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Houghton's The Miner
The Miner (1979) is a bronze statue by Elizabeth Biesiot in the city of Houghton, Michigan (Smithsonian Art Inventory, 2015). It is dedicated to the miners that gave birth to the city through their hard work in the copper mines. Its body is of bronze and its base is of stone: the Miner, in mid-stride, is perched upon stones, which indicate the foundational nature of the subject. The statue appeals to one's sense of place, time and history all at once, and the more one stands in front of it and soaks in the surrounding environment, the more one feels grateful to the men who are represented by this statue.
In a way, it does the same thing that the Vietnam Memorial does: it evokes a sensitive subject and makes it real -- and in doing so also pays tribute to the men and women who gave…
Johnson, P. (2003). Art: A New History. NY: Harcourt.
Smithsonian Art Inventory. (2015). Waymaking. Retrieved from http://www.waymarking.com/waymarks/WMCG2J_The_Miner_Houghton_MI
Wolfe, T. (2000). Hooking Up. NY: Picador.
Designed by Rebecca Thompson and completed in 2007, the La Puerta is located in Curtis Park (2110 West Curtis Road). It is part of the public art collection of Pima County, Arizona. The La Puerta was funded by the Department of Natural Resources Parks and Recreation of Pima County to a commission amounting to $19,548. The piece of art is made up of rammed earth, bronze and measures 14? height x 8? width x 3.5? depth (Thompson).
Selection of the artist
As per regulations laid down by the Public Art and Community Design Committee, the artists’ selection procedure starts with a ‘call to artists’ published by the Public Arts Coordinator for Pima County. The call is made regionally and nationally and artists are requested to send their resume, statement of interest, and their previous work. The Public Arts Committee then proceed to make a selection of the artists to…
Art Culture: Public Space Art
Public art like that of Koon's Train (2011), Serra's Tilted Arc (1981), Lin's Vietnam Veterans Memorial (1981), and James' Sea Flower (1978), ignite discussion to the point of its modification, re-arrangement, or removal. The reason for this controversial treatment of public art is its ability to embrace a variety of aesthetic practices. The adoption of different aesthetic values like poster art, outdoor sculpture, earthworks, multimedia projections, and community-based projects among others, breaks the public's traditional understanding of art (Glahn, 2000). This critique finds that the public's totalizing classification of public sphere brings about controversy and dialogue over public art displays. By reviewing the famous public art "Tilted Arc" (1981) by Richard Serra, this analysis will show that there are distinct differences between public understanding and professional understanding of public art.
The government with the intention of exhibiting, protecting, and edifying art, commissions public art in…
"REVIEW & OUTLOOK (Editorial, b) -- Asides: Tilting with the Arc." Wall Street Journal: 1. Sep 04, 1987. ABI/INFORM Complete. Web. 21 Feb. 2013.
Doss, Erika. "Public Art Controversy: Cultural Expression and Civic Debate," Americans for the Arts, October 2006. Web. 20 Feb. 2013.
Drescher, Timothy. "The Harsh Reality: Billboard Subversion and Graffiti," Wall Power, Philadelphia: Institute of Contemporary Art, University of Pennsylvania, 2000.
Fleming, Ronald Lee. "Public Art for the Public." Public Interest.159 (2005): 55-76. ABI/INFORM Complete. Web. 21 Feb. 2013.
He finds an especially poignant example of this in the collection of American Aboriginal art. While the collection of art and artifacts from these cultures is important, it is not nearly as important for Hill as the discourse that can be brought about in society as a result of these collections. The most valuable attribute of a collection, and the most valuable service of a museum, is the ability to "cause productive trouble" in the form of human conversation and reflection (195). In the case of Aboriginal art, the collection should, if offered sensitively and intelligently, instigate public discourse on the inequities between the honor and respect heaped upon the artifacts of Aboriginal cultures and the neglect and disrespect offered to the cultures themselves.
While Clifford offered a highly analytical examination of the interconnectedness of art and culture, and the value of the art-culture system in understanding collections themselves as…
Clifford, James. "On Collecting Art and Culture." In The Cultural Studies Reader, Simon During, ed. New York: Routledge, 1993. 49-73.
Hill, Richard William. "Getting Unpinned: Collecting Aboriginal Art and the Potential for Hybrid Public Discourse in Art Museums." In Obsession, Compulsion, Collection, Anthony Kiendl, ed. Banff: Banff Centre Press, 2004. 193-206.
(Mulcahy and yszomirski 139)
However, this is not art for art's sake; it is art for our children's sake. If one has to put on the back burner that Picasso was a cubist for the sake of challenging a child to look at a painting and just experience it, than so be it. The very act of simply experiencing the art of an artist can have profound effects on the thought process of children as well as adults. They may think it is profound or they may think it is a piece of trash, but at least they are thinking.
Art outreach programs have become the sole window into the art world for some schools. Since funding for school programs has been so drastically reduced, these outreach programs have become absolute necessities for many communities. These programs also introduce not only children to art, but adults are benefiting from these…
Art Program Promotes Self-Esteem, Self-Expression." Daily Herald (Arlington Heights, IL) 24
Feb. 2006: 1.
The Importance of Art to Education. Arkansas River Valley Arts Education (2007)
Art and Public Space
ho 'owns' public space? Public space is never neutral, even though it is theoretically owned 'in common,' but rather reflects the particular ideology of those who construct it. Thus, in a sense we all own public because we have a hand in how it is used and we are all owned by public space in the sense that the locations in which we dwell limit and define our social interactions. "One of the main trends in philosophy is to see the public sphere as a form of social reality, and less as an act of creation whose results would be negotiated intersubjectively" (Gheorghe 317).
Marxists see the demarcation of spaces into public and private arenas as a way to negotiate power relationships. Anyone who doubts this should consider the extent to which desirable real estate is determined by proximity to privileged social spaces: an apartment with…
"Chapter 3: A critical overview of public art." Temple University.
http://astro.temple.edu/~ruby/wava/alex/chap3.pdf [15 Mar 2013]
Gheorgh, C. "Theories and Uses in Common: Responses of Art in the Public Sphere."
Meta Research in Hermeneutics and Practical Philosophy, 2.2 (2010): 316-27.
Colin owe and Fred Koetter argued in Collage City that the designer should intervene in the existing city by adding to and adjusting what is already there, a process more like collage than any other art form. (Barnett, 1996, p. 185)
The city as "collage" is possibly the finest metaphor for the urban world. Nowhere else do so many different people and purposes come together as in the city. No other place cries out so much for art, and is itself, an inspiration to create art. The realization that cities are living entities has initiated a renewed interest in the preservation and development of their respective parts. So much of Modernist Theory favored the abandonment of the past. It was as if we were all residents of some totally new age that bore virtually no relation to any past era. Were we born long ago and teleported to our present…
Barnett, J. (1996). The Fractured Metropolis: Improving the New City, Restoring the Old City, Reshaping the Region. New York: Westview Press.
The progressivist philosophy of culture, which posits that advancements in science, technology, social, and economic development are crucial in the development of advanced societies, and that societies advance from a state of barbarism toward a more civilized state, is evident in the modes of display of some of the most popular museums in the world. These museums, The Louvre in Paris, Pitt Rivers in Oxford, and the Smithsonian in D.C., use the progressivist ideology to promote both a cultural theory and a strident nationalism rooted in the belief that its citizens are advancing towards the promise of a better tomorrow. This paper will show how these museums do so.
As Andrew McClellan states, "the public for art is diverse and divided by interests and levels of knowledge."
Appealing to and uniting these diverse interests is what a progressivist museum must do in order to guide its public to…
Coombs, Annie E. "Museums and the Formation of National and Cultural Identities."
Oxford Art Journal, vol. 11, no. 2 (1988): 57-68.
McClellan, Andrew. "A Brief History of the Art Museum Public." Art and Its Publics.
Oxford: Blackwell, 2003.
