Psychotropic Drugs Essays (Examples)

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Drug Free Workplace in Favor

Words: 2623 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15910707

What further makes interpretation of results difficult to precisely define quantify is that the amount of drug stores depends on the nature of the drug itself, the duration of the ingestion of the drug, and the composition of the tissue holding the drug and the frequency of use. The greater the incidence of drug use the more permanent the level of toxins and chemicals in tissues throughout the body, and therefore the greater the probability of catching chronic drug users in drug testing. Thea difficult part of using drug tests periodically is the longitudinally there may be peaks and valleys to the incidence of drug abuse. Companies have begun surprise inspections of their workers in the most potentially dangerous occupations including forklift workers, construction workers, airline pilots, and heavy equipment workers.

Despite these shortcomings of tests, the advances made in drug testing technologies are gradually overcoming these obstacles related to…… [Read More]

References

Alleyne, B.C., P. Stuart, and R. Copes. (1991) Alcohol and other drug use in occupational fatalities. Journal of occupational medicine (Baltimore) 33(4):496-500, 1991.

Gerber, J.K. And G.S. Yacoubian, Jr. (2002). An assessment of drug testing within the construction industry. Gerber, J.K. And G.S. Yacoubian, Jr. J Drug Education 32(1):53-68

Koch, K. (1998). "Drug Testing." November 20, 1998

Kelly, T.H., R.W. Foltin, and M.W. Fischman. (1991) Effects of alcohol on human behavior: implications for the workplace. Drugs in the workplace: research and evaluation data. Vol. 11, National Institute on Drug Abuse. Rockville, Maryland 1991. pp. 129-146.
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Psychotropic Medicines Are Often Prescribed

Words: 1100 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81336160



VIII. Preliminary Literature Review

The work of Martin, Scahill, Klin and Volkmar (1999) entitled: "Higher-Functioning Pervasive Developmental Disorders: Rates and Patterns of Psychotropic Drugs Use" reports a study in which the frequency, characteristics and associated target symptoms of psychotropic drug use among individuals with developmental disorders and specifically those with "higher functioning pervasive developmental disorders. (HFPDDs) in a total of 109 children, adolescents and adults results show that 55% of these were taking psychotropic drugs and 29.3% were taking two or more of these medications simultaneously. Conclusions of the study report as follows: "Psychotropic medication use appears to be common among subjects with HFPDDs, yet not generally based on the results of empirical research. Clinical heterogeneity among treated subjects suggests that psychiatric comorbidity may be overlooked in this population." (Martin, Scahill, Klin and Volkmar, 1999) the work of Reynolds and Dombeck (2006) relates that individuals with autism spectrum disorders are…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Martin, Andres; Scahill, Lawrence, Klin, Ami, and Volkmar (1999) Higher-Functioning Pervasive Developmental Disorders: Rates and Patterns of Psychotropic Drug Use. Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Vol. 38 Issue 7. Online available at: http://www.journals.elsevierhealth.com/periodicals/jaac/article/PIIS0890856709665436/abstract

Reynolds, Tammi; Dombeck, Mark (2006) Autism: Medication. MentalHelp.net. Online available at: http://www.mentalhelp.net/poc/view_doc.php?type=doc&id=8792&cn=20

De Bildt, Annelies, et al. (2006) Pervasive Developmental Disorder, Behavior Problems, and Psychotropic Drug Use in Children and Adolescents With Mental Retardation. Pediatrics Journal Vol. 118 No. 6 December 2006. Online available at: http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/content/abstract/118/6/e1860

Mikkelsen, Edwin J. (nd) the Rational Use of Psychotropic Medication for Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities. NADD. Online available at: http://www.thenadd.org/pages/products/bookdetails/dt07-038b.shtml
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Psychotropic Medications in This Chapter

Words: 340 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61746949



esearch questions related to psychotropic medications might include ow can a clinician determine whether a psychotherapeutic treatment is enough or when a psychotropic medication should be prescribed? In what ways can different types of psychotropic medications be abused? In what cases should a clinician avoid giving a medication due to a theory of substance abuse? How often should a clinician run an assessment for substance abuse when he or she has a patient with a psychotropic prescription? Among the most interesting findings in regards to psychotropic medications and dependence are the findings or Lazaratou et al. (2007)., who found that most parents were afraid to give their children psychotropic medications and feared a long time drug use based on the use of the medication, although this is unsubstantiated by research.

eferences

Lazaratou, Helen et al. (2007). Parental attitudes and opinions on the medication in mental disorders of children. Ann…… [Read More]

References

Lazaratou, Helen et al. (2007). Parental attitudes and opinions on the medication in mental disorders of children. Ann Gen Psychiatry. 6(32)
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Psychotropic Medications Treat Clinical Disorders

Words: 343 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23995317

Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) can be an effective alternative intervention to psychotropic medications. The therapy is mainly used for persons experiencing acute episodes of melancholy but may also be recommended for other disorders that include symptoms like catatonia, mania, or schizophrenia. Antipsychotic drugs are more commonly used to treat psychotic episodes (NIMH). ECT may also be helpful for persons who cannot take psychotropic drugs such as pregnant women or seniors.

Research questions related to the use of psychotropic medications"

. What are the long-term effects of taking psychotropic medications? Since they are new to the pharmacopia, what are some of the potential long-term risks of taking psychotropic drugs and might they affect human beings on the level of DNA?

2. Do psychotropic drugs become addictive, or are clients able to wean themselves off them without experiencing recurring symptoms of the clinical disorder? Do they have to be taken long-term?

National Institute…… [Read More]

1. What are the long-term effects of taking psychotropic medications? Since they are new to the pharmacopia, what are some of the potential long-term risks of taking psychotropic drugs and might they affect human beings on the level of DNA?

2. Do psychotropic drugs become addictive, or are clients able to wean themselves off them without experiencing recurring symptoms of the clinical disorder? Do they have to be taken long-term?

National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH). "Medications." Retrieved Oct 18, 2008 at http://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/publications/medications/complete-publication.shtml
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Prescribing Psychotropic Medications to Minors it Is

Words: 1286 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2130456

Prescribing Psychotropic Medications to Minors

It is every parent's worst nightmare: the drugs intended to cure a child kill him or her instead. Since the development of drugs like Prozac and Paxil, drugs classified as SSIs (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors) have been increasingly used to address depression in patients that otherwise would have been treated with talk therapy alone. This is true of adolescents as well as adults, given that SSIs were once thought to have fewer side effects when compared with older types of antidepressants (Antidepressant medications for children and adolescents: Information for parents and caregivers, 2013, NIMH). Since the development of SSIs, the increase in psychotropic drug prescriptions has increased so rapidly that it is estimated that 1 in 5 of all Americans are on some form of psychotropic medication at any one time (Smith 2012:36). However, SSI use in adolescents and young adults has become specifically linked…… [Read More]

References

Antidepressant medications for children and adolescents: Information for parents and caregivers.

(2013). NIMH. Retrieved from   http://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/topics/child-and-adolescent-mental-health/antidepressant-medications-for-children-and-adolescents-information-for-parents-and-caregivers.shtml  

Boodman, S, (2012). Off-label use of risky antipsychotic drugs raises concerns. Kaiser Health News. Retrieved from:

http://www.kaiserhealthnews.org/stories/2012/march/13/off-label-use-of-risky-antipsychotic-drugs.aspx
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Are Psychotherapeutic Drugs Overprescribed for Treating Mental Illness

Words: 944 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85757929

psychotherapeutic drugs overprescribed for treating mental illness?

Pros

With the development of SSIs such as Prozac, some psychotherapists proclaimed the end of depression and there were even concerns that such drugs would change the human character by making treatment of the illness too easy. Now, after many years after the birth of Prozac, it is clear that no antidepressant is a silver bullet when it comes to eliminating a particular mental health problem. In fact, the concerns are that SSIs and other drugs commonly used to treat depression are substantially less effective than their manufacturers claim. "An analysis of all FDA clinical trials for four SSI antidepressants found that the drugs didn't perform significantly better than placebos in treating mild or moderate depression, and the benefits of the drugs were "relatively small even for severely depressed patients" (PLoS Medicine, 2008, cited by Smith 2012:36). Even studies which indicate a more…… [Read More]

References

Cohen, B. (2001). Mind and medicine: Drug treatments for psychiatric illness. Social Research.

Hershel, J., Kayne, J., Jick, S. (2004). Antidepressants and the risk of suicidal behaviors.

JAMA, 292(3):338-343. .

McHenry, L. (2006). Ethical issues in psychopharmacology. Journal of Medical Ethics.
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Medicare Prescription Drug Benefits What

Words: 2583 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2671038

(2003) that examined the access that black and Hispanic Medicare beneficiaries have to prescribe drugs for chronic conditions. Not much has changed in the times since then and taking the findings of the study it can be established that the Black and Hispanic Medicare beneficiaries are subject to medication under use for economic reasons. This is also true for the chronically-ill black and Hispanic beneficiaries, who require constant medication but have no resources and have very meager drug coverage. The three common diseases that cause the depravity foremost are heart ailments, diabetes and HIV / AIDS. Though the federal initiatives have given importance to the three diseases in removing disparities, yet the benefits are to reach the target. (Briesacher; et al., 2003)

The general access to prescription drugs is not available for black and Hispanic Medicare beneficiaries. Thus these groups of people may need a different amendment in the policy…… [Read More]

References

Bagchi, Ann D.; et al. (2007) "Prescription Drug Use and Expenditures among Dually Eligible

Beneficiaries." Health Care Financing Review, vol. 28, no. 4, pp: 43-45.

Blevins, Sue A. (2001) "Medicare's Midlife Crisis"

Cato Institute: Washington, DC.
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Inclined to Believe That Drug Discoveries Are

Words: 1644 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26429130

inclined to believe that drug discoveries are often the result of a fortunate set of events making it possible for a person to come across a combination of substances that have the exact effect the respective person considers when starting the discovery process. hile this was the case a few hundreds of years ago, things changed in recent decades, as society got actively involved in promoting drugs and in supporting individuals involved in creating them. One of the best example regarding drug discovery and widespread support from the public is the 1950s with psychotropic drug discoveries. A great deal of drugs from the period came to play an important role in society, considering the fact that they have been widely used during recent decades.

A series of drugs were discovered as a result of individuals using natural products with the purpose of exploiting some of the substances they contained. Fungal…… [Read More]

Works cited:

Csernansky, J.G. "Antipsychotics." Springer Science & Business Mediax.

Landau, R., Achilladelis, B., & Scriabine, A. "Pharmaceutical Innovation: Revolutionizing Human Health." Chemical Heritage Foundation.

Li, J.J. & Corey, E.J. "Drug Discovery: Practices, Processes, and Perspectives." John Wiley & Sons.

Maugh, T.H. "Leo Sternbach, 97; Invented Valium, Many Other Drugs." Retrieved June 21, 2015, from  http://articles.latimes.com/2005/oct/01/local/me-sternbach1
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Uncontrolled Variables in Psychiatric Clinical Drug Trials

Words: 550 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56663986

Medication Adherence and Compliance

Uncontrolled variables in psychiatric clinical drug trials

According to Griswold, Murray & Corrado (2012), one troubling aspect of psychotropic drug clinical trials is the lack of controls for subjects' adherence to medication protocols. Psychiatric patients in particular have historically been noted to have relatively low levels of compliance. In general, "as drug dosages increase, treatment adherence decrease" because of intensification of symptoms, difficulty remembering dosages, and other issues (Griswold, Murray & Corrado 2012). Under-medicating or discontinuing medications is common in schizophrenic and bipolar patients, due to reasons such as "perceived or real decreases in disease progression or symptomatology, perceived helplessness, defense mechanisms such as denial, motivational apathy, and lack of family or financial support"(Griswold, Murray & Corrado 2012). For potentially addictive substances such as stimulants and opioids, over-medication is a greater risk.

The study specifically took the form of a literature review. The authors conducted a…… [Read More]

Reference

Griswold L., Murray J., & Corrado P. (2012). Medication adherence and compliance:

Uncontrolled variables in psychiatric clinical drug trials. Adv. Pharmacoepidem Drug Safety 1:107. doi:10.4172/2167-1052.1000107
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Pharmaceutical Drugs Have Become the

Words: 2648 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45513389

Michelson explains that buspirone could manipulate certain serotonin receptors in an attempt to ameliorate the overload of serotonin, and that amantadine was thought to increase dopamine activity. As such, either might theoretically help with SSRI-related sexual dysfunction. However, when the double-blind test was performed, it found that the success of treatment was roughly the same regardless of whether these pills were taken or a placebo was used. One significant difference was that those on admantadine had greater energy levels than they study-mates, which did not seem to directly affect sexual functioning. Michelson and his colleagues speculated that the reason for such marked improvement in all categories was the extensive journaling and attention paid to the sexual activity.

