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Prayer in public schools has been a subject of controversy ever since the Supreme Court ruled in 1962 that "any kind of prayer, composed by public school districts, even non-denominational, is unconstitutional government sponsorship of religion" (U.S. Supreme Court Decisions on Separation of Church and State web site). The next year the Court found that "ible reading over the school intercom was unconstitutional" because it forced a child "to participate in ible reading and prayer." The Court banned posting the 10 Commandments in school in 1980 and ruled in 1985 that a moment of silence in school, if done to encourage prayer, was unconstitutional (Answers.com). All these decisions are based on the U.S. Constitution which bars the State from sponsoring any particular religion: "Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech ... " (The U.S. Constitution…
Answers.com. "School prayer": answers.com/prayer%20in%20school
Church/State Separation (Student Prayer):
King James Bible. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan Publishing House, 1999.
Religion in Public Schools: Religious Fundamentalists vs. Atheists
The relevance of raising children with an insistence on the development of a high moral character cannot be overstated. Essentially, individuals raised with a well founded moral character have the ability to clearly distinguish between bad/unacceptable behavior and good/acceptable behavior. With this in mind, it is understandable that parents usually prefer to have their children undertake their education in an enabling environment that allows for their moral development. Further, it is also understandable that religious fundamentalists and atheists alike would prefer to have their children schooling in a setting that has high regard for moral virtues such as respect, concern for others, responsibility as well as honesty.
Religion in Public Schools: Religious Fundamentalists vs. Atheists
According to Lebron, "for most religious theists, their faith practices provide the basis for their entire understanding of morality and moral values" (521). This is a view…
Cox, Robert. Sabbath Laws and Sabbath Duties: Considered in Relation to their Natural and Scriptural Grounds, and to the Principles of Religious Liberty. London: Maclachlan and Stewart, 1853. Print.
In this text, Cox tries to explain some principles relating to religious liberty amongst other things. At some point, the author presents a case for atheists as individuals who also live good peaceful lives. The author is of the opinion that there aren't enough facts to conclude that atheism is incompatible with morality.
Estes, Yolanda & Curtis Bowman. J.G. Fichte and the Atheism Dispute (1798-1800). Burlington: Ashgate Publishing, 2010. Print.
This book is essentially a collection of previous texts as well as essays relating to the atheism dispute. The book's commentary helps the reader make sense of some of the writings which may seem out of context in some instances based on the time in which they were written. Basically, the book helps the leader grasp some key concepts relating to religion and philosophy.
These pofiles of students' family backgound who attend public and pivate schools demonstate that school choice is a combination of paents' values towads education and thei socio-economic backgounds and capabilities.
Teache pefomance (Quality of teaching)
Quality of education is also linked to teache pefomance, specifically, the competence and quality of teaching that teaches give thei students. Teaches with impessive o highly commendable qualifications tend to teach at pivate schools instead of public schools. Thus, it can be sumised that because of teache "quality" based on cedentials ae highe in pivate schools than public schools, students in pivate schools ae getting quality education than public schools.
Howeve, this assumption is dispoved in Xu's (2006) study, which detemined if teaches' cedentials tanslate to quality of teaching. The eseaches found that teaches' cedentials "shows no elationship" with students' (impovement in) academic pefomance (355). Thus, teaching quality assumed to be diven by teache cedentials…
references and parent choices: the public-private decision about school choice." Journal of Educational Policy, Vol. 23, No. 3.
Mendez, T. (2005). "Public schools: do they outperform private ones?" Christian Science Monitor, Vol. 97, Issue 11.
Toppo, G. (2010). "Recession fuels shift from private to public schools." Available at: http://www.usatoday.com/news/education/2010-01-06-1Apublicprivate06_CV_N.htm
Xu, Z. And C. Gulosino. (2006). "How does teacher quality matter? The effect of teacher-parent partnership on early childhood performance in public and private schools." Education Economics, Vol. 14, No. 3.
