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Public Policy in the State of Maryland: An Examination of evenues and Potential Funding Options
The objective of this work is to examine the funding policies in the State of Maryland of the Department of Natural esources funding allotments and to critically analyze funding decision-making in this area of economic finance for the State of Maryland. The State of Maryland invests deeply in its natural resources, which is shown by the Department of Natural esources for the State of Maryland receiving more funding than any other department according to the states' budget for fiscal year 2011.
Public Policy in the State of Maryland: An Examination of evenues and Potential Funding Options
The objective of this work is to examine the funding policies in the State of Maryland of the Department of Natural esources funding allotments and to critically analyze the funding decision-making in this area of economic finance for…
NO NET LOSS OF FOREST TASK FORCE (2009) Final Report and Recommendations January 2009. Retrieved from: http://www.dnr.state.md.us/dnrnews/pdfs/NNLTFFINALREPORT1.pdf
Conserving Land for People (2010) Boosting Tourism. The Trust for Public Land. Retrieved from: http://www.tpl.org/tier3_cd.cfm?content_item_id=1154&folder_id=727
State of Maryland Budget Index (2010) FY 2011. Retrieved from: http://www.dbm.maryland.gov/agencies/operbudget/Documents/2011/Proposed/Index1.pdf
Maryland Budget Highlights (2010) FY 2011 Department of Budget and Management. Retrieved from: http://www.dbm.maryland.gov/agencies/operbudget/Documents/2011/FY2011BudgetHighlights.pdf
The process of setting congress agendas and policies has always been complex and contentious. Since some issues warrant consideration by policy makers, intense competitive exists in a position on the congressional policy agenda. This study discusses the trends in Congressional agenda setting as provided in the chart.
As seen in the chart, Bipartisan Corporation has declined in the Congress. This is considered as one of the hallmark attributes of the increasing party polarization. As the major parties move further apart from each other and become extremely homogenous, bipartisan agreements are less likely. Most polarization work focuses on individual patterns of voting and preferences instead of focusing on the type and amount of legislation, which receives partisan or bipartisan support or whether party strategy, contributes towards the polarization. This study has discovered that the rise of polarization in the ideologies of the legislature, party strategy and joint roles of…
Bartels, L.M. (2000). Partisanship and Voting Behavior, 1952-1996. American Journal of Political Science 44 (1): 35-50.
Campbell, J.E. & Jurek, S.J. (2003). The Decline of Competition and Change in Congressional
Elections. In The United States Congress: A Century of Change. Columbus: Ohio State
Gary, J.C. (2000). Reversal of Fortune: The Transformation of U.S. House Elections in the
The ush administration believes that hydrogen cars hold to key to reducing pollution, decreasing dependence of foreign oil, making energy more affordable and overcoming resource shortages (Onion, 2004). In ush's 2003 State of the Union address, he revealed his goal of having significant numbers of hydrogen cars on the road by 2020, pledging $1.2 billion in federal funding to achieve his objective. In 2004, the energy department included $318 million for fuel cells and hydrogen production in its 2005 budget. However, abundant evidence suggests that hybrids, not fuel cells should be the focus of public policy for the immediate future. This research discusses why public policy needs to embrace a short-term strategy involving hybrids and hydrogen research and development with a longer-term focus on selecting proven technologies.
The illusory lure of hydrogen cars is the fact that they will eliminate carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from cars when driven.…
Block, S. (2004, January 25). Hybrid car saves fuel, money. The Enquirer. Retrieved December 31, 2004 from Web site: http://www.enquirer.com/editions/2004/01/25/biz_greencar25.html
Driving it home: Hybrid cars overtake fuel cells in short-term comparison (2003, March 11). EurActiv. Retrieved December 31, 2004 from Web site: http://www.euractiv.com/Article?tcmuri=tcm:29-113292-16& ; type=News
Keith, D.W., and A.E. Farrell, 2003: Rethinking hydrogen cars. Science 301, 315-316
Korchinski, W. (2004, November). Fueling America: how hydrogen cars affect the environment. Retrieved December 30, 2004 from Reason Public Policy Institute Web site: http://www.rppi.org/ps322.pdf
The public policy proposal is that the state should have an action plan for a potential Ebola outbreak. There are several reasons for this. The first reason is the health reason, where clearly there is a need to ensure that should there be any outbreak of Ebola, that it is contained, and that it does not get out into the general public. While the odds of an outbreak are minimal, they are possible as long as people are able to travel from affected regions to our state. As such, state officials should have a plan for containing an outbreak, and dealing with the aftermath of an outbreak, which could be fairly serious in terms of public anxiety.
The second reason why the state should have an action plan for Ebola is that it requires a coordinated effort to control the spread of this disease. No one agency or…
Kroll, D. (2014). An ebola outbreak contained: What the U.S. And other nations can learn from Nigeria. Forbes. Retrieved October 22, 2014 from http://www.forbes.com/sites/davidkroll/2014/10/20/what-can-africas-ebola-containment-successes-teach-other-nations/
" (CRT, p. 1)
According to the U.S. Department of State, Costa Rica has been a Constitutional Democracy since 1949, which makes it the oldest and most stable democracy in all of Latin America. Its partnerships with the global community are therefore a matter of some inherency. But this inherency cannot be accepted without some caution. This is demonstrated by a study produced Boo (1992). Here, at the early outset of Costa Rica's effort to grow tourism, Boo's research warned that some of the risks of increased interaction between growing numbers of tour groups and protected natural lands might be difficult to project. Accordingly, Boo noted that "increasing demand for nature tourism is reflected in the number of tour operators offering tours to protected areas and in the increasing number of foreign visitors to national parks. Examples of some of the major protected areas are presented and the economic impacts…
Boo, E. (1992). Ecotourism: The potential and pitfalls-Country Case Studies. Organizacion para Estudios Tropicales, 2, 25-52.
Chase, L.C.; Lee, D.R.; Schulze, W.D. & Anderson, D.J. (1998). Ecotourism Demand and Differential Pricing of National Park Access in Costa Rica. Land Economics, 74(4).
Costa Rica Tourism (CRT). (2010). Welcome to Costa Rica! Tourism.co.cr.
Hearne, R.R. & Salinas, Z.M. (2002). The use of choice experiments in the analysis of tourist preferences for ecotourism development in Costa Rica. Journal of Environmental Management, 65(2), 153-163.
Public Policy and Unintended Consequences: A eview of Stakeholders and Incentives
There are a myriad of unintended consequences that relate to changes in public policy, specifically relating to management characteristics and priorities. Without taking these changes into consideration, it is impossible to impart change that will positively impact any group or population. The specific changes relative to the public sector reform in the UK are causing many unintended consequences themselves. The action and reaction to which are relatively negative from a public policy standpoint. When government changes public policy, it creates specific incentives to prioritize government resources and benefits, regardless of the goals of the reform. The Ghobadian, et. al. (2009) paper helps to develop a clear picture of just such a reprioritization and how this affects the general population. Government regulation or policy reform is important. But such reform and regulation implementation needs to occur in moderation, otherwise the…
Evans, Anthony J. 2011. "The Financial Crisis in the UK: Uncertainty, Calculation and Error." ESCP Europe; ESCP Europe - Department of Economics.
Fisher, Justin; Phillips, Hayden; and Straw, Jack. 2009. "The Continuation of British Exceptionalism in Party Finance." Parliamentary Affairs. 62(2): 298-317
Green, Christopher J.; Pentecost, Eric, J.; and Weyman-Jones, Thomas G. 2011. The Financial Crisis and the Regulation of Finance. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing Limited.
Mainelli, Michael and Manson, Bernard 2011. "Small Enough To Fail: A Systems Approach To Financial Systems Reform." Journal of Risk Finance, 12(5): 119-124.
S. General Accounting Office (GAO) estimates' in 1991 stated that nearly 30% of those incarcerated had used drugs daily in the month before committing the offense for which they were in prison. y the year 2003 there were approximately 6.9 million individuals either on probation, in mail, or in prison which equals 32% of all U.S. adults residents or 1 out of every 32 adults. (U.S. ureau of Justice Corrections Statistics, 2003) There were a total of 1,470,045 inmates under State and Federal jurisdiction on the last day of the year of 2003 and 1,296,986 under controls of State jurisdiction and 173,059 under Federal jurisdiction. During the period of 1995 to 2003 the rate of growth of those incarcerated was 3.4% annually with population growth during the 12-moth period to end December 31, 3002 lower in state prisons than in local jails with the rise in state prisons being 1.4%…
United States Bureau of Justice Statistics Report: Correction Statistics 2003 [Online located at http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/correct.htm ]
Persons with Alcohol & Other Drug (AOD) Problems and the Criminal Justice System American Society of Addictive Medicine (ASAM) Public Policy [Online located at http://www.asam.org/ppol/Criminal%20Justice%20System.htm ]
Ruikar, Vijay (2001) Detention and Correctional Facility Standards: Their Role in Field Inspection, Testing and Certification [Online located at http://www.astm.org/SNEWS/SEPTEMBER_2001/ruikar_sept01.html ].