Ashton and Rosen report on "Bupropion as an antidote for serotonin reuptake inhibitor-induced sexual dysfunction"

Unlike the Michelson study, Ashton and Rosen's work on using bupropion to ameliorate the sexual dysfunctions associated with…… [Read More]

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American Drug Policy

Words: 3213 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17883284

Drug Policy

American Drug Policy: Marijuana

Marijuana is one of the most vilified drugs in history and it very difficult to see just why this is so. The United States used to have a thriving agricultural concern that consisted of hemp (marijuana) famers producing plants for their fibers and seeds. The fibers were used in products such as rope and paper and the seeds were used to make oil which served as a lubricant and a food additive. Unfortunately, people became aware of its psychotropic properties and growing marijuana for any reason was banned. This ban also coincided with the introduction of products that were superior to those made of hemp. The drug usage properties of marijuana had been known for centuries and it had been used in religious ceremonies and as an additive to medicines, but it could also be used in quantities that made the user completely incapacitated…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau (TTB). "Tax and Fee Rates." U.S. Department of Treasury, 2012. Web.

Blumenson, Eric, and Eva Nilsen. "No Rational Basis: The Pragmatic Case For Marijuana Law Reform." Virginia Journal of Social Policy & the Law 17.1 (2009): 43-82. Print.

Blumenson, Eric, and Eva Nilsen. "Liberty Lost: The Moral Case For Marijuana Law Reform." Indiana Law Journal 85.1 (2010): 279-299. Academic Search Complete. Web. 26 Oct. 2012.

Chilea, Dragos. "A Brief Overview of Drug Control Policy in the United States and It's Current Challenges." Judicial Current 14.3 (2011): 13-22. Print.
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Five Major Street Drugs

Words: 2087 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34743528

flow of drugs into the United States, where the drugs are coming from, in what forms they come in and the general attitudes that are taken against the practice by both the United States law enforcement agencies in particular and the United Nations drug control treaties. The author of this report will answer all of those questions in detail and provide the proper sourcing and citations for the same. While some modest successes are made when it comes to the "war on drugs," the United States law enforcement collective is losing the battle and there is a difference of strategy when it comes to a comparison between the United Nations and the United States.

The first question is fairly specific and brief. For each of the five major illicit drugs that are available and that are used in the United States, there will be a summary of what each one…… [Read More]

References

DEA. (2011). Drugs of Abuse - 2011 Edition (pp. 1-79). Washington DC: Drug

Enforcement Agency.

Ferner, M. (2015). Colorado Introduces Major Shift In Its Marijuana Program. The Huffington Post. Retrieved 23 August 2015, from http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2014/07/01/colorado-marijuana_n_5548620.html

Murphy, G. (2015). Have We Lost the War on Drugs?. WSJ. Retrieved 23 August 2015,
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Psychoactive Drug Treatment Psychiatric Treatment Through Antidepressants

Words: 1785 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17449021

Psychoactive Drug Treatment

PSYCHIATIC TEATMENT THOUGH ANTIDEPESSANTS

Treatment of Pregnant and Lactating Women through 'Antidepressants'

Treatment of Pregnant and Lactating Women through 'Antidepressants'

A large number of pregnant women suffer from psychiatric problem at some stage in their pregnancies are treated with psychotropic medicines. Prescribing these medicines to pregnant women is a special concern for the gynecologists and the patients due to the several risks involved; like miscarriages, abortions, premature births and infants with birth defects. Gynecologists need to keep in mind the consequences of prescribing psychiatric medicines to the pregnant and lactating women, chances of exposure to their offspring, effects of not treating the psychiatric illness and the alternative solutions like counseling and therapies. Therefore, use of psychiatric medicines for the treatment of pregnant and lactating mothers is a hot and controversial issue these days. The purpose of writing this paper is to discuss this issue in detail and…… [Read More]

References

Hendrick, V. (2003). Treatment of postnatal depression. British Medical Journal, 327, 1003-1004.

Howland, R. (2009). Prescribing Psychotropic Medications During Pregnancy and Lactation: Principles

and Guidelines. Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services. May 2009

Volume 47 Issue 5: 19-23
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Neurotransmission OCD and the Psychotropic

Words: 2322 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76916718



Discussion

Though a great deal more is known about neurotransmission today than was known at the beginning of the research associated with the initial biological discoveries of neurotransmitters and the neurotransmission process there is still a great deal to be discovered. Neurotransmission disorganization and impairment is clearly identified as a pervasive aspect of many psychological disorders. This is particularly true of the anxiety disorders and OCD. There is no doubt that increased understanding of the various mechanisms of OCD and normal neurotransmission will add to a greater research understanding of the biological causalities and modalities of OCD.

Though the most simplistic and earliest neurotransmission disturbance theories have been largely discounted the research has created ample evidence of disturbances in neurotransmission function (in more complex terms) as the root cause of several psychological disorders including various forms of anxiety disorders the subgroup which OCD falls into.

…this research has revealed the…… [Read More]

References

Goodman, W.K., Rudorfer, M.V., & Maser, J.D. (Eds.). (2000). Obsessive-compulsive disorder contemporary issues in treatment. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Hollander, E. Allen, A. Steiner, M. Wheadon, D.E. Oakes, R. Burnham, D.B. (September 2003) Acute and long-term treatment and prevention of relapse of obsessive-compulsive disorder with paroxetine. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 64(9) 1113-1121.

Howland, R.H. (2005). Chapter 6 Biological bases of psychopathology. In Psychopathology: Foundations for a Contemporary Understanding, Maddux, J.E. & Winstead, B.A. (Eds.) (pp. 109-119). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Liebowitz, M.R. Turner, S.M. Piacentini, J. Beidel, D.C. Clarvit, S.R. Davies, S.O. Graae, F. Jaffer, M. Lin, S. Sallee, F.R. Schmidt, A.B. Simpson, H.B. (December 2002) Fluoxetine in Children and Adolescents With OCD: A Placebo-Controlled Trial Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 41(12) 1431-1438.
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Overlapping Neural Correlates for Food and Drug

Words: 1721 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7093978

Overlapping Neural Correlates for Food and Drug Addiction

Food Addiction

The Neural Correlates of Food and Drug Addiction Overlap

A recent popular press article in the Huffington Post reviewed a recently published research article that revealed the brain functions in a similar manner whether a person is addicted to food or drugs. Women scoring high as emotional eaters and exposed to a milkshake preferentially activated the anterior cingulate cortex, medial orbitofrontal cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, amygdala, and caudate, as imaged by fMI. The lateral orbitofrontal cortex was less active when compared to the brains of subjects scoring low as emotional eaters. These areas correspond to those that have been found to be involved in drug using/seeking behavior, which suggests the mechanisms involved in food and drug addiction are similar or the same. Previously published research studies support this conclusion, although addiction-related behaviors are very complex and additional studies will be…… [Read More]

References

Coletta, Maria, Platek, Steven, Mohamed, Feroze B., van Steenburgh, J. Jason, Green, Deborah, and Lowe, Michael R. (2009). Brain activation in restrained and unrestrained eaters: An fMRI study. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 118, 598-609.

Gearhardt, Ashley N., Yokum, Sonja, Orr, Patrick T., Stice, Eric, Corbin, William R., and Brownell, Kelly D. (2011). Neural correlates of food addiction. Archives of General Psychiatry, Published online ahead of print April 4, 2011. Retrieved April 5, 2011 from http://archpsyc.ama-assn.org/cgi/reprint/archgenpsychiatry.2011.32v1

Goldstein, Rita Z., Tomasi, Dardo, Alia-Klein, Nelly, Carillo, Jean H., Maloney, Thomas, Woicik, Patricia A. et al. (2009). Dopaminergic response to drug words in cocaine addiction. Journal of Neuroscience, 29(18), 6001-6006.

Killgore, William D.S. And Yurgelun-Todd, Deborah A. (2006). Affect modulates appetite-related brain activity to images of food. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 39, 357-363.
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Dangers of Marijuana Is a

Words: 1798 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3899599

, and otjak, C. (2006). Cannabinoid CB1 Receptor Mediates Fear Extinction via Habituation-Like Processes. The Journal of Neuroscience 26(25): 6677-6686.

Kim, S., on, S., Mao, X., Ledent, C., Jin, K. And Greenberg, D. (2006). Role for Neuronal Nitric-Oxide Synthase in Cannabinoid-Induced Neurogenesis. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther., October 1, 2006; 319(1): 150-154

Kogan, N., Blazquez, C., Alvarex, L., Gallily, R., Schlesinger, M., Guzman, A., and Mechoulam, R. (2006). A Cannabinoid Quinone Inhibits Angiogenesis by Targeting Vascular Endothelial Cells. Mol Pharmacol 70:51-59.

Lundqvist, T. (2005). Cognitive Consequences of Cannabis Use: Comparison with use of Stimulants and heroin with regard to attention, memory and executive functions. Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior. 81: 319-330.

Maccarrone, M., Lorenzon, T., Bari, M., Melino, G., and Finazzi-Agro, A. (2000). Anandamide Induces Apoptosis in Human Cells via Vanilloid Receptors

Evidence For A Protective Role Of Cannabinoid Receptors. J. Biol. Chem., 275 (41): 31938-31945.

Massi, P., Vaccani, A., Ceruti, S.,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bolla, K., Brown, K., Eldreth, D., Tate, B., and Cadet, J. (2002). Dose-related neurocognitive effects of marijuana use. Neurology 59:1337-1343.

Farthing, G. (1992) The Psychology of Consciousness. Prentice Hall

Gazzaniga, M., Ivry R., and Mangun, G. (1998) Cognitive Neuroscience: The Biology of the Mind W.W. Norton & Company.

Grant, I., Gonzalez, R., Carey, C., Natatajan, L., and Wolfson, T. (2003). Non-acute (residual) neurocognitive effects of cannabis use: A meta-analytic study.
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Albert Hofmann and the Discovery

Words: 4426 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14497555

To that end, throughout the course of his life "he remained convinced that the drug had the potential to counter the psychological problems induced by 'materialism, alienation from nature through industrialisation and increasing urbanisation, lack of satisfaction in professional employment in a mechanised, lifeless working world, ennui and purposelessness in wealthy, saturated society, and lack of a religious, nurturing, and meaningful philosophical foundation of life'." (Telegraph, 1) To Hofmann's view, many of the psychological problems associated with the detachment imposed by modernity could be addressed by guided use of a substance that caused reflection, insight and self-awareness otherwise largely inaccessible.

It was through what was for Hofmann an unwanted combination of premature commercialization and the proliferation which this allowed into the underground market that would cause LSD to earn its dubious reputation and its relationship to recreational rather than psychiatric users. Accordingly, Sandoz would immediately jump on the opportunity to…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Hofmann, A. (1979). LSD-My Problem Child. MAPS.

Hofmann, A.; Wasson, R.G.; Ruck, C.A.P.; Smith, H. & Webster, P. (2008). The Road to Eleusis: Unveiling the Secrete of the Mysteries: 30th Anniversary. North Atlantic Books.

Hofmann Foundation (HF). (1999). The Albert Hofmann Foundation. Hofmann.org.

Nosowitz, D. (2009). LSD Creator Albert Hofmann to Steve Jobs: 'How Was LSD Useful To You?" Gizmodo. Online at  http://gizmodo.com/5310549/lsd-creator-albert-hofmann-to-steve-jobs-how-was-lsd-useful-to-you
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Effects of Teratogenic Agents on Fetal Development

Words: 2018 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33963352

Teratogens and Fetal Development

Teratogens can be described as agents that contribute to fetal injury and birth defects or an abnormality because of fetal exposure during pregnancy. Some of these agents that lead to fetal injury or birth defects include chemicals, environmental contaminants, infections, and drugs. These agents tend to result in such abnormality in fetal development when a woman is exposed to them during the term of the pregnancy. The agents are always discovered following an increased prevalence of a specific birth defect or abnormality. Pregnant women are increasingly susceptible to teratogens since these agents can be found in various settings at home in the working environment. Notably, the effect of the agents on fetal development is dependent on the kind of agent, duration, and extent of the exposure. Generally, teratogens and fetal development can be about legal and/or illegal drugs and the effects on the fetus while in…… [Read More]

References

Aboubakr et. al. (2014). Embryotoxic and Teratogenic Effects of Norfloxacin in Pregnant

Female Albino Rats. Advances in Pharmacological Sciences, 2014, 1-6.

Bercovici, E. (2010). Prenatal and Perinatal Effects of Psychotropic Drugs on Neuro-cognitive

Development in the Fetus. Journal on Developmental Disabilities, 11(2), 1-20.
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Paxil Boon or Bane History

Words: 1510 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62478297

Depression and other serious mental disorders are the most frequent causes of suicidal thoughts or actions. Certain groups of people are at a higher risk of this tendency than others. These can be prevented by watching out for symptoms like changes in mood and behavior. These symptoms include thoughts about suicide or dying; attempts to commit suicide; new or greater depression; new or greater anxiety; strong agitation or restlessness; panic attacks; insomnia; extreme irritability; aggressiveness or violent behavior; impulsiveness; manias; and other unusual behavioral or mood changes. It reminds patients never to stop a Paxil regimen without first notifying a healthcare provider. Antidepressants are medicines intended to treat depression and other serious mental illnesses. They have side effects. They can interact with other medicines. And not all medicines prescribed for children are not approved for children by the FDA (GlaxoSmithKline).

ibliography

Carey, . And Harris, G. (2006). Antidepressant may raise…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Carey, B. And Harris, G. (2006). Antidepressant may raise young adult suicide risk. 2 pages. The New York Times: The New York Times Company

GlaxoSmithKline (2007). How Paxil Works. Your Life is Waiting. 1 web page. Retrieved on November 27, 2007 at http://www.paxilcr.com/how_paxilcr_works/how_paxilcr_works.html

Paxil Prescribing Information. 42 pages.