Bauhaus remains one of the most important design movements of the 20th century. Many of the core principles of Bauhaus have become fully integrated with design and development, influencing city planning and public art as well, because the fundamental principle of Bauhaus is the integration of design with everyday life. Architect Walter Gropius started the Bauhaus movement in 1919 Weimar. In 1925, Gropius moved Bauhaus's headquarters to Dessau. Simplicity of form and an embrace of industrialization were cornerstones to the Bauhaus movement as a whole, throughout its existence. However, there are several elements that distinguish the earlier Weimar Bauhaus from the Dessau Bauhaus.
Although Weimar is where Bauhaus began, Dessau is where Bauhaus matured. In Weimar, the groundwork was laid for the conceptualization of the new approach to art and design. The 1919 logo for the Bauhaus movement encapsulates the geometric elements that became a hallmark of Bauhaus. A circle…
1923 logo: http://www.proprofs.com/quiz-school/upload/yuiupload/1294752936.jpg
1919 Bauhaus logo: http://www.thefactoryhair.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/01/Bauhaus_1919_Logo_by_neuwks.jpg
Marcel Breuer: http://www.tomorrowstarted.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/11/Marcel-Breuer-armchair-original-chair-1920-weimar-Bauhaus-design.jpg
Art Generating Identity
Analysis of Civil art 'humanizes' places, expresses identity, lecturer at NDMOA says by Haley (2014).
A key component in persuading individuals to go along a certain path is establishment of a vision. Speeches are viewed as a means to persuade an audience; likewise, images can also be just as convincing as verbal rhetoric. Art plays a rhetorical role, as well, making viewers believe the authenticity of that which is represented. Cultural and social values and famous historical occurrences are reflected often in art works. Seeing art which reflects ideals, values and life experiences may prompt spectators to think through a reality which may otherwise have been neglected by them. This kind of art, at the very least, drives individuals to challenge large societal problems, thereby, increasing the likelihood of reactive action by the community (Howard & Hoffman, 2013).
The nature of public art isn't merely aesthetic; cultural,…
Efroymson, D., Thanh Ha, T.K. & Thu Ha, P. (2009). Public Spaces: How They Humanize Cities. HealthBridge - WBB Trust.
Haley, C. (2014, Mar 14). Civil art 'humanizes' places, expresses identity, lecturer at NDMOA says. McClatchy - Tribune Business News. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/1507232112?accountid=45844
Howard, A.D., & Hoffman, D.R. (2013). A Picture Is Worth a Thousand Words: Building American National Identity Through Art. Perspectives on Political Science, 42(3), 142-151. doi:10.1080/10457097.2013.793517
Proshansky, H.M., Fabian, A.K., and Kaminoff, R. (1983), Place-Identity: Physical World Socialization of the Self, Journal of Environmental Psychology, 3.
ART CRITICISM AND THEORY: Question: How constraints practices artists/designers/architects influence make? Make reference TO response: - Site - Views art critics historians - Historical precedents - Materials technologies - Time - Audience expectations.
Post-modern art and theory
Artists in the post-modern era realized that they dealt with a lot of pressure coming from the public and that it was important for them to employ attitudes that would reflect positively on their works. Even with this, people need to understand that artists have always been constrained and that being limited actually had a constructive effect on most individuals. Chaos is difficult to discuss when regarding things from an artistic point-of-view, as while some people consider it to be an important asset, others believe that it is better for an artist to work with a limited amount of tools because this makes it possible for him or her to actually demonstrate that…
Gehry, Frank, "Fred & Ginger Building," 1996
Gehry, Frank, "Guggenheim Museum, Bilbao," 1997
Dir. Bill Viola. Ocean without a shore. 2007
Dir. Bill Viola. Silent Mountain. 2001.
Art During Renaissance
The Evolution of Art During the Renaissance
The Renaissance period is defined as a cultural movement that spanned approximately from the 14th to the 17th century, beginning in Italy in the Late Middle Ages and later spreading to the rest of Europe (rotton 2006, p. 6). This period in the history of art included the painting, decorative arts and sculpture of the period and for many was considered a reawakening or rebirth of historic and ancient traditions based on the classical antiquity and the inclusion of more recent developments by applications of contemporary scientific knowledge.
The Renaissance was seen as a bridge between the Middle Ages and the modern era. The period also marked a cognitive shift from religious perspectives to a more intellectual and social focus. Classical texts previously lost to European scholars became readily available and included science, drama, poetry, prose, philosophy, and new considerations…
Acidini, Luchinat Cristina. The Medici, Michelangelo, & the Art of Late Renaissance Florence. New Haven: Yale UP in Association with the Detroit Institute of Arts, 2002. Print.
Adams, Laurie. Italian Renaissance Art. Boulder, CO: Westview, 2001. Print.
Barter, James. Artists of the Renaissance. San Diego, CA: Lucent, 1999. Print.
Bartlett, Kenneth. The Civilization of the Italian Renaissance. Toronto D.C.
Art of classical antiquity, in the ancient cultures of Greece and ome, has been much revered, admired, and imitated. In fact, the arts of ancient Greece and ome can be considered the first self-conscious and cohesive art movements in Europe. Style, form, execution, and media were standardized and honed to the point where aesthetic ideals were created and sustained over time. The art of classical antiquity in Greece and ome reverberated throughout history, impacting the art of subsequent eras in Europe. In fact, there can be no absolute "neoclassical" era in art history because of the way neoclassicism evolved throughout the centuries since the fall of the oman Empire. The arts of the enaissance borrowed heavily from classical antiquity, as can be seen in enaissance icons such as Michelangelo's David. Some suggest that medieval art pays homage to classical antiquity, even if the quotations from classical Greek and ome are…
Castelijn, D. (2012). The Influence of Classical Antiquity on the Renaissance. Oxford Department for Continuing Education. Retrieved online: http://www.conted.ox.ac.uk/courses/details.php?id=V350-130#pagetop
"Classical Antiquity in the Middle Ages," (n.d.). The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Retrieved online: http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/anti/hd_anti.htm
"Greek Art," (n.d.). Retrieved online: http://www.ancient-greece.org/art.html
"Jacques-Louis David," (n.d.). Retrieved online: http://www.jacqueslouisdavid.org/
Admittedly, these two teams were faced with a daunting challenge in acquiring and interpreting those works of art that were most appropriate for their exhibition goals, and interpretive efforts must use some framework in which to present the resources in a fashion that can be understood and appreciated by the targeted audiences.
Nevertheless, there is little or no discussion concerning the fusion of artistic styles in the two catalogs, with a preference for a neat and orderly, date by date, presentation of representative works that typify the points being made by the exhibition. Despite these shortcomings, both catalogs were shown to be authoritative references that were supported by relevant citations and imagery. Likewise, both catalogs provide useful overviews of the materials that are being presented preparatory to their interpretation, helping place the information in its historical context.
The research showed that interest and appreciation in colonial Latin American art…
Bailey, Gauvin Alexander. Introduction in Art of Colonial Latin America. New York: Phaidon
Paz, Octavio. Metropolitan Museum of Art: Mexico: Splendors of Thirty Centuries. Los Angeles: The Metropolitan Museum of Art.
Pierce, Donna, Gomar, Rogelio R. And Bargellini, Clara. Painting a New World: Mexican Art
Art can come in many shapes, sizes, and mediums, yet one thing that all art has in common is its ability to connect to individuals and enable them to experience catharsis, that is illicit an emotional response. Some of the most awe-inspiring works of art are architectural such as the Lincoln Memorial, which bookmarks the National Mall in Washington, D.C.
The Lincoln Memorial is impressive and its sheer magnitude and size was unexpected. Walking up to the memorial, I realized that it was much larger than I had anticipated and that much like a temple, the actual memorial is located at the top of a series of steps. It was nothing like looking at the back of a penny or a five-dollar bill. The Lincoln Memorial successfully combining the concepts of form and function through its structure (Pearson Publication, Inc., 2009, p. 164). The memorial itself was designed by Henry…
National Parks Service. (2012). Lincoln Memorial design individuals. Accessed 21 August 2012,
from http://www.nps.gov/linc/historyculture/lincoln-memorial-design-individuals.htm .