Montaldo, Charles (2004) U.S. Prisons: How Crowded are They?" [Online located at http://crime.about.com/od/prison/a/bjs040720_p.htm]
The pluralist school is elieved to have est "captured the dynamics of the argaining process among different interest groups trying to influence the policy process, and etween these groups and policy makers (Lindlom and Woodhouse, 1993; as cited y Rosetti, 1999) in the view of Lindlom and Woodhouse the limitations that exist in terms of limitations on knowledge is readily availale during the electoral process in the U.S. These authors elieve that pulic policy making y the mass pulic is unrealistic ecause so many people are unlikely to come to any agreement however the elected officials often lose touch with the pulse of the voters. The ureaucratic system which is responsile for implementation of the policies that have een developed is that which keeps check on elected officials. The Bureaucrats have more experience in the policy function and actually end up in the role of policy maker when the elected…
Lindblom, Charles E., Edward J. Woodhouse 1993: The Policy-Making Process,
Third Edition, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, USA
" (Assessing, Selecting, and Implementing Instruments for Government Action, 2007) Questions that must be asked are those as follows: (1) Is the issue one where government can act alone? (2) Is the issue one where external actors can act alone with some influence from government? (3) Is the issue one where a mixed governance approach is required, that is, where government and external actors need to act together? (4) What external actors operate in the same field? (5) Are the external actors potential collaborators? (6) Can they regulate themselves? (7) Can their self-regulatory abilities be enhanced by means such as capacity and institution building? (8) Are indirect forms of government action appropriate as opposed to direct intervention through regulation? (9) Can new actors be found? (10) if creating new markets, can new actors be encouraged to play a role? (Assessing, Selecting, and Implementing Instruments for Government Action, 2007) it is…
Assessing, Selecting, and Implementing Instruments for Government Action (2007) Government of Canada. 9 Aug 2007.
Defining the Social Problem (2008) Public Policy Analyst - Project Legal Online available at: http://www2.maxwell.syr.edu/plegal/Tips/select.html
Grosh, Margaret E. (1993) Five Criteria for Choosing Among Poverty Programs. Policy Research Department the World Bank 1993 October. Online available at: http://www-wds.worldbank.org/external/default/WDSContentServer/IW3P/IB/1993/10/01/000009265_3961005101424/Rendered/PDF/multi0page.pdf
With corporate profits at an all- time high, the "annual $92 billion in direct and indirect subsidies to businesses and private-sector corporate entities" (Slivinski, S. May 14, 2007) would provide the funding necessary to implement the proposal.
Policy invariably comes down to political positioning, and in this case the question becomes whether the strengthening of the middle class is a more important goal then subsidizing corporate coffers. In formulating the legislation the policy model provides a realistic approach for reaching a consensus on sustainable economic development. Sound policy depends on compromise and the belief that there is recognized agreement on the ostensible outcomes of the prescribed action. Formulation, implementation, and analysis then depend on a concrete and identifiable source of measurable criterion on which to base judgment.
A general criterion model provides four platforms from which to gauge the efficacy of the policy proposal: Economic (cost-benefit), Equity (social allocation of…
California State University Long Beach. (N.D.). Establishing Analysis Criteria. PPA 670
Policy Analysis. California State University Long Beach. Retrieved July 13, 2011 from http://www.csulb.edu/~msaintg/ppa670/p&sch5.htm
Fox, W., Bayat, S. & Ferreira, N. (2006). A Guide to Managing Public Policy. Juta & Company Limited. http://books.google.com/books?id=pHZczfNlk_gC&pg=PA67&lpg=PA67&dq=institutional+model+of+public+policy&source=bl&ots=Co_GsXMnO7&sig=KIlgzR2XVjVyawT5LJEzcTqOSVY&hl=en&ei=N3cdTu20DeT30gGu3oDNBw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=6&sqi=2&ved=0CEcQ6AEwBQ#v=onepage&q=institutional%20model%20of%20public%20policy&f=false
Nutting, R. (July 8, 2011). How the Bubble Destroyed the Middle Class. Yahoo Finance.
Te current ealt care policy is rater business friendly wit insurance companies wielding te power in terms of wo gets access and wo does not. Necessary policy canges include addressing te pre-existing conditions coverage tat is really no coverage at all and te coverage of care after involuntary separation from employment needs to be addressed as well.
Quality issues wit ealt care are certainly a policy issue wen speaking about Medicare and Medicaid reimbursement and subsequent outcomes from procedures supported wit federal dollars. Additionally, institutions suc as nursing omes and skilled nursing facilities are often eavily supported wit federal dollars and often ave orrible results wen speaking of outcomes measurement in areas suc as pain management, and susceptibility for a DU type I-IV, wic is a skin ulcer of increasing severity.
Terefore, te options must be compreensive to address tese aforementioned issues in a cost-effective manner. Wat te policy must…
Hartman, M., Martin, a., Nuccio, O., & Catlin, a. (2010). Health spending growth at a historic low in 2008.Health Affairs, 29(1), 147. Retrieved
Scott, J.S. (2003). The doctor takes charge: Healthcare prospects brighten under new senate leader.Healthcare Financial Management, 57(2), 32. Retrieved
3 million workers who would indirectly receive raises due to the spillover effect of a minimum wage increase. ("Minimum age: Frequently Asked Questions")
Some people have argued that increasing the minimum wage does not help to reduce poverty since most poor people do not form part of the labor force. This may have been partially true in the past when many poor families did not have any family members in the paid labor force. According to the Economic Policy Institute, however, a minimum wage increase is likely to have a greater impact on reducing poverty in future as welfare reform is now forcing more poor families to rely on their earnings from low-paying jobs. Certain studies such as the one by Addison and Blackburn (1999) found that federal minimum wage increases in the 1990s have reduced poverty rates, and another study (Sawhill and Thomas, 2001) suggests that a minimum wage…
Chipman, Kim. "Higher Minimum Wage No Longer Seen as Sure-Fire U.S. Job Killer." Bloomberg. Com. March 14, 2007 http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=20601103&sid=atp2MiOAZ3Xc
Dimock, Michael. "Maximum Support for Raising the Minimum." Pew Research Center Publications. April 19, 2006. March 14, 2007. http://pewresearch.org/pubs/18/maximum-support-for-raising-the-minimum
Haussamen, Brock. "Overview: The Benefits of Raising the Federal Minimum Wage." The Minimum Wage: Information, Opinion, Research. N.d. March 14, 2007. http://www.raiseminwage.org/id24.html
Hoar, William P. "Minimum Wage, Maximum Absurdity." The New American 28 Nov. 2005: 42+.
esults can then be used to optimize the benefits and minimize the costs. Economists for example should also research the effect of the bill on specific sectors of the nation, such as the poor, and those who depend upon specific energy industries for their wealth. If such research is used to demonstrate to the public the specific projections for the future by means of a generally available report, it may be easier for citizens to accept any sacrifices that need to be made.
The public can also be included in the decision-making process that would benefit the environment and long-term sustainability. epresentatives from the public, as well as stakeholders from various industries should be included in the decision-making process. These stakeholders can then provide valuable input in finding a compromise between the need to ensure sustainable livelihoods and ensuring a sustainable environment for the future.
In its current form, I…
Gethard, Gregg (2009). Study: Benefits of Cap and Trade "Far Outweigh" Costs. Retrieved from http://www.heatingoil.com/blog/study-benefits-cap-trade-outweigh-costs/
Wall Street Journal (2009, June 26). The Cap and Tax Fiction. Retrieved from http://online.wsj.com/article/SB124588837560750781.html
Washington Examiner. (2009, May 22). Waxman-Markey cap-and-trade bill stuffed full of unpleasant surprises. Examiner Editorial. Retrieved form http://www.washingtonexaminer.com/opinion/Waxman-Markey-cap-and-trade-bill-stuffed-full-of-unpleasant-surprises-45836042.html
This focus on tribal or familial loyalty over loyalty to the state makes bribery and nepotism seem normal, rather than shocking. One reason that party machines are often associated with particular ethnic groups is that loyalties and communities that have banded together to sustain themselves in a new environment often use the opportunities provided by politics to find a foothold in society. Corrupt, intransigent, and non-functional governments that fail to inspire loyalty coupled with personal alliances that are stronger than the law is characteristic of corrupt cultures of governance all over the world.
