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Epidemiology of Communicable Disease - HIV
Epidemiology of Communicable Disease
Description of the communicable disease (causes, symptoms, mode of transmission, complications, treatment) and the demographic of interest (mortality, morbidity, incidence, and prevalence).
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a virus that can lead to the development of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, or AIDS, in susceptible people. Although the human body can eliminate some types of viruses, it cannot eliminate HIV, so once a person get HIV, they have the virus for life.
Within an organism, the HIV virus spreads via body fluids, affecting certain cells of the immune system. These cells are referred to as T cells or CD4 cells. As HIV moves through the body, such a massive number of T cells are destroyed that the body can no longer effectively fight off infections and other diseases. This is the point at which an HIV infection results in full-blown AIDS.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (CDC) Retrieved http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/
Global HIV / AIDS Organizations. AIDS.gov. Retreived http://www.aids.gov/federal-resources/around-the-world/global-hiv-aids-organizations/
Control of Communicable Diseases in Emergencies: Public Health Guide for Emergencies. The Johns Hopkins and the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies. Retreived http://www.jhsph.edu/research/centers-and-institutes/center-for-refugee-and-disaster-response/publications_tools/publications/_CRDR_ICRC_Public_Health_Guide_Book/Pages_from_Chapter_7_.pdf
Josephine Lawrence (name changed to protect anonymity) has been a community health nurse employed by the city for almost five years. Working in the public sector is radically different from working in a private healthcare institution, notes Lawrence, who had practiced as an RN for ten years prior to her career change. When asked what precipitated the change. Lawrence said that a lot of it had to do with the way her mind works. She always preferred “big picture” issues, as she put it, recognizing the need for greater community activism, empowerment, and advocacy.
Changes to the Profession
According to Lawrence, the profession has not changed appreciably over the past four to five years. The most important changes to healthcare in general have been due to legislation and policy, with the Affordable Care Act having less of a bearing on community health operations than on the budgets and management…
Health Belief Model and Health Education
Public/population health standards place the conventional medical individual care model within several determinants of health. Currently, various public health models exist and are available for a huge range of purposes such as the Health Belief Model. These various health models exist to provide an improved understanding of the dynamics relating to the health and wellbeing of populations. In addition, there are social determinants of health (SDOH), which basically refer to the political, social and economic factors that impact the health of individuals and populations. The social determinants of health also refer to the ecological model and place significant emphasis on healthcare institutions and organizations established by humans to organize or structure social processes relating to individuals and populations’ health including health education. This paper examines how the Health Belief Model can be used to address the issue of health education.
The Issue of Health…
Ehrenreich notes how girls who must work for hours cleaning houses often select a bag of Doritos over a sandwich for lunch, presumably because the Doritos are cheaper and taste good.
Of course, for the workers at the lowest end of the pay scale, Doritos or the free burger Ehrenreich gets as a waitress for lunch is an undreamed-of luxury. Lunch might instead be some store-brand hot dog or hamburger rolls. Public food assistance is distinctly unhelpful -- like the bag of food containing candy and Hamburger Helper but no hamburger, Ehrenreich dryly observes, to 'help' it out. Ehrenreich, although health-conscious, often finds herself eating fast food like Wendy's, simply because of a lack of time and cooking space and the fact that the food is filling and cheap. The poor are often criticized for eating fattening food, not cooking, and not getting enough regular exercise. Ehrenreich's struggle to stay…
Ehrenreich, Barbara. (2002). Nickel and dimed: On (not getting by in America). New York: Holt.
Public health nursing practice differs from care in acute settings in that it is more inclusive and contains a political element that must be honored in order to ensure the best possible outcome.
The Quad Council competences address the development of skills in analytic assessment, policy development and program planning, communication, cultural competency, community dimensions of practice, basic public health sciences, financial planning and management, and leadership and systems thinking. The tents of public health nursing according to the Scope and Standards of Public Health Nursing Practice are focused on population based assessment, policy development, and assurance processes that are systematic, comprehensive, and include partnering with representatives of the people. Furthermore, primary prevention is a priority and intervention strategies are selected to create healthy environmental, social and economic conditions in which people can thrive. Public Health nurses are obligated to actively reach out to all who might benefit from an…
Principles of the ethical practice of public health. (2002). Public health leadership society. Retrieved July 3, 2011 from http://www.apha.org/NR/rdonlyres/1CED3CEA-287E-4185-9CBD-BD405FC60856/0/ethicsbrochure.pdf
Quad council PHN competencies. (2003, April 3). Public health nursing competencies. Retrieved July 3, 2011 from http://www.sphtc.org/phn_competencies_final_comb.pdf
Policy Process Part I
Policies are constantly being reviewed and considered to assist in enhancing the federal, state, and local health care systems. Each of the reviewed and considered policies has the potential to affect every individual on a daily basis, so careful consideration must be exercised when policies are proposed. The careful consideration requires an understanding of the process through which an idea or topic ultimately becomes a policy and legislation. An example of a topic in the health care industry that may be used to form a policy is health workforce shortages. This topic can become a policy because the United States health sector is currently experiencing an increase in workforce shortages in federal, state, and local levels. The current laws do not have adequate measures or procedures that would deal with this issue effectively. Therefore, policy makers should develop and implement legislation that specifically focuses on health…
Abood, S. (2007). Influencing Health Care in the Legislative Arena. The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, 12(1). Retrieved from http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/553404_4
Buchan, J. & Aiken, L. (2010). Solving Nursing Shortages: A Common Priority. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 17(24), 3262-3268.
Gebbie, K.M. (1994, June). Formulating Public Health Policy: The Case of AIDS. American
Journal of Public Health, 84(6), 888-889.
Nurses, who have first hand knowledge and understanding of how to live healthy and how to take proper care of themselves, are far better equipped to teach others about these concepts. Certain populations can benefit greatly from prevention, especially those who are prone to specific types of diseases or conditions.
One of the most common behaviors that leads to many chronic and often very damaging health conditions is smoking. Smoking can cause a multitude of diseases and conditions from emphysema to heart disease to lung cancer (Chapman, 2007). The list goes on and on. But smoking is 100% preventable and nurses need to understand not only how to treat these smoking-related diseases but how to more importantly discourage and prevent people from smoking in the first place. Many nurses agree that this behavior leads to many of the worst case scenarios for people with pre-existing chronic conditions. It is therefore…
Chapman, Simon. (2007). Public Health Advocacy and Tobacco Control: Making Smoking
History. Blackwell Publishing, New York, NY. Pp. 55-56.
Chung, Daniel C. (2008). "Stool DNA Testing and Colon Cancer Prevention: Another Step
Forward." Annals of Internal Medicine, Vol. 149, No. 7. pp. 509-510.
Now I am eager to attend graduate school, advance, and go on with my education.
As a nurse I have worked in rehabilitation, home health geriatric care, cardiac care, and intensive care units. I am enclosing my resume so you can see the specific places I have served. I also have held various managerial positions including Unit Manager, Administrative Supervisor, and Assistant Director of Nursing. I have been told that my work demonstrates maturity, intelligence and conscientiousness, qualities I know will serve me well and help me to excel in my graduate work.
The experiences I have had as a nurse have significantly shaped my views regarding the value of Primary Health Care. Due to the rising costs of health care today, I believe even developed and industrialized nations of the world will have no choice but to focus on Primary Health Care. With this public health degree I intend…
Concept Synthesis on Personal Nursing Philosophy
My interest in nursing peaked at an early age when I attended Clara Barton High School for health professions in Brooklyn NY and graduated in 1991. I first worked as a nurse's aide and home health aide for about two years and found this position to be quite rewarding. I subsequently moved to North Carolina where I took the CNA course in 1995 and began working as a CNA at various nursing homes and hospitals in the regional area. My experience as a CNA certainly helped me in my journey and provided the foundation for the later developments in my career.
Later I moved to Las Vegas in 1997 where I got married in 1998. After forming this union I went back to school for my BSN in 2002 while working as a CNA. I finished my BSN from Nevada…
Andrews, H., & Roy, C. (1991). The Adaptive Model. Norwalk: Appleton and Lange.