Pearson Publications Inc. (2009). Chapter 5: Art. The Art of Being Human: The Humanities As A
Technique For Living, pp. 114-169.
Art Museum: Case Study
This case study involves a campus art museum that for many years had a competent director, but a relatively staid presence on campus. The last director had a far more populist orientation. He tried to bring schoolchildren into the museum on a regular basis, and bring in traveling art exhibitions that were of interest to the larger public. But he seemed more interested in advancing a radical political agenda than truly supporting art. Because the art museum is seen as connected to the graduate school, there is a great deal of anger amongst faculty members, who believe that the museum should serve the interests of the school, specifically the graduate students studying for PhDs. In the future, the evaluation committee must have a more systematic process for evaluating candidates. The mission of the art museum must be clearly defined. And the past qualifications, necessary skills, and…
In this regard, Nead notes that because she was an art lover, Richardson experienced a moral dilemma in her decision to attack "The Rokeby Venus," but she felt compelled to do so anyway based on her perception that the government was failing to act responsibility towards women in general and the suffragettes in particular. "In her statement during her trial, Richardson appears calm and articulate and nothing is said explicitly about any objections that she might have had to a female nude. Indeed, it was not until an interview given in 1952 that Richardson gave an additional reason for choosing the Velazquez: 'I didn't like the way men visitors to the gallery gaped at it all day'" (emphasis added) (Nead 36).
Figure 1. Velazquez, The Rokeby Venus.
Source: The Social Construction of Gender, 2006.
According to Mann (2002), functionalism could help explain the attack by Richardson on "The Rokeby…
Bartley, Paula. (2003). "Emmeline Pankhurst: Paula Bartley Reappraises the Role of the Leader of the Suffragettes." History Review, 41.
Damon-Moore, Helen. Magazines for the Millions: Gender and Commerce in the Ladies' Home Journal and the Saturday Evening Post, 1880-1910. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1994.
Harris-Frankfort, Enriqueta. "Velazquez, Diego." Encyclopedia Britannica. 2006. Encyclopedia Britannica Premium Service. 31 May 2006 http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-222892 .
Mallory, Nina Ayala. El Greco to Murillo: Spanish Painting in the Golden Age, 1556-1700. New York: HarperCollins, 1990.
Later, perhaps inevitably as a consequence of his fascination with cinema, arhol began to make films and to engage in non-static works of performance-based art ("Andy arhol," PBS: American Masters, 2006).
In such art of the 1950s the way in which the art was perceived was as equally important as the image of the art. Disposable and even trashy images and products could be, with the use of irony and a performance space that put the works in 'quotations,' turned into artistic works, to make a statement about American popular culture. Not all Pop Art 'happenings' were inspired by cinema, however. For example, Claus Oldenberg 1961 created a plastic 'store' of manufactured goods, like pies, that reminded him of his childhood general store: "Unlike the slick, mechanical appearance of some pop art, they [the pies] are splotchy and tactile. Oldenburg's manipulation of scale and material unsettle our expectations about the…
Andy Warhol." PBS: American Masters. 20 Sept 2006. 25 Mar 2008. http://www.pbs.org/wnet/americanmasters/database/warhol_a.html
Teaching Art Since 1950." National Gallery of Art. 199. 25 Mar 2008. http://www.nga.gov/education/classroom/pdf/artsince1950.pdf
Un Chien Andalou." Salvador Dali and Louis Bunuel. 1929.
Varendoe, Kirk. Online NewsHour: Jackson Pollock. 11 Jan 1999. 25 Mar 2008. http://www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/entertainment/jan-june99/pollock_1-11.html
The basis of collage with is associated with humor and entertainment forms its captivating content, an element for passing its information. Materials that are used for collage are normally readily available old objects that have been disregarded. Use of new materials in the art is not restricted but again not considered to add value to the collage work. It is thus a considerably less expensive process as compared to other artistic communications avenues such as painting that requires newly acquired materials that consequently calls for extensive financial commitment. Its relative affordability together with its captivating elements makes collage a good avenue for communication especially in social campaigns. This becomes specifically effective if the entire society is integrated in the collage representation (Learning, 10).
Other collage artists
There are a number of collage artists that have also been significantly felt because of their contribution in collage. Apart from Michael Anderson, Oliver…
Anderson Michael. (2006). Monthly statements; Retrieved from: http://www.accumulationproject.org/anderson/index.html
Bemstein Mark. (2003). Collage, composite, construction; Retrieved from: http://www.ht03.org/papers/pdfs/18.pdf
Endtorture. (2010). Well-known collage artists. Retrieved from:
A good example of this can be seen with Sistine Chapel in the Last Supper. In this piece, he is using color and his imagination to understand what is happening. The use of bright and dark colors added to the sense of realism by giving the appearance as if these events were happening at the moment. In the future, this technique would be utilized by artists to create a sense of appreciation and underscore the emotions of the work itself.
Furthermore, the article that was written by Oremaland (1980), is discussing how pieta has often been used throughout many different building projects in the world (with the original at St. Peter's Cathedral). Since that time, various churches have used this dome like structure to create designs that mirror those of Michael Angelo. These different elements are important, because they are showing how this technique was continually embraced by various contractors…
Eknoyan, Garabed. "Michael Angelo," Kidney International, no. 57 (2000): 1190 -- 1201.
Lavoy, Michael. "The Digital Michael Angelo Project," Modern Art, no. 10 (1999): 2 -11.
Oremaland, Jerome. "Mourning and its Effect on Michael Angelo," Annual of Psychoanalysis, no. 8 (1980): 317 -- 351.
Chicago Format. http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/717/01/
Brunelleschi has been one of the early fathers of the Renaissance, and, the first architect to build a building with reference to classical antiquity. The architect succeeded in proving his value through various building which came in disagreement with the laws that architects had had until the time.
One of the greatest sculptors of all times, Michelangelo, became famous at the time that the public reviewed his first works of art. Despite of the fact that he had been certain that he was best fit for being a sculptor, Michelangelo accepted to paint the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel. Even with his hesitation, the painting on the ceiling still stands as one of his greatest works and one of the greatest master pieces that the Renaissance period has given birth to.
The Marriage of the Virgin is a painting appreciated worldwide for its perception of depth and for its great…
1. Prager, Frank D. Scaglia, Gustina. (2004). "Brunelleschi." Courier Dover Publications. (2005).
2. "Niccolo Machiavelli." Retrieved July 07, 2009, from the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy Web site: http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/machiavelli/
3. "MICHELANGELO Buonarroti." Retrieved July 07, 2009, from the Web Gallery of Art Web site: http://www.wga.hu/frames-e.html?/bio/m/michelan/biograph.html
4. "Renaissance: (1400-1600)." Retrieved July 7, 2009, from the World Wide Arts Resources Web site: http://wwar.com/masters/movements/renaissance.html .
Splashes of color like red and several shades of blue are added to the collage in a "dragonfly, wing-like" formation. A cutout photograph of a boy is pasted on the "wing" of a lighter shade of blue, perhaps to note a sense of calm to his surroundings.
The Hawkins' exhibit will consist of 80 objects, a retrospective of his nearly a quarter of a century career. The work is described as "at its core, about the pleasure of intense looking." Third mind is described as referring to another piece of Hawkins' work, "ichard Hawkins: Of two minds simultaneously," which means to be undecided, uncertain or unsure, the description states. Hawkins is aware of the duplicity that this body of work creates, which is stated to be intentional.
The Art Institute of Chicago was founded in 1879 as a school and museum. The museum holds art from African-American artists to silk…
1. The Art Institute of Chicago. "The Art Institute of Chicago: Exhibitions." 2 December 2010 the Art Institute of Chicago 2010. .