Economics Issues in Non-Public Schools
This paper is a literature review of economic issues in non-public schools and it will mainly use information obtained from nine sources of economic literatures so highlighted in the work cited section. To begin with, this section will look at an overview of the economic subject from a general perspective, followed also by an overview of the non-public educational sector in general; the purpose of this is to give the research more in depth in terms of information about the topic of discussion.
The economic issues in non-public schools that will be discussed include the issue of economies of scale and the issues of demand and supply in non-public schools. The issues will be presented in a manner stemming from the literatures that will be reviewed for this research.
Aristides (2002, 253-263) in his studies described economics as the study of how man tries…
Aristides, N., 2002. "The Nature of the Firm" European Journal of Law and Economics 14 (3):
Blaug, Mark (2007). "The Social Sciences: Economics," Microeconomics, the New Encyclopedia Britannica, Chicago
Bowers, John. (1997) Sustainability and Environmental Economics: An Alternative Text. Singapore: Addison Wesley Longman
Friedman, David D. (2002). "Crime," The Concise Encyclopedia of Economics'
PSYCHOSOCIAL ISSUES AFFECTING African-American STUDENTS
PSYCHOSOCIAL ISSUES AFFECTING
"They never want to hear what I have to say…it doesn't matter who started a fight, or what a teacher said to you that made you mad.
You might have something heavy going on at home but no one asks.
They're not interested. They just want you out of the school."
17-year-old 11th grade African-American female student, NYC
(Sullivan, 2007, p. iii).
In New York City, one of the two largest urban public school districts in the United States (U.S.), as well as throughout the U.S. An educational crisis exists; particularly relating to African-American students, that links to a number of factors. According to Sullivan (2007) in the published study, Deprived of Dignity. Degrading treatment and abusive discipline in New York City & Los Angeles public schools, 58% of African-American fourth grade students attending school in the U.S. during 2005…
Analysis finds dramatic spike in NYC suspensions: Black children and students with special needs most affected. (2011). New York Civil Liberties Union. Retrieved July 4, 2011 from http://www.nyclu.org/news/analysis-finds-dramatic-spike-nyc-suspensions-black children-and-students-with-special-needs-mo Berry, G.L. & Asamen, J.K. (1989). Black students: psychosocial issues and academic achievement. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Booker, K.C. (2006). School belonging and the African-American adolescent: What do we know and where should we go? The High School Journal, Vol. 89, No. 4. Retrieved June 27, 2011 from http://www.jstor.org/stable/40364222
Brown, B.V. (2008). Key indicators of child and youth well-being: Completing the picture, New York, NY: CRC Press.
Bruce, A.M., Getch, Y.Q., & Ziomek-Daigle, J. (2009). Closing the gap: A group counselling approach to improve test performance of African-American students. Professional School Counseling, 12(6), 450+. Retrieved June 27, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5035345079
Educational Assessment Methods and Standards
Letter to Principal
It is widely known that testing and assessment have become critical components and indicators for success in today's educational system. This process is widely considered as a feasible means to improve student success and achievement as well as educational outcomes and future potential in educational pursuits and the workforce for millions of students with widely varying levels of skill and ability. Therefore, standardized assessment does not often reflect the true talents and abilities of the existing student population. Furthermore, assessment standards and testing procedures are often scrutinized for their ineffectiveness in accurately evaluating student promotion and skill development, which lead to future educational pursuits and workforce placement. The primary argument against the current methods of testing and assessment is that the established standards do not accurately reflect the true talent, skills, potential, and…
Charlotte Amalie High School Publication.
The facts about...math achievement. http://www.ed.gov
Ivanna Eudora Kean High School Publication.
Sanders, W., and Horn, S. (1995). Educational assessment reassessed:
Although this movement has created controversy and has seen mixed results, it has become a major force in the placement and education of children and is expected to expand in the future (King, 2003).