Denler, H., Wolters, C., & Benzon, M. (2013). Social Cognitive Theory. Retrieved from Education: http://www.education.com/reference/article/social-cognitive-theory/
Farlex. (2011). The Medical Dictionary. Retrieved from Farlex: http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/adaptation+model
Nursing Theory. (2011). Sister Callista Roy. Retrieved from Nursing Theory: http://nursing-theory.org/nursing-theorists/Sister-Callista-Roy.php
This key characteristics of community-based participatory research were shown to include the equitable involvement of all stakeholders, including community members, organizational representatives, and researchers in ways that allow all partners to contribute to the enhancement of community health initiatives. The seven major steps used in an outbreak investigation and the various components of TB prevention and control in the U.S. were outlined. An analysis concerning the greatest future challenges to tobacco cessation interventions showed that nicotine is highly addictive, but that these challenges can be mitigated through enhanced healthcare curricular offerings and various evidence-based strategies. The differences in eligibility criteria between Medicaid and Medicare were shown to relate to target group and that there would be a need for these programs throughout the 21st century. Finally, because oral diseases affect lower-income people more frequently, they are regarded as a neglected epidemic that can have profound adverse healthcare consequences if…
CDC tuberculosis guidelines. (2014). Centers for Disease Control. Retrieved April 25, 2014
from http://www.cdc.gov/tb/publications/guidelines/default.htm .
Gorin, S. (2000, February). A 'society for all ages': Saving Social Security and Medicare. Health and Social Work, 25(1), 69.
Israel, B.A. & Parker, E.A. (2006, October). Community-based participatory research: Lessons
Health Care Communication
Background- Within the modern nursing paradigm, there must be a clear link between a health outcome and the process that helps ensure those outcomes. Typically, outcomes are classified in terms of preventability, impact, severity and an overall holistic view of the client's safety issues. Positive behaviors that impact individuals either rescue or protect patients from potential or actual events. This is also part of the issue with modern communication and dissemination of information to patients, stakeholders, and the community (Burns and Grove, 2005).
At the heart of healthcare as an institution is, of course, the need to care for the sick and the injured. However, in the contemporary model of healthcare, effective communication during a crisis is not only important, but also vital. Communication by healthcare professionals takes the concern and worry out of the situation; offers a quicker resolution, makes better control of information possible, earns…
Alligood, et.al. (2002). Nursing Theorists and their Work. Philadelphia: Mosby.
Burns, N. And Grove, S. (2004). The Practice of Nursing Research. St. Louis:
D'Antonio, P., et al., eds., (2007). Nurses Work: Issues Across Time and Place. New York:
Public Health Then and Now
I consider Fitzhugh Mullan's article "Public Health Then and Now: Don Quixote, Machiavelli, and Robin Hood: Public Health Practice, Past and Present" a very provocative yet utmost informative and challenging article for the health practitioner and interested layman alike that provides its reader with precious information about the qualities a health worker will have to have and the relationships he will have to entertain at the various stages of his work if he wants to meet his manifold professional responsibilities. Both the title of the article and its abstract (Mullan, 2000, 702) clearly describe the research problem the scope of which the author has appropriately delimited.
I think that the whole article is of eminent importance for the entire public health profession because it covers two areas that do not seem to have caught much attention in the scholarly literature: Dynamic political involvement of public…
Public Health Concepts for the Uninsured
Pediatrics is an area of study for Doctors of Nursing Practice that provides wide-ranging and extensive healthcare from the time of birth through the period of adolescence by evaluation, diagnosis, management and evaluation of care. A key healthcare problem faced in pediatrics is mental health problems amongst children and adolescents. In recent periods, the public health significance of mental health conditions amongst children and adolescents has been of progressively increasing concern. This prevalence of mental health issues in addition to their major influence on well-being and functioning indicates the necessity for early prevention (avens-Sieberer et al., 2008). Statistics indicate that just about one in five children across the world go through mental health issues. This encumbrance instigated by mental health problems may be progressively increasing. Several social changes have taken place in the 21st century that could have an adverse impact on mental health…
Al-Abri, R., & Al-Balushi, A. (2014). Patient satisfaction survey as a tool towards quality improvement. Oman medical journal, 29(1), 3.
Bor, W., Dean, A. J., Najman, J., & Hayatbakhsh, R. (2014). Are child and adolescent mental health problems increasing in the 21st century? A systematic review. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 48(7), 606-616.
Burns, B. J., Phillips, S. D., Wagner, H. R., Barth, R. P., Kolko, D. J., Campbell, Y., & Landsverk, J. (2004). Mental health need and access to mental health services by youths involved with child welfare: A national survey. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 43(8), 960-970.
Costello, E. J., Mustillo, S., Erkanli, A., Keeler, G., & Angold, A. (2003). Prevalence and development of psychiatric disorders in childhood and adolescence. Archives of general psychiatry, 60(8), 837-844.
In the current era of managed care in medicine, physicians and other healthcare providers and institutions have been under tremendous pressure to reduce costs. In that regard, avoiding unnecessary hospitalization is one of the most important goals of lowering the costs of healthcare delivery (Stanhope & Lancaster, 2004). Toward that end, diverse strategies have evolved to provide as many healthcare services as possible on an ambulatory basis.
Hospitals and insurance companies now encourage patients to participate in preventative medicine and routine testing intended to lower the costs associated with hospitalization over the long-term. The strategy is simply to reduce the incidence of serious illnesses, particularly those that typically develop over many years and which are capable of prevention through behavior modification and early detection through diagnostic testing (Stanhope & Lancaster, 2004).
Because state and federal governments must absorb much of the costs of uncompensated medical services, the many administrative agencies…
References Stanhope, M., Lancaster, J. (2004) Community and Public Health Nursing (6th ed.) St. Louis: Mosby.
Healthcare Disparity in Georgia
HIV infection continues to be a substantial trouble in Bibb County, Georgia. This illness substantially impacts lots of areas and Bibb County shares among the greatest HIV rates in America. One reason Bibb County deals with greater rates of infection is due to the high minority populace. Likewise, high levels of poverty and joblessness can make it tough for an individual to keep his/her health plan and access their primary-care service provider and acquire the required therapy for HIV. Social preconception likewise extends unfavorable mindsets of the community and can force the individual from looking for therapy or even testing for HIV.
The very best protection against HIV is enlightening the general public about the illness. outine testing for HIV is vital too. The first intervention would be to associate with a regional testing center and have the ability to check people as well as inform…
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2008). HIV / AIDS among youth. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved July 24, 2011, from http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/ resources/factsheets/PDF/youth.pdf' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Nursing Problem: Shortage of Nurses in Healthcare
The researcher works at Phoebe Memorial Hospital, where there is an extreme nursing shortage. Without an adequate amount of nurses, patient care and safety may turn out to be compromised, while nurses themselves may be stunned, upset, and dissatisfied. At the researcher's workplace, high patient-to-nurse ratios has been displaying that there is a lot of frustration and job burnout, which is linked to higher yield. At Phoebe, there is an inadequately staffed nursing force which has been discovered to play a negative part in patient results. In difference, studies have confirmed that hospitals like Phoebe Memorial Hospital with low nurse turnover are the ones that have the lowest rates of risk-adjusted death and severity-adjusted span of stay.
There is no very exact way of describing the concept of nursing shortage at the Phoebe Memorial Hospital Phoebe, but a report of this…
NURSING PROBLEM: SHORTAGE OF NURSES
Tobacco Education and Outreach Specialist
egularly reviews published peer-reviewed literature on the health impacts of tobacco use and addiction, and writes blog posts and news articles based on this data.
Designs and implements outreach programs for varying demographics, focusing on smoking prevention as well as smoking cessation.
Investigates local tobacco retailers and ensures compliance with tobacco control legislation.
Issues warning letters accordingly when tobacco vendors have been shown to violate tobacco control legislation.
Provides, when necessary, testimony in courtrooms for tobacco-related lawsuits.
Creates comprehensive tobacco education programs for the corporate sector, with the goal of helping organizations become tobacco-free environments.
Works closely with local health care organizations including private clinics and hospitals, to promote tobacco education services.
Degree in public health administration, nursing, or related field.
Work or internship experience in a public health organization.
Strong verbal and written communication skills.
$35,000-$45,000 ("Community Outreach Specialist Careers,"…
"Community Outreach Specialist Careers," (n.d.). Careers in Public Health. Retrieved online: http://www.careersinpublichealth.net/careers/community-outreach-specialist
Huselid, M.A. (1995). The impact of human resources management practices on turnover, productivity, and corporate financial performance. Academy of Management Journal 38(3): 635-672.