To root out corruption and to change the culture of politics in a state or in a nation requires streamlining the layers of government to enable more careful surveillance by ethics watchdog agencies and the law. It also requires a change of leadership every level of government, not simply the top leadership of the state. One specific…
S. presidents since 1900 are of special interest to you for their policy formulation and implementation? Discuss your answer giving examples from their Administrations.
Franklin Delano Roosevelt transformed modern American public policy. His New Deal alleviated the crisis of confidence in American government that occurred after the Great Depression. Roosevelt created the first safety net for Americans, in the form of Social Security and unemployment insurance. His public works programs stimulated the American economy and put unemployed Americans back to work. Programs like the Tennessee Valley Administration changed the lives of rural Americans, and many of his programs endure to this day, at least in modified form. ithout Roosevelt, the concept of an American government that cares for the least well off in society and restrains the excesses of the capitalist system and the business cycle would never have taken form in the national consciousness. Every time a person sighs…
Biography of Franklin Roosevelt. (2009). The White House. Retrieved June 8, 2009 at http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/franklindroosevelt/
Biography of Lyndon Johnson (2009). The White House. Retrieved June 8, 2009 at http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/lyndonjohnson/
Biography of Theodore Roosevelt. (2009). The White House. Retrieved June 8, 2009 at http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/TheodoreRoosevelt/
Froomkin, Jonathan. (2009, June). Obama's big healthcare test. The Washington Post. Retrieved June 8, 2009 at http://voices.washingtonpost.com/white-house-watch/health-care/obamas-big-health-care-test.html
Although, the bills have not yet been passed, and so there is no loan forgiveness availablility.
Representatives H.R. 2073 have said "I am writing/calling to ask the Representative to cosponsor H.R. 2073, the "Child Health Care Crisis Relief Act of 2007." This bill will grant much-needed loan forgiveness and scholarships to mental health professionals who work with children and adolescents. America's youth need proper mental health care, and H.R. 2073 will encourage mental health professionals to help address the current shortage of providers for children. Please tell the Representative that I hope he/she will support loan forgiveness for mental health professionals. Thank you for your time." (Copyright 2008, American Counseling Association)
On the other hand, the enator or cosponsor, .1572 have said, "I am writing/calling to ask the enator to cosponsor . 1572, the "Child Health Care Crisis Relief Act of 2007," which would grant much-needed loan forgiveness and scholarships…
Summary Record of the 7th Meeting, Held at Headquarters, New York, on Tuesday, 27 April 1993 United Nations Children's Fund, Executive Board, 1993 Regular Session. [New York]: UN, 1993.
Shapiro a, L Seim, RC Christensen, a Dandekar, MK Duffy, DM Krol, I Redlener, and a Brito. "Chronicles from Out-of-State Professionals: Providing Primary Care to Underserved Children After a Disaster: a National Organization Response." Pediatrics. 117. 5 (2006): 412-5.
U.S. Committee for UNICEF (United Nations Children's Fund). U.S. Committee for United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF USA), http://www.unicefusa.org/ .
The National Center for Missing and Exploited Children, which had originally declined to help further the cause in 1996, expanded in 2002 and started helping to promote the Amber Alert (Lawmakers, 2002). That was a huge leap forward for the Amber Alert system, because the NCMEC was such a large organization with so much to offer when it came to getting the public's attention and getting the word out about children who needed help because they had been abducted or had otherwise disappeared from their home or another location. Thanks to the Amber Alert and the efforts of agencies with which that alert is associated, more children are found before they can be harmed.
From both a social and a political context, the Amber Alert is highly significant. The natural instinct of most of society is to protect children, because they are weaker and more vulnerable to predators than the…
Guidance on Criteria for Issuing AMBER Alerts (PDF). (2004).U.S. Department of Justice.
Lawmakers push national Amber alert system. (2002). CNN.com.
Senate approves national child abduction alert legislation. (2002). USAToday.
This is because individuals, especially those with families, view a health plan as an essential hedge against risk of catastrophic illness or injury. The public option will cap the price of insurance, so that buyers are no longer price takers above that point. This will force the private insurers to control costs or offer more coverage in order to attract customers. Corporations may forgo private insurance altogether if the cost is higher than the tax they would pay -- again either forcing the insurers to lower prices and/or control their costs.
Another intended outcome is that with greater influence over health care costs via their insurance program, the federal government will be able to lower or at least slow the rate of growth of those costs. This capability would come from increased bargaining power over health care providers and drug companies. Medicare, it has been pointed out, pays less to…
McAskill, E. (2009). Senate Democrats reach compromise on U.S. health care plan. The Guardian. Retrieved December 10, 2009 from http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2009/dec/09/healthcare-senate-democrats
Krugman, P. (2009). Why the public option matters. New York Times. Retrieved December 10, 2009 from http://krugman.blogs.nytimes.com/2009/09/08/why-the-public-option-matters/
Public Policy and Health
Increasing premium costs for managed care have considerable influence for America's workforce. The rise in the financial burden on the workforce to contribute to their health care plans to assist offset increasing premiums paid by business owners cause the workforce to drop the coverage. The number of the uninsured remains the most glaring evidence of the U.S. healthcare crisis. egardless of opinion polls regularly depicting that a majority of Americans prefer a health care system that guarantees universal coverage, insurance firms profiting from the current system have stifled any true reform. This looks at the specific financial issues like transport, health insurance, income, globalization, and rising health care cost that currently affect the U.S. health care system.
Many rural areas in the U.S. lack adequate public transportation systems. This has left people to find their own transportation; in the extreme situations, this implies walking to…
Drake, D.F. (2010). Reforming the health care market: An interpretive economic history. Washington, DC: Georgetown Univ. Press.
Farley, D.O., & Mendel, P. (2009). Assessing Patient Safety Practices and Outcomes in the U.S. Health Care System. Santa Monica: RAND Corp.
Lavastida, J.I. (2010). Health care and the common good: A Catholic theory of justice. Lanham, Md. [u.a.: University Press of America.
Lawrence, K., & Tabbner, A.R. (2008). Tabbner's nursing care: Theory and practice. Sydney, N.S.W: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone.
Public Policy the Affordable Care Act
The Patient, Protection and Affordable Care Act transformed the landscape of modern American healthcare. It is changing how people receive a variety of services ranging from primary care to specialized procedures. The current issues are showing a divide that exists between liberals and conservatives. At the heart of this approach, is the role of the federal government vs. The free market. This means that each side will make statements which are designed to support their arguments and illustrate the long-term effects on everyone. Once this happens, is the point they will state how this will make the underlying problems better or worse. (Emanuel 2014)
Describe this health care policy from the Affordable Care Act as being an issue
In the next 20 years, there will be a dramatic expansion of Medicare and Medicaid. This is because the Affordable Care Act is transforming who can…
Affordable Care Act. (2014). Medicaid. Retrieved from: http://www.medicaid.gov/AffordableCareAct/Affordable-Care-Act.html
Davidson, S. (2013). A New Era in U.S. Healthcare. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Emanuel, E, 2014, Reinventing American Healthcare, Public Affairs, New York.
Fine, P. (1993). Herd Immunity. Epidemiologic Reviews, 15 (2), 265-298.
Every five years, the congress introduces and revises the farm bill which aims to facilitate the farmers of America. The Bill or the Agricultural Act of 2018 has been introduced to provided subsidies to farmers and improve their conditions. It has allocated $867 billion for this policy to incentivize the farmers (Aid, 2018).
This Farm Bill of 2018 is of immense benefit to the public and catered to so many areas of farmers. The 2014 Farm bill which issued Farm Ranch and Assistance Network wasn't funded in the time of 2014 so in 2018, it was promoted and adjusted for a few changes. It deals with the mental health and stress of the farmers (Aid, 2018). It is a good initiative to be funded since it deals with the long term sustainment of the farmers’ health, improving the performance of the farmers. There are also farmers' protection programs where they…
To be considered a concerned public agent, policy formulators are constantly scouting for possible conflict in the social setting. This is their key objective; to show course in the formulation of policy and pushing a social agenda. The public policy makers are often seen coming up with public advocacy program to sensitize the people one the existence of the conflict. Once the matter is seen as a social concern, they take it upon themselves to formulate a policy sufficient only to tackle the highlighted conflict. The culmination of the advocacy project leads to half-baked policy tackling a social concern based on previous policy.