Accommodations: when an aspect of the environment or expectation has been changed so that a child with a disability can be successful at completion of a task.
Constituents: a citizen who is represented in a government by officials for whom he or she votes
Curriculum: the course of study offered in a school.
Disability: According to the ADA of 1990 a disability is a physical or mental impairment that substantially impacts one aspect of a person's life.
Inclusion: the provision of educational services to students with a full range of abilities and disabilities in the general education classroom with appropriate in-class support.
General Education: a wide selection of subjects that emphasizes the acquisition of knowledge,…
Brown v. The Board of Education of Topeka, 347 U.S. 483 (1954).
Burke, K., & Sutherland, C. (2004). Attitudes toward inclusion: Knowledge vs. experience. Education, 125(2), 163-172.
Education for All Act of 1975, Pub. L. No. 94-142 (1975)
Fitch, F. (2003). Inclusion, exclusion, and ideology: Special education students' changing sense of self. The Urban Review, 35(3), 233-252.
Student Emotional Issues in K12 Public Schools
Student Emotional Issues in K-12 Public Schools
When public schools do not prepare themselves to take care of Kindergarten through 12th grade students' emotional problems, they face troublesome implications. Students struggling with emotional problems display symptoms from time to time, whose patterns correspond to, at least, one of the following behaviors: truancy, aggressiveness towards faculty, peers, and parents; academic issues; high suspension/expulsion frequency; poor interactions with peers; and generally disruptive overall behaviors classified normally by educators as "antisocial" within educational settings. Students suffering from emotional issues often face social difficulties when relating to adults as well as their peers (Lloyd, Hallahan, Kauffman, & Keller, 1998). Furthermore, students suffering from emotional problems have a tendency to experience potentially, multiple-level academic challenges causally corresponding to their behavioral deficits and excesses.
1.1. Problem Statement
Alarmingly, an increasing number of American children have been displaying externalizing or…
Dodge, P.R., (2011). Managing school behavior: a qualitative case study. Masters Theses and Dissertations. Paper 12038.
Gibbs, G. R., (2007). 4 Thematic coding and categorizing. Analyzing Qualitative Data. London: SAGE Publications, Ltd.
Hodge, J., Riccomini, P., Buford, R. & Herbst, M. (2006). A review of instructional interventions in mathematics for students with emotional and behavioral disorders. Behavioral Disorders, 31(3), 323-337.
Jones, S. R., Torres, V. & Arminio, J. (2006). Negotiating the complexities of qualitative research in higher education. New York: Routledge.
Consolidation of Public Schools
The American public school system was revolutionized sometime in the middle of the 20th century in a rather conspicuous way. The school system in many parts of the US were small entities run by communities as recently as the 1930s. Most of these institutions only acquired the services of a single teacher. In the subsequent four decades, the number of schools in the US reduced by over 100 000. Approximately two thirds of the existing schools were integrated under the consolidation program (Berry, 2006). The average size of schools increased five times in the short span. Increasingly, school districts became professional entities overseen by professionals. Some of these bureaucracies were in charge of huge numbers of students. Some handled several hundreds of thousands of students. Consolidation and closure of schools is a process for the long-term because it is complex. Owing to social and cultural policy…
Tyack, David (1974). The one best system. Cambridge, MA: Howard University Press.
Cubberley, E. P. (1922). Rural life and education: A study of the rural-school problem as a phase of the rural-life problem. Houghton Mifflin.
Berry, C. (2006). School Consolidation and Inequality. Brookings Papers On Education Policy, 49-75.
Fitzwater, C. O. (1953). Selected Characteristics of Reorganized School Districts (No. 3). US Government Printing Office.