"Recruitment and Retention," (n.d.). PHF. Retrieved online: http://www.phf.org/programs/recruitmentandretention/Pages/RecruitmentandRetention_of_public_healthworkers.aspx
United States Department of Labor (2016). Summary of the major laws of the Department of Labor. Retrieved online: http://www.dol.gov/general/aboutdol/majorlaws
Public Health Partnerships in Diverse Settings
ho was the population of interest at that moment in time? In the article by Carthon, the African-American population in Philadelphia was in focus. At the turn of the last century, 1900, the statistics clearly showed that a much higher percentage of African-Americans ("blacks" is used in the references) were dying due to tuberculosis (TB) than Caucasians ("whites") (Carthon, 2011, 32). In fact the statistics showed that about 447 blacks per 100,000 were dying (from TB) at that time compared with just 197.3 whites per 100,000, Carthon explains.
hat was the environmental context within which the population lived at that time? hy were blacks more susceptible to TV than whites in the early 20th century? Carthon suggests that blacks tended to have jobs that had a "high exposure to dust, such as marble, stone, plaster, wood, and textile work." Clearly the black worker exposed…
Community Coalitions and Public Health
Carthon, J.M.B. (2011). Life and Death in Philadelphia's Black Belt: A Tale of an Urban
Tuberculosis Campaign, 1900-1930. Nursing History Review, Vol. 19, 29-52.
Health Care eform Effecting Public Health United States
Healthcare reform is an integral part of the United States healthcare system. Below is an evaluation of the effects healthcare reform has had on healthcare in the U.S. Internet sources as well as peer-reviewed journals will be looked at so as to see the effects.
The cost of healthcare has been on the rise. Issues of healthcare quality ought to be paid attention to and healthcare access equity improved upon (Health Care Transformation). Given these causes, while some differences exist on what reforms to carry out, a majority of Americans hold the belief that the U.S. Healthcare delivery systems need some improving. For a long time ANA has been advocating for reforms in healthcare and several of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) provisions are in line with the Health System eform Agenda of the ANA. The ANA gave a chart that gives…
Kemp, C. (2012, October 11). Public Health in the Age of Health Care Reform. Retrieved January 21, 2015, from http://www.cdc.gov/pcd/issues/2012/12_0151.htm
How National Health Care Reform Will Affect a Variety of States. (2011, April 5). Retrieved January 21, 2015, from http://www.rand.org/news/press/2011/04/05.html
nursing is in a unique position to take on the challenge of the public's health. hat more could we do? How does nursing implement the Core Functions of Public Health?
Nursing is an integral part of the nursing profession. Even more so than doctors, the nurses will be in direct contact with patients. They are the first people that a patient sees when he or she seeks out treatment. In this, the nurses are able to see exactly what is affecting humanity on a larger scale and are able to interpret that to those in higher positions in the health industry. More could always be done. Often nurses are so harried with a large amount of patients, particularly in heavily populated areas of the world, that they do not take account of larger health trends. More attention and an inclination to create change will inherently help in policy creation and…
ASTDN (2003). Quad council PHN competencies.
Center for Disease Control (2012). Core functions of public health and how they relate to the 10
essential services. CDC: Atlanta, GA. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/nceh/ehs/ephli/core_ess.htm
Definitions for population-based health care vs. community-based health care (2012). Retrieved
nursing client relationships and how the study is a valid research for practitioners. It has 26 sources in Harvard Style.
esearch titles must be limited to fifteen words. In this case the author has exceeded the limitation by one count which is negligible. The importance of relevance of the title to the body of the research is that it must collaborate with the core study area. In the first line the author has already specified the relationship of the nurse-client at the beginning and categorizes it as a "partnership" whereas the title of the study must not reveal the results or even the anticipated results.
Authors and Abstracts
The authors T. Hostick and F. McClelland both the authors indicate in their abstract that the article aim in establishing nursing behavior when they are engaged in a nurse-client relationship. The abstract though is limited in expressing the content of the study…
Hostick, T. & McClelland, F. 2002, Partnership: a co-operative inquiry between Community Mental Health Nurses and their clients. 2. The nurse-client relationship. Journal of Psychiatry and Mental Health Nursing 9, 111-117.
Beyea, S.C. 1997, Research utilization begins with learning to read research reports, Research Corner, AORN, February. Accessed on 29-9-2003 at http://www.aorn.org/journal/research/rc297.htm
Author not available, 2003, Reading Nursing Research to Critique a Study and to Summarize Findings for Use in Practice, Available at http://classes.kumc.edu/son/NURS460smith/460critiquingreseach.html
Forchuk, C. 1989, Establishing a Nurse-Client Relationship. Journal of Psychosocial Nursing vol.27,no.2. Available at http://willmar.ridgewater.mnscu.edu/library/338271.htm
he Neuman Model is appropriate for senior care.
Studies necessary with other models.
Penrod, et.al.; Reframing Person Centered Care for Persons with Dementia
Research and heory for Nursing Practice
Lit. Review, discussion
Research shows individual personhood approach has positive effects on care.
Biomedical and psychological models must be merged for persons with dementia.
Further study using different integration modeling.
Rajapaksa and Rothstein; Factors hat Influence the Decisions of Men and Women Nurses to Leave Nursing.
Qualitative, some quantitative analysis
For men, compensation largest barrier to remaining in nursing; for women dissatisfaction with career goals
Barriers to entry in profession for men and still social stigma
It is possible for hospitals and care centers to develop program to retain more nurses
Needs more demographic and psychographic variation.
Gillespie and Peterson; Helping Novice Nurses Make Effective Clinical Decisions
Their Experiences With a Refugee Population." Journal of Nursing Education.
Watson, J. (2008). "Social Justice and Human Caring." Creative Nursing. 14 (2): 54+.
A prediction of the outcomes is not made in the initial development of the research. ather, this appears to be an exploratory study to better understand the issue.
eview of the Literature
The literature included in the review is relevant and recent. The data demonstrates the need for understanding the problem and the importance of the issue to the health and safety of healthcare workers. Although the initial literature review is quite brief, the literature is expanded in the discussion of the results.
The research design is a quantitative methodology utilizing a survey to collect data. Information collected was appropriate given the overall scope and focus of the research -- i.e. exploratory. Although the results provide some insight into the specific survey that was used, pertinent information about the survey has been omitted from the study. This may make replication of the study difficult.
Examining the target…
Ozkan, O., & Gokdogan, F. (2003). The prevalence of latex allergy among health care workers in Bolu (Turkey). Dermatology Nursing, 15(6), 543-548.
Community Teaching Proposal for Primary Prevention/Health Promotion
The objective of this study is to create a community teaching proposal for primary prevention and health promotion. The work of Kulbok, wet al (2012) reports that public health nursing practice is "population focused and requires unique knowledge, competencies, and skills." (p.1) Public health nursing makes the requirement of working with communities and populations "as equal partner and focusing on primary prevention and health promotion." (Kulbok, et al., 2012, p.1)
Community teaching for primary prevention and health promotion involves educating community members about what is required to address primary prevention and promotion of health. This can be accomplished through community-wide meetings held at a central location in the community. As noted by Kulbok et al. (2012) "In the 21st century, public health nurses practice in diverse settings including, but not limited to, community nursing centers; home health agencies; housing developments; local…
Anderson, DR, et al. (2012) Primary Care Nursing Role and Care Coordination: An Observational Study of Nursing Work in a Community Health Center, The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing. Vol. 17 No. 2. Retrieved from: http://nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/ANAMarketplace/ANAPeriodicals/OJIN/TableofContents/Vol-17-2012/No2-May-2012/Primary-Care-Nursing-Role-and-Care-Coordination.html
Connor, N. et al. (2012) Healthy People 2020 from Theory to Practice in a Nursing Program. The University of Central Florida. Retrieved from: http://c.ymcdn.com/sites/www.aptrweb.org/resource/resmgr/tp2012_presentations/conner_aptr_tp12.pdf
Kulbock, PA, et al. (2012) Evolving Public Health Nursing Roles: Focus on Community Participatory Health Promotion and Prevention. The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing. Vol. 17. No. 2. Retrieved from: http://nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/ANAMarketplace/ANAPeriodicals/OJIN/TableofContents/Vol-17-2012/No2-May-2012/Evolving-Public-Health-Nursing-Roles.html
autobiography of the author of this report. The remainder of the report will mostly focus on the four meta-paradigms of nursing. Of course, those meta-paradigms are patient, nurse, health and environment. The author will also offer two practice-specific concepts from the scholarly literature that can be applied to the career and environment of the author of this report. Next up will be a list of propositions that will number five in total. As suggested and required by the assignment, the paper will integrate these discrete elements and in a way that connects to the concepts described. While analysis of the nursing professional can get a little silly and/or delve too much into a bit of navel-gazing, the profession is indeed noble and deep and is thus worthy of the proper full analysis.