Policy makers are seen to directly formulate policies based on previous experiences, as opposed to considerations for the real issues. The result of the policy formulated stretch from disjointed incremental measure that hardly tackle current issue. This is clearly "muddling through" and evading tackling of pertinent matters…
Unfortunately, the influence of the healthcare industry lobbyists is tremendous. One need only look up the publicly available information of how much large healthcare interests contribute to members of the U.S. Congress in any given year to understand why healthcare legislation continues to favor corporations over the members of the American public, almost half of whom cannot afford health insurance (Kennedy, 2006; eid, 2009).
Challenges, Problems and Next Steps
The principal problem responsible for the perpetuation of this issue is that political lobbying is currently an accepted process in the U.S. That poses tremendous challenges, largely because the very individuals whose attention, resolve, and action would be required to rectify the situation are those who currently benefit the most from it: elected members of the U.S. Congress. Unfortunately, only a small minority of those stakeholders -- most notably epresentative Anthony Weiner of New York and Senator Bernie Sanders of Vermont…
Halbert, T. And Ingulli, E. (2008). Law & Ethics in the Business Environment. Cincinnati:
West Legal Studies.
Kennedy, E. (2006). America: Back on Track. Viking: New York.
Reid, T. (2009). The Healing of America: A Global Quest for Better, Cheaper, and Fairer Health Care. New York: Penguin Group.
The study of public policy gained significant importance in the late fifties and sixties. However, policy science did not come into existence all of a sudden. It started to emerge when social scientists started researches on a wide range of sociopolitical problems. After the World War II, significant developments were made in the areas of operations research, economics and social psychology. These developments proved to be helpful in formulating new ways for more systematic and empirical investigations of policy making. Although, a considerable level of research was done in the areas of sociopolitical studies but the clear concept of a policy science was first introduced in 1951 by Harold Lasswell. "Lasswell's seminal work identified six basic characteristics of an emerging field of study, concerned with explaining policy making and policy executing process. (McCool)
The study of public policy gained momentum in the late 1960s. With the introduction of…
Daniel Mc Cool: The Theoretical Foundation of Policy Studies: Prentice Hall Press
Macrae Duncan: Policy Analysis for public decisions: Rowman and Littlefield Publishing Group Inc., 1985
Clarke E. Cochran: American Public Policy: An Introduction: Wadsworth Pub Co: August 1998
Van Horne, Carle E: Politics and Public Policy: CQ Press.
The author of this response is asked to answer to five major questions and requirements in this assignment relative to the school shootings and focus group research done within the Clemons and McBeth text. The author is asked to look at the content analysis/problem definition, critique the facilitator, survey/focus group analysis, symbols and metaphors and answer the question of "what's next." The author will do answer to these in the order listed in the assignment.
As for the content analysis and the overall description of the problem, the case study does better than most salacious and over-dramatic media reports about events like Columbine and the like but there is still a tinge of that element present and it's not tamped down at all later on. ather than focus on the root cuases and the best ways to do deal with school shootings and the like (e.g. help parents…
Clemons, R.S., & McBeth, M.K. (2009). Public policy praxis: a case approach for understanding policy and analysis (2nd ed.). New York: Pearson / Longman.
British policy style?
As one begins to consider British policy, both foreign and domestic, one conjures pictures of the Queen-mother and her regal adherence to British tradition. In this way the Queen-mother stands as an icon of everything that is British. One pictures solicitors, in their powdered wigs and smart suits engaging in scholarly argument that will shape British policy in the future. These icons are the epitome of British policy, they are steadfast, solid and true. Their foundation is rock-solid as it has its basis in the argument of many others before them.
Government policy is the result of conflict. The people of a particular country develop policies as a result of the needs of the individual country. These needs may vary due to many factors, including the availability of natural resources in the region. Traditions arise from necessity. As time passes, many times the people tend to forget…
Benz, A. And Ebelein, B., (1999) ' The Europeanisation of regional policies: patterns of multi-level governance' Journal of European Public Policy, 6.2 pgs 329-48
Baumgartner, F.R. And Jones, B.D. (1993) Agendas and Instability in American Politics. University of Chicago Press. Chicago, Illinois, USA. 298 pages
Dudley, G. And Richardson J. (1999) 'Competing advocacy coalitions and the process of "frame reflection": a longitudinal analysis of EU steel policy', Journal of Public Policy 6.2 pg. 226-247
Jordan G. And Richardson J. (1982) ' The British policy style or the logic of negotiation', in J. Richardson (ed.) Policy Styles in Western Europe (London: Allen & Unwin) pp 80-110.
Public policy in America can be neatly visualized with the Iron Triangle, in which government, special interest groups, and the bureaucratic systems interact. Congressional committees, special interest groups, and bureaucracies are the three points on the triangle, and the designator "iron" signifies the strength and immutability of the institutions and relationships between them. Iron also symbolizes the rigidity of policy making, which does not allow stakeholders or parties outside of the triangle to have a meaningful influence on decisions.
Special interest groups, as monolithic as they seem, are really composed of constituents that ultimately cast votes for politicians and who promote and shape party lines. For this reason, the needs of special interest groups are of major concern to the government -- mainly members of the legislative bodies. The bureaucrats refer to the members of government agencies, groups that are comprised of non-elected officials who nevertheless act as…
Public Policy and Service
Currently, I work on homeland security issues, with a focus on enforcing Federal egulations. My overall plan is to remain with the government with the likelihood of retiring from a governmental agency. My professional philosophy revolves around the nature of service, and I believe that my skills, enthusiasm and patriotism all combine in a better way by using my skills to help the United States.
Before this recent job change, I was a bank regulator. I transferred to Homeland Security because of its importance in the contemporary environment and its mission to protect America at home and abroad. When one stops to reflect a moment, we see that the world is a far different place than it was prior to the events of 9/11. In fact, as a direct response to the terrorist attacks on the United States in September, 2011, the Office of Homeland Security…
National Strategy for Homeland Security. (2002, November). Retrieved from ncs.gov: http://www.ncs.gov/library/policy_docs/nat_strat_hls.pdf
Connor, M., Pokora, J. (2012). Coaching and Mentoring at Work: Developing Effective Practice. New York: McGraw-Hill Education/Open University Press.
Department of Homeland Security. (2012, March). Get A Homeland Security Job. Retrieved from dhs.gov: http://www.dhs.gov/how-do-i/get-homeland-security-job
Dunleavy, P., & Carrera, L. (2013). Growing the Productivity of Government Services. Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar Publishing.
intended for a quantitative public policy perspective analysis of strategic and financial changes in small, private as well as not for profit advanced schooling organizations and institutions in Jamaica. The primary intent behind this paper would be to assess the framework by which strategic and financial innovational changes in small, private, not for profit advanced schooling institutions in Jamaica operate. They concentrate on the conditions which will make financial investments much better than be adopted and even implemented in a variety of contexts. In this way hopefully to lay smooth the road for just about any future studies conducted in the region or on the main topic of financial investments with the associated implications. This could, hence inadvertently, provide all potential studies and researches an excellent service. It might provide them with a foundation base on which to consult in most regions of conflict and trouble that may arise due…
Allen, K.M. (1999). The response of small private colleges to financial distress in the nineties. Dissertations Abstracts International, 60 (04), 1034A.
Bauer, J.E. (1987). An analysis of the relationship between the use of adaptive and interpretative survival strategies and financial resilience in Lutheran colleges. Dissertations Abstracts International, 48 (09), 2250A.
Black, P., & Wiliam, D. (1998). Assessment and classroom learning. Assessment in Education: Principals. Policy & Practice, 5(1), 7 -- 74.
Bower, J.L. (1970). Managing the resource allocation process: A study of corporate planning and investment. Boston, MA:Harvard Business School Press.
In "The Annapolis Report" -- a review of the 2010 legislative session -- the MPPI explains that due to the governor taking funds from the HUR all the counties' share and the Baltimore City share will be "significantly reduced" (MPPI). In fact the counties' share will "have been all but eliminated" the MPPI continues, quoting from an article in the ashington Post that asserts "…counties will have to contend with almost no 'highway user' revenue."