Round Schooling: Implications for the Current State of Public Education
The media has recently reported an array of problems with the public education system including criticisms of teacher effectiveness, lack of funding, and continued decline in academic achievement in comparison with other nations. Schools are facing a rise in class size with reduced support in regards to materials, finances, and staff. Despite government legislation, including the No Child Left Behind Act which has received billions of dollars in funding, lack of academic achievement and closing the achievement gap are consistent problems facing the education system (Koretz 803). These current issues have been a cornerstone of the year-round school debate which focuses on increasing the instructional days for students and reducing extended vacation times. Implementation of year-round education addresses these problems including helping to improve academics, reduce the achievement gap, and decrease classroom size.
According to research learning loss is a…
Alexander, Olson, and Doris Entwisle. "Lasting Consequences of the Summer Learning Gap."
American Sociological Review 72 (2007): 167-180. Academic Search Premier. Web. 5 Dec. 2011.
Dessoff, Alan. "Is Year-Round Schooling on Track?" District Administration (2011): 34-45.
Academic Search Premier. Web. 5 Dec. 2011.
The Rising Cost of Education
The socio-cultural problem of the rising cost of public and higher education is one that affects a wide range of stakeholders across multiple communities throughout the country. Education is something that allows people to develop skills, hone a craft, become more knowledgeable about various subjects, and obtain jobs that can support themselves, their families and give back to the overall economy and society. Education is thus a very important plank in how societies grow, develop and maintain stable connections and networks. Without education, a society will inevitably fester, decay and decline: individuals will lack the skills to compete with others from other parts of the world for work. Their economy and communities will collapse. Because globalization is such a force to be reckoned with in the Digital Era, the need for access to education in today’s day and age is even greater than ever…
Bhattacharya, Ananya. “Everywhere Indian Engineers are Unwanted.” Quartz, 20 Apr
Boyington, Briana. “See 20 years of tuition growth at national universities.” U.S. News
& World Report, 20 Sept 2017. https://www.usnews.com/education/best-colleges/paying-for-college/articles/2017-09-20/see-20-years-of-tuition-growth-at-national-universities
Gellman, Lindsay. “The Rising Costs of a ‘Free’ Public Education.” The Wall Street
Journal, 8 Sept 2013. https://www.wsj.com/articles/the-rising-costs-of-a-free-public-education-1378602260
Mishel, Lawrence; Elise Gould, Josh Bivens. “Wage Stagnation in Nine Charts.”
Economic Policy Institute, 6 Jan 2015. http://www.epi.org/publication/charting-wage-stagnation/
Property tax relief is a subject that arises when the elderly or poor struggle to meet their property tax burdens. If they are long-term residents, they can be caught up when their neighborhood sees a dramatic increase in property values. There are sometimes mechanisms that governments use in order to provide relief.
Both tax credits and rebates can be used to help return some of the money paid or that is owing from eligible property owners, in order to help relieve from of the burden. This method is direct, and puts the money back into the hands of those who need it. However, this method relies on being able to determine who needs relief. People often have control over their financial situation so an inability to pay does not necessarily reflect somebody with a lack of opportunity to pay. It can be hard to qualify people for relief because of…
TLC. (2006). State roles in financing public school facilities. TLC Research Division. Retrieved November 29, 2012 from http://www.tlc.state.tx.us/pubspol/OnlineFinancePubSch.pdf
Pennsylvania Department of Education. (2012). Property tax reduction allocations. Retrieved November 29, 2012 from http://www.portal.state.pa.us/portal/server.pt/community/property_tax_relief/7452/property_tax_reduction_allocations/510335
... Only one in 100 high school seniors could write a coherent response of more than one paragraph to an essay question; and only 7% of high school seniors could read at advanced level." (Hanushek)
In the light of this vast body of very forceful evidence, we cannot but agree that our public education system has deteriorated to the extent that we can no longer expect our public schools to produce quality students. Most of our public school students lack even basic knowledge of scientific facts and mathematical concepts and their communication skills leave a lot to be desired. With such students we cannot hope to compete on a global level, not at least in the long run. This explains why more professionally qualified people from other parts of the world are so rapidly taking over American job market.