Healthfacts (2002). Paxil risky for kids - warning issued. 2 pages. Center for Medical Consumer, Inc.: Gale Group
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Post Traumatic Stress Disorder and

Words: 920 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32678472

The EMD technique is used in conjunction with psychotherapy and it has proven very effective for statistically significant numbers of patients in controlled studies (Breslau, Lucia, & Alvarado, 2006; Gerrig & Zimbardo, 2008).

Ethical Issues in Treating PTSD in eturning Combat Veterans with MDMA

A much more ethically controversial approach involves the use of low doses of MDMA in conjunction with traditional psychotherapy. That is because MDMA is an illicit drug with a very well-deserved reputation for being notoriously popular with recreational users and addiction. While their may be beneficial therapeutic uses of MDMA in certain patients, the population of U.S. armed services veterans suffering from PTSD are also, demographically and psychologically, at the greatest risk of drug addiction and to mental instability that could be worsened by non-therapeutic use of consciousness-altering substances, particularly in connection with unauthorized and unmonitored or controlled use.

It is not necessarily never appropriate to…… [Read More]

References

Breslau, N., Lucia, V., and Alvarado, G. "Intelligence and Other Predisposing Factors in Exposure to Trauma and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Follow-up Study at Age 17 Years."Arch Gen Psychiatry, Vol. 63; (2006):1238-1245.

Frain, M.P., Bishop, M., and Bethel, M. "A Roadmap for Rehabilitation Counseling to Serve Military Veterans with Disabilities." Journal of Rehabilitation, Vol 76,

No. 1; (2010): 13-21.

Gerrig, R, and Zimbardo, P. (2008). Psychology and Life. New York: Allyn & Bacon.
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Consent You Are Being Invited

Words: 893 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74628095

Although the San Francisco police do not carry stun guns they do carry Tasers, and Tasers work on the same mechanism as those of stun guns shooting darts that deliver electric shots to stun suspects. It is said that 334 individuals died from these electric shots during the years 20001 to 2008. If that is so, the AHP can publish the results on its page pointing out that the effects of so-called not-so-lethal stun guns are actually quite lethal indeed.

xc. C

The Belmont eport

The basic ethical principles to be considered in all human research studies involves:

1. espect for persons -- This involves two categories: (a) that all people regardless of ethnic, gender, mental, physical and any sort of distinction should be treated with dignity and respect, and accorded their autonomous right to do as they wish. (b) That individuals who are more vulnerable should be accorded special…… [Read More]

References

The Belmont Report HHS.gov  http://www.hhs.gov/ohrp/humansubjects/guidance/belmont.html 

Rutgers Protection of human research subjects http://orsp.rutgers.edu/index.php?q=content/announcement-human-subjects-international-researcher-guidance-and-procedures

The Truth About Psychiatric Drugs (Thursday, 11 August 2011). AHRP.

http://www.ahrp.org/cms/content/view
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Mental Patients' Physical Health Who Use Antipsychotic Medication

Words: 13284 Length: 32 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44641264

Antipsychotic Medication and the Physical Health Problems of the Patient With Mental Illness

More and more attention is now being given to the mental disorders especially in U.S. And due to this increase in attention an increase has also been noticed in the treatment of these mental health issues (Zuvekas, 2005). About 30% of the total U.S. population that is between the ages of 18-52 is being affected by mental health issues which make up a large part of the public health problem (Kessler et al., 2005; Narrow et al., 2002). The risk of morbidity and smaller life expectancy is very high in the patients who suffer from the mental health issues (Millar, 2008; Skodol, 2008). It has been observed from numerous researches that the chances of suffering from various health issues such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease and hypertension are a lot more for the patients suffering from schizophrenia (Millar,…… [Read More]

References

Robson, D. And Haddad, M. (2012). Mental health nurses' attitudes towards the physical health care of people with severe and enduring mental illness: The development of a measurement tool. International Journal of Nursing Studies 49; 72 -- 83

Rosenberg, S., Goodman, L.A., Osher, F.C., 2001. Prevalence of HIV, Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C in people with sever mental illness. American Journal of Public Health 91, 31 -- 37.

Ruigomez, A., Rodriguez, L.A.G., Dev, V.J., Arellano, F., Raniwala, J., 2000. Are schizophrenia or antipsychotic drugs a risk factor for cataracts? Epidemiology 11, 620 -- 623.

Ryan, M.C., Thakore, J.H., 2001. Physical consequences of schizophrenia and its treatment: the metabolic syndrome. Life Sciences 71 (3), 239 -- 257.
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Incarcerated Mentally Ill Patients it May Sound

Words: 2497 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62620579

Incarcerated Mentally Ill Patients

It may sound unbelievable, but on any given day, scholars estimate that almost 70,000 inmates in U.S. prisons are psychotic; and up to 300,000 suffer from mental disorders like depression, schizophrenia, and bipolar disorders. In fact, the U.S. penal system holds three times more people with mental illness than the nation's entire psychiatric hospitals (Kanapaux, 2004). Indeed one of the most telling trends, say some sociologists, is to incarcerate the mentally ill in order to remove them from society. This is sometimes the only alternative because public mental health hospitals have neither the space nor the funding to treat this special population. In fact, the very nature of incarceration tends to have a more traumatic effect on the individual, causing additional damage to their fragile psyche. omen, it appears, are especially vulnerable. These women have often been victimized during an abusive childhood and succession of relationships.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Majority of Mentall Ill Inmates Don't Get Treatment. (2010, April 7). Retrieved October 2011, from Physorg.com: http://www.physorg.com/news189882907.html

ACLU. (2007, January 30). Solitary Confinment Called Inappropriate for Mentally Ill. Retrieved October 2011, from ACLU.org: http://www.aclu.org/prisoners-rights/solitary-confinement-called-inappropriate-mentally-ill-prisoners-indiana

American Psychatric Assocaition. (2000). Psychiatric Services in Jails and Prisons. Washington, DC: American Psychatric Press.

American Psychiatric Association. (2006, December). The Use of Restraint and Seculusion in Correctional Mental Health Care. Retrieved October 2011, from Pysch.org: http://www.psych.org/lib_archives/archives/200605.pdf
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Clinical Psychology

Words: 60005 Length: 200 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12402637

Deam Content as a Theapeutic Appoach: Ego Gatification vs. Repessed Feelings

An Abstact of a Dissetation

This study sets out to detemine how deams can be used in a theapeutic envionment to discuss feelings fom a deam, and how the theapist should engage the patient to discuss them to eveal the elevance of those feelings, in thei pesent, waking life. It also discusses the meaning of epetitious deams, how medication affects the content of a deame's deams, and if theapists actually "guide" thei clients in what to say. This "guidance" might be the theapist "suggesting" to thei clients that they had suffeed some type of ealy childhood tauma, when in fact, thee wee no taumas in thei ealy childhoods. The oigin of psychiaty is not, as it would have people believe, medicine, theapy o any othe even faintly scientific endeavo. Its oiginal pupose was not even to cue mental affliction.…… [Read More]

references. This may be related to the large decrease in familiar settings in the post-medication dreams. Although Domhoff (1996) does not list a high percentage of elements from the past as an indicator of psychopathology, he does mention that people suffering post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), a type of anxiety disorder, tend to have dreams in which distressing events are relived again and again. It may be that other anxiety disorders invoke a similar response in which the dreamer has a tendency to dwell on past events, which merits further research.

A final observation is that the results of this study provide support for Hartmann's (1984) biological model of the effects of drugs on dreams. An early study which focused mainly on long-term sleep patterns found little change in dream content associated with psychotropic drug administration (Hartmann & Cravens, 1974), but a later study conducted in Hartmann's laboratory indicated that increased levels of dopamine resulted in more vivid, nightmarish dreams (Hartmann, Russ, Oldfield, Falke, & Skoff, 1980). Based on his own research and the literature on drugs and nightmares, Hartmann (1984) proposed that drugs that increase the neurotransmitters dopamine or acetylcholine, or decrease norepinephrine or serotonin, produce nightmares and more vivid and bizarre dreams.

Drugs that have the opposite effects would decrease the incidence of disturbing dreams. The dreamer in this study was taking a serotonin reuptake inhibitor, which served to increase the effects of serotonin. According to the biological model, with the onset of medication the dreamer should have experienced a decrease in nightmares, or, in Hall and Van de Castle's terms, lower aggression, negative emotions, and other unpleasant factors. This was, in fact, the case.

The emphasis on statistically significant differences without regard to effect sizes slowed progress in the study of dream content by creating unnecessary polarities and focusing energy on methodological arguments. The introduction of effect sizes into the study of dream content makes it possible to suggest that the controversy over home and laboratory collected dream reports never should have happened. The emphasis in dream content studies henceforth should be on effect sizes and large samples. Then future dream researchers could focus on testing new ideas using dream reports collected either at home or in the sleep laboratory.

Summary
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Analyzing Substance Induced Insanity

Words: 2826 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30873673

Substance Induced Insanity

Psychosis is a psychiatric state that can either be enduring or temporary. A person suffering from the condition may experience memory lapses, incoherent speech or thoughts, lack of concentration, delusions and/or hallucinations. Other symptoms that may manifest when one is suffering from psychosis include changes in personality and exhibition of unusual behaviors. It has been established that psychosis can be caused by various substances such as marijuana, methamphetamine and alcohol. Substance induced psychosis typically occurs when an individual has been continually using stimulants over a long period of time. The two most common substances or stimulants known to induce psychosis are methamphetamine and amphetamine. Apart from these drugs, the 'designer' drugs have also been found to induce the condition. Individuals suffering from substance-induced psychosis may exhibit loss of contact with reality and they may also become fixated on a certain action or place and may engage in…… [Read More]

References

Alcoholrehab. (2016). Psychosis and substance abuse. Retrieved from http://alcoholrehab.com/drug-addiction/psychosis-and-substance-abuse/

Bal, B. S. (2009). An introduction to medical malpractice in the United States. Clin Orthop Relat, 467(2): 339-347.

Beck, M. (2011). Confusing medical ailments with medical illness. Retrieved from http://www.wsj.com/articles/SB10001424053111904480904576496271983911668

Bourget, D. (2013). Forensic Considerations of Substance-Induced Psychosis. J Am Acad Psychiatry Law, 41(2), 168-173
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Misdiagnosis of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity

Words: 1440 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46664892

ablechild.org),child abuse allegations appear to be infrequent, perhaps because states are moving to pass laws that to some degree limit what schools can say or do regarding ADHD and other behavioral disorders.

To date, according to activists who track the issue, seven states have laws prohibiting school personnel from recommending psychotropic drugs for children. Over the past few years, 46 bills in 28 states have either passed or are awaiting action (Hearn, 2004)." recent study in Australia produced even more shocking results. According to this study on ADHD children and misdiagnosed there were a full 75% of the children in the study misdiagnosed. According to the published report following the study the children being medicated with stimulant medications were at risk for side affects and addiction for a medication they did not even need to take (Clarke, 2004).

In our experience, many of the children misdiagnosed with ADHD in fact…… [Read More]

References

Children and Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

 http://www.chadd.org/ 

Copyright © 1996-2005

Kids on drugs? (News Shorts).(an investigation into treatment of attention deficit disorder is launched in the U.S.)(Brief Article)
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Processing Effects of Cognitive and Emotional Psychotherapy on Bipolar Disorder

Words: 6099 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3470826

BP Disorder

Bipolar disorder, originally called manic depressive disorder, is a severe mood disorder that vacillates between extreme "ups" (mania, hypomania) and "downs" (depression). The effects of having bipolar disorder can be observed across the patients social and occupational functioning. Often the patient is left isolated from work, friends, and family. Medications have become the first-line treatments for bipolar disorder; however, psychotherapy can offer additional benefits in the ongoing treatment of patients with bipolar disorder. This paper discusses the symptoms and treatment of bipolar disorder focusing on cognitive behavioral therapy and emotion focused therapy.

Bipolar Disorder

Description and differentiation

According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders -- Fourth Edition -- Text evision (DSM-IV-T) one's mood is an all-encompassing and sustained feeling tone experienced internally by the person and influences the person's behavior and perception of the world. Affect is the external or outward expression of this inner…… [Read More]

References

Alloy, L.B., Abramson, L.Y., Walshaw, P.D., Keyser, J., & Gerstein, R.K. (2006). A cognitive vulnerability-stress perspective on bipolar spectrum disorders in a normative adolescence brain, cognitive, and emotional development context. Developmental Psychopathology, 18(4), 1057-1103.