Moreover, through 2015, the Post is quoted suggesting that Maryland counties "will have to make due with less than 10% of the hundreds of millions they have typically received each year over the last two decades" (MPPI, p. 9). The actual dollar amount that the counties and Baltimore City will lose due to this dipping into funds by the governor is around $400 million, the MPPI explains.
Included in O'Malley's budget moves -- the legal…
Fauf, David Saleh. (2011). I State Transportation Fund Being Raided? A Challenge to the
Rhetoric. Columbia Patch. Retrieved February 19, 2011, from http://columbia.patch.com .
Kilmer, Marc. (2010). O'Malley's big spending hurts Wicomico. The Maryland Public Policy
Institute. Retrieved February 18, 2011,
("Federal Public Policy," 2011) I am in agreement with these initiatives.
Improving economic activity is when the federal government has been providing assistance to those businesses that are considered to be too big to fail. The resources that they are using: is to provide additional liquidity to these organizations and guarantee a number of different loans. ("Federal Public Policy," 2011) I am in agreement with this program and the effects that it having.
Three State Policies
Three state policies include: improving the quality of health care services, revitalizing the manufacturing sector and improving access to various IT services. As far as health care is concerned, the states have been trying to provide more specific resources for addressing the problem. This is accomplished through additional funding and expanding their Medicare / Medicaid program. I am in agreement with these initiatives. ("Center for Public Policy Research," 2011)
Revitalizing the manufacturing sector is…
Center for Public Policy Research. (2011). NCCPPR. Retrieved from: http://www.nccppr.org/drupal/content/news/2011/03/10/4074/center-for-public-policy-research-assesses-three-key-components-of-stat
Federal Public Policy. (2011). CIHRG. Retrieved from: http://www.cihrg.org/2011-04-12_PolicyUpdate.pdf
Defining Public Policy. (2006). Prof Work. Retrieved from: http://profwork.org/pp/study/define.html
The Public Policy Institute of New York. (2011). PPINYS. Retrieved from: http://www.ppinys.org/
An examination of the four basic steps of policymaking reveals this quite clearly.
The first step in the policymaking process is the agenda setting that must come before policies are even considered. Bringing problems to the attention of policy makers and thus setting the policy agenda is accomplished by many different players with different aims, from citizen groups to businesses to media organizations and many others. All of these groups r individual representatives (and sometimes simple individuals) can use a variety of methods for setting the agenda, form private meetings with policy makers to speaking at town hall meetings or city councils to engaging in media or public awareness campaigns. In larger governments, lobbying is a major source of agenda-setting activity, as the interests of groups that engage lobbying services are brought to the direct and immediate attention of government representatives in what amounts to a pay-for-play system. The political…
Gerston, L. (2010). Public Policymaking: Process and Principles. Armonk, NY: M.E.
Texas Constitution and Statutes. (2011). Government Code Chapter 573. Accessed 14
October 2011. http://www.statutes.legis.state.tx.us/
In Canada, a much higher percentage of the population lives in remote areas whereas covered healthcare services are often concentrated in large cities (eid, 2009).
Medicare Expansion and Mandatory Health Insurance Issues and Concerns
From the perspective of middle and upper middle income families in the U.S., the expansion of Medicare and the mandatory provision of healthcare by employers would be a tremendous benefit. From the employers' perspective, the associated costs could be prohibitive. Mandatory requirements for individuals could be problematic for those at the lower end of the group income spectrum; however, it would be no less fair than the current situation that forces everyone who pays for healthcare to (in effect) subsidize those who choose not to (Kennedy, 2006). In all likelihood, the only way to make mandatory health insurance work would include expanding Medicare, at least to compete with private health insurers. Naturally, this interferes with their…
Kennedy, E. (2006). America: Back on Track. Viking: New York.
Reid, T. (2009). The Healing of America: A Global Quest for Better, Cheaper, and Fairer Health Care. New York: Penguin Group.
Any program termination will have a domino effect, thus affecting many people. Oftentimes, programs/policies are reformed, rather than terminated in which the decision may be contingent upon which political party is in office. Hence, the epublican Party has a tendency to seek reformation/termination of public welfare program, whereas the Democratic has a tendency to extend program benefits to assist the public. The inefficient use of federal funding has spawned much debate and controversy. Consequently, this has and continues to create dissension between the government parties and among the American people. Although evaluation is a key component of the policy cycle, the process of conceiving, developing, implementing and modifying public policies requires time and money. This policy development process is often organic and irregular, due to the inherent complexity of public policy problems and the need to address competing interests. As such, evaluating public policy is time-consuming and labor intensive --…
Dodaro, G.L. (2009). GAO: Promoting accountability and transparency in government. GAO Reports, 1.
Hastak, M., Mazis, M.B., & Morris, L.A. (2001). The role of consumer surveys in public policy decision making. Journal of Public Policy & Marketing, 20(2), 170-185.
Kilpatrick, Ph.D., D.G. (2000). Definitions of Public Policy and the Law. Retrie ved from http://www.musc.edu/vawprevention/policy/definition.shtml
U.S. Government Accountability Office (GAO). (n.d.). About GAO. Retrieved from http://www.gao.gov/about/index.html
Discuss the asymmetric informational problem that arises in the case of hourly loan officers issuing loans. Propose at least two proposals to minimize these concerns.
One of the primary reasons that so many home loans were issued in recent years to individuals who were not sufficiently creditworthy to be able to make timely payments on those loans is that there was an ongoing condition of asymmetric information. The individuals seeking the loans had much more information than the loan officers; in many cases they knew that they could not reasonably meet the conditions of the loan.
The hourly loan officers in many cases could probably have been able to determine that the individual was unlikely to be able to service the loan. However, these hourly loan officers were being rewarded for making loans and they had no real personal investment in whether or not the loan conditions were honored. They…
4. There has been much discussion about grade inflation at schools and universities. Discuss and display graphically the impact of grade inflation and the loosening of educational standards. Make sure to discuss how this will affect the ability of education to be used as a signal of worker quality.
One of the reasons that many individuals are focused on getting the best possible education for themselves is that they believe it will lead to a better job for them -- not just because they will have better skills and increased knowledge but also because a sparkling transcript will impress potential employers and give them a leg up in the employment process.
This is a reasonable assumption on the part of students and future employees. However, an essential part of this assumption is that there is a stable and predictable relationship between a student's efforts and abilities and the grades that that individual receives. Both the stability and predictability of this relationship are being deteriorated by grade inflation, in which students have to work less hard and demonstrate lower skills to get the same grades that more talented students once got. The following graph ( http://gradeinflation.com/ ) demonstrates how badly grades and scholastic accomplishment have become unhinged:
Maryland Charter Schools
Proponents of charter schools insist that they are the solution to America's educational woes and many state legislatures have begun to agree with that assessment. In Maryland, charter schools have become a viable alternative to the public school system which is seen as a lumbering anachronism, no longer able to educate or motivate. This is especially true in Baltimore where the schools are in dire need of reform. But the implementation of a charter school system did not come easily and there is still substantial opposition to the charter schools, mostly from public school educators. The Public Policy Lifecycle of Maryland's charter schools has been a very interesting one.