2. The Art Institute of Chicago. "The Art Institute of Chicago: Exhibitions." 2 December 2010. The Art Institute of Chicago 2010. .
3. George Eastman House. "Current Exhibitions • George Eastman House." 2 December 2010. George Eastman House 2000-2010. .
4. George Eastman House. "Photographs by Jessica Lange • George Eastman House." 2 December 2010. George Eastman House 2000-2010. .
If they are a couple, they have no children together. Whereas Morisot focuses on the child in "The Basket Chair," Caillebotte accomplishes the opposite. Caillebotte's painting lacks emotional intensity, because his palette is far more retrained than that of Morisot. Morisot's garden is rendered in vivid greens and intensely saturated hues. Caillebotte's, on the other hand, is a more staid palette. Furthermore, unlike Morisot's fenced-off garden, Caillebotte's is a public park. Yet there are no other people in the park: which suggests that there are a disproportionate number of wealthy elite in Paris at the time of painting. In their own ways, the two Impressionists suggest that the bourgeois live in a world apart from the working class society. Beyond the boundaries of their respective gardens, scores of working class French men and women toil to feed the burgeoning capitalist enterprise that characterizes urbanization and industrialization. However, the subjects in…
Caillebotte, Gustave. "The Orange Trees." 1878.
Duret, Theodore. Manet and the French Impressionists. London: Grant Richards, 1910.
Fell, Derek. The Impressionist Garden. London: Frances Lincoln, 1994.
Harrison, Charles. Painting the Difference: Sex and Spectator in Modern Art. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2005.
Art Practice in the Past and Present
A skill or mastery that stimulates the process of thought, amusement, and emotions is called an art. It is also defined as a special quality used by many people to express their feelings, approach and position. Dating back to 50,000 years ago, art has various forms that ground itself from sculptures, rock paintings, wall craving to modern paintings. Countries like Egypt, Persia, India, Europe and America have great foundations of ancient civilizations that developed their own way of expressing their work and teaching it to their future generations. These teachings started with simple body signs for expressing there need to using brushes, knifes and other tools to explain there work. As a result of these teachings, the art present today expresses an urbanized form of historic art.
Similarities and difference of past and present art
Artists today are very similar in…
Bolin, Paul E (2009). Studies in Art Education: A Journal of Issues and Research in Art Education, 50(2): 110-123.
Comunian, Roberta (2009). Journal of Arts Management, Law & Society, 39(3): 200-220.
Gaiger, Jason (2011). Art Bulletin, 93(2): 178-194, 17p.
Keizer, Joost (2011). Art Bulletin, 93(3): 304-324, 21p.
The "self-portraits" might perhaps be viewed in terms of the artist's own past illnesses: At 37, Taylor-Woods, having already survived both colon cancer and breast cancer, likely understands, on personal level, the state of "suspense" between sickness and health, life and death. he may, then, have been "bound" to breast cancer (the invisible ropes may symbolize the disease), cured of it, and her body "released to freedom." In my opinion, however, an artistic weakness of these pictures is that their esthetics and size make them look less like serious art than fashion advertisements for bras and panties! For me, "elf-Portrait uspended" is the least effective of the three exhibition subjects. The tension in the subject's body also appears to be that of someone hanging from ropes (which she in fact was); the tautness of her body kept me from "suspending my disbelief" (so to speak) that she was hanging in…
Sam Taylor-Wood: New Work: 29 October - 4 December 2004. Retrieved January 5, 2005 from http:www.artshole.co.uk/exhibitions/Oct%2005/Sam%TaylorWood htm>.
Sam Taylor-Wood: 'New Work' Art Exhibition at White Cube." Ballet-Dance
Magazine. Retrieved January 4, 2005 from http://www.ballet-dance.com/200412/articles/TaylorWood20041100.html
Roy Lichtenstein -- Stepping Out is a painting done in oil and magna on canvas by Roy Lichtenstein. (Magna is a plastic painting product made of permanent pigment ground in acrylic resen with solvents and plasticizer. This material mixes with turpentine and mineral spirits and dries rapidly with a mat finish) (www.artlex.com/ArtLex/M.html).Painted in 1978, this work is 85 inches in heighth and 70 inches in width, 218.4 cm by 177.8 cm. This work of art, accession number 1980,420, is located at The Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York (5th Avenue and 82nd Street). It was purchased in 1980 as a Lila Acheson Wallace Gift with additional funding through the Arthur Hoppock Hearn Fund, the Arthur Lejwa Fund, in honor of Jean Arp; the ernhill Fund, the Joseph H. Hazen Foundation Inc., the Samuel I. Newhouse Foundation Inc., and gifts fromWalter areiss, Marie annon McHenry, Louise Smith, and…
Fineberg, Jonathan. Art Since 1940: Strategies of Being. 2nd Edition. New York:Harry N. Abrams, Inc., Publishers, 2000.
A www.artcyclopedia.com/artists/lichtenstein_roy.html www.artlex.com/ArtLex/M.html www.nga.gov/cgi-bin/pbio?224210 www.metmuseum.org/collections
In essence, this painting "mixes a toothpaste smile with the grimace of a death's head" and symbolizes the true work of an American "action" painter (de la Croix & Tansey, 774).
Another great example of an American abstract expressionist master is Mark Rothko (1903 to 1973), who emigrated to the United States in 1914 from Latvia with his family to escape Czarist Russia and its strict policies towards Jews. Although Rothko was a friend and contemporary of Pollack, Kline and de Kooning, his paintings exhibit none of the aggressive attack or slashing brushwork one finds in the works of these artists. Rothko's Four Darks on Red does not exhibit the usual traits of "action" painting, for it shows a calm and contemplative mood with soft color variations, yet it also shows "a mysterious effect of forms and images occupying an ambiguously-defined space," much like Kline and Pollack (de la Croix…
Paul, Stella. "Abstract Expressionism." Metropolitan Museum of Art. Internet. Retrieved at http://www.metmuseum.org/TOAH/hd/abex/hd_abex.htm .
De la Croix, Horst and Richard G. Tansey, eds. Gardner's Art Through the Ages. 10th ed. New York: Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich, 2003.
The figures of people, carriages, etc. are "washed-out," they are as small as ants are. The method of reflecting motion and dynamics of routine life by "washed-out effect" was borrowed "from a new invention of photography" (Schapiro 81). Photographic cameras of that epoch were not sensitive for picturing motion, so all objects in motion were "washed-out."
Some impressionists, for example Edgar Degas (1834-1917), were influenced by ethnic painting techniques such as Chinese and Japanese graphics, characterized by striking representation of shape and figures. Degas continued Monet's experiments with light and reflection of motion. Many of his paintings were influenced by other methods similar to photography: uncommon visual angles and asymmetric perspectives, which can be observed in such paintings as a Carriage at the aces (1872), Ballet ehearsal (1876) characterized by unusual visual solution and geometric interpretation.
Auguste enoir (1841-19191), father of Impressionism, became famous for his mass portraits. enoir's Impressionism…
Sayre, Henry M.A world of art Prentice Hall; 4 thedition 2004
Schapiro, M. 1997.Impressionism: Reflections and Perceptions. George Braziller
The Impressionists, Article from web resource: http://www.biography.com/impressionists/artists_morisot.html
Pool, Phoebe Complete Paintings of Monet. New York: Abrams,1967
The medium with which the artist works is also unique in that they are outfits that can and should be worn. The sound suits are designed to be wearable, imparting a grounded character to the exhibit. Instead of taking the suits too seriously, the viewer can imagine them as costumes in which the serious self is left behind in favor of the inner child. Like a mascot at a team game or a Disney character, the sound suits can also be conceived as disguises that obscure the mundane human being inside. No one things of Big Bird as a person in a bird suit, because to do so would ruin the spell. In the same way, one of Nick Cave's sound suits is to be seen and experienced at face value.