The author of this report started as an electrocardiogram (EKG) technician and nursing assistant while the author…
Lee, R.C., & Fawcett, J. (2013). The Influence of the Metaparadigm of Nursing on Professional Identity Development Among RN-BSN Students. Nursing Science
Quarterly, 26(1), 96-98. doi:10.1177/0894318412466734
Schim, S.M., Benkert, R., Bell, S.E., Walker, D.S., & Danford, C.A. (2007). Social
Justice: Added Metaparadigm Concept for Urban Health Nursing. Public Health
A good example of this can be seen with popular Chinese talk show host Yang Lang donating $72 million, to start his own foundation to: help support and develop the health care system. This is important, because it shows how both international and domestic-based non-profits are addressing these underlying problems facing the health care sector. (Dobryzski, 2010)
Clearly, the biggest challenges facing the health care systems in the United States and China are vastly different. Yet, they are also wrestling with similar problems, as they face the issue of increasing numbers in the elderly population. In the case of the United States, this is challenging because there are a variety of disadvantages that must be addressed to include: they have access to some of the most cutting edge procedures, there is large number of choices about health care providers and the elderly can be able to receive effective treatment for…
Advanced Practice Nurses. (2010). Bukisa. Retrieved from: http://www.bukisa.com/articles/352958_advanced-practice-nurses-a-global-role
Health Systems. (n.d.). WHO. Retrieved from: gis.emro.who.int/HealthSystemObservatory/.../Conceptual%20frameworks. Ppt Health Care in China. (2006). IBM. Retrieved from: http://www-05.ibm.com/de/healthcare/downloads/healthcare_china.pdf
More About RN's. (2011). ANA. Retrieved from: http://www.nursingworld.org/especiallyforyou/studentnurses/rnsapns.aspx
Opportunities in the Health Care Sector. (2006). Grail Research. Retrieved from: http://www.grailresearch.com/pdf/ContenPodsPdf/Opportunities_in_the_China_Healthcare_Sector.pdf
Evolution of Nursing oles in an Enlarged National Health Care System
The Affordable Care Act enables the provision of health insurance to 30 million people above the coverage figures prior to the enactment of the law. Because of this precipitous rise in the number of health insurance members, access to care as a function of the availability of primary care providers has been a leading issue in the transition to the nation-wide system of health care insurance. Public health models and nursing practice arrangements are changing in order to meet the immediate and anticipated care needs that have been brought to bear on the health care systems.
Public Health and Nurse Managed Health Centers (NMHCs)
From the earliest days of public health, the roles of nurses have been embedded in the social, educational, and political needs of communities. Health education has functioned as a springboard to community organizing, patient advocacy,…
Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. (2005, January). CMS.gov. Retrieved from http://www.cms.gov/Medicare/Medicare-Fee-for-Service-Payment/ACO/index.html
Kulbok, P.A., Thatcher, E., Park, E., & Meszaros, P.S. (2012, May). Evolving public health nursing roles: Focus on community participatory health promotion and prevention. The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing (OJIN), 17(2). DOI: 10.3912/OJIN.Vol17No02Man01. Retrieved from http://www.nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/ANAMarketplace/ANAPeriodicals/OJIN/TableofContents/Vol-17-2012/No2-May-2012/Evolving-Public-Health-Nursing-Roles.html
National Conference of State Legislatures. (2012, September). The Medical Home Model of Care. Retrieved from http://www.ncsl.org/research/health/the-medical-home-model-of-care.aspx
Reid, R., Haggerty, J., & McKendry, R. (2002, March). Final Report. Defusing the confusion: Concepts and measures of continuity of healthcare. Canadian Health Services Research Foundation, the Canadian Institute for Health Information, and the Advisory Committee on Health Services of the Federal/Provincial/Territorial Deputy Ministers of Health. Retrieved from http://www.hpm.org/Downloads/Bellagio/Articles/Continuity/cr_contcare_e.pdf
Migrant Health Problem
Presently, access to social and health services for most migrants is determined by their legal status. Undocumented migrants have least possible access to health services. Legal status is one of the preconditions for ability involved in receiving adequate care. Further, the availability, acceptability, quality and accessibility of such services is dependent on different influences such as cultural, social, linguistic, structural, gender, geographical and financial factors. From this, different knowledge and beliefs about ill health and healthy status deter migrants from engaging national health services.
Health literacy within such awareness senses entitlements individuals to availability and care services that pose barriers to using similar services (Becker, 2003). The situation also shows dependence on various migrants irrespective of the existing legal or socio-economic statuses. The nature of mobility makes it difficult to establish the available providers of health care service. Temporary and seasonal workers prefer delaying care until there…
Becker, G. (2003). Socioeconomic Status and Dissatisfaction with Health Care among Chronically Ill African-Americans. American Journal of Public Health, 93(5), 742.
Carrasquillo, O., Carrasquillo, A. & Shea, S. (2000). Health Insurance Coverage of Immigrants Living in the United States: Differences by Citizenship Status and Country of Origin. American Journal of Public Health 90 (6): 917 -- 923.
Huang, J., Yu, S. & Ledsky, R. (2006). Health Status and Health Service Access and Use among Children in U.S. Immigrant Families. American Journal of Public Health 96 (4): 634 -- 640.
Okie, S. (2007). Immigrants and Health Care -- At the Intersection of Two broken Systems. The New England Journal of Medicine: 525 -- 529.
Federal, State, County Public Health esources
Comparison Paper: Federal, State, and County Public Health esources
Comparison Paper: Federal, State, County Public Health esources
Comparison Paper Federal, State, County Public Health esources
In most cases, public health serves everyone from everywhere. They work on things that affect everyone at large; things such as bird flu. Community health deals with health care professionals like nurses and doctors and is concerned with the needs of a certain community. In essence, they do not have any plan for the big picture. They do a resounding job because it is their area of specialization (Braun & Margolis, 2011). Public health deals with the health care of the whole state while community health is mostly concerned with the health professionals that are within a society. Public health endears to protect of everyone: community health protects only those who are within an identified society. In public health,…
Margolis, H. (2011). Elder Law Portfolio. Michigan: Aspen Publishers.
Health, D. (2010). International Handbook on Alcohol and Culture. Harvard: ABC-CLIO.
Braun, J. & Margolis, H. (2011). Elder Law Portfolio Series. New York: Aspen Publishers.
Public Health Nurse Interview
When it comes to community education and health care, nurses are essential. They provide important services, but they also provide a lot of ongoing support and education. Those are all important aspects of what they do, and can significantly alter and affect a community based on how they are handled. There are three roles that nurses play in a community when it comes to the prevention of health care problems: primary, secondary, and tertiary. Those will be discussed here, along with an interview conducted with Sarah Winters, a nurse who has been working in community education for 35 years. By combining the educational information of various sources with the personal information that can only be provided by interviewing a person in the field, a better understanding of the role and value of the community health nurse can be seen. That provides insight to communities who are…
D'Antonio, P. (2010). American nursing: A history of knowledge, authority, and the meaning of work . NY: JHUP.
Fairman, J. & Lynaugh, J.E. (2000). Critical care nursing: A history. NY: Jones & Bartlett Learning.
Fitzpatrick, J.J. & Kazer, M. (eds.). (2011). Encyclopedia of nursing research (3rd. ed.). NY: Springer Publishing Company.
Longe, J. (ed.). (2013). Gale encyclopedia of nursing and allied Hhealth (6 vol.). NY: Gale Group.
One of the features of patient-centered care in which the patients are thought to be partners is when the patients are handed over with the help of their participation. It is very important for the nurses to understand the thinking and perspectives of their patients as this can help them in adjusting their bedside manner to suit the expectations and needs of the patients. This involvement can also enable the patients to get more involved in the decision-making process. There is very little detailed evaluation of the bedside manner present in the literature particularly from the perspective of nursing practice. There are particular provider behaviors that have been noticed to be taken as positive or negative on a continuous basis according to the concept analysis. Compassion, care, warmth and support are some of the positive behaviors while disrespect, arrogance and indifference are some of the negative behaviors. The…
Bedside manner (n.d.). The American Heritage® Stedman's Medical Dictionary. Retrieved from Dictionary.com website: http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/bedside-manner
Finch, L. (2008). Bedside Manner: Concept Analysis and Impact on Advanced Nursing Practice. The Internet Journal of Advanced Nursing Practice. 10(1).