hile Maryland has continued to make great strides in its educational system, like many states the performance of its graduating students has been subpar. Even among those who attend college there are notable problems. At Baltimore…
Mossburg, M.H. (2011, May 10). Maryland's uneducated high school graduates. The Maryland
Public Policy Institute. Retrieved from:
Maryland Charter School Network. (2011). History of Maryland legislation. Retrieved from:
CHIP: To Abolish or Not to Abolish
The State Children Health Insurance Plan (SCHIP), commonly referred to as CHIP (Children's Health Insurance Plan), is an insurance plan run by the Department of Health and Human Services, and which administers funds to states to enable them provide quality insurance coverage to eligible children within their jurisdictions. To be eligible for CHIP, a child needs to be from a family whose level of income is too low to qualify for private insurance coverage, but too high to be considered for Medicaid (Holtz-Eakin, 2014). With the introduction of the Obama Care Policy, however, which expanded the list of persons eligible for both Medicaid and CHIP, there came so many overlaps between CHIP and other secondary insurance options that budgetary allocations and funding to the former were threatened. Owing to this, there is a lot of controversy over whether funding to the CHIP ought…
CBO. (2014). An Update to the Budget and Economic Outlook 2014 to 2024. The Congressional Budget Office (CBO). Retrieved May 6, 2015 from http://www.cbo.gov/sites/default/files/cbofiles/attachments/45653-OutlookUpdate_2014_Aug.pdf
Ewing, M.T. (Ed.). (2008). State Children's Health Insurance Program. New York, NY: Nova Publishers
GAO. (2012). What GAO Found. The Government Acounting Office (GAO). Retrieved May 7, 2015 from http://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-12-648
Holtz-Eakin, D. (2014). The Children's Health Insurance Program: Status and Outlook. The United States Senate Committee on Finance: Subcommittee on Health. Retrieved May 6, 2015 from http://www.finance.senate.gov/imo/media/doc/Testimony%20of%20Douglas%20Holtz-Eakin%20-%20Senate%20Finance%202014-09-16.pdf
Anti-Bullying as a Policy Change
Students have been bullied while at school since the beginnings of education. Originally they might have been bullied by the people who taught them, but much of that does not continue into the present say. However, students bullying other students does continue. Every child needs an advocate at their school whose function it is to make sure that they are not being bullied. Many times this happens informally when a school does not have a bullying program, but it can also happen formally. The need for advocacy programs within schools, both primary and secondary, that allow children to feel that they are safe from the time that they leave their homes until they arrive back at home in the afternoon is elemental. Because of the backlash that has happened at some schools due to being bullied, it is more vital than ever. Students…
Aluede, O., Adeleke, F., Omoike, D., & Afen-Akpaida, J. (2008). A review of the extent, nature characteristics and effects of bullying behavior in schools. Journal of Instructional Psychology, 35(2), 151-163.
Buck, L., & Willer, B. (2008). Advocacy for young children. In S. Feeney, A Galper, and C. Seefeldt Eds. Continuing issues in early childhood education (pp. 391-405). Toronto: Pearson Education Canada.
Hirschstein, M.K., Edstrom, L.V.S., Frey, K.S., Snell, J.L., & Mackenzie, E.P. (2007). Walking the talk in bullying prevention: Teacher implementation variables related to initial impact of the steps to respect program. School Psychology Review, 36(1), 3-21.
Jacobsen, K.E., & Bauman, S. (2007). Bullying in schools: School counselors' responses to three types of bullying incidents. Professional School Counseling, 11(1), 1-8.
The state response to Ebola should be a coordinated communications effort. This will serve a number of purposes. First, it will maintain fiscal discipline. Second, communication is key to maintaining public order should there be an outbreak of Ebola. Third, communication helps to reduce the risk of an outbreak, because all members of our community will know how to avoid spreading Ebola.
The recent revelations that the World Health Organization and others botched their response to the Ebola outbreak in West Africa has done little to calm the public here at home regarding this disease. A government that deals in evidence and has a realistic world view does not need to address irrational panic, but the fact that global and national-level bodies seem challenged to come up with a plan to deal with Ebola places the onus on the state to devise such solutions. Already, some states, such as…
AP. (2014). Canadian nurses: Updated ebola guidelines don't protect healthcare staff. Global News. Retrieved October 22, 2014 from http://globalnews.ca/news/1623732/canada-releases-updated-ebola-guidelines-amid-calls-for-international-aid/
CBS. (2014). Christie announce MJ ebola team. CBS New York. Retrieved October 22, 2014 from http://newyork.cbslocal.com/2014/10/22/christie-to-hold-nj-response-readiness-briefing-on-ebola/
Dixon, R. (2014). Eight reported dead in attack on Ebola workers in Guinea. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved October 22, 2014 from http://www.latimes.com/world/africa/la-fg-attack-ebola-guinea-outreach-20140918-story.html#
President Obama's foreign policy towards Russia has attracted huge concern among policymakers and the public in light of recent events in Ukraine. Russia's aggression has challenged the administration's foreign policy since it is in the process of gulping up the Ukraine one step at a time with very minimal cost and less risk. Obama's foreign policy towards Russia has been accused of enabling the gradual acquisition of Ukraine rather than hindering it. This article focuses on examining this policy and demonstrating why it is largely ineffective, especially in light of President Obama's plans to promote a policy for a globalized 21st Century. In addition to assessing the ineffectiveness of this foreign policy, the article also proposes some of the changes that could be made to promote and enhance its effectiveness.
Russia's aggression that has enabled the country to slowly acquire Ukraine is an issue that has generated huge…
Gaouette, Nicole. "Russia's Aggression Challenges Obama's Foreign Policy." Bloomberg.com. Bloomberg L.P., 26 May 2014. Web. 07 June 2014. .
Maroscher, Gerhard. "VIEWPOINT: Our Foreign Policy toward Russia Is Ineffective." Circleville Today. Circleville Herald, 9 May 2014. Web. 07 June 2014. .
Public policy development is a complex process involving multiple stakeholders and institutions. Moreover, the nature of public policy development varies depending on whether the policies are foreign or domestic. Holloway (2006) points out the three key influences on foreign policy in Canada, including information coming from foreign embassies with direct access to international issues and affairs. Other influences on foreign policy include formal analysis, which often takes place domestically. Finally, bureaucratic machines regulate messages incoming to government offices (Holloway, 2006). Yet the influences on Canadian domestic policy include ancillary issues ranging from shifts in social norms and values to recent judicial action. For example, Pal (2013) points out the role of both the courts and public opinion on the legalization of same-sex marriage. The three most important influences on Canadian public policy in general include public opinion (expressed in terms of values and norms), the courts (expressed through judicial action),…
Holloway, S.K. (2006). Canadian Foreign Policy. Peterborough: Broadview.
Pal, L.A. (2013). Beyond Policy Analysis. Nelson.
Public Policy Assessment
Homelessness is a public policy issue that is relevant for almost every community, especially within the veteran community, where there is a general appreciation that individuals who have served their country should be looked after. The development of policies to improve a situation can be complex with many different influences and concerns various stakeholders. The use of a decision making model that breaks down the process into its component parts; looking at understanding the problem, the relevant policy goals, assessing and choosing potential solutions, and evaluation, provides a strong framework for the analysis (Weiner & Vining, 2011). These stages will be used to consider the issue of homelessness.
Understanding the problem
Homelessness may be defined in different ways, in United States it usually incorporates a relatively narrow definition, including only those who are living on the streets, or who are housed in emergency accommodation (Daly, 2013). Other…
Daly, G, (2013), Homeless: Policies, Strategies and Lives on the Streets, Routledge
National Alliance to End Homelessness (NAEH), (2014), Veterans, accessed at http://www.endhomelessness.org/pages/veterans1
Santos, F, (2014, Jan 15), Program to End Homelessness Among Veterans Reaches a Milestone in Arizona, New York Times, accessed at http://www.nytimes.com /2014/01/16/us/program-to-end-homelessness-among-veterans-hits-milestone-in-arizona.html?_r=0
Weiner, DL; Vining AR, (2011), Policy Analysis: Concepts and Practice, New York, Longman
Public AIDS Policy -- And the Band Played on, for Republicans and Democrats alike, during this public health crisis of the 1980's
Today, it hard to remember a day before 'AIDS alks' through Central Park, before television advertisements in the voice of hoopi Goldberg proclaimed that "AIDS affects everyone," before AIDS became a public health enemy 'Number One.' But one must look back to the days when AIDS was a disease of secrecy and shame to truly learn from the illness, as it exists today. Most of us of Generation Y mercifully cannot even remember a time when AIDS was not even a name, but something called 'the gay cancer.' During America of the 1980's the disease of Acquired Immune Deficiency Disorder, it was thought only to affect those marginalized by society because of their sexuality.
Randy Shilt's book And the Band Played On acts as an important journalistic and…
Shilts, Randy. And the Band Played On.
Siplan, P. Aids & The Policy Struggle In the U.S. Georgetown Press, 2000.
He focused on tariff reform in the Underwood-Simmons Act by arguing that high tariffs created monopolies and hurt consumers, pushed to end certain child labor practices, and above all tried to engender a fairer distribution of public funds for housing, utilities, and public projects (Wilson, 2011).