Because the costumes are disguises and masks, the viewer is also asked to contemplate the role of such objects…
Palmer C. Hayden and Laura Wheeler Waring were two of the painters of the Harlem Renaissance, and they focused on painting stylized portraits of prominent African-Americans and scenes of black life from a variety of perspectives.
The dynamism of the machine age is exhibited not only in the engineered workings of inventions like automobiles and early airplanes, but also in the Futuristic paintings of the period. There is a blend of very strong geometry and straight lines that combine to create larger images of fluidity and movement that almost seems impossible when the smaller constituent elements of the painting are focused on. It is as though magic and passion are meeting science and cool logic, which is a way of describing things like the combustion engine as well. This period was a time when the world seemed to be moving in two directions, at once looking forward to the…
The bronze piece on the front is textured or hammered, too, adding another depth of pattern and texture to the work. There is not a lot of intricate detail on the piece, but for some reason it seems detailed, anyway, perhaps because of the size of the piece.
Because this is a three-dimensional work, there is a feeling of space and depth to the piece, too. In fact, the figure seems to be frozen in a moment in time, and commands the space around it. The bronze "shield" on the front in concave, and so gives additional depth and a three-dimensional quality to the piece, and so does the hole in one of the legs. This is not a massive sculpture, but it seems larger than it is because of the use of space and depth to create a fuller, more complete piece of art.
The artist definitely wanted to…
Danto, Arthur. "Joan Mir." Artchive.com. 2006. 14 Oct. 2006. http://www.artchive.com/artchive/M/miro.html
Mir, Joan. "Woman Addressing the Public: Project for a Monument." Kimball Art Museum. 2006. 14 Oct. 2006. http://www.kimbellart.org/database/index.cfm?detail=yes&ID=AP%201996.01
The function of the work of art would be to stand before the city, and to show the city as wisdom personified, and by implication show that the wisdom came from the works and power of the Medici. It would make an analogy between the city-state of Florence and the ancient city-state of Athens. Because Athens was a genuine republic, it might even deflect some criticism from the Medicis, who were technically supposed to be residents of a republic, even though they ruled from behind the scenes. The setting of the sculpture, next to David, outside the city gates would act as a powerful warning of the city's power (with the violence of the anvil and David's shotgun) as well as strike a balance between Classical representations of learning and the still-important tenants of the Catholic faith that must be honored in a world still dominated by the clergy.
Essak, Shelly. "Art History 101 - Early Renaissance Art." 2007. 20 Apr 2007. http://arthistory.about.com/cs/arthistory10one/a/early_ren.htm
Medici: Godfathers of the Renaissance." PBS.com. 2007. 20 Apr 2007. http://www.pbs.org/empires/medici/medici/snapshots.html
Pioch, Nicolas. "La Renaissance: Italy." Web Museum Paris. 2002. 20 Apr 2007. http://www.ibiblio.org /wm/paint/glo/renaissance/it.html' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Houses are being bought and sold on an ongoing daily basis, and there is also a strong market for collectors of artwork that could lead to offering more title services to those people as well. A drawback to the career could be, if the person seeking such a career would put all the eggs in the artwork basket. There currently does not seem to be a high enough demand for artwork title services that would allow for individuals to easily or quickly find employment in this field. Rather the same individual would probably be more likely to find employment in the real estate area and have it grow from there.
One area touted by AXA Fine Art Services is that of educating art dealers and collectors to the various dangers and pitfalls of owning and protecting fine art. Each year, this insurance company sponsors an exhibition of fine art that…
AXA Art at Tefaf Maastricht: Leading Fine Art Insurance Company Warns of Water Damage, (2006)
http://www.axa-art.co.uk/nws/nws005.pdf, Accessed June 25, 2007
Chubb Group Insurance, (2007)
http://www.chubb.com/personal/collector_services.jsp , Accessed June 25, 2007
Although these three artists come from different backgrounds and focus on creating works of art that address particular publics, they provide an overall contribution to students' experience while in the Art Now course.
Espezel's discussion regarding art extended to the relationship between a series of elements that the artist disposes of at the moment when he or she creates. An individual needs to focus on successfully combining his or her experience, the materials that he or she uses, and innovative concepts that he or she is interested in expressing through his or her artwork. She speaks about how it is important for the individual to focus on his or her background and on his or her personal experiences in creating art that is as unique and as intriguing as possible.
Faye HeavyShield's is probable to have influenced her overall style and her position in regard to art. Even with that,…
To counterpoint that, the third author discusses the many images of childbirth that were created during the enaissance, also handcrafted, which helped celebrate babies coming into the world. It is not impossible to imagine that some of these images, often created to give mothers comfort before and after the birth, could have been created by the very same artists and craftsmen who were creating tools for torture and pain during the same time.
It is interesting to note how different the uses of art and artistic talent were during this time. Today, it seems a juxtaposition for an artist to create tools used to maim and kill another human, but at the time, it was commonplace and even "normal," as these essays indicate.
Musacchio, J.M. The art and ritual of childbirth in enaissance Italy.
Sheridan, a. Discipline and punish: Birth of the prison.
Terry, a. The craft of torture:…
Musacchio, J.M. The art and ritual of childbirth in Renaissance Italy.
Sheridan, a. Discipline and punish: Birth of the prison.
Terry, a. The craft of torture: Bronze sculptures and the punishment of sexual offence.
William Blake's works included writings and illustrations, some of which were a bit moody and gothic, which also characterized this era. It was a time of modernization, when the opulence of the past simply did not seem relevant or even desirable any more, and it again illustrates just how different eras and ideas about society and money can alter art and artists' works. Art mirrors society and society's interests, which is why it has always changed through time, and will continue to do so.
2007). The restored hall of mirrors revealed to the public. etrieved from the Chateau Versailles Web site: http://www.chateauversailles.fr/fr/Panoramiques/Pano_GG_b1500.htm27 July 2007.
Blake, W. (2007). Infant joy (From Songs of Innocence). etrieved from the Mark Harden Artchive Web site: http://www.artchive.com/artchive/B/blake/blake_songs_25.jpg.html27 July 2007.
Fuseli, H. (2007). Satan starting from the touch of Ithuriel's spear. etrieved from the Tate Britain Museum Web site: http://www.tate.org.uk/britain/exhibitions/gothicnightmares/infocus/satanspear.htm#t27 July 2007.
Harden, M. ococo.…
2007). The restored hall of mirrors revealed to the public. Retrieved from the Chateau Versailles Web site: http://www.chateauversailles.fr/fr/Panoramiques/Pano_GG_b1500.htm27 July 2007.
Blake, W. (2007). Infant joy (From Songs of Innocence). Retrieved from the Mark Harden Artchive Web site: http://www.artchive.com/artchive/B/blake/blake_songs_25.jpg.html27 July 2007.
Fuseli, H. (2007). Satan starting from the touch of Ithuriel's spear. Retrieved from the Tate Britain Museum Web site: http://www.tate.org.uk/britain/exhibitions/gothicnightmares/infocus/satanspear.htm#t27 July 2007.
Harden, M. Rococo. Retrieved from the Mark Harden Artchive Web site: http://www.artchive.com/artchive/rococo.html27 July 2007.
The Renaissance was more than a "re-birth," it was something new and exciting - the ideas and outlooks represented by Titian and the leading lights of his time have continued to shape estern Civilization and the world, helping to create a culture in which we are all - "open-minded and free to take up quarters in an open world."
It is for these reasons and others that Venus and Adonis is the subject of this paper. Titian's captivating painting style, mastery of technique, color, and movement, instantly attract the viewer to the artwork. The subject matter, too, is appealing and compelling. As it did centuries ago, it does today - it tells a story and imparts a lesson. Yet, Titian's work can be instructive eon a thousand different levels. The master's art speaks to the motions, and makes each of us think about what is happening on the canvas;…
Cole, Bruce. Titian and Venetian Painting, 1450-1590. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1999.
Elkins, James. What Painting Is: How to Think about Oil Painting, Using the Language of Alchemy. New York: Routledge, 2000.