American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV-Text Revision. Washington, DC: Author.

Beck, J.S. (1995). Cognitive therapy: Basics and beyond. New York: Guilford Press.

Butler, A.C., Chapman, J.E., Forman, E.M., & Beck, A.T. (2006). The empirical status of cognitive-behavioral therapy: A review of meta-analyses. Clinical Psychology Review, 26, 17-31
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Alzheimer's in a Healthy Community

Words: 2178 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43997315

Alzheimer Healthy Community

PLANNED, PERSONALIZED CARE

Alzheimer's Healthy Community

Dog-Assisted Therapy for Older People with Dementia

A review of nine studies on the subject produced loose conclusions on the value of this type of therapy (Perkins et al., 2008). They, however, established a trend, indicating increased social behavior and decreased agitation when dogs were in the company of the respondents. This improvement in social behavior was unrelated with the severity of the respondents' dementia. Six of the 9 studies were conducted in the U.S.A., 2 in Japan and 1 in Australia on 28 respondents, all with a diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease or dementia (Perkins et al.).

The behavioral and psychological symptoms of this ailment not only cause the afflicted individuals much pain but also put them at risk of physical harm (Perkins et al., 2008). Animal-assisted therapy, on the other hand, has shown positive effects over pro-social behavior and the…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Cevizci, S. et al. (2013). Animal-assisted therapy and activities in Alzheimer's Disease.

Chapter 12. "Understanding Alzheimer's Disease," InTech:Canakkale Onsekiz Mart

Hung, J, (2012). A study on the establishment and evaluation of adult day care service centers. Vol. 6 # 5, Global Journal of Business Research: Chao-yang University of Technology.

Iecovich, E. And Biderman, A. (2013). Attendance in adult day care centers of cognitively intact older persons: reasons for use and nonuse. Journal of Applied Gerontology:
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Homeless Population Can Be Described as a

Words: 2006 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33568774

homeless population can be described as a social grouping that is susceptible for the reason that the homeless experience greater risk for poor health-related results. Considering the situation of homelessness and the connection involving availability of resources, health status and relative risks, it becomes critical for the nurses to come up with diagnosis and treatments for health-associated problems in this kind of vulnerable population. The description of this article touches on the homeless as a vulnerable population applying health-associated problems of model of vulnerable population as a theoretical framework. A repeated matter, in the Springfield Massachusetts shelters, is about the setting free of prisoners exclusive of discharge planning that gives opportunity for going ahead with care for mental illness. In 1970's deinstitutionalization decided to do away with mentally ill warehousing in facilities that do not recognizes the rights of human. Sufficient community supports fail to be present to this vulnerable…… [Read More]

WORK CITED

American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Psychiatric Services in Jails and Prisons (2nd ed.).

Washington, DC: Author.

Aroskar, M. (1994). Ethics in nursing and health care reform: back to the future. Hastings Center Report, 24 (3) 11-12

Lovell, D. & Jemelka, R... (1998). Coping with Mental Illness in Prisons. Family & Community
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Major Depression

Words: 4777 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90936662

Clinical Depression

Major depressions or unipolar depressions are some of the names by which the term Clinical depression is known, which is a type of depressive disorder. To explain, it is a condition that is to be diametrically observed, in the sense that the expert does not count on a patient's self-report but checks for indications of depression that can be noticed and recognized. (Schatzberg, 2002) Clinical depression is a term that explains a situation serious enough to require medical, that is expert help and may even require pharmacological involvement. Clinical depression, as stated by various medical sources, survives for a period of two weeks and is usually not impetuous because of any external being or thing.

In a year, clinical depression affects at least 19 million American individuals. Not considering whether the individual is young or old, man or woman, regardless of race or income any body can be…… [Read More]

References

Abeles, Norman & Victor, Tara (2003) Unique Opportunities for Psychology in Mental Health Care for Older Adults, Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice V10 N1

Denton, Donald D. (2003) Beating Depression: The Journey to Hope. American Journal of Psychiatry; 160: 1533-a-1534-a

Fink, Max (2003) Dealing With Depression: A Commonsense Guide to Mood Disorders. American Journal of Psychiatry; 160: 1365-1366

Frank, Ellen & Kupfer. David J. (2003) Progress in the Therapy of Mood Disorders: Scientific Support. American Journal of Psychiatry; 160: 1207-1208
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Evidence Based Practices in the Diagnosis and Treatment of ADHD

Words: 1326 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90368134

Program-Evaluation -- Evidence-Based Practice: Case Study eview

There is growing recognition that the used of evidence-based practices promotes improved clinical outcomes and can help guide clinicians in their respective disciplines. This paper draws on the Clinician's Guide to Evidence-Based Practices: Mental Health and the Addictions to provide a description of a salient case study and the identification of the critical elements that require the review of published research to guide professional practice. In addition, a summary of a research study by Spengler, P. M., White, M. J., Egisdottir (2009) that informs evidence-based counseling practice related to the selected case study as it would occur in a specialization area is followed by a discussion concerning relevant ethical, legal, and socio-cultural considerations that apply to the case and research article selected. Finally, a summary of the research and important findings concerning the need for evidence-based practices to guide professional practice today are…… [Read More]

References

Dodson, W. W. (2007, April). Make ADHD treatment as effective as possible. Current Psychiatry, 6(4), 82-85.

Elik, N. & Corkum, P. (2015, January 1). Overcoming the barriers to teachers' utilization of evidence-based interventions for children with ADHD. Perspectives on Language and Literacy, 41(1), 40-45.

Holland, K. & Higuera, V. (2015, February 26). The history of ADHD: A timeline. Healthline. Retrieved from http://www.healthline.com/health/adhd/history#Overview1.

Norcross, J., Hogan, T., & Koocher, G. (2008). Clinician's guide to evidence-based practices: Mental health and the addictions. New York, NY: Oxford Press.
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Department of Health and Human

Words: 3373 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58176948

In 2002, "President Bush signed into law the Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act of 2002, which, among other things, eliminated the need to convene an advisory committee to amend the list of diseases" listed as quarantineable (Misrahi, Foster, Shaw, & Cetron 2004).

This law became significant during the SARS scare. Before 2002 "the list of federal quarantinable diseases in the United States had not been revised since 1983. It included cholera, diphtheria, infectious tuberculosis, plague, smallpox, yellow fever, and viral hemorrhagic fevers such as Marburg, Ebola, and Congo-Crimean" fevers (Misrahi, Foster, Shaw, & Cetron 2004). The CDC was able to quickly ad SARS to the list. In the past, the CDC "generally deferred to state and local health authorities...to restrict the movement of persons within their boundaries" with such diseases (Misrahi, Foster, Shaw, & Cetron 2004). Its greater legislative ability to move quickly in classifying the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Definition of HHS. (2008). Medicine Net. Retrieved January 2, 2009 at http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=10710

DeNoon, Daniel. (2008). Controversy over new 'conscience' rule. Medicine Net.

Retrieved January 2, 2009 at  http://www.medicinenet.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=95180 

Dowshen, Steven. (2008, August). CDC: Measles outbreaks may be tied to parents' choice not to vaccinate. The Children's Hospital. Retrieved January 2, 2009 at http://www.thechildrenshospital.org/wellness/info/news/62622.aspx
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Special Populations Profession Psychology the Future of

Words: 1371 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50591599

Special Populations

Profession psychology

The future of professional psychology:

The influence of special populations on the field of professional psychology

According to the American Board of Professional Psychology: "It is expected that clinical psychologists will demonstrate sensitivity to and skills in dealing with multicultural/diverse populations....Individual and cultural diversity recognizes the broad scope of such factors as race, ethnicity, language, sexual orientation, gender, age, disability, class status, education, religion/spiritual orientation, and other cultural dimension" (Clinical psychology, 2012, ABPP). In other words, the special needs of specific population groups must be taken into consideration when offering care, to ensure that treatment is commensurate and sensitive to the population's needs. The reason for this emphasis on culturally-appropriate care reflects a greater awareness of how not all forms of treatment are appropriate for all population groups within the field, and the degree to which special population needs have and continues to shape the point-of-view…… [Read More]

References

Asian-Americans need culturally competent mental health care. (2012). APA.

http://www.apa.org/about/gr/issues/minority/culture.aspx

Clinical psychology. (2012). American Board of Professional Psychology (ABPP). Retrieved:

 http://www.abpp.org/i4a/pages/index.cfm?pageid=3307
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Abnormal Psychology Theories Issues Diagnosis

Words: 2437 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61912524

The DSM explicitly "strives to be atheoretical, using merely observationally referent terms. The hope with this is to make the manual as acceptable as possible to professionals with different theoretical orientations (Gilles-Thomas 1989, Lecture 2). Specific criteria and systematic descriptions are offered as guidance for making diagnoses. "Essential features, associated features, prevalence rates, sex ratios, family patterns, and differential diagnoses are listed" and it is noted when "alternative or additional diagnoses…should be considered," such as the possibility that a manic episode could mask itself as schizophrenia (Gilles-Thomas 1989, Lecture 2). This might occur if the clinician was unacquainted with the patient and the patient's past history of depression, for example, and/or mood disorders in the patient's family.

Also key to the efficacy of the DSM in approaching the ideologically and theoretically charged world of abnormal psychology is its multiaxial system. The multiaxial system "allows for a more holistic and comprehensive…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Abnormal psychology. (2009). a2psychology. Retrieved September 23, 2009 at http://www.a2zpsychology.com/articles/abnormal.htm

Gilles-Thomas, David L. (1989). Definitions. Abnormal psychology: Lecture 1. University of Buffalo. Retrieved September 23, 2009 at  http://ccvillage.buffalo.edu/Abpsy/lecture1.html 

Gilles-Thomas, David L. (1989). Classifications. Abnormal psychology: Lecture 2. University

of Buffalo. Retrieved September 23, 2009 at  http://ccvillage.buffalo.edu/Abpsy/lecture2.html
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Healthcare Reforms That Have Taken Place in

Words: 609 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35528822

healthcare reforms that have taken place in the past decade that have led to the re-evaluation of the quality as well as the cost effectiveness of health care providers. A specialty that has evolved with this trend is that of mental health/psychiatric advanced practice nurse. There is an increase in the number of the elderly people in society today. Depression is a common mental health condition in this age group. Age related psychological, physiological and social change have to be taken into consideration when it comes to making decisions that are related to pharmacological or psychological treatments that are to be implemented.in the article we can see that the common causes of mental health problems in the elderly are institutionalization, loss of friends and family, lack of support networks, decrease in hearing, vision and memory and so on.

The article highlights some of the benefits and risks electro conclusive therapy.one…… [Read More]

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Near-Death Experiences -- Real or

Words: 1932 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77412079

The writer goes on, "Then I saw a light and everything stopped. It was as if the light communicated to me everything I had done wrong and it showed me what love it" (www.near-death.com). Maybe that "light" was his conscience? Meanwhile, another person who claims to have had a NDE recalls that in 1970 he was a 24-year-old "with serious psycho-emotional problems." Right there at the opening of his narrative any reader with an investigative tendency would wonder how believable someone is going to be who had psycho-emotional issues at 24.

But he goes on, saying the room "was flooded with light from overhead" and he was engaged in a "new dimension of psychic communion" with a hippie couple who had given him the LSD. He went into a "trance" and was "truly" born again, "without even the need of Jesus." If this sounds like a person was on an…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Crislip, Mark. "Near Death Experiences and the Medical Literature." Skeptic 14.2

(2008): 14-16.

Dieguez, Sebastian. "NDE Experiment." Skeptical Inquirer 33.5 (2009): 44-49.

Evans, John M. "Near-Death Experiences." The Lancet Vol. 359 (2002): 2116.
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Psychology Chapter 5 Of the Abnormal Child

Words: 562 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85306710

Psychology

Chapter 5 of the Abnormal Child Psychology textbook is about Attention Deficit Hyperactivity (ADHD). The chapter provides a brief description and history of the disorder. Then, core characteristics of ADHD are listed, such as inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity. This information is helpful for understanding how ADHD is diagnosed. The authors also give information on the DSM criteria, which are critical for an actual diagnosis of the disorder. A section on associated characteristics refers to cognitive deficits, speech and language impairments, tic disorders, and medical concerns associated with ADHD.