Gilbert, P. (2010) The Compassionate Mind: A New Approach to Life's Challenges. Constable. London.
McMurray, A., Chaboyer, W., Wallis. M., & Johnson. J. (2010). Patients' Perspectives of Bedside Nursing Handover. Retrieved from http://www98.griffith.edu.au/dspace/bitstream/handle/10072/40081/68872_1.pdf;jsessionid=3089DAF1AC9C366501436C4A0ABA2C05?sequence=1
Nursing Practice Act of Virginia:
The scope of practice in medicine, nursing, law, dentistry, and various other disciplines are usually established and regulated at the state level. This implies that the legislative body in every state establishes practice law and allocates authority for the implementation of the law to suitable regulatory agencies and boards. In relation to the nursing field, the established laws are usually in the form of professional practice acts that act as the basis for licensing standards. Licensing is in turn geared towards the protection of public health and well-being, safety, and welfare. Generally, the statute that defines and manages the nursing profession and practice is known as a nurse practice act. There are four major objectives of the nurse practice act in each state including defining the nursing professional practice, establishing the minimum academic qualifications and requirements for licensing, defining the legal titles and abbreviations that…
Black, B.P. (2013). Professional nursing: concepts & challenges (7th ed.). St. Louis, MO:
"Complaints Against Licensees." (2012, October). A Public Information Brochure. Retrieved from West Virginia State Board of Examiners for Licensed Practical Nurses website: http://www.lpnboard.state.wv.us/Disbro3pub1.PDF
"Regulations Governing the Practice of Nursing." (2014, February 27). Virginia Board of Nursing. Retrieved from Virginia Department of Health Professions website: http://www.dhp.virginia.gov/nursing/leg/Nursing_02272014.doc
cultural assessment in community or public health care with vulnerable populations? Explain.
I feel that it is expedient to include a cultural assessment in community or public health care with vulnerable populations. The very fact that the population is considered vulnerable suggests that there will be dangers in making assumptions about the patient's health care. Moreover, it is well established that cultural background can have a tremendous impact on health care choices for the individual. Decisions that may seem counter-intuitive or misguided to a health care professional may be much easier to understand if the professional completes a cultural assessment. Knowing the potential conflicts between the population's culture and the dominant culture can help a nurse prepare to deal with potential problems.
However, it is important to keep in mind that while it might be expedient to do a cultural assessment when dealing with vulnerable populations, that does not mean…
Windshield Survey on Community Health Nursing
This survey is out of San Jose, California to define 3 out of 5 aspects (mental, emotional, physical, social, and spiritual health) of a community that could affect health. These communities are based out of specific groups in the San Jose neighborhoods who reside in close areas and sometimes even share the same cultural and historical backgrounds. In the public health sector of this area, we are concerned with the evaluation and enhancement of the well-being of the population, as well as, its application and community health nursing education and practices. One main health indicator that we have observed is the responsibility of sexual behavior. Therefore, this windshield survey below will address each of the components we have listed as they relate to the people of San Jose, California.
Housing & Zoning:
Notes: new homes constructed in 2010 were 74 built with avg. cost…
Nursing Ethical Theories
Ethical Theories in Nursing
Significance of Moral in Nursing
Deontology vs. Utilitarianism
Justice Ethics vs. Care Ethics
Conflict of ights
Ethical Theories in Nursing
Moral philosophy has moved from addressing Plato's question of what makes the good person, to Kant's query as to the right thing to do, to Buber's concern with relationship. Whether referring to business ethics' interest in relationships between corporations and consumers; legal ethics' focus on relationships among the legal system, clients, and society; or nursing ethics' consideration of the relationship between patient and nurse; ethics and morality are conceptualized and actualized on the playing field of relationship.
The nature of nursing as a moral endeavor is an assumption embedded in any philosophical or theoretical consideration of the discipline and practice of nursing. An the goal of nursing is a moral one, namely, the good of…
Bandman, E.L., & Bandman, B.(1995). Nursing ethics through the lifespan (3rd ed.). Stamford, CT: Appleton & Lange
Buber, M.(1965). Between man and man (R.G. Smith & M.Friedman, Trans). New York: Macmillan. (Original work published 1947).
Carper, B. (1979). The ethics of caring. Advances in Nursing Science, 1(3), 11-19
Cooper, M.C. (1991). Principle-oriented ethics and the ethic of care: A creative tension. Advances in Nursing Science, 14(2), 22-31.
Nursing Intervention in Disaster
The possibility of occurrence of disasters is a reality. With this in mind there should be efforts made to prevent any upcoming or potentially disastrous events. These efforts are what are known as disaster prevention. Disaster prevention therefore refers to efforts put in place to ensure that adverse effects of events that are potentially disastrous are prevented even when the disaster cannot be controlled. Disaster prevention is done at various levels of the society and is undertaken so as to prevent all types of disasters. Nurses are involved to a large extent when it comes to the prevention and mitigation of disasters. Nurses are involved in institutions that can influence change and due to the unique skills that they posses they can make interventions in disasters. To perform efficiently, a nurse must be always prepared to make changes in plan actions at any time and at…
Harden, E.G., (2004). The role of nursing in disasters. Retrieved march 22, 2013 from http://helid.digicollection.org/en/d/Jdi018e/2.html
Rittenmeyer, L., (2007). Disaster preparedness: Are you ready? Retrieved march 22,2013 from http://www.nursingcenter.com/prodev/ce_article.asp?tid=726331
Wolters Kluwer Health, (2007). LWW Journals - Beginning with A. Retrieved March 22, 2013, from http://journals.lww.com/smajournalonline/fulltext/2007/09000/spiritual_issues_in_the_aftermath_of_disaster.32.aspx
Nursing Case Study
Family nursing diagnosis is a holistic process that involves a thorough and complete family assessment to establish both curative and preventive concerns in a given family. The assessment from the participating family established a number of diagnostic issues. One of the family members suffers from obesity. D.K. who is ten years old and in second grade took two years to complete first grade. Obesity is a condition whereby the Body Mass Index (BM1) is over 30kg/m2. This is because of excess fat accumulation in a person's body. The Body Mass Index BM1, is the measure for obesity, and it is calculated by dividing a person's weight in kilograms by his/her height in square meters.
Obesity may be associated with the several of medical conditions like heart attack, type 2 diabetes, osteoarthritis and some types of cancer (Domino, 2007). Major causes of obesity are lack of physical exercises…
Domino, Frank J, (2007). 5-Minute Clinical Consult. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
Karch. A.M. (2007). Lippincott's Nursing Drug Guide. Philadelphia: New York: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
Katz, David L.; Friedman, Rachel S.C. (2008). Nutrition in Clinical Practice: A Comprehensive, Evidence-Based Manual for the Practitioner. 2nd ed. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
(2008). The study measures public opinion concerning two scenarios: one in which the kidney donor is given a fixed financial compensation; and one in which the donor is provided with health insurance coverage for life. According to the findings of the study, "although almost half of the respondents (46%) were reluctant towards introducing a system with fixed compensation to increase the number of living kidney donors, still 25% of the general public reacted positively." (Kranenburg, 1039) This study would conduct a similar comparative discussion, but would expand the number of available options discussed and would use a different sample population, as discussed in the subsequent section.
Subjects and Sampling Technique:
The subjects will be drawn from amongst nursing professionals working in randomly selected renal specialty facilities and wards. Initial contact will be made by phone with a Director of Nursing at selected facilities requesting participation. Those that agree will receive…
Conesa, C.; Rios, a.; Ramirez, P.; Sanchez, J.; Sanchez, E.; Rodriguez, M.; Martinez, L.; Ramos, F. & Parrilla, P. (2009). Attitude of Primary Care Nurses Toward Living Kidney Donation. Transplantation Proceedings, 37(9), 3626-3630.
Kranenburg, L.; Schram, a.; Zuidema, W.; Weimar, W.; Hilhorst, M.; Hessing, J. & Busschbach, J. (2008). Public Survey of Financial Incentives for Kidney Donation. Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation, 23(3), 1039-1042.