However, looking back at his pre-World War I policies, it was his adamant work on currency and banking reform that seemed to have the greatest impact on American society. The Federal eserve's Monetary Policy is the most important function of the Fed and is probably the most used policy in macroeconomics. Monetary policy refers to the actions undertaken by a central bank, such as the Federal eserve, to influence the availability and cost of money and credit to help promote national economic goals. The Federal eserve Act of 1913 gave the Federal eserve responsibility for setting monetary policy. The Federal eserve controls the three…
Grant: A Reference Resource. (2011). Miller Center at the University of Virginia. Cited in: http://millercenter.org/president/grant/essays/biography/4
Woodrow Wilson. (2011). Conservapedia.com. Cited in: http://www.conservapedia.com/Woodrow_Wilson
Wilson: A Reference Resource. (2011). Miller Center at the University of Virginia. Cited in:
One of the key distinctions to be found within the first two chapters of this book is the difference between policy analysis and policy advocacy. Policy analysis is primarily an examination for what and why public policy is, by analyzing both causes and effects of such policy. Policy advocacy, however, is urging a government to set a certain policy for a desired outcome. The analysis of policy is essential because it allows for various groups to then determine what sort of goals or direction they want their policy makers to advocate.
There are several different policy models that can be used to properly examine and analyze public policy, each of which is somewhat suggestive of a particular line of thought or of advocacy for policy. Institutionalism, for example studies policy in terms of its output from a number of important institutions such as the different branches of government (judicial, executive…
Ineffective Public Policy -- No Child Left Behind
One of the most widely criticized educational policies of recent years was / is No Child Left Behind. It is widely referred to an ineffective policy (or legislation). Despite high hopes and bipartisan support, the policy has not worked out as planned. This paper delves into the problems with No Child Left Behind -- and will present the changes that could make it stronger and more effective.
No Child Left Behind -- The Problems and Criticisms
The No Child Left Behind (NCLB) legislation (signed into law by President George . Bush in 2002) was launched, according to authors Deborah Meier and George ood, in a bipartisan spirit in order to do something "positive in the wake of the terrorist attacks" of September 11, 2001 (Meier, et al., 2004). In the Introduction to their book, Meier and ood, founding members of the Forum…
Alexander, Lamar. "A Better Way to Fix No Child Left Behind." The New York Times.
Retrieved November 1, 2013, from http://www.nytimes.com . 2011.
Meier, Deborah, and Wood, George. Harrison. Many Children Left Behind: How the No Child
Left Behind Act is Damaging Our Children and Our Schools. Boston, MA: Beacon Press.
Steven Kelman's Making Public Policy: A Hopeful View of American Government
Steven Kelman's 1998 book on politics is entitled Making Public Policy: A Hopeful View of American Government. This is a brief but accurate summary of the central thesis of Kelman's philosophy of what enables the American system of government to function as well as it does. Perhaps because of the contentious nature of the modern media, discussions of the American governmental system and political process tend to focus on criticisms rather than on praises of its ability to address social ills. However, it is this stress upon the functionality, rather than upon the disfunctionality of American government that drives the structure, arguments, and philosophy advocated by Kelman's book.
In his introduction, Kelman states that he wishes to "evaluate how well the policy-making process works in the United States." In other words, Kelman wishes to rate the efficacy of the…
Kelman, Steven. Making Public Policy: A Hopeful View of American Government, 1998.
Monarchy." World Book Encyclopedia Online. http://www2.worldbook.com/
Parliamentary System" World Book Encyclopedia Online. http://www2.worldbook.com
U.S. Department of State: Public Policy Issue and Sexual Harassment
U.S DEPATMENT OF STATE: PUBLIC POLICY ISSUE AND 1
Policy Issue 7
ole of technology in the process
Diversity Issues Involved
Ethical Concerns and Implications
Protection for Employee
U.S Department of State: Public Policy Issue and Sexual Harassment
Sometime back in 2010, the Albany Fire Department in Georgia established a newer "sexual harassment" policy that was in accordance with the United States Equal Employment Opportunity Commission's course of action and Federal Law. At first, the idea of sexual harassment occurred merely in sexual related claims that were against an employer. Ever since the approval of the department's policy, sexual harassment has now been spreading into every part of employment discrimination as well as the creation of a work environment that is hostile. esearch shows that hostile work environment claims are founded not just…
Baugh, S.G. (2009). On the persistence of sexual harassment in the workplace. 899-908, 34(9), 34-56. Retrieved from Journal of Business Ethics.
Cabrera, N. & . (2010). Understanding and dealing with the problem of sexual harassment in the workplace. Women in Management Review,, 11(2), 21-26.
Cates, S.V. (2013). The state of sexual harassment in america: What is the status of sexual harassment in the U.S. workplace today? Journal of Global Business Management, 8(1), 133-138.
De Coster, S.E. (2009). Routine activities and sexual harassment in the workplace. Work and Occupations, 26(1), 456-459.
These actions, along with the ones taken to address the various economic issues that are facing the government and the country, will help to sway favorable opinions towards Labor. Where, the party will be seen as one that was able to transform itself in the aftermath of the expenses scandal. This is significant because in the world of politics perceptions are the reality. If rown can change the focus and perceptions towards Labor favorably by addressing these issues, he will have been able to successfully transform his party. Over the course of time, this will help to make the political and economic system more responsive to the will of the people.
irch, Anthony. The ritish System of Government. London: Routledge, 1998. Print.
Cowell, Alan. "ritain Wonders if More Elections Equal More Democracy." NY Times. 18 Mar.2007. Web. 5 May 2010.
Morris, Nigel. "Voters turn against War in Afghanistan." Independent.…
Birch, Anthony. The British System of Government. London: Routledge, 1998. Print.
Cowell, Alan. "Britain Wonders if More Elections Equal More Democracy." NY Times. 18 Mar.2007. Web. 5 May 2010.
Morris, Nigel. "Voters turn against War in Afghanistan." Independent. 28 July. 2009. Web. 5 May 2010.
Young, Toby. "Conservative Party Rise Confirmed." Daily Telegraph. 29 Apr. 2010. Web. 5 May 2010.
But due to the ineffective allocation of resources, while money was spent on his care when his blood sugar was 'out of control,' and when he began to develop blindness and other symptoms of uncontrolled diabetes, he did not receive the consistent but relatively low-care necessary to reduce the causes of his inability to manage his condition. Conclusion Healthcare operates within the market system, and is subject to opportunity costs like any other good or service. However, overall the healthcare system does not operate upon the principles of efficiency, often due to the bureaucracy of the healthcare system and its methods of reimbursement and prioritizing acute over primary care.
Gawande, Atul. (2009, June 1). The cost conundrum: What a Texas town can teach us about health care. The New Yorker. etrieved February 2, 2011 at http://www.newyorker.com/reporting/2009/06/01/090601fa_fact_gawande#ixzz1CpZ4jbV
Gawande, Atul. (2011, January 24). The hot spotters. The New Yorker. etrieved February…
Gawande, Atul. (2009, June 1). The cost conundrum: What a Texas town can teach us about health care. The New Yorker. Retrieved February 2, 2011 at http://www.newyorker.com/reporting/2009/06/01/090601fa_fact_gawande#ixzz1CpZ4jbVR
Gawande, Atul. (2011, January 24). The hot spotters. The New Yorker. Retrieved February 2,
2011 at http://www.newyorker.com/magazine/bios/atul_gawande/search?contributorName=atul%20gawande
Gibson, Jennifer, Douglas K. Martin, & Peter a Singer (2004). Setting priorities in health
The demand for alternative energy forms is most likely going to form a very profitable niche on the market in the near future.
This is obviously the same thing as when the informational revolution began or when the industrial revolution came about. The companies who will became providers of solutions to energy alternatives and to enable the companies to abide by the governmental restrictions in the field will also be interested stakeholders in getting the governmental restrictions implemented and operational in the industry.
1. Increased governmental spending and involvement into creating alternative forms of energy.
PROS: An important pro-in this case is that the significant governmental involvement, especially in terms of promoting and financing research for new forms of alternative energy, can actually have a tremendous impact and produce immediate results.