In Spirit of the Dead Watching, Gaugin also depicts a Tahitian woman with open sexuality. The woman in Spirit of the Dead Watching lays prostrate on a bed, exposing her naked buttocks while gazing directly at the viewer. Her position is submissive, in spite of the alluring look in the woman's eyes. The spirit of the dead represents traditional Tahitian religious beliefs, which would have been in direct conflict with the Christianity imposed upon the island nation by the French.
Sexuality was also a favorite theme of Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec. The artist was well-known for his escapades in Montmartre, Paris's cabaret district. Toulouse-Lautrec's work depicts a seedy underbelly of Parisian life rather than idealizing the bourgeoisie. Like Gaugin's work, the paintings of Toulouse-Lautrec embody the social changes taking place in European society during the late nineteenth century.
In Stocking, Toulouse-Lautrec depicts two dancers, one of which is just getting dressed.…
Hill, a. (2001). Gauguin's erotic Tahiti idyll exposed as a sham. Guardian. October 7, 2001. Retrieved May 2, 2010 from http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2001/oct/07/arts.highereducation
Pioch, N. (2002). Gauguin, (Eugene-Henri-) Paul. WebMuseum. Retrieved May 2, 2010 from http://www.ibiblio.org /wm/paint/auth/gauguin/' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Kate is said to have escaped the romance with Albert Sampite by fleeing Cloutierville to go and live with her mother in St. Louis. Marianne also refuses to be dependent of any man after "having been someone else's other for so long" and, as such, "she now rejects any realm of patriarchal dominance and chooses, instead, herself." (Martin 73-74). It is possible that Chopin would have wanted the same thing. However, we know she sold her home in Cloutierville only many years after she moved with her mother, so chances are she might have gone back to meet with Sampite throughout the years. But there really is no conclusive evidence to support such a fact.
hat we can observe is that Kate Chopin's characters often seem to resemble her own desire for personal freedom anticipated in a journey that starts right from the moment when women are able to set…
Chopin, Kate. Kate Chopin's Private Papers. Ed. Emily Toth. Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Press, 1998. Print.
Green, Suzanne Disheroon, and David J. Caudle. Kate Chopin: An Annotated Bibliography of Critical Works. Westport: Greenwood Press, 1999. Print.
Martin Wesson, Jana. Never Too Late to Be: Women's Yearnings for Self -- realization. Dissertation, Capella University. Ann Arbor: ProQuest/UMI, 2008. (Publication No. 3297018.). Print.
Ever since fashion has evolved, we have an observed a significant relationship with art and fashion. It is seen that both the disciplines encourages, inspires and somewhat competes with each other. (Duggan, 2001) It is observed that artists and fashion designers creativity is exchangeable and their main objective is somewhat the same. Duggan (2001) also emphasized on the role of media and education in blurring up the boundaries between art and fashion. As we observe, just like art changes throughout the time, fashion change with time as well. Just as the atmosphere around a certain place changes, so does the fashion of that time. With technology becoming really prevalent these days, techno Fashion has emerged out as the new thing.
Fashion designers are therefore looking into the possibility of Techno fashion. This is basically the ability to incorporate tech item into the clothes a person is wearing. The…
Anderson, Benedict. Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism. London: Verso, 1983.
Bhabha, Homi. "DissemiNation: Time, Narrative, and the Margins of the Modern Nation." Nation and Narration: 291-322. 1990.
Bhabha, Homi. The location of culture. London: Routledge Press, 1994.
Craik, Jenny. "The face of fashion: Cultural studies in fashion." London: Routledge, 1993.
Godard believed that cinema should be an extension of criticism, a concept that he is able to achieve in Le Mepris through his criticism of traditional Hollywood cinema and the restrictions imposed on directors who were struggling to define their style and voice their interpretation of stories set before them. Godard is able to inject his personal interpretation of Moravia's novel by writing the script of the film and by incorporating aspects of his relationship with Karina into the film. Godard does not compromise his authorial interpretation of Moravia's novel, yet is able to stay within the parameters set before him by the producers of the film.
In "The Art of Cinema as a Mode of Film Practice," Bordwell argues that ambiguity helps to unify realism and authorial expressivity; however, Godard does not employ ambiguity and allows the film to end conclusively. Godard believes, "A story should have a beginning,…
Bordwell, David. "The Art Cinema as a Mode of Film Practice." Film Theory and Criticism. Ed.
Leo Braudy and Marshall Cohen. New York: Oxford UP, 2004. 774-782.
Deleuze, Gilles. Cinema II. London: Athalone Press, 2005. Print.
IMDB. "Biography of Jean-Luc Godard." Web. 22 March 2013.
The traditional estern woman would not wear the mark of the warrior, the war paint, or other decorative markings. but, in the idealized world of the advertisement, a woman can as well be a warrior for a cause, as man a soldier for that in which he believes. As well, gender is used to contrast the softness and over-refinement of a highly technological and industrial world with the rigors of everyday life in the African environment. Here also, the message is that traditional gender roles must be abandoned if we are to become one; if we are to recognize our genuine and universal heritage. This heritage is symbolized by the naked purity of the African tope.
An Ideological Description:
Beyond its gendered and Eurocentric vs. Afrocentric text, the advertisement carries a very powerful subtext about the need for all of us to recognize our "Africanness." Gwyneth Paltrow is a estern…
http://www.questia.com /PM.qst?a=o&d=28520584' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Turtle shell rattles have been used for countless centuries. Such rattles have been recovered from ancient sites in the southwest and in the Mississippian civilizations.
The turtle rattle was also a musical instrument in ceremonial use. One of its most important functions was its significance in the False Face ceremonies. One of the most distinguishing features of the Iroquois belief system is the reliance on the mask for religious and ritual purposes. These masks are often designated as False Faces. This term refers to the first False Face and the mythical origins of protective and healing spirits. They are used in introductory and agricultural rituals. The turtle rattles play a significant part in these important rituals.
In the various curing and healing rituals, the wearer of the False Face will juggle hot coals and use ash and is apparently immune to cold (see below), and he bears a turtle-shell rattle…
American Indian Education. http://www.osseo.k12.mn.us/special/stusupport/stuserv/AmInd/LilBuffalo/catalog.htm (Accessed April 30, 2005)
THE IROUK CHARACTER. http://www.icculus.org/~msphil/mythus/campaigns/aerth/irouk / (Accessed May 1, 2005) www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=21005756
Frank G. Speck, and Alexander General, Midwinter Rites of the Cayuga Long House (Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 1995), 70.
The painting is shocking because of its dramatic perspective. First and foremost the table is not situated in the centre of the painting, nor is Jesus. In a symbolical manner this transmits the idea that God is no longer in the centre of man's world and this accounts for the chaos that seems to be omnipresent. The lower side of the painting is dominated by human figures and an atmosphere of panic and confusion seems to be dominating. The upper side of the painting is filled with angels. There is a clear separation lien between the scared world of the divine and the one of the people. The dark colours, as well as the composition succeeded into transmitting the desired message, managing to appeal to the viewer's emotions.
As opposed to the simplicity that the Protestants supported, a new style emerges, that is the aroque. This new artistic…
Feast in the house of Levi. http://www.law.harvard.edu/faculty/martin/art_law/feast_in_the_house_of_levi.htm (Accessed November 19, 2008)
Friedlaender, Walter, the anti-mannerist style. http://witcombe.sbc.edu/art-theory-baroque-Fall-2008/style3.html (Accessed November 18, 2008)
Mannerism. Wikipedia, the free encyclopaedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mannerism (Accessed November 19, 2008)
Nosotro, Rit. Art of the reformation and the counter reformation. Hyperhistory. http://www.hyperhistory.net/apwh/essays/comp/cw20reformationart.htm (Accessed November 19, 2008)
Art & Science of Nursing
Since its very inception, there has been a conflict within the nursing profession about its status as to whether it is a science or an art. This is due to the fact that the profession of nursing includes within its tradition both scientific and artistic aspects.
