not every Americans, particularly minorities, are getting the equal mental health treatment, a discovery that provoked the Surgeon General to give out a supplemental report on differences in mental health care for individuals of color (Donini-Lenhoff, 2006). The addition, which was available in 2001, sends out one obvious message: culture does actually count. Cultural competency is considered to be one the vital ingredients in closing the differences hole in health care. It is looked as the way patients and doctors are able to come together and then talk about health issues without cultural differences stopping the conversation, nonetheless improving it. Fairly simply, health care services that are deferential of and receptive to the health beliefs, practices and cultural and…… [Read More]
As teenagers, children are very dependent on their parents. They rely on parents for food and shelter, for transportation, for financial support, and so on. However, parents often take their responsibilities too far, and their concern for the child's welfare and desire to be good parents may cause them to stifle the child's growth. This kind of parenting is known as overprotective parenting.
In ideal situations, parents allow for a gradual progression of independence. Discipline, rules, standards and expectations are applied in direct ratio to age. In younger years, children need a great deal of guidance and control in order to prevent serious and harmful mistakes from being made. ut as they grow in maturity and experience, they are capable of making more choices for themselves. They can begin to deal with the consequences of their mistakes.
This research paper aims to take an in-depth look at the…… [Read More]
Jesse Bruce Pinkman is one of the most important characters in the popular TV series, 'Breaking Bad'. He plays the deuteragonist (2nd most important character) in the series, partnering with Walter White in his methamphetamine drug ring. Pinkman acts as a dealer and manufacturer of methamphetamine, and is also a methamphetamine user. Jesse was also a former student in White's chemistry class.
According to the program script, Pinkman was born September 14, 1984, into a middle income family in Albuquerque, New Mexico. While still in high school, he began using and dealing methamphetamine. After being thrown out of the house for his continued drug use, he moved into his Aunt Ginny's place, and looked after her until she died of lung cancer. After her death the ownership of the house fell to his parents who allowed him to continue staying there. The rift between Pinkman and his family…… [Read More]
Depression in Children and Adolescents
Depression is a severe sickness, which is capable of affecting almost all parts of a young individual's life and considerably affects his or her family as well. It can interfere with relationships amidst friends and family members, damage performance at school and limit other academic opportunities. It can result to other health issues because of the impacts it has on eating, physical activity, as well as sleeping. Given that it has several repercussions, it is very vital that the illness is realized and successfully treated. When this is done, the majority of kids can resume with their normal daily lives. Depression is not easily noticeable in kids. The symptoms of depression are frequently hidden in kids by other physical and behavioral complaints. The majority of young individuals that are depressed shall at the same time also have a second psychiatric condition, which complicates diagnosis (APA…… [Read More]