CONS: Increased governmental spending in any area will mean potentially higher taxes and a greater burden for the…
1. Samuelson, Robert. 2006. Global Warming's Real Inconvenient Truth. The Washington Post.
2. Clark, J.R.; Lee, Dwight. 2004. Global Warming and Its Dangers. The Independent Review, v. VIII, n. 4, Spring 2004. pp 591-597
3. Shellenberger, M.; Nordhaus, T. 2005. The Death of Environmentalism. On the Internet at http://www.grist.org/news/maindish/2005/01/13/doe-reprint/.Last retrieved on October 5, 2008
leadership a tool implementing public policy. For Application Assignment
One of the most prominent tools or practices that John Bury should utilize to help reinforce environmental legislation from a non-regulatory perspective is to issue tax breaks to citizens who decided to contribute to practices that are environmentally sound. For instance, those that donate funds to various groups that are set up for the purpose of counteracting environmental effects should be able to write off such donations and get a 'break' on their income taxes as a result. Presenting tax incentives will be an effective means of getting people to adhere to environmental regulations because they will be able to see a direct benefit to doing so in their financial statements at the end of the year. There are no regulations for this practice, and it will certainly resonate with more financially conscious individuals -- who are typically the people involved…
Environmental Protection Agency. (2010). Guidelines for Preparing Economic Analyses. www.yosemite.epa.gov. Retrieved from http://yosemite.epa.gov/ee/epa/eerm.nsf/vwAN/EE-0568-04.pdf/$file/EE-0568-04.pdf
Environmental Protection Agency. (2013). Criminal enforcement overview. www.2epa.gov. Retrieved from http://www2.epa.gov/enforcement/criminal-enforcement-overview
No author (1997). Appendix C: regulatory and non-regulatory tools. www.epa.gov. Retrieved from http://www.epa.gov/superfund/programs/aml/policy/app_c.pdf
Ethics and Public Policy
This paper discusses the application of the major ethical theories of consequentialism (utilitarianism), deontology, and virtue ethics to a specific policy question, namely how to improve the nutrition of the nation's poor and to reduce the rise in food insecurity. It also discusses the implications of ethical theories such as determinism and moral relativism. First, the theory is discussed in the abstract, followed by an exposition of how the theory relates to real-world practice. The paper concludes with a more general reflection on the implications of ethical theories for public policy-makers. The specific merits of virtue ethics are stressed vs. The more extreme and polarizing views of deontology and consequentialism.
An ethical dilemma: Food insecurity
One of the dilemmas facing public policy-makers regarding food insecurity and the need to improve the diet of poor Americans is the balance between individual liberties and the need…
Athanassoulis, N. (2014). Virtue ethics. The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved http://www.iep.utm.edu/virtue/
Alexander, Larry and Moore, Michael. (2012). Deontological ethics. The Stanford Encyclopedia
of Philosophy. Retrieved from:
If given the opportunity to amend the policy, what action would you take and why?
The national proposal to increase sin taxes on alcoholic beverages is long overdue and should be supported not only by all sectors of the government but the American public most especially. The fact is well-known that alcohol consumption is not only dangerous for the consumer but also has various economic and social harms for the society as well as users' immediate environment. It means that alcohol can affect not only the drinker but other people in the form of violence or road accidents. Taxing alcohol at higher rates will provide a mechanism that will taper buying due to high prices. But I believe that taxing alone should not be the only thrust of this policy. Rather, continuous education and awareness campaigns by both the public and private sector will go further to ensure that people…
Individual is a 23-year-old African-American male. Although this individual is from a middle class background and was raised in a suburban area that included a majority white population, his story reveals the ways public policy can be discriminatorily applied. This individual is defined as at risk based on several factors including race, class, and gender. His race puts the individual at a systematic disadvantage vis-a-vis his white neighbors because of several factors. One is that law enforcement officials in his and surrounding communities are more likely to stop and interrogate him versus his white peers. As second issue is that the individual was treated differently from his white counterparts in school. A third is that his parents had experienced discrimination and their experiences have had an influence on the individual's worldview and his belief in the possibility for change.
Policy: The War on Drugs
The War on Drugs has been…
Their labor market position then becomes a matter of individual 'choice'....In Sweden, the definition of women's entitlements to welfare in family policies has changed dramatically since the early 1970s, away from the provision of benefits to them as mothers and toward benefits that they draw by virtue of their labor market status. Yet, paradoxically, the outcome of this shift has been the strengthening of policies that recognize women's needs as mothers. The framework of equal treatment on the basis of labor market participation supported by a full employment policy seems to have made possible the greater recognition of women's caring work in the family" (Lewis & Astrm 59).
In other words, Sweden is very permissive in granting paternal leave and day care to both parents, which benefits women, but men can also benefit from these policies, even though the greatest beneficiary of the policy may be women, as women have…
Baxter, Janeen & Erik Olin Wright. "The Glass Ceiling Hypothesis: A Comparative Study of the United States, Sweden, and Australia. Gender and Society. 14.2. (Apr., 2000):275-294.
Gustafsson, Gunnel. "Sustainable Pressure for 'Women-Friendliness' in Sweden." Political
Psychology. 19.1. (Mar., 1998): 43-61
Lewis, Jane & Gertrude Astrm. "Equality, Difference, and State Welfare: Labor Market and Family Policies in Sweden." 18.1. (Spring, 1992): 59-87.
The Value at Risk model works on the lines of probability and statistics to measure a drop in value of asset over a period of time. In general, it is calculated between the confidence level of 1% and 5%. There are various methods for measuring the Value at Risk for a project including the Variance -- Covariance methods, the Risk Metrics Contribution method, Historical Simulation methods, and Monte Carlo simulation methods. While, these methods are simple to use and compute the potential level of risk involved, these are based on a variety of assumptions. Generally, all approaches involved using historical trends and data and probability distributions are defined based on historical trends. A major problem with Value at Risk model is that it does not take into account the changing conditions and trends and it still claims to compute risk in rare conditions.
ver a period of time risk managers…
Over a period of time risk managers have been arguing and criticizing Value at Risk model for exploiting investors by making them put invest their money in high risk portfolios. Since VaR involves defining and assigning probability distributions to individual risks, academic researchers argue that the combined Value at Risk for a wholly project can be much more then the individual Value at Risk of an element of the portfolio (Einhorn, 2008). Academics also accuse that Value at Risk approach tempts the financial institutions to take impractical risks (Nocera, 2009).
We propose to evaluate the extent to which it is pragmatic to depend upon the conventional Value at Risk model. We plan to assess the results by applying alternative risk measurement tools to the investment portfolios and then compare their results with the outcomes produced by the Value at Risk
Public Policy Scholarship
Despite significant progress in addressing institutionalized racism and other public policies that operate to the disadvantage of oppressed and marginalized groups, the recent upsurge in race-related incidents across the country underscores the fact that much more remains to be done to eliminate these oppressive and inequitable policies from American society. This paper provides a critical review of the assigned readings to assess the extent to which the concepts, assumptions and arguments that are presented are an example of public policy scholarship and a critical assessment of the extent to which the arguments presented in readings reveal the social justice impacts of public policy on groups that are excluded and marginalized. Finally, an explanation concerning how the argument that minority inclusion programs are ineffective in really assisting black women in the oil and gas sector based on the readings is followed by a summary of the research and…
Alexander, M. (2010). The new Jim Crow: Mass incarceration in the age of colorblindness. New York: The New Press.
Cho, S., Crenshaw, K. W. & McCall, L. (2013, Summer). Toward a field of intersectionality. Signs, 38(4), 785-810.
Collilns, P. H. (1989, Summer). The social construction of black feminist thought. Signs, 14(4), 745-773.
Crenshaw, K. (1991, July). Mapping the margins: Intersectionality, identity politics, and violence against women of color. Stanford Law Review, 43, 1241-1299.
Monopolies and Trusts:
Appropriate Areas for Government Intervention?
Capitalism is the economic system that has dominated the United States virtually since the day of its independence. A social and economic system based on the recognition of individual rights; capitalism demands that owners' rights to control, enjoy, and dispose of their own property must be respected. In a capitalist system, the purpose of government is to protect individual economic rights, and to make sure that no one individual, or group may employ physical or coercive force upon any other group or individual. The success of capitalism is well evident. The surpluses that this system produces have enabled individuals to experiment; to create new products, and market new ideas. These private surpluses are traded in a free market in direct competition with other buyers and sellers. Such competition is best represented by the efforts of two or more parties acting independently to…
public policy cycle. Public policy is defined as "a course of action or inaction chosen by public authorities to address a given problem," (Pal, 2013, p. 3). The first step of making a given problem known is through public opinion, public interest, and related issues like values and norms. However, as Pal (2013) points out, a more idealistic motivation for bringing policy issues to the attention of policymakers is actually public interest itself in terms of core needs like public safety. There are multiple avenues by which an issue may be made known to the Canadian government. One is via the research route, including university and "think tank" methods of analyzing problems empirically and presenting reports to stakeholder organizations or policymakers. A second is from ministers themselves, through close attention being paid to their constituents and the prevailing interests of the people. Legal restrictions might constrain the ways a potential…
Atkinson, M. M. (1993). Public policy and the new institutionalism. Governing Canada: Institutions and public policy. Toronto: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich Canada Inc.
Pal, L.A. (2013). Beyond Policy Analysis. Nelson.