The authors also talk about accompanying or related psychological disorders such as conduct disorder, anxiety disorders, and mood disorders. Prevalence, course, and outcomes of ADHD are discussed along with social variables including gender. There is a section outlining various theories as to why ADHD exists, such as genetics, diet, and family influences. Finally, treatment options are listed including medications, parent management training,…… [Read More]

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You Are Reminded That the

Words: 4258 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98977087

Since juvenile records are sealed
during ongoing investigations, the authors used multiple sources from
available national press reports, each of which was identified by more than
one source, to create a list of possible causal factors. Bender,
McLauchlin, & Shubert (2001) then outlined some of the potential causes for
shootings as reported by multiple sources in the media. The data reveal
several conclusions of concern:
1) Even though none of the perpetrators was identified as special
need student, each demonstrated some indicators to peers of quite
serious emotional problems and each demonstrated a low regard for human
life.
2) The perpetrators were usually completely alienated from their
family and friends. Each had "warned" others in advance of the violence
that may occur by talking about killing in some context.
3) Each of the perpetrators was a White male.
4) The perpetrators seemed to have an average or above average
intelligence.…… [Read More]

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Assorts of Disorder Terms and Diagnose

Words: 969 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54392348

Autism is a developmental disorder, as can be seen in the fact that Peter was first diagnosed when he failed to develop speech at the rate of a normal child. Autism is also a spectrum disorder, meaning that individuals will manifest the condition in different ways and different aspects of normal speech, movement, and social interactions may be inhibited depending on the child and the condition's severity. There is no 'cure' for autism or universally-accepted treatment for the disorder although behavioral interventions such as ABA "encourages positive behaviors and discourages negative behaviors in order to improve a variety of skills" through methods such as "Discrete Trial Training (DTT) DTT is a style of teaching that uses a series of trials to teach each step of a desired behavior or response. Lessons are broken down into their simplest parts and positive reinforcement is used to reward correct answers and behaviors." (Treatment,…… [Read More]

References

Additional treatments for ADHD. (2013). Psych Central. Retrieved from:

http://psychcentral.com/lib/additional-treatments-for-adhd/0001205

Depression. (2013). NIMH. Retrieved from:

 http://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/topics/depression/index.shtml
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Falsifiability in Psychological Science for

Words: 1416 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48012793



However, psychology, even scientific psychology, presents falsifiability challenges not evident in the natural scientists. Some scientists might argue that Freud has been shown to be a poor theorist, given what has been revealed about the brain since Popper's day. If a depressive shows no improvement after years of Freudian therapy, but does show improvement after taking Prozac, that could be said to prove Freud wrong. Unfortunately, so many other external factors can affect a person's mood it is hard to attribute a single cause to a person's remission. It could be the drug or other conditions in the individual's environment. While large drug trials try to use large sample sizes as a way of reducing the influence of extraneous variables as well as use control groups who receive a placebo, the less observable and testable the phenomenon, the more difficult it is to measure. Even attempts to demonstrate improvement of…… [Read More]

References

Cohen, Patricia. (2007). Freud is widely taught at universities, except in the psychology department. The New York Times. Retrieved April 3, 2010 at http://www.nytimes.com/2007/11/25/weekinreview/25cohen.htm

Good and bad theories. (2007, April 27). On Philosophy. Retrieved April 2, 2010 at http://onphilosophy.wordpress.com/2007/04/27/good-and-bad-theories/

Lutus, Paul. (2009, May 12). Is psychology a science? Retrieved April 2, 2010 at http://www.arachnoid.com/psychology/

Marian, Lucian. (2008). Falsifiability. Debunking primal therapy. Retrieved April 2, 2010 at http://debunkingprimaltherapy.com/3_falsifiability-testable/
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Treatment of the Mentally Ill and Slaves in Literature

Words: 1410 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64883908

life of slaves in Harriet Jacobs' Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl and the lives of the mentally ill in Victor LaValle's Devil in Silver

The theme of freedom and escape was common in antebellum literature written by former slaves -- and is also common in narratives of the lives of the mentally ill today. Both Harriet Jacobs' Incidents in the Life of Slave Girl and Victor LaValle's Devil in Silver chronicle unjust imprisonments: in Jacob's case, the narrator's life as a slave; in LaValle's novel, the horrors perpetrated upon the mentally ill. These texts indicate that those who are marginalized in our society are selected in an arbitrary fashion based upon categories such as race or class rather than have intrinsic properties that make them uniquely different. Over the course of the narrative, both protagonists overcome the societies of fear and tyranny that are created by their…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Jacobs, Harriet. Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl. UNC Chapel Hill, 2003. 30 Apr 2014.

 http://docsouth.unc.edu/fpn/jacobs/jacobs.html 

LaValle, Victor. Devil in Silver. Spiegel & Grau, 2012.
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Looking at Psychology of Violence

Words: 3967 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96457880

violence and aggression. First, different aspects of violence, such as diversity and culture, gender and psychosocial aspects are discussed. And, the ethical and legal dimensions of mandatory reporting of child and elder abuse are looked into. The emerging technologies in the field of psychology are also discussed in relation to the topic of violence and other forms of deviant behavior. Lastly, correlations of the causality and violence prevention interventions are given.

MFT: Psychology of Violence

The history of the world is mired with incidences of violence. Violence traces its origins back to prehistory, and there is barely a community, society or individual that has never experienced or witnessed some form of violence. A single incidence of violence can be powerful and unbearable whether it is terrorism, war, suicide, homicide or even systemic injustices (structural violence -- whereby there are access barriers to health care, social justice, or some other type…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Anderson, C., & Bushman, B. (2002). Human Aggression. Annual Review of Psychology, 52, 27-51.

Duxbury, J., & Wright, K. (2011, March 7). Should nurses restrain violent and aggressive patients? Retrieved from Nursing Times: http://www.nursingtimes.net/nursing-practice/specialisms/mental-health/-should-nurses-restrain-violent-and-aggressive-patients/5026793.article

EIGE. (2015). What is gender-based violence. Retrieved from European Institute for Gender Equality: http://eige.europa.eu/gender-based-violence/what-is-gender-based-violence

Felson, R., Deane, G., & Armstrong, D. (2008). Do theories of crime or violence explain race differences in delinquency. Social Science Research, 624-641.
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Psychological Reports Why Good Psychological

Words: 641 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94013043

The final paragraph should summarize the observations of staff about patient behavior and level of motivation regarding the current admission or referral, as well as medications currently being used by the patient, especially if the patient was taking them at the time of the evaluative testing. This may affect the accuracy of the report, and the severity of the patient's symptoms.

Next, there is a section entitled "mental status examination," of the therapist's own observations, impressions, and assessment when meeting with the patient (Nail 1997). Physical health, appearance, and speech should be recorded, even if there are no abnormalities. Next, the "results of the evaluation" should be introduced. While there are several different models for writing reports, for most mental health status evaluations, the Hypothesis Testing Model is favored (Nail 1997). In the MSH model, possible answers are posed to the referral questions included in the "purpose of evaluation section"…… [Read More]

Reference

Nail, Greg. (1997). Psychological evaluation. MS Resource.

Retrieved December 3, 2009 at  http://www.msresource.com/format.html
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Pharmacists Get Involved in Medical

Words: 310 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54707549



ithin the profession itself, there are many ethical debates, pertaining to medications, such as prescribing psychotropic drugs like antidepressants to adolescents, the correct times to use palliative care at the end of a patient's life, the ethics of emergency contraception and giving 'the morning after pill' and contraception to adolescents without parental consent. For pharmacists engaged in research, the appropriate use of animals in research and whom to include or exclude in clinical trials may be another issue of personal concern (Applelbe 2008). In all cases, to dispense medication means one must dispense good judgment, not simply pills and potions.

orks Cited

Pharmacy Ethics and Decision Making. (2008). Foreword by Gordon E. Appelbe. First edition.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Pharmacy Ethics and Decision Making. (2008). Foreword by Gordon E. Appelbe. First edition.

London: Pharma Press.
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Gestalt Theory According to Koffka

Words: 770 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10625368

Gestalt theory according to Koffka (Kurt Koffka, Excerpt from "Perception: An introduction to Gestalt-theories" 1922), an act psychology in the tradition of Brentano?

The basic principle behind Gestalt theory is that the whole is greater than the sum of its parts. Gestalt theory focuses on the structures of the mind As an alternative to Gestalt theory Franz Brentano stressed that it is the activities of the mind that are worthy of scientific study, not mental structures: "When one sees a color, the color itself is not mental. It is the seeing, the act that is mental....every act always refers to (or intends) something outside of itself (intentionality); thus, acts are inseparable from the objects to which they intend" (Act psychology, 2012, Psychology History Timeline). However, Gestalt psychologists like Koffka stressed how it was the mind itself, not the object or the activity that should be the target of study. "I…… [Read More]

References

Act psychology. (2012). Psychology History Timeline. Retrieved:

http://psych.athabascau.ca/html/Glossary/demo_glossary.cgi?mode=history&term_id=922&color_id=3

Koffka, Kurt. (1922). Perception: An introduction to the Gestalt-theorie Psychological Bulletin,

19, 531-585. Retrieved:
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Vanden Bos Gary R 1996

Words: 634 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82926147

For example, VandenBos cites a study from 1957 in support of psychotherapy: "Fifty percent of the adult U.. population in 1957 could imagine conditions under which they might benefit from psychological services and might avail themselves of such services" (VandenBos 1996, p.1005). Butt simply envisioning a possible scenario is far different from actually praising the practice as personally helpful. Only 14% of adults in 1957 said they had had sought aid from a therapist -- not that such aid had eased any mental suffering. A 1976 replication study of a similar demographic population found "59% of respondents reported that they could imagine life circumstances under which they might benefit from discussing their psychological problems with someone and the percentage of respondents who reported that they had actually utilized such help at some point in their lives had almost doubled -- climbing to 26%" but again did not survey respondent's perceptions…… [Read More]

Secondly, while VandenBos is dismissive of studies focusing on the effects of specific treatments upon specific types of disorders, the appropriateness of treatment important to consider in light of the fact that many psychological illnesses have a profound biological component and may be less responsive to 'talk' therapy than others mental disorders. Some complaints, such as Borderline Personality Disorder, seem to respond much better to certain types of therapy, particularly cognitive behavioral therapy, while they show little response, and may actually be negatively impacted by other types of thereby.

Much of the data cited by VandenBos comes from an earlier era in American culture and understanding of the mind, when psychoanalysis was a popular fad as well as an accepted practice, and antidepressants and other psychological medications were in a rather primitive state. For example, VandenBos cites a study from 1957 in support of psychotherapy: "Fifty percent of the adult U.S. population in 1957 could imagine conditions under which they might benefit from psychological services and might avail themselves of such services" (VandenBos 1996, p.1005). Butt simply envisioning a possible scenario is far different from actually praising the practice as personally helpful. Only 14% of adults in 1957 said they had had sought aid from a therapist -- not that such aid had eased any mental suffering. A 1976 replication study of a similar demographic population found "59% of respondents reported that they could imagine life circumstances under which they might benefit from discussing their psychological problems with someone and the percentage of respondents who reported that they had actually utilized such help at some point in their lives had almost doubled -- climbing to 26%" but again did not survey respondent's perceptions of efficacy (VandenBos 1996, p.1005).

Frequency of use and the helpfulness of treatment are far from the same thing. VandenBos' cited studies merely confirm the increasing cultural acceptance and interest in psychotherapy from 1957 to 1976. Given the cultural dynamic and history of America in the 1960s and 1970s, these findings are hardly surprising. A naysayer of therapy might say a similar interest and acceptance of astrology may have peaked as well. The broadness with which the term 'therapy' was defined, which included self-help groups as well as members of the clergy in the Consumer Reports survey, also may not indicate a greater acceptance of clinical therapy. And finally, how these forms of therapy were combined or not combined with psychotropic drugs in the context of different types of therapy was not surveyed, given the lack of specificity of individual's complaints and the broadness of therapeutic contexts classified as therapy.
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Wake Up Call Public Education

Words: 878 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30723975



The result of this way of thinking, teaching, and living is manifested in many ways. The most apparent is the growing number of teenagers and adolescents who need prescription medication (psychotropic drugs) to get through the day.

Teachers would be wise to read this study and consider how important it is for children to experience situations were things are less than ideal. Carefully moderated pretend "bad guy" play is just one way to prepare a child for the hardships that life has to offer.

In addition, the authors note that "previous work about bad guy play (e.g., Pellegrini, 1998) indicates that a small percentage of children in classrooms may escalate from pretend aggression into real aggression, but that most will not." So with very little risk, there's no reason not to let kids be kids.

Professional Position/Response to Content

The study makes many cogent points and raises many interesting questions.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Detour, A., Logue, M.E. (2011). You Be the Bad Guy: A New Role for Teachers in Supporting Children's Dramatic Play. Early Childhood Research & Practice,

Spring, 13(1). Retrieved from:   http://ecrp.uiuc.edu/v13n1/index.html  

Pellegrini, A.D., & Smith, P.K. (1998). Physical active play: The nature and function of a neglected aspect of play. Child Development, 69(3), 577-598.

Holland, Penny. (2003). We don't play with guns here: War, weapon and superhero play in the early years. Maidenhead, Berkshire, England: Open University Press.
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Business Using Gelso 2006 Harlow

Words: 16758 Length: 60 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35830950

esearchers have an occasion to further organizational science and to make research practical by producing information that can impact changing organizational forms and circumstances. Pragmatically, academic researchers are not likely to get access to a company that is going through change unless the practitioners believe the research will be helpful (Gibson & Mohrman, 2001).