Neyhart, C. & Colaneri, J. (2004). Living Anonymous kidney donation: A solution to the organ donor shortage? Nephrology Nursing Journal. Online at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0ICF/is_3_31/ai_n17207253/
Watson, J. (2007). Theory of Human Caring: Theory Evolution. University of Colorado at Denver. Online at http://www.nursing.ucdenver.edu/faculty/jw_evolution.htm
" (Allen 2008) This means that nursing educators are also a key stakeholder.
Other stakeholders include healthcare facility administrators, corporate trustees and public office holders, who will often have entangled or competing interests relating to the profitability of operations and the political expediency of policy orientation. This will also be true of the various professional advocacy groups, nursing associations and lobby groups that will vie for influence in the discussion on any legislation relating to the nursing shortage.
A primary policy objective is to endorse any legislation that would aggressively enforce better recruitment of nursing students, better training of existing nurses, improvements in working conditions for nurses and mandated nurse-to-patient ratios. These objectives are underscored by evidence of the opportunities to save lives facilitated by mandated ratios. According to the text by Health Services Research (HSR) (2010), "key findings of the study reportedly include that 10-13% 'fewer surgical…
Allan, L. (2008). The nursing shortage continues as faculty shortage grows. Nursing Economics, 26(1), 35-40.
Berkowitz, B. (2012). The Policy Process. .
Cullen, E.; Ranji, U. & Salganicoff, A. (2010). Addressing the Nursing Shortage. Kaiseredu.org.
GovTrack. (2010). S. 1031: National Nursing Shortage Reform and Patient Advocacy Act. govTrack.us.
The National Association of Clinical Nurse Specialists - The NACNS was founded in 1995, specifically to enhance and promote the unique and high-value contributions that clinical nurses make to the health and well-being of individuals, families, groups, and communities in their particular branch of healthcare. They also have a foundation, scholarship programs, a journal and discussion portal, various levels of conferences, scholarship programs, honors and awards, and the ability for advanced certification. A Clinical Nurse Specialist is a licensed N who has graduate preparation (MA or PhD) in nursing specifically as a Clinical Nurse Specialist. This field of healthcare goes beyond the duties of an LPN or N, or even charge nurse, and deals with either advanced levels of clinical specialization, or broader, community and national health concerns. The field requires a rather significant academic bent, and the association is designed to support and enhance that paradigm focus (CNS -…
About ENA. (2010, January). Retrieved October 2010, from Emergency Nurses Association: http://www.ena.org/about/Pages/Default.aspx
About the ACNM. (2010, February). Retrieved from American College of Nurse-Midwives: http://www.midwife.org/members.cfm
CNS - Who We Are and What We Do. (2010, January). Retrieved October 2010, from National Association of Clinical Nurse Specialists: http://www.nacns.org/AboutNACNS/MissionStatement/tabid/57/Default.aspx
Kozier, B., Erb, G. & Blais, K. (1997), Professional nursing practice (3rd edition),
Nurse Patient atios and Quality of Care
This study reviews the broad level of issues that surround the nurse/patient ratio: a critical shortage of trained and experienced nurses; increased political and fiscal demands from all sectors of society; rising costs internally and externally combined with a rising number of under-insured; and the conundrum of nursing ethics and the ability to foster excellence in care and patient advocacy. We note that there remains an issue about hiring more nurses -- where will these nurses come from if the nursing schools do not increase their recruitment efforts and broaden their curriculum. In addition, we note that the large majority of patients and stakeholders primarily want two things when admitted to a healthcare facility: better paid nurses and more highly-trained professionals who are satisfied with their vocation.
Modern nursing is, by necessity, a mixture of complex balance: patient care vs. staffing; procedures…
More Nurses Make the Difference. (February 2012). The Lamp. 69 (1): Retrieved from: http://search.informit.com/au/documentSummary;dn=045435426132502;res=IELHEA
Safe Nurse Staffing: Looking Beyond the Numbers. (2009). Vantage Point, CNA. Retrieved from: https://www.nso.com/pdfs/db/newsletters/Safe_Nurse_Staffing_-_Looking_Beyond_the_Raw_Numbers_20094.pdf?fileName=Safe_Nurse_Staffing_ -_Looking_Beyond_the_Raw_Numbers_2009-pdf&folder=pdfs/db/newsletters
Aiken, L. (2001). The Hospital Nurse Workforce: Problems and Prospects."Draft
For the Council on the Economic Impact of Health System Change. Retrieved from: http://council.brandeis.edu/pubs/hospstruct / Council-Dec-14-2001-Aiken-paper.pdf
Nursing is one of the most important professions in the world today. It involves not only physical healing, but also healing on a deeper level, where the care giving extends to the patient's environment and relationships to speed the healing process. The nursing environment then often also concerns politics and political involvement. As caregivers who operate in an inclusive environment and relationships, it is often necessary for nurses to be aware of political processes and policies. In this way, nurses can ensure an optimal environment for their patients and the healing process in general.
Des Jardin (2001) defines politics as "a means to an end." Nurses who are concerned with policy formation outcomes must involve themselves in politics. There are a number of ways in which this can be accomplished. Mainly, the author notes that nurses can affect the development of institutional policies by becoming involved in politics…
Des Jardin, K.E. (2001, Oct.). Political involvement in nursing education and empowerment. AORN Journal. Retrieved from: http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0FSL/is_4_74/ai_80159541/
Technology-based teaching strategies can greatly accelerate the how both teaching and learning occur and therefore often reduce traditional issues and concerns faced by students and instructors. This approach changes the conventional way of thinking about how quality nursing programs are assessed and changes the levels of requirements to better suit student learning with better access to libraries, counseling and tutoring services, computing equipment, tuition, and financial aid to name a few.
But where this Associates Degree approach will benefit the profession most is in the healthcare system where it is needed most. New nurses will be better acclimated to the needs of sophisticated logging processes, medical billing and inventory as well as scheduling and other tasks now all handled via digital processing and computer. A modern day nurses are more technologically sophisticated, the overall patient care process also gets better as more available free time is offered back to the…
Health Care Professions: Issues and Questions
I believe that health care is indeed a right for all people. Just as personal and public safety is a right that we all believe in, ascribe to, and pay to uphold, so we should also protect the right to be healthy. It is the nation's job to help create an existence for its citizens that is free from disease and other forms of harm. The government does this in other concrete ways for its people, such as by providing definitive means of protection through a police force and through legislation to protect public and personal safety. Thus the health and wellness safety of its people needs to be treated as equally important. Those who oppose a pervasive and comprehensive healthcare system for all (and with it, the taxes that come to all in order to afford such a system) often argue that sick…
Boseley, S. (2005, December 19). UK agencies still hiring poorest nations' nurses. Retrieved from theguardian.com: http://www.theguardian.com/society/2005/dec/20/health.politics
Roy, A. (2013, March 28). Yes, Health Care is a Right -- An Individual Right. Retrieved from Forbes.com: http://www.forbes.com/sites/theapothecary/2013/03/28/yes-health-care-is-a-right-an-individual-right/
As a future nurse educator, using technology to gather and disseminate healthcare information will become even more critical for me in the future. Students and patients alike will expect that their teachers will have a broad, in-depth range of knowledge about new technology in the field of heath informatics.
The organization offers information about 'best practices' in healthcare technology, such as how to protect patient privacy in the online age. Medical ethics and best practices will no doubt be a topic of debate in many of the classes I will teach in the future, whether I am educating future nurses or patients.
The organization offers continuing education resources in the field of health technology. Keeping one's education current is essential, as healthcare computer systems are constantly changing and improving.
Members can attend conferences, and interact with nurses from a wide variety of backgrounds, thus broadening my framework of knowledge…
Nursing BA vs. Associates
Nursing Competencies -- Associates vs. Baccalaureates
The difference competencies between nurses prepared at the associate-degree level nursing vs. The baccalaureate-degree level are significantly different on many levels. Today's nurses work in a healthcare environment that is undergoing a constant evolution at a speed never before imagined (NLN Board of Governers, 2011). Patient needs have become more complicated; nurses must implement requisite competencies in leadership, health policy, system improvement, research, evidence-based practice, and teamwork and collaboration in order to deliver high-quality care. Furthermore, nurses are also required to master different technologies that are also evolving extremely rapidly.