The opposition between science and art has existed from the beginning of modern nursing. Nightingale championed the view of nursing as a moral art, while Fenwick argued for registration and insisted that nursing was an independent profession allied with science and technology.
(Le Vasseur J. 1999)
On the one hand, nursing viewed as a science implies objectivity and distance while on the other hand it can be seen as an art form which implies subjectivity and detachment. There has been considerable debate about these two apparently opposing points-of-view, as well as attempts to find areas of consensus between the…
Glazer, S. (2000, Summer). Postmodern Nursing. Public Interest,, 3. Retrieved February 13, 2005, from Questia database, http://www.questia.com .
Johnstone, M. (Ed.). (1999). Bioethics: A Nursing Perspective. Sydney, N.S.W.: Harcourt Saunders.
Le Vasseur J. (1999) Toward an Understanding of Art in Nursing. Advances in Nursing Science; 6/1/1999
Raingruber, B. (2003). Nurture: The Fundamental Significance of Relationship as a Paradigm for Mental Health Nursing. Perspectives in Psychiatric Care, 39(3), 104+. Retrieved February 13, 2005, from Questia database,
(iii) Among the ones who are dependent on transit, merely 37% stated that they would drive to work by availing the services of an automobile if available. Almost 50%of those driving to work could be taken as potential transit riders depending on flexibility and convenience of availability of transit services. (iv) the other factors which would fuel more use of transit were services of non-transfer nature, express avenues and higher fees for parking. (v) Congestion in traffic was regarded as a very grave situation in 36% among the respondents and fairly serious by 28%. (Byrd, 621) d) Steps to improve transit image and attract choice riders:
Among the modes of transit, introduction of a Bus apid Transit -- BT is a novel innovation which can be promoted as a measure for improvement of the failing image of transit among the population. A good implementation normally entails several of the features…
Bailey, Lee Worth. The enhancements of technology.
University of Illinois Press. 2005.
Byrd, Joseph. P. "Perceptions of Public Transportation." In Public Transportation: Planning,
Operations and Management, G.E. Gray and L.A. Hoel, eds., Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1979, pp: 617-633.
Having a clientele also allows the agency to gain a sense of internal direction as well. Employees of the agency have a more clear sense of mandate when there is a definable clientele as well. This helps with direction, with effectiveness and with efficiency.
Question 2. Issues assessments are conducted so that government or its agencies can learn about the variety of issues surrounding a specific subject. The issues assessment can be conducted with respect to a program or proposed program, with respect to a parcel of land or proposed development, or with respect to a subject matter such as transportation, housing, homelessness or other key issue. ithin each of these issues will be a number of other issues of import to the individual stakeholders. It is the purpose of the issues assessment to uncover each of these sub-issues pertaining to the subject, so that the best course of action…
Rabin, Jack. (1992). Handbook of Public Budgeting. Retrieved July 2, 2009 from http://books.google.de/books?id=jyX0oF66J3oC&pg=PA217&lpg=PA217&dq=revenue+forecasting+time+series&source=bl&ots=mSw7SNpEku&sig=GlF6iTgjQ5_0u8RpN6AhFPVWAUE&hl=en&ei=wCJNSv2fKInBsAak1uC1BA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2
Art of Nursing According to Virginia Henderson
Virginia Henderson has tremendously helped to bring a new perspective of the art of nursing. For this reason, her biographical sketch together with educational and professional details earned her the name the Modern-day Mother of nursing and the Nightingale of modern nursing. Virginia Henderson's theory was a major stride in the field of nursing and in the art of nursing. The theory has also been used by the theorist to come up with another definition of nursing. The art of nursing according to Virginia Henderson has had major implication on nursing and is of relevance to the current nursing practices. This paper will give a biographical sketch of Virginia Henderson. In addition to this her educational and professional overview will be analyzed also. Henderson's theory and its applications will then be reviewed where the four major concepts constituting it will be looked at.…
Henderson, V. (1955). Harmer and Henderson's Textbook of the principles and practice of nursing. New York: Macmillan
Henderson, V. (1956). Research in nursing practice: when? Nursing research, 4 (3), 99
Henderson, V. (1960). International council of nurses basic principles of nursing care ICN,
Art of the Invisible: Listening Responses
Radio as Storytelling
Like all artistic media, there are subtle and unique elements to radio which distinguish it from other forms such as the written word, TV or film. Nowhere must the radio producer be more cognizant of the uniqueness of radio than in the radio documentary. The most intriguing of this week's listening was Rudolph Arnheim's piece "In Praise of Blindness." He disputes the idea that radio should help the mind to form visual images. Instead, the entire appeal of radio is that despite a common listening experience each listener creates an entirely independent experience in their mind's eye. This is a unique feature of radio that some forms such as writing have to a lesser extent and which contemporary forms such as TV and film entirely lack. Television instead compels all its consumers to experience both the same audio and visual experience…
This number would then be compared to the number of people who worry about having their privacy violated. Since it is presumed that more than 16% of the population worry about such items as government intervention into their daily lives, and their concern about how to keep their private information to themselves. One study stated, "protests from certain quarters prompt public-sector officials to think long and hard about how to balance open government and the right to privacy" (Douglas 2006-page 1). ith this information in mind, the study would have to lean towards the better good for most people being when their privacy is respected rather than catching individuals who are using drugs.
Other questions such as smoking after hours, and having unprotected sex can also be categorized as a right to privacy issue rather than a cost issue and as such should be left alone by employers as well.…
Douglas M, (2006) Privacy Concerns. Government Technology, January 2, 2006, http://www.govtech.net/magazine/story.php?id=97730, Accessed July 10, 2006
Gledhill-Hoyt J, Lee H, Strote J, and Wechsler H., (2000) Increased use of Marijuana and Other Illicit Drugs at U.S. Colleges in the 1990's: Results of Three National Surveys. Addiction, Vol 95 Issue 11, pp. 1655-67
A romanticism that was rooted in the legendary European past served well to bring comfort and a sense of place in space and time to people who might otherwise have felt rootless and adrift. In its eclecticism the Richardsonian Romanesque house gave visible expression to the deepest needs and of an age.
Gowans, Alan. Styles and Types of North American Architecture: Social Function and Cultural Expression. New York: Icon Editions, 1993.
Roth, Leland M., ed. America Builds: Source Docs in American Architecture and Planning. New York: Harper & Row, 1983.
Roth, Leland M. A Concise History of American Architecture. Boulder, CO: estview Press, 1980.
Roth, Leland M. Understanding Architecture Its Elements, History, and Meaning. 1st ed. Boulder, CO: estview Press, 1993.
Alan Gowans, Styles and Types of North American Architecture: Social Function and Cultural Expression (New York: Icon Editions,…
http://www.questia.com /PM.qst?a=o&d=99883293' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Modernism in art triumphed from the 19th century onward and in the early 20th century virtually changed the way art came to be perceived. From the Abstractionists to the Cubists to the Surrealists to the followers of Dada, the modernists continually reinvented themselves with newer and wilder movements, firmly rejecting tradition and all its preoccupations. It was only fitting, however, that modern artists should break so completely with the past: modern society had split from the old world with the Protestant Reformation, the Age of Enlightenment, the Scientific Revolution, and the Romantic Era, all of which followed one on the heels of the other. This paper will trace the history of the final era -- the modernist -- by examining five works of five different painters of the modernist era: Franz Marc's "Fate of the Animals," Pablo Picasso's "Guitar and Violin," Marcel Duchamp's "found" artwork "Fountain," Salvador Dali's Surrealist masterpiece…
Dali, Salvador. "The Persistence of Memory." Wikipaintings. Web. 14 Feb 2013.
Duchamp, Marcel. "Fountain." Tate.org.uk. Web. 14 Feb 2013.