There have been a number of calls to augment the significance and effectiveness of organizational science to companies. The usefulness challenge cannot be defined merely as getting practitioners to value and include what academics learn. It is believed that the usefulness of research depends, somewhat, on the degree to which the perspectives of organization members are incorporated in research procedures and the results are included into those members' organization design activities that take place as their company adjusts to its changing environment. esearch is more likely to be seen as useful if there are occasions for…… [Read More]

References

Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy (U.S.), National Academy of Sciences

(U.S.), National Academy of Engineering & Institute of Medicine (U.S.). (2009). On

being a scientist: A guide to responsible conduct in research, (3rd ed.). Washington,

D.C.: National Academies Press. Retrieved from:
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Hildegard Peplau Introduction the Mere

Words: 1830 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53114585

And if one can work through and delineate the antecedents and the if the group can see behavior as change-worthy, the process of effecting change can then be determined. She saw that the most consistent hope for progress, despite the most troubled situation, is the truly intellectual person who is educated lifelong and constantly involved in the problems and growth of the field. Hildegard Peplaus, first of all, that person and that is how she tried to shape the young ones entering her field. She did not share the aspirations of the fortunate who filled the ranks of the profession in her time. She, instead, saw that nursing and the medical professions as sharing common goals and services, but each with a different and separate health mission in addressing and meeting the health needs of the people. She never felt uncertainty in identifying with her profession and in her sturdy…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Callaway, B. (1999). In Memoriam. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Nursing. Perspectives in Psychiatric Care

Clarke, a.R. (1999). Remembering Hldegard E. Peplau. Perspectives in Psychiatric Care

Gregg, D.F. (1999).Hildegard E. Peplau: Her Contributions. Perspectives of Psychiatric Care

Holden, M.A. (1999). Hildegard Peplau. Perspectives of Psychiatric Care
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Barriers to Utilizing Adult Day Centers and Associated Factors on Alzheimer's Patients

Words: 1446 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63463583

Alzheimer's

Adult Daycare for Patients with Alzheimer's Disease

Barriers to Daycare Utilization:

Fortinsky, Richard H., Kulldorff, Martin, Kleppinger, Alison, and Kenyon-Pesce, Lisa. (2009). Dementia care consultation for family caregivers: ollaborative model linking an Alzheimer's association chapter with primary care physicians. Aging & Mental Health, 13(2), 162-170.

The study by Fortinsky et al. (2009) discusses some of the obstacles standing between family caregivers and the admission of their patients to daycare nursing communities. The purpose of the research is to evaluate strategies that might improve the willingness of family caregivers to work with these community services. In a consultation with 84 family caregivers, the study aims to determine what strategies might raise confidence in the capabilities of such services. Additionally, the study seeks to evaluate the responses of primary caregivers to the outcomes produced by this type of intervention. A third objective of the study would be to determine how successfully…… [Read More]

Cantegreil-Kallen, Inge, Turbelin, Clement, Angel, Pierre, Flahault, Aantoine, and Rigaud, Anne-Sophie. (2006). Dementia management in France: Health care and support services in the community. Dementia, 5(3), 317-326.

As study of community-based Alzheimer's support services in France lends greater insight into the obstacles preventing the optimization of care. According to the study by Cantegreil-Kallen (2006) et al., France provides a state-administered network of community-based services available to individuals suffering from Alzheimer's or dementia related to aging. While this federal oversight provides regulatory consistency and quality control, it may also be impeding the fullest possible effectiveness of community-based service contexts. According to the study in question, "Although GPs acknowledged carers' need for emotional support, only minimal levels of other interventions such as day care (12%) and psychotherapeutic interventions (12%) were prescribed. Reasons for under-use included non-availability and carers' reluctance to undergo psychotherapy. Lack of integrated community care services, insufficient information on services, lack of collaboration between health professionals and the frequent absence of a reliable carer were considered the most important barriers to the effective support of people with dementia in primary health care settings." (p. 317)

This confirms the general observation drawn from the preset research that while there are clear benefits to the employment of any form of daycare, community agencies often lack the resources or protocol to ensure that patients are given the best opportunity for the improvement of faculties as well as the improvement of long-term health outcomes.
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Workers Engaging in Eldercare-Related Activities Are Prone

Words: 1928 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76113655

workers engaging in eldercare-related activities are prone to suffer from stress-related factors and workplace absenteeism as opposed to non-caregiving workers. This hypothesis was confirmed by Lee in her study; 67 employees from a financial institution were interviewed while questionnaires were administered to 169 workers from a healthcare institution. Caregivers from study 1 were prone to absenteeism as well as incidences of insomnia, weight loss and tiredness. The second study confirmed the same incidences as study 1; weight loss among caregivers, drowsiness, sleeplessness as well as nervousness; however, the degree of absenteeism was not different among caregivers and non-caregivers. In line with this, it was confirmed that caregivers' tasks negatively impacted their workplace performance (Lee, 1997). Based on the results, it was confirmed that a balance between caregiving-related activities and work has the effect of bringing about stress and physical tiredness which ultimately affects workplace performance. egarding absenteeism, it is theorized…… [Read More]

References

Buffardi, L.C., Smith, J.L., O'Brien, A.S., & Erdwins, C.J. (1999). The Impact of Dependent-Care Responsibility and Gender on Work Attitudes. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 4(4), 356-367.

Davis, L.L. (1997). Family Conflicts around Dementia Home-Care. Family, Systems & Health, 15, 85-98.

Hepburn, G.C., & Barling, J. (1996). Eldercare Responsibilities, Interrole Conflict, and Employee Absence: A Daily Study. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 1(3), 311-318.

Lee, J.A. (1997). Balancing Eldercare Responsibilities and Work: Two Empirical Studies. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 2(3), 220-228.
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Hospital Falls Fall Prevention Falls Are the

Words: 1163 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39897576

Hospital Falls

Fall Prevention

Falls are the leading cause of hospital related injuries in the United States. There are many surprising factors that affect patients in regards to hospital falls; they involve patients of all ages and over a range of different scenarios. As a result the fall incident rate has been the target of the academic world and professionals alike as inpatient falls are serious patient safety and quality issues. Fall prevention is an important aspect to patient safety and effective communication among staff, patients, and their families is required to mitigate potential risks. This project will outline an effective strategy for outlining an intervention that implements a proactive fall prevention program. Patients injured in a fall incur increased hospital costs due to additional treatment and longer lengths of stay (Pearson, Coburn, 2011). According to the IOM, (Institute of Medicine) creating safe, effective, patient-centric, timely, efficient, and equitable care…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Colon-Emeric, C., Schenck, A., Gorospe, J., McArdle, J., Dobson, L., Deporter, C., & McConnell, E. (2006). Translating Evidence-Based Falls Prevention into Clinical Practice in Nursing Facilities: Results and Lessons from a Quality Improvement Collaborative. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 1414-1418.

Schwendimann, R., Buhler, H., De Geest, S., & Millsen, K. (2008). Characteristics of Hospital Inpatient Falls across Clinical Departments. Gerontonlogy, 342-348.

Semin-Goossens, A., van der Helm, J., & Bossuyt, P. (2003). A failed model-based attempt to implement an evidence-based nursing guidelines for fall prevention. Journal of Nursing Care, 217-226.

Von Rentein-Kruse, W., & Krause, T. (2007). Incidence of In-Hospital Falls in Geriatric Patients Before and After the Introduction of an Interdisciplinary Team -- Based Fall-Prevention Intervention. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 2068-2074.
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Diversity in Living Arrangements Among the Elderly

Words: 2133 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50575921

Living Aangements Among the Eldely

This is an eight page pape concening the divesity in living aangements among the eldely. Thee ae six efeences used.
Intoduction
People today ae living longe, which means thee is a lage eldely population in ou society. Thee ae many concens facing the eldely, one of which is housing. The eldely have seveal options available to them and it's inteesting to see how divese they can be.
Statistics
Befoe we look at the housing options fo the eldely, we should fist exploe the statistics concening the population of this gowing goup. Thee wee ove 35.0 million pesons ove 65 in the United States in 2000. This accounts fo 12.4% of the population o one in evey eight Ameicans. Since 1990, the numbe of eldely has inceased 12.0% in compaison to the 13.3% incease of those unde 65. The statling fact is those aged 45-64 inceased…… [Read More]

references. (accessed 10-20-2002).
http://www.exnet.iastate.edu/Pages/housing/options.html).

Greenwald, John. (1999, 30 August). Family: Elder Care: Making the Right Choice
Nursing homes used to be the only stop for seniors who need help. Now there are options.
Time. pp. 52+.

(Housing and Living Arrangements of the Elderly. (accessed 10-19-2002).
http://www.ilcusa.org/lib/pdf/publicationschapter1.pdf).
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Violation of Human Rights

Words: 4611 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43224008

PADILLA V. UMSFELD & HAMDI V. UMSFELD

Summary of Padilla v. umsfeld

Facts of Padilla v. umsfeld

Summary of Facts

Technical History

Holding

Supreme Court easoning

Lower Court easoning

Summary of Hamdi v. umsfeld

History of Hamdi v. umsfeld

Facts

The Holding

easoning for the Supreme Court

Individuals' Civil rights of Hamdi and Padilla

Contrast and Comparison

Padilla v. umsfeld & Hamdi v. umsfeld

Summary of Padilla v. umsfeld

One of the first and interesting things about the case is to know that the espondent, Jose Padilla, is a citizen from the United States citizen who made up his mind to become an "enemy fighter." This decision was helped made by the famous President George W. Bush and was held in military custody in South Carolina by the Department of Defense. Also, President George W. Bush discovered that Padilla was working alongside with the terrorist named al Qaeda. Both of…… [Read More]

References

Padilla, R. v. (2004, June 25). Retrieved from Supreme Court: http://www.law.cornell.edu/supct/html/03-1027.ZS.html

Rumsfeld, H. v. (2012, November 12). Hard National Security Choices. Retrieved from Lawfare: http://www.lawfareblog.com/wiki/the-lawfare-wiki-document-library/post-911-era-materials/post-911-era-materials-court-cases/hamdi-v-rumsfeld-542-u-s-507-2004/
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Healthcare Intervention Elderly Falls

Words: 1629 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54791678

educe Patient Falls in a Hospital Environment

Method of Obtaining Necessary Approval(s)

Description of Current Problem

Explanation of Proposed Solution

Implementing Change

esources equired for Implementation

isk and quality management is a fundamental and important aspect to many health care organizations and patient lives are often at stake. This is especially true in nursing facilities or hospitals that house elderly patients because of the level of direct patient interactions that occur on a daily basis and the specific needs of this population. There are many potential risks that can emerge from this population. Three common risks were identified from a literature review based on evidence-based practices. One common risk deals medication error and making sure patients receive the right dosage of the correct medication at the right time. Another risk that is becoming increasingly common is the risk of the spread of infection and in severe cases infections that are…… [Read More]

References

Colon-Emeric, C., Schenck, A., Gorospe, J., McArdle, J., Dobson, L., Deporter, C., & McConnell, E. (2006). Translating Evidence-Based Falls Prevention into Clinical Practice in Nursing Facilities: Results and Lessons from a Quality Improvement Collaborative. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 1414-1418.

Renteln-Kruse, W., Krause, T., & Georgr, D. (2007). Incidence of In-Hospital Falls in Geriatric Patients Before andAfter the Introduction of an Interdisciplinary Team -- BasedFall-Prevention Intervention. The American Geriatric Society, 2068-2076.
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Analyzing Entrepreneurship Nurse Owned Clinics

Words: 2303 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37871987

Entrepreneurship: Nurse-Owned Clinics and Beyond Mobile FNP (Family Nurse Practitioners)

There are over 125,000 NPs (nurse practitioners) in the U.S., as per estimates of the AANP (American Academy of NPs). Compared to physician assistants, NPs enjoy greater autonomy and responsibility, and have been increasingly assuming roles in administrative leadership, aside from their conventional patient-care duties at clinics and hospitals. However, owing to the thorough knowledge required to succeed within private practice settings, NPs often establish independent practices after many years of experience at healthcare centers such as hospitals, in the role of salaried NPs (Furlow, 2011).

According to the Chief Executive of the NNCC (National Nursing Centers Consortium), Tine Hansen-Turton, a substantial growth has been observed in nurse-run health clinics, before as well as subsequent to the implementation of the ACA (Affordable Care Act). She claims the number of nurse-run clinics across the nation has now grown to five-hundred; this…… [Read More]

References

Aiken, L.H. & Sage, W.M. (1992). Staffing national health care reform: a role for advanced practice nurses. Akron Law Review, 26. Retrieved from https://www.uakron.edu/dotAsset/3ed241d2-f4fa-4afe-aca6-deacf419abcb.pdf

Fraino, J.A. (2015). Mobile nurse practitioner: A pilot program to address service gaps experienced by homeless individuals. Journal of Psychosocial Nursing, 53. Retrieved from http://repository.usfca.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1000&context=health_stu

Furlow, B. (2011, May 30). Business advice for nurse practitioners considering private practice. Clinical Advisor. Retrieved from http://www.clinicaladvisor.com/your-career/business- advice-for-nurse-practitioners-considering-private-practice/article/203953/

Helseth, C. (2010, May 7). Advanced practice nurses fill health care gaps in rural areas. Rural Health Information Hub. Retrieved from https://www.ruralhealthinfo.org/rural- monitor/advanced-practice-nurses-fill-gaps/
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Childhood Developmental Disorders and Their Treatment

Words: 1165 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78204851

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and the Difficulties Associated ith the Assessment and Treatment of Psychological Childhood Disorders

By any measure, childhood is a challenging period in human development where young people are forced to actively participate in the educational process while developing human relationship skills that they will need for the rest of their lives. Against this backdrop, it is not surprising that many young people experience behavioral difficulties that detract from their ability to attain their full academic and social potential including one of the most commonly diagnosed conditions, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. To gain some new insights into this condition, this paper reviews the relevant literature concerning attention deficit hyperactivity disorder followed by a discussion concerning the difficulties that are associated with assessing and treating psychological childhood disorders. Finally, a summary of the research and important findings concerning these issues are presented in the conclusion.