There are basically three different alternative paths to becoming a registered nurse. Some hospitals offer a three-year program that is administered in the hospital setting. Another option is a two to three-year program in which graduates receive an associate's degree and can be administered at a community college or any…
Mahaffey, E. (2002, May 2). The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing. Retrieved from The Relevance of Associate Degree Nursing Education: Past, Present, Future: http://www.nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/ANAMarketplace/ANAPeriodicals/OJIN/TableofContents/Volume72002/No2May2002/RelevanceofAssociateDegree.aspx
Moltz, D. (2010, January 7). Nursing Tug of War. Retrieved from Inside Higher Ed: http://www.insidehighered.com/news/2010/01/07/nursing
NLN Board of Governers. (2011, January). Transforming Nursing Education: Leading the Call to Reform. Retrieved from NLN Vision: http://www.nln.org/aboutnln/livingdocuments/pdf/nlnvision_1.pdf
Rosseter, R. (2012, April 2). The Impact of Education on Nursing Practice. Retrieved from American Association of Colleges of Nursing: http://www.aacn.nche.edu/media-relations/fact-sheets/impact-of-education
This is one of the many reasons I look forward to being able to work within my own community. Nurses are at the forefront of community outreach and community betterment. As I get to know the local physicians, administrators, and program leaders, I can become a more effective member of the health care community.
In the future I intend to serve my community in a position of leadership, as a coordinator for healthcare services. I want to apply family systems theory to my nursing practice, because I see a growing demand for more collaborative methods of intervention that support rather than deny the role of family systems. With a great sensitivity to diversity in terms of religion and culture, I will be of great service to the local patient population.
While with the Post Masters Nurse Practitioner Program, I will improve my communications and networking skills because I believe in…
Research and Nursing Questions
Research is a complex and nuanced concept which means that one approach might not, in and of itself, answer the full scope of one's research questions. This is why it can sometimes be useful to combine Quantitative and Qualitative research strategies. This can help to provide a multidimensional perspective on a given research problem. The text by Bennett & Braumoller (2006) refers to the combination of these approaches as a Mixed Methods research strategy.
The use of Mixed Method research strategies is based on the view that researcher can produce greater on a subject by varying the approaches which are used to collect data. The idea that both qualitative and quantitative data gathering processes can produce a more expansive data set is driven by the understanding that there are often distinct limitations in the conclusions we can make from narrowly framed research investigations. (Bennett…
Bennett, A. & Braumoller, B. (2006). Where the Model Frequently Meets the Road: Combining Statistic [al,] Formal and Case Study Methods. APSA manuscript.
Media Relations. (2004). Nursing Shortage Fact Sheet. American Association of Colleges of Nursing
" (Rosen, 1) in a regard, community health falls within this purview and is a subset to the broader topic of public health.
c. Differences in roles of public and community health nurse and nurse in an acute care setting
The role which is given to the nurse in the public or community health context should be essentially similar to that which is seen in an acute care context. Ethical, practical and medical conditions remain unchanged from one context to the next. However, the nurse will be required to prepare for certain distinctions which do denote a difference. Particularly, nurses in public health settings are less likely to possess the resources and facilities which are afforded those in the acute care setting. This means that in many instances, public health nurses can only function as the front line for consultation, diagnosis and basic treatment. here more serious concerns become apparent,…
Health Disaster OC. (HDOC). (2008). Health Disaster Management Division. Oraange County Health Care Agency.
Orange County Health Care Agency (OCHCA). (2009). Epidemiology & Assessment. County of Orange California. Online at http://ochealthinfo.com/epi/
Rosen, G. (1993). A History of Public Health. JHU Press.
In the emergency room, this distinction can have a determinant impact on the ability of the staff to preserve life and diminish pain and suffering.
The introduction of a bioethical perspective into this dialogue invokes a question as to the primacy of an interest in pursuing to the utmost the well-being of the patient. This speaks to one of the core values associating the principles of the ANA with the treatment outcomes desired in patiences. An examination of the ANA's Code of Ethics reveals that a theoretical basis exists to contend a direct correlation between the nurse's self-interest and that which is best for any given patient. There exists an essential obligation for such healthcare practitioners to "examine the conflicts arising between their own personal and professional values, the values and interests of others who are responsible for patient care and health care decisions, as well as those of the…
American Nurse's Association (ANA). (2004). The Nurses Code of Ethics. The Center for Ethics and Human Rights. Online at .
The American Organization of Nurse Executives (AONE). (2009). AONE Resource Center. www.aone.org.
Dimaria, R.A. & Ostrow, L. (2004). West Virginia University School of Nursing Makes the Move to Web-Based Learning. Technological Horizons in Education Journal, 31.
Emergency Nurses Association (ENA). (2008). Vision/Mission Statements and Code of Ethics. www.ena.org.
The pathways scheme aims to offer opportunities for every grade of practitioner. This is part of a national process that anticipates quality improvement as a continuously evolving process.
Achieving fair and equal access to professional development for nurses and healthcare providers in the private sector has been difficult in the past. Education has sometimes been viewed as expensive and time-consuming, with staff release for learning difficult to achieve especially acute staff shortages are a definable obstacle already to effective treatment provision. However, it is vital to the principle of performance improvement and the pursuit of standardizing quality outcomes that healthcare provision be based on the active pursuit of staff excellence. This is to be seen as a far more desirable approach to personnel orientation than the imposition of sanctions for poor performance. Central to this is the need for improvement of the local facility's knowledge economy. To this extent, knowledge…
Burgess, M.M. (2003). What difference does public consultation make to ethics? Electronic Working Papers Series. W. Maurice Young Centre for Applied Ethics, University of British Columbia.
Cho, I. & Park, H. (2003). Development and evaluation of a terminology-based electronic nursing record system. Journal of Biomedical Informatics, 36(4), 304-312.
Cooymans, M.P.M. And Hintzen, E.F.M. (2000) Winst en Waarden. Deventer and Den Bosch: Samson.
DoH. (2004) Quality Standards. The Department of Health.
Nursing Case Study and Theoretical Knowledge of Healthcare System
Significant evidence shows that the responsibilities of the primary and acute care nurses vary significantly. The variation creates differences in the scope of work for the nurses, as they are engaged in different job perspectives. Primary and acute care nurses provide an array of services that aim at promoting health, preventing the occurrence of diseases, treating the sick, and providing the e clients with services, meeting their needs alongside creating public awareness to issues that affect their health and well-being. The difference of the services provided by the two becomes evident by the fact that the acute care nurses provide their services to patients who are critically sick, creating continuum variation in the services provided. In addition, nurses involved in the provision of nursing care services in the acute setups require specialized knowledge, skills, and expertise that allows them to provide…
Brown, L., Burton, R., Hixon, B., Kakade, M., Bhagalia, P., Vick, C., et al. (2011). Factors Influencing Emergency Department Preference for Access to Healthcare. Western Journal of Emergency Medicine, 13(5), 410-415.
Brown, S., & Stenner, P. (2009). Psychology without foundations history, philosophy and psychosocial theory. London: Sage Publications.
Crowe, M., & Carlyle, D. (2003). Deconstructing risk assessment and management in mental health nursing. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 43(1), 19-27.
DiClemente, R.J., Crosby, R.A., & Kegler, M.C. (2002). Emerging theories in health promotion practice and research strategies for improving public health. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Communication in a Collaborative Healthcare Context
Providing leadership in a healthcare context requires one skilled both as a manager and as a collaborator. The modern healthcare context is a highly collaborative environment in which medical professionals must work hand in hand with specialists, nurses, physicians, family members, physical therapists, mental health professional, administrators and the patients themselves in order to derive treatment of the highest quality. The discussion hereafter considers the implications of this collaborative environment to those serving in roles of leadership within the healthcare field with a particular focus on communication.
Communicating in the Collaborative Healthcare Context:
My consideration of communication in the healthcare context is taken from recent clinical experiences within which I interviewed an Advanced Practice Nurse, a doctorally prepared nurse and an ICU nurse manager. My time at the Pacific Institute of Nursing
Conference would yield a great many insights concerning the value…
Anderson, L. (2010). Communication in Nursing. Nurse Together.
Godbole, M. (2009). Communication Techniques in Nursing. Buzzle.com.
Schroyen, B. (2003). Developing Workplace Writing Skills for Nurses: Writing For Different Audience in the Heath Care System Requires Different Skills. Kai Tiaki: Nursing in New Zealand.