Greenberg, Clement. "Avant-Garde and Kitsch." Art and Culture. MA: Beacon Press,
He also asserts that government participation in the arts beyond its role as a consumer can pose significant hindrances to the artistic processes. He claims that politics tends to "seek stability, compromise, and consensus," and as a result avoids supporting art that may "offend majority opinion or go over its head" (38). The market, on the other hand, has "liberated artists…from the potential tyranny of mainstream market taste" (23).
Is Government Funding Necessary or Appropriate?
There are many who disagree with Cowen, claiming that public funding for the arts is crucial to maintaining a vibrant, diverse, and forward-thinking creative community. These arguments are generally characterized by the theory that, while art as a market commodity is a healthy and valuable part of the artistic culture, there must also be a forum for art as a public good. This forum cannot be trusted to the market, which may or may not…
Becker, Howard. 1982. Art Worlds. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Cowen, Tyler. 1998. In Praise of Commercial Culture. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Jenkins, Henry. 2006. Convergence Culture: Where old and new media collide. New York: New York University Press.
McChesney, Robert. 2004. The Problem of the Media. New York" Monthly Review Press.
Louvre: Influences of an Art Museum on Vistors, People, and Politics
"The Louvre, once the palace of kings, was now reorganized as a museum for the people, to be open [...] It
thus became a lucid symbol of the fall of the Old Regime and the rise of a new order" (192)
Built as a palace for the pomp of kings and queens of France, the Louvre has served to awe and inspire its visitors for centuries. The Louvre, now no less than one of the world's most famous art galleries, still continues to communicate majesty to its visitors, without the monarchial affliation. Yet in the Louvre's undeniable aesthetic appeal, both in its palatial architecture and near endless masterpieces of artwork, is intertwined with a vibrant, smart political advantage that has come to define not only citizen-centered political systems, such as democracy, but also the entire field of Art History.…
Pervasive Video Games as Art
The form and function of art has evolved and changed quite a bit over the years, decades and millennia. Paintings and sculpture have been artistic mainstays for much to most of the world of the civilized human race. However, with the technological revolution that has roared up over the last fifty years or so, new forms of art have bubbled to the proverbial surface. Digital technology has enhanced prior forms of art e such as photography. Beyond that, completely brand new forms have art have been created and the latter is what this report is assessing in the form of pervasive video games. The depth and breadth of this art and the effects it has on its users and fans when done will are worthy of massive study and analysis both in this report and elsewhere.
Chapter I - Introduction
Video games, at this point…
Blizzard. "World of Warcraft." World of Warcraft. http://us.battle.net/wow/en / (accessed
May 29, 2014).
Bogost, Ian. Persuasive games: the expressive power of videogames. Cambridge, MA:
MIT Press, 2007.
Chicana/O Art Affects Private and Public Space
Public arts became the most noticeable form of Chicana/o art, starting from the 60's. Signs from the Heart: California Chicano Murals editors, Eva Cockcroft and Holly Barnet-Sanchez, state that an artwork that is truly "public" offers society a symbolic illustration of its collective beliefs, together with a continued reassertion of its collective self-image. The movement's artistic expressions include posters, murals, street processions, performances, and films (Chicano Art). Modernist art's early tendency was presenting subjective experience, in addition to stressing its value in a way that has never been done before (Butler, 2010 page51). Prominent artists from that era, who had taken over from the latter part of the nineteenth century and had a focus on the part played by symbolism, imagery, the unconscious, and dreams, were always inclined to give preference to individual self-realization. Furthermore, they employed epiphany and intuitive, imaginative ways of…
"Artwork -- Festival of Masks Parade." LA Metro Home -- Getting Started. Web. 20 Feb 2016. .
Butler, Christopher. Modernism: A Very Short Introduction. N.p.: Oxford UP, 2010. Web. 21 Feb. 2016. .
Butler, Christopher. Postmodernism: A Very Short Introduction. N.p.: Oxford UP, 2002. Web. 20 Feb. 2016.
For example, most (if not all) of the ancient Greek and Egyptian pottery that we find in museums was not considered art in its time of creation. They were made as practical pieces that were used for practical purposes. It was later when humans defined the word art that these relics were collected and renamed as art.
Another example of why art is hard to define and why it really depends on the time in history that makes a piece a work of art or not can be seen in the way in which many artists do not achieve success until after their deaths. It can be argued that true artists are often very in tune with what is going on in the culture and very aware of ways in which culture oppresses people or glorifies them. They are sensitive to what is going on in the world and perhaps…
Billio, Bruno. (2011). About. Bruno Billio. Accessed on 11 December 2011:
"Any brief definition of art would oversimplify the matter, but we can say that all the definitions offered over the centuries include some notion of human agency, whether through manual skills (as in the art of sailing or painting or photography), intellectual manipulation (as in the art of politics), or public or personal expression (as in the art of conversation). Recall that the word is etymologically related to artificial -- i.e., produced by human beings. Since this embraces many types of production that are not conventionally deemed to be art, perhaps a better term for them would be visual culture. This would explain why certain preindustrial cultures produce objects which Eurocentric interests characterize as art, even though the producing culture has no linguistic term to differentiate these objects from utilitarian artifacts. Having said that, we are still left with a class of objects, ideas and activities that are held…
Photography: Leibovitz, A. (n.d.). John Lennon and Yoko Ono. [Photograph, color]. Photo
Gallery, AmericanMasters, PBS. Retrieved from http://www.pbs.org/wnet/americanmasters/episodes/annie-leibovitz/photo-gallery/19/
Annie Leibovitz is famous for her celebrity portraits because of the unusual poses and backdrops she uses with her subjects. The portrait of John and Yoko is powerful. It is startling because John is nude astride a fully-clothed Yoko. John is kissing her tenderly, with his body curled around hers and his arms cradling her head. Yoko is completely passive. It seems Leibovitz captured the dynamics of the couple's relationship with this
art period's styles represent a theme art. Your comparison focus artists period styles. The pair choose drawn period styles. For essay, I compare a High Classical Greek artwork Early Italian Renaissance artwork.
The Artemision ronze vs. Donatello's bronze David
While most people are inclined to look at the Italia Renaissance as being innovative and as bringing new concepts to society, the artistic movement actually inspired from Ancient Greece. y looking at the Early Renaissance period and at the Classical Greek artistic movement one is likely to observe a series of parallels, as the more recent artists did not hesitate to inspire themselves from individuals that they considered to be particularly refined in producing artwork. To a certain degree, one can consider the two movements to have had a similar effect in individuals living contemporary to them, considering that they both brought on artistic revolutions. The Artemision ronze and Donatello's bronze…
Kleiner, Fred S. "Gardner's Art Through the Ages: The Western Perspective," (Cengage Learning, 2009)
Mattusch, Carol C. "Greek Bronze Statuary: From the Beginnings Through the Fifth Century B.C.," (Cornell University Press, 1988)
Shaked, Guy, "Masters of Italian Sculpture," (Lulu.com, 2007)
"Donatello's David," Retrieved May 11, 2012, from the Suny Oneonta Website: http://employees.oneonta.edu/farberas/arth/arth213/donatello_david.html
There are expressed their feelings through different work of art such as filming. Through films, they used actors and actresses to manipulate the story of the film. And thus through the facial expressions and their actions people watching it can get the whole picture of what the story was all about. One of the first to sense this transformation of the actor by the test performance was Pirandello (enjamin 1937). It was through the film actor that critics understand the moral of the story. Through time, the film was enhanced, it was first a silent film where the artists acts and try to relay the message through his actions but now, there are sounds that help the actor easily and accurately relay the message. His feelings as well the manner of his delivery through the sounds can very well understand the message of the story.
Technology boomed and changes came…
Benjamin, W. (1937) "The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction" [Online] Available at: http://pages.emerson.edu/Courses/spring00/in123/workofart/benjamin.htm#value
Blunden, A. (1998) "Translated: The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction" UCLA School of Theater, Film and Television [Online] Available at: http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/ge/benjamin.htm
MS Encarta (2005) "Dada" Reference Library Microsoft Corporation.