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity…… [Read More]

Works Cited

"Facts about ADHD." (2016). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Web.

Mash, Eric J. and Barkley, Russell A. (1999, May 1). "Treatment of Childhood Disorders, Second Edition." Behavioral Disorders 24(3): 258-261. Print.

McCabe, Paul C. (2009, Annual). "The Use of Antidepressant Medications in Early Childhood: Prevalence, Efficacy, and Risk." Journal of Early Childhood and Infant Psychology 5: 13-15. Print.

McLoone, Jordana and Hudson, Jennifer L. (2006, May). "Treating Anxiety Disorders in a School Setting." Education & Treatment of Children 29(2): 219-223. Print.
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hosipital manager case'study

Words: 939 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48190767

Decision Making for Providers

hat were the consequences of a failure to report?

It appears that Mike, as the case study indicates, has made being late to report to his medical records position a habit. In fact, it has been addressed directly by his supervisor and the case seems to indicate that his job is "on thin ice" due to his frequent tardiness. During his last visit with his supervisor, Mike promised to be on time on his next shift and he actually did leave 20 minutes earlier than he normally does. This addition to Mike's case makes it appear that he does have the ambition to try to fulfill the requirements that his position in the organization requires, but whatever reason he has been unable to do so, at least consistently.

There are other parts to the story that might help to explain Mike's plight. For example, the case…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Colon-Emeric, C., Schenck, A., Gorospe, J., McArdle, J., Dobson, L., Deporter, C., & McConnell, E. (2006). Translating Evidence-Based Falls Prevention into Clinical Practice in Nursing Facilities: Results and Lessons from a Quality Improvement Collaborative. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 1414-1418.

Conlan, C. (N.d.). 10 excuses for being late for work. Retrieved from Monster: https://www.monster.com/career-advice/article/excuses-for-being-late-to-work

Simmons, J. (2010, October 13). Reducing In-Hospital Patient Falls. Retrieved from Health Leaders Media: http://www.healthleadersmedia.com/page-1/MAG-257370/Making-Falls-Go-Down##
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Counseling Assessment Candy Barr Client

Words: 2228 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44900672

This writer would like to know if Ms. Barr ever felt the need to cut down on drinking or to stop and couldn't. This writer would like to know if Ms. Barr takes any other drugs or medication in order to sleep or make her feel better and if so how much, and how often.

Mental Health Symptoms:

Mental Status: This writer would like to ask Ms. Barr if she ever thought of harming herself or someone else. If yes, did she have a plan and when was the last time she thought about harming herself or someone else? This writer would like to know if she has ever harmed anyone intentionally. If yes, does she have a plan and when was the last time she harmed someone else. This writer would observe if Ms. Barr's physical characteristics such as clothing, hair color, eye color, mannerisims, interaction with her and…… [Read More]

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Crime in the Beginning the Main Focus

Words: 1861 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68215282

Crime

In the beginning the main focus of the drug addiction theory was on the habituated pleasure reinforcement as well as the potential of the drug for the reward. Drug affects the dopamine receptors that are present in the brain and the individual is flooded with the desirable emotions by using dopamine, these desirable emotions are considered to be the reward for using the substance (Pinel, 2009). When the relationship of dopamine to the reward was recognized it was thought to be the major cause of addiction but when further researches were carried out, they showed that there were some other factors involved in the addiction as well.

When initially the psychotropic substance like cocaine or amphetamine is used, some changes take place in the brain and these changes then influence a cycle of addiction. Although different drugs have different probability of addiction but the individual characteristics like cognition, mental…… [Read More]

References

Alberta Health Services -- Addiction and Mental Health. (2009). Challenging assumptions: The association between substance use and criminal behaviour. Edmonton, AB: Author.

Gottfredson, D.C., Kearley, B.W. And Bushway, S.D. (2008). Substance Use, Drug Treatment, and Crime: An Examination of Intra-Individual Variation in a Drug Court Population. Journal of Drug Issues 0022-0426/08/02 601-630.

GSS Codebook. (2010). General Social Survey 2010 Cross-Section and Panel Combined. Accessed from:    http://www.thearda.com/Archive/Files/Codebooks/GSS10PAN_CB.asp   

Idaho State Police. (2010). The Relationship Between Substance Abuse and Crime in Idaho: Estimating the Need for Treatment Alternatives. Idaho State Police, Statistical Analysis Center.
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Psychedelic Therapy Psychedelic or Hallucinogenic

Words: 2192 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95412737

" Long-term use may develop psychoses, like schizophrenia and severe depression. The use of MDMA may produce psychological difficulties, like confusion, depression, sleep problems, drug craving, severe anxiety and paranoia, even weeks after the use of the drug. MSMA develops symptoms, such as muscle tension, nausea, blurred vision, rapid eye movements, faintness, chills, sweating, and increased heart rate and blood pressure. it, therefore, poses a special risk for those with heart disease. Overuse can lead to death (Kurtzweil).

West Africans used ibogaine as a stimulant and aphrodisiac in the early 1900s (Kurtzweil 1995). Native Americans used mescaline from peyote cactus in religious rituals. LSD was first synthesized in 1938. Throughout history, it was considered a source of many types of medications. Its psychedelic effects were first discovered in 1943. Two decades after World War II, LSD was used to determine its effects on patients with schizophrenia and other mental disorders.…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Kotler, Steven. Drugs in Rehab. Psychology Today: Sussex Publishers, Inc., April 2005

Klotter, Jule. End-of-Life and Psychedelic Research. Townsend Letter for Doctors and Patients: The Townsend Group, July 2005

Kurtzweil, Paula. Medical Possibilities for Psychedelic Drugs. FDA Consumer: U.S. Government Printing Office, September 1995

Luke, David P. And Marrios Kottenis. A Preliminary Survey of Paranormal Experiences with Psychoactive Drugs. Journal of Parapsychology: Parapsychology Press, 2005
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Medicinal Marijuana the Advantages and

Words: 4258 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55458729



De Jong, Prentiss, McFarland, Machekano & Israelski (2005) note in one study that medicinal marijuana use may be particularly useful in patients suffering from HIV with moderate to severe nausea. There study points out that adherence to antiretroviral therapy (AT) is an essential and critical component for successful treatment of HIV infections. Further a recent study conducted by the researchers suggest that smoking marijuana improves adherence to AT, and thus leads to more successful treatment of HIV infections in patients (De Jong, et. a, 44).

The relationship that existed in this study was confirmed using a multivariate analyses controlling "for the interactions between nausea and marijuana use" in which "other illicit drug use remained a factor related to nonadherence" (De Jong, et. al, 44). This study confirms the notion that medicinal cannabis may be beneficial where other therapies or drugs have not. However to demonstrate further benefits or a more…… [Read More]

References

Berman, J.S., Symonds, C. & Birch, R. (2004). "Efficacy of two cannabis-based medicinal extracts for relief of central neuropathic pain from brachial plexus avulsion: Results of a randomized controlled trial." Pain. 112(3): 299-306

Burstein, S.H., Karst, M., Schneider, U. & Zurier, R.B. (2004). "Ajulemic acid: A novel cannabinoid produces analgesia without a high." Life Sci, 75(12): 1513-22

Carter, G.T., Weydt, P., Kyashna, T.M. & Abrams, D.I. (2004 - May). "Medicinal cannabis: rational guidelines for dosing." Idrugs, 7(5): 464-70.

Christenson, V. (2004). "Courts protect ninth circuit doctors who recommend medical marijuana use." Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics, 32(1): 174
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Ritalin An Unacceptable Choice While

Words: 1717 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71825058



eferences

Breggin, Peter, . "Psychostimulants in the Treatment of Children Diagnosed with ADHD: isks and Mechanism of Action. International Journal of isk and Safety in Medicine 12.3 (1999): 3-35.

Hyman, Steven E. "Statement for the ecord on Methylphenidate (italin) for Children with ADHD." Meeting of the Committee before the House Education and the Workforce Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Youth, and Families. Washington, DC: U.S. Dept of Health and Human Services, 2000. 5 November 2005. http://www.hhs.gov/asl/testify/t000516c.html.

National Institute for Mental Health (NIMH). "The Numbers Count: Mental Disorders in America." NIH Publication No. 01-4584. Fact Sheet. Washington, D.C.: NIMH, 2001. 5 November 2005. http://www.nimh.nih.gov/publicat/numbers.cfm#23.

National Institute for Mental Health (NIMH). "Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder." NIH Publication No. 3572. Washington, D.C.: NIMH, 2003. 5 November 2005. http://www.nimh.nih.gov/publicat/adhd.cfm.

O'Meara, Kelly Patricia. "New esearch Indicts italin." Insight on the News 1 Oct. 2001: 22. Questia. 5 Nov. 2005 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000885567.

White, Hazel L., and Baton ouge.…… [Read More]

References

Breggin, Peter, R. "Psychostimulants in the Treatment of Children Diagnosed with ADHD: Risks and Mechanism of Action. International Journal of Risk and Safety in Medicine 12.3 (1999): 3-35.

Hyman, Steven E. "Statement for the Record on Methylphenidate (Ritalin) for Children with ADHD." Meeting of the Committee before the House Education and the Workforce Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Youth, and Families. Washington, DC: U.S. Dept of Health and Human Services, 2000. 5 November 2005.  http://www.hhs.gov/asl/testify/t000516c.html .

National Institute for Mental Health (NIMH). "The Numbers Count: Mental Disorders in America." NIH Publication No. 01-4584. Fact Sheet. Washington, D.C.: NIMH, 2001. 5 November 2005. http://www.nimh.nih.gov/publicat/numbers.cfm#23.

National Institute for Mental Health (NIMH). "Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder." NIH Publication No. 3572. Washington, D.C.: NIMH, 2003. 5 November 2005. http://www.nimh.nih.gov/publicat/adhd.cfm.
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Naltrexone the Efficacy of Naltrexone

Words: 2582 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17590678



Croop et al. (1997).

The overall safety profile of naltrexone is good; however, care must be taken in prescribing the drug to certain patient populations; e.g., naltrexone shows a dose-dependent hepatotoxicity (package insert) and is therefore contraindicated in patients with significant hepatic impairment, which is frequently encountered in alcohol-dependent populations.

The clinical trials of naltrexone have typically been conducted in patients without significant impairment in hepatic function. Another consequence of the hepatic impact of naltrexone is the possibility of drug-drug interactions.

Kim et al. (2001) potentially clinically significant interaction has been reported between naltrexone and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; these researchers found elevated liver function tests in study participants receiving both medications, although the doses of naltrexone used in this study were higher than the typical 50 mg daily dose.

Naltrexone is not appropriate for use with patients taking prescribed or illicit opioid drugs. Antagonism of the effects of these drugs…… [Read More]

References

Ait-Daoud, N., & Johnson, B.A. (1999). Medications to treat alcoholism. Alcohol Research & Health, 23(2), 99.

Anton, R.F., & Randall, C.L. (2005). Measurement and choice of drinking outcome variables in the COMBINE study. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 66(4), 104.

Bhagar, H.A., & Schmetzer, a.D. (2006). New antidipsotropics. Annals of the American Psychotherapy Association, 9(4), 29.

Bean, P., & Nemitz, T. (2004). Drug treatment: What works? New York: Routledge.
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Paxil History of Paxil in the 1960s

Words: 1858 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97585016

Paxil

History of Paxil

In the 1960s a Danish company named Ferrosan began performing research on aspects of the central nervous system. Ferrosan was most interested in the relationship between the neurotransmitter serotonin and depressed mood in people. The original idea was that if a drug could be developed to increase serotonin levels in the brain it might lead to improvements in treating people with depression (DeGrandpre, 2006). The research resulted in the development of a formula for a compound then known as the "Buus-Lassen Compound" which allegedly had the capability to relieve the depression in people. The compound was patented in the United States in 1977 and the company later sold all rights and research surrounding this patent to SmithKline (now GlaxoSmithKline) in 1980 (DeGrandpre, 2006).