Nursing and Ethics
The emotional debate over abortion had been mischaracterized in the media, and hence disrupted any positive attempt to make progress in resolving the ethical and medical problems which have been created by the practice. A majority of Americans recognize and desire that abortion should be available when the life of the mother is at risk, or in the cases of rape or incest. However, liberal proponets like to expand this definition under the ubiquitous definition of the 'mothers health' which has been used to justify abortion on demand, for any reason. This latter expanded definition is significantly opposed by a majority of the ameircan population. In the midst of this struggle, comes the person needing medical care, who has neither been properly informed as to the dangers of the paractive, nor adequately counseled as to the options which exist regarding the future of her unborn child. The…
O'rourke, Kevin. PROXY CONSENT: DECIDING FOR OTHERS October 1980 accessed 23 April 2004. Available from: http://www.op.org/domcentral/study/kor/80100202.htm .
Bernard Lo, (July 2, 1987) "Behind Closed Doors: Promises and Pitfalls of Ethics Committees." NEJM 317;46.
Toward a More Natural Science, (1985) New York: Free Press,; p.211.
Curzer, Howard J. (6/22/1993) Fry's concept of care in nursing ethics. (response to Sara T. Fry, Hypatia, vol. 4, no.2, p.88, 1989) Hypatia.
S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2011). Furthermore, subpart C explains the privileges and the protections of confidentiality that is attached to the patient's record along with much exception (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2011).
The penalty for anyone who breaks confidentiality is imperative. In "November, 23, 2009" was increased to $11,000 (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2011). This goes for anyone in the medical field or has access to this information. A person has to follow HIPAA precisely or face a huge fine. If one thought of this ahead of time, whether or not they own a business, then no issues would arise legally. However, sometimes this does occur, especially for those who want to harm another person, yet in the medical field the goal is not to do this to any individual, regardless, otherwise he or she could face losing their license in…
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Civil Rights. (2011). Your health information privacy rights. Retrieved May 3, 2011, from U.S. Department of Health and Human
Services Civil Rights:
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2011). Health information privacy. Retrieved May 3, 2011, from U.S. Department of Health and Human Services:
They also need to research how much increasing the staffing levels will increase costs, and where funding will come from to cover those costs.
There is another aspect of the argument that must be addressed, as well. There is a nursing shortage, and even if staffing levels are increased, there may not be enough nurses to bring the staff up to the mandated levels, and then health care facilities would be in non-compliance. The union proposal to adopt mandated staffing levels should also address implementing new training and recruiting techniques to help health care entities meet the staffing challenges that a mandate would bring. Without the nurses and other trained professionals to work in these areas, staffing mandates do not do much good, and if the union wants to be successful, they must recognize that.
Atkins, Siegel & Slutsky. (2005). Making policy when the evidence is in dispute. Health…
Atkins, Siegel & Slutsky. (2005). Making policy when the evidence is in dispute. Health Affairs, 24(1), 102-113.
Feilding & Briss. (2006). Promoting evidenced-based public health policy: can we have better evidenced and more action? Health Affairs, 25(4), 969-978.
Wharam & Daniels (2007). Toward evidenced-based policy making and standardized assessment of health policy reform. JAMA 298(6): 676-690.
The experiences of seniors within the healthcare delivery system will alter how all Americans view healthcare. The healthcare delivery systems and overall organizational structure in the United States has been slow to adjust but that rest of the world is currently in flux that will migrate into our system. Technological advances in communication have made telehealth and telemedicine vialbel solutions to our outdated healthcare industry orgainzational structre. While these types of advances are only in their infancy, "...there seemed to be broad acceptance that telehealth and telemedicine had provided positive benefits to the worlds healthcare delivery system." (Telehealth Applications) Our technoloically challenged seniors have actually discovered the trend within the healthcare system and telehealth and telemedicine seems to be an advance that will find worldwide support so we as a nation will be reqquired to jump on the bandwagon.
In conclusion, this article review focused on new Healthcare Delivery Systems…
Farnsworth, Chris. "The Truth About Fraud" Washington Monthly 01 May 1997.
Joshua-Amadi, Mabel. "Recommendations: A Study in Motivation: Recruitment and Retention in the NHS" Nursing Management. February (2003).
Soloye, Daniel J. "Privacy and Power: Computer Databases and Metaphors for Information Privacy" Stanford Law Review July (2001).
Telehealth Applications. (2004) "Current Telehealth Applications" Retrieved October 26, 2004, at http://www.startegis.com/epic/internet/inict-tic.nsf/PrintableE/it07545e.html
Nursing in 2021
Over the next decade, and for years to come afterwards, the expected growth in the older adult population will have a significant impact on the healthcare system. The baby boom generation, individuals born between 1946 and 1964, began turning 65 in 2011. By 2020 the number of Americans age 65 and older is expected to rise to 54 million. Furthermore, as a result of better nutrition, safety and health care the number of individuals who reach the age of 85 or older will grow even more dramatically ("The Impact of Aging Population on the Health Workforce in the United States," 2006).
This will precipitate a greater demand for health care in general and will also affect the nature of the skills and services the health care workforce must be equipped to provide, and the settings in which this care is provided. As a person ages, their immune…
ACNP. (2010). Numbers of nurse practitioners in U.S. American college of nurse practitioners. Retrieved February 1, 2012, from http://www.acnpweb.org/i4a/pages/index.cfm?pageid=3353
"The impact of aging population on the health workforce in the United States: summary of key findings." (2006, March) Center for health workforce studies, School of Public Health, University of Albany. Retrieved January 31, 2012, from http://www.albany.edu/news/pdf_files/impact_of_aging_excerpt.pdf
Cronenwett, L.R. (Ed.). (2011). The future of nursing education. In The Future of Nursing: Leading Change, Advancing Health. Institute of Medicine. Retrieved February 1, 2012, from http://www.iom.edu/~/media/Files/Activity%20Files/Workforce/Nursing/Future%20of%20Nursing%20Education.pdf
Health and Nursing
eduction of bedsores through implementation of Hospital wide turntable
Does the implementation of a hospital-wide turntable team have a positive impact on the reduction of bedsores?
eduction of Bedsores
A pressure ulcer (PU) or bedsore can be defined as an injury to underlying tissue of the skin that occurs due to pressure or friction. In most cases, the injured tissue sores due to the pressure exerted over a prominent bone. PU has also been defined as areas of necrosis due to tissue compression amid the bony prominence and the extracorporeal surface for a prolonged time period (Gray & Krapfl, 2008). It is therefore apparent from these definitions that exposure to pressure for a lengthy time is the primary cause of bedsores.
To prevent or minimize bedsores therefore, it is imperative upon medical practitioners to put intervention measures in place that will reduce exposure to pressure. The human…
Gorecki, C., Brown, J.M. & Andrea, N.E. (2009) Impact of Pressure Ulcers on Quality of Life in Older Patients: A Systematic Review. Journal of American Geriatrics Society. DOI: 10.1111/j, 1532-5415.
Gray, M & Krapfl, L.A. (2005) Does regular repositioning prevent pressure ulcers? Journal of Wound, Ostomy and Continence Nursing. Vol.35, No.6, 571-577.
Ikechokwu, E.C., Idowu, O.A. & Anekwe, D.E. (2012) Prevalence and Factors Associated With Healing Outcomes of Hospitals-acquired Pressure Ulcers among Patients With Spinal Cord Injury. Journal of Public Health and Epidemiology.Vol. 4(2), p. 44-47.
Kaitani, T., Tokunaga, K., Matsui, N., Sananda, H. (2010) Risk factors related to the development of pressure ulcers in the critical care setting. Journal of Clinical Nursing. Vol.19, 414-421.
Nursing Counseling and Smoking Cessation Among Inpatients
The work of Li, et al. (2014) reports a study that examines the facilitators and barriers to effective smoking cessation as it relates to counseling services provided to inpatients by nurse counselors.
The study reports that the Taiwanese Health Promotion Administration reports that 4.8 million smokers exist in Taiwan and that nearly 50% of these smokers were interested in quitting smoking. Smoking cessation is beneficial to both smokers and those whom they love and are loved by in that smoking cessation not only saves lives of those who quit smoking but in addition results in reduction in the costs of personal and health care. According to the report, THPA's implementation of the "New Smoking Cessation Policy on the 1st of March 2012 to expand smoking cessation counseling services to both outpatient and inpatient settings." (Li et al., 2014, p. 5) Li et al.…
Li, I. et al. (2014) Facilitators and Barriers to Effective Smoking Cessation: Counseling Services for Inpatients from Nurse-Counselor's Perspectives -- A Qualitative Study. Int J. Envrion Res. Public Health. 11, 4782-4798.