SmithKline put significant effort into developing the compound and much of this development occurred in the SmithKline plant in Harlow, England (DeGrandpre, 2006).…… [Read More]

References

Anderson, I.M. (2000). Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors vs. tricyclic antidepressants: A

meta-analysis of efficacy and tolerability. Journal of Affective Disorders, 58(1), 19-36.

DeGrandpre, R. (2006). The cult of pharmacology. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.

Kim, S.W., Grant, J.E., Adson, D.E., Shin, Y.C., & Zaninelli, R. (2002). A double-blind placebo-
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Against Increasing Funding for Prison-Based

Words: 1945 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71638724

The cost for processing a drug court case through the court system is only a fraction of the cost for processing criminal drug cases through the court system. Furthermore, the cost of drug court and other drug treatment for drug offenders is only a fraction of the cost for imprisonment of these individuals. Drug offenders finishing alterative drug court or other treatment programs have been found less likely to have repeated charges and convictions of drug offenses and to have longer abstinences from use of drugs. Finally, in terms of costs to society that cannot be measured in monetary terms, the alternative sentencing of drug offenders to drug courts and other treatment programs will end the breakdown of society that has been witnessed due to imposition of prison sentences on drug offenders. The research conducted in order to prepare for the debate and in order to complete the research within…… [Read More]

Bibliography

The Federal Prison Population: A Statistical Analysis (2004) the Sentencing Project. Online available at http://www.sentencingproject.org/Admin/Documents/publications/inc_federalprisonpop.pdf

Clay, Rebecca (2006) Incarceration vs. Treatment: Drug Courts Help Substance Abusing Offenders. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration News March/April Vol. 14. No.2. Online available at http://www.samhsa.gov/samhsa_news/VolumeXIV_2/index.htm

Shaffer, Deborah; Bechtel, Kristin; and Latessa, Edward J. (2005) Evaluation of Ohio's Drug Courts: A Cost Benefit Analysis. Center for Criminal Justice Research Dec 2005. Online available at http://www.uc.edu/criminaljustice/ProjectReports/Ohio_Drug_Courts_Cost_Benefit_Analysis_2005.pdf

Drug Court Benefits (nd) Online NCDI.org available at http://www.ndci.org/courtfacts_benefits.html
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Competency of Offender Evaluating an Individuals Competence

Words: 1644 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53263105

Competency of Offender

Evaluating an individuals competence to stand trial can become a daunting task when hideous crimes have been committed. From a forensic psychologist's point-of-view, complete unbiased, non-judgmental, and purely scientific fact must be considered when providing such an evaluation (Greene & Heilbrun, 2011). In the given case, many things are to be taken into consideration before being able to fully judge the extent of the disturbance in the offenders state of mind.

In order to make a complete judgment about the offender's competency to stand trial, there are a couple of things that I would like to ask him or know more about in order to make a better decision about the issue. I would want to know what his actions were a couple of weeks or days before he committed his crimes. This would give me an idea of how he was behaving before committing the crimes,…… [Read More]

References:

Elkins, J.R. (2010). Criminal Law. In West Virginia University: College of Law. Retrieved August 8, 2011, from

Greene, E., & Heilbrun, K. (2011). Wrightman's Psychology and the Legal System. Wadsworth: Cengage Learning: Belmont, CA.

Ewing, C.P., & McCann, J.T. (2006). Minds on trial: Great cases in law and psychology. Oxford University Press: New York, NY.

Kapardis, A. (2010). Psychology and law: A critical introduction. Cambridge University Press: New York, NY.
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Life of Lori Schiller With Schizophrenia

Words: 2098 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15107878

Quiet oom: A Journey Out of the Torment of Madness by Lori Schiller and Amanda Bennett. Specifically it will discuss the author's life and how mental illness affected her family and herself. Lori Schiller suffered from schizophrenia since she was a teenager, and this is a true account of her struggles with the disease.

This book, written by the patient and a writer, is the real story of Lori Schiller, a schizophrenia patient who managed to conquer, or manage, her disease. She writes powerfully of how the illness affected her and her family, and what how it affected her life. Her experiences began with hearing "Voices" in her head and these voices rarely disappear from her mind. She writes, "Sometimes those Voices have been dormant. Sometimes they have been overwhelming. At times over the years they have nearly destroyed me. Many times over the years I was ready to give…… [Read More]

References

Schiller, Lori, and Amanda Bennett. The Quiet Room: A Journey Out of the Torment of Madness. New York: Warner Books, 1994.
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Thyroid Analogs and Obesity

Words: 752 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91494980

Thyroid Hormone and Obesity

Obesity Treatment: The Efficacy and Safety of Thyroid Hormone and Derivatives

Weight loss programs have traditionally focused on calorie intake reduction in combination with exercise, but new research suggests that it may be possible to simply accelerate metabolic rates using pharmaceutical interventions. The current drugs approved for treating obesity function by suppressing hunger or limiting nutritional absorption (reviewed by Tseng, Cypess, and Kahn, 2010). Unfortunately, the body is designed adapt to caloric availability by lowing metabolic rates during famine and to store calories as fat to guard against starvation. Drugs that suppress hunger or limit absorption activate these pathways, making long-term weight loss more difficult. The drugs that act on the satiety centers in the brain can also produce debilitating psychotropic side effects. The current state of effective pharmaceutical intervention on behalf of obese patients is therefore lacking approved drugs that increase calorie expenditure safely over…… [Read More]

References

Baxter, John D. And Webb, Paul. (2009). Thyroid hormone mimetics: potential applications in atherosclerosis, obesity, and type 2 diabetes. Nature Reviews in Drug Discovery, 8, 308-320.

Herwig, Annika, Ross, Alexander W., Nilaweera, Kanishka N., Morgan, Peter J., and Barrett, Perry. (2008). Hypothalamic TH in energy balance regulation. Onkologie, 31, 71-79.

Ortega, Francisco J., Moreno-Navarrete, Jose M., Ribas, Vincent, Esteve, Eduardo, Rodriquez-Hermosa, Jose I., Ruiz, Bartomeu et al. (2009). Subcutaneous fat shows higher thyroid hormone receptor-?1 gene expression than omental fat. Obesity, 17, 2134-2141.

Pelletier, Paula, Gauthier, Karine, Sideleva, Olga, Samarut, Jacques, and Silva, J. Enrique. (2008). Mice lacking the thyroid hormone receptor-? gene spend more energy in thermogenesis, burn more fat, and are less sensitive to high-fat diet-induced obesity. Endocrinology, 149, 6471-6486.
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Psychiatric Evaluation Adam First Describe

Words: 1059 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96588028

It seems sound to recommend that Adam stop taking Concerta, because it might aggravate underlying bipolar symptoms.

Strattera not stimulating, but it can have side effects, like prolonged erections, and it is also a fairly new drug. It should be prescribed with caution. It is still uncertain whether Adam's conduct disorders are due to his unstable home environment, and not due to any biological factors. Prescribing Strattera seems like a normal course of therapeutic action, but should not be regarded as a panacea.

Question

If you were the clinician, counselor, or therapist, what would be the primary issue you would want to address?

To be diagnosed with ADHD, the individual should exhibit the symptoms in two environments, and Adam's behavior seems to primarily assert itself in the home. With support, he seems functional in school, and he is substantially less functional at home than at school or with his peers.…… [Read More]

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Republic of Mauritius Has Progressed

Words: 10005 Length: 36 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5798910

" (United Nations, 2000) The Household udget Survey 1996/1997 reported that in excess of 14.5 of households in Mauritius are presently living below the poverty line and economic development has been stalled due to the "…rising cost of labor erosion of the protected international markets due to gradual effects of globalization and liberalization and increasing competition with other countries…" (United Nations, 2000)

The distribution aspect of income and wealth has not been addressed in a sufficient manner by the liberal economic policies that rely on the market. Unemployment has increased in recent years and this has been "accompanied by inflation that has contributed to a loss of purchasing power, especially affecting women." (United Nations, 2000)

There is a failure to meet the needs of very low income housing and creating further tensions in Mauritius are challenges related to employment equality of access and disparity in education which is stated to…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

United Nations Development Assistance Framework (UNDAF) (2000) Mauritius. November 2000.

Constructing Knowledge Societies: New Challenges for Tertiary Education (2002) The World Bank. Online available at: http://siteresources.worldbank.org/EXTAFRREGTOPTEIA/Resources/Constructing_Knowledge_Societies.pdf

Gokhool, Dharambeer (2008) 1148th Session of the International Conference on Education (Unesco) 25-28thNovember 2008,Geneva Comprehensive Approaches In Early Childhood Education: The Mauritian Experience.

Gokhool, D. Hon. (2008) Address given Certificate Award Ceremony for Training of Trainers' Course in Healthy Eating and Food Safety. 28 Apr 208, Paul O. Wiehe Auditorium, Reduit.
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Treatment of Sex Offenders the

Words: 1625 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9504329

When one looks at the occurrence of recidivism in offenders who have partaken in treatment programs varying from organic programs to those geared to more social and emotional support programs, it becomes clear that recidivism of sexual re-offense is relatively low, compared to those who undergo no treatment program. However, there is still an issue with non-sexual re-offense. In addition, there is evidence that the contributing factors for adult and juvenile offenders are different.

As such, it is suggested that not all offenders should receive the same treatment. Correctional literature indicates that high-risk offender require the greatest use of resource, while lower risk offenders require the lowest level of resources (Andrews & Bonta, 2003).

As such, blanket policies that deem all offenders as 'high risk' are neither effective nor efficient. In addition, it may take away resources from those who truly need it, such as juvenile offenders who require longterm…… [Read More]

References

Abracen, J., Looman, J., DiFazio, R., Kelly, T., & Stirpe, T. (Mar 2006). Patterns of attachment and alcohol abuse in sexual and violent non-sexual offenders. Journal of Sexual Aggression, 12(1). Retrieved December 17, 2007, from Academic Search Premier database.

Andrews, D. & Bonta, J. (2003). The psychology of criminal conduct. Cincinnati, OH: Anderson Publishing.

Bates, a., Saunders, R., & Wilson, C. (Spring 2007). Doing something about it: A follow-up study of sex offenders participating in Thames Valley Circles of Support and Accountability. British Journal of Community Justice, 5(1). Retrieved December 17, 2007, from SocINDEX database.

Calley, N. (Spring 2007). Integrating theory and research: The development of a research-based treatment program for juvenile male sex offenders. Counseling & Development, 85(2). Retrieved December 17, 2007, from Academic Search Premier database.
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Offshore Financial Centres and Their

Words: 22477 Length: 60 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31068943



Because the home country is not required to reimburse foreign depositors for losses, there is no corresponding financial penalty for lax supervision; there is, though, a benefit to the country with lenient regulatory policies because of increased revenues generated and the employment opportunities these services provide (Edwards 1999). Furthermore, banks seeking to conduct multinational business are attracted to countries where incorporation laws and the regulatory framework offer less regulatory oversight (Edwards 1999). The quid pro quo nature of offshore financial services is clearly indicated by Edwards's observation that, "Multinational banks provide the offshore financial centre with increased tax revenue and employment for its citizens. Because the benefits outweigh the costs, offshore financial centres have a powerful incentive to maintain lenient regulatory policies. As a result, multinational banks incorporated in an offshore financial center successfully avoid supervision by an effective home country regulator" (1999, p. 1267). Given the scope of the…… [Read More]

References

Black's Law Dictionary. (1999). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co.

Boise, C.M. & Morriss, a.P. (2009). 'Change, Dependency, and Regime Plasticity in Offshore Financial

Intermediation: the Saga of the Netherlands Antilles.' Texas International Law Journal, vol. 45,

no. 2, pp. 377-379.
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Falls Among the Elderly Age GROUP1

Words: 2717 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80389108

Fall Among the Elderly Age Group

Falls among the Elderly Age Group

Biological Factors

Unintentional falls

Expected falls and unexpected falls

isk Elements for Falls

Outline of Several Different Strategies

Counseling and Health Education Strategies

Single Strategies

Primary Strategies

Exercise and physical activity 8

Nursing-Home Strategies

Interventions of Unidentified Effectiveness

Developed Based on your Understanding of the Public Health Problem

Schedule an appointment with your Medic

Keep moving

Wear sensible shoes

According to JM (2009), "As people get older, falls turn out to be a typical and often hurting issue that occurs among those that are in the elderly category, producing a huge quantity of illness, death and use of health care services as well as premature nursing home admittances ( p. 42)." However, falls are a difficult, multi-faceted problem that comprises of social, medical, and financial elements. Medically, the mixture of a high occurs of falls and an increased…… [Read More]

References

A., B. (2012). Research methods in health: investigating health and health services. United Kingdom: Open University Press.

Campbell AJ, R. M. (2013). Rethinkingindividual and community fall preventionstrategies: a meta- regression comparingsingle and multifactorial interventions. Age and Ageing, 21(6), 656-662.

JM., H. (2009). Cognitive and Emotional benefits of exercise may mediate fall reduction. British Medical Journal, 128, 325(.

Lord SR, T. A. (2013). The effect of an individualized fall prevention program on fallrisk and falls in older people: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 14(8), 1296-1304.