The National Commission on Excellence in Education, a Nation at…
The National Commission on Excellence in Education, a Nation at Risk: The Imperative for Educational Reform (1983)
Eric a. Hanushek, "When School Finance Reform May Not Be Good Policy. Symposium, Investing in Our Children's Future: School Finance Reform in the 1990s," Harvard Journal on Legislation 28 (Summer 1991), 423.
U.S. Department of Education, Office of Educational Research and Improvement, National Center for Education Statistics (1993).
Cited in Susan Chira, "The Big Test: How to Translate the Talk About School Reform into Action," New York Times (March 24, 1991), Sec. 4, at 1.
Public schools' incorporation of sexual education and family planning courses have led to a decline in teen-age pregnancies.
Sexual education curriculum
Background of history of school incorporation
Who takes the classes
What is taught
Perceived effects on teenagers thoughts about sexuality
Knowledge of sexually transmitted disease
Impact on self-esteem
Peer pressure to engage in sexual acts
Forms of preventing pregnancy
Forms of birth control
School's role in providing information
Family's role in providing information
Comparison of number of teenage pregnancies from 20, 10 and 5 years ago V. Conclusion
Government-funded health agencies have recorded a dramatic drop in teenage pregnancies over the past decade reaching an overall record low according to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. This decrease is related directly to the inclusion of sexual education in public junior high schools and high schools.
Although sex education was first proposed in the early 1950s, the…
Public school culture is fairly similar even amidst ethnically and geographically diverse schools. For example, there is prohibition of classroom prayer. Students and school staff must maintain a professional and platonic relationship at all times. Any student or school staff engaging in illegal behaviors must be reported. These are just some things that every public school must do or else face potential legal problems. That being said, the culture in the school can be split up into subcultures where the differences can clearly be seen.
Cultural context has always been an important area to examine. Organizations often have their own sub-culture demonstrated by the ones working there. An example is corporate culture. Each company has its own corporate culture and corporate cultures often develop as an ethos generated and maintained by images, ritual, symbols, and social processes. "ituals are often embedded in the formal structure of the organization, as in…
Mavrofides, T., Kameas, A., Papageorgiou, D., & Los, A. (2011). On the Entropy of Social Systems: A Revision of the Concepts of Entropy and Energy in the Social Context. Syst. Res., 28(4), 353-368. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/sres.1084
Mele, C., Pels, J., & Polese, F. (2010). A Brief Review of Systems Theories and Their Managerial Applications. Service Science, 2(1-2), 126-135. http://dx.doi.org/10.1287/serv.2.1_2.126
Morgan, G. (2006). Images of Organization (2nd ed.). SAGE Publications.
This debate does not include the fact that peer pressure in many public schools causes families to spend much more on "street clothes" so that their kids are not embarrassed or bullied because they do not have the latest fashions. (a single pair of the least expensive GAP girl's jeans can run $30 -- two to three times the cost of uniform pants or skirt). It seems clear that the argument that public school uniforms are more expensive may be difficult to prove.
The second, and most often used, argument against school uniforms is that they stifle self-expression and inhibit individuality. These are normally arguments from parents of children who have not yet participated in a school uniform policy. Most parents, in my research, who have a child who goes to a public school with a uniform policy say that their child expresses their individuality and self-expression in many other…
Educationbug.org. "Public SChool Uniform Statistics." 2010. educationbug.org. 17 March 2010 .
LBUSD. "School Uniform Fact Sheet." 2010. Long Beach Unified School District (LBUSD). 17 March 2010 .
Public School Funding
ith reports on the lower standardized test scores among the nation's students, policy makers are once again turning their attention to the issue of education reform. For many educators, one of the culprits behind this is not only the dearth of money spent on public education. Rather, the available funding is disbursed unequally, benefiting the already more affluent school districts.
This paper examines the inequity that exists in funding public school education.
The first part of this paper looks at examples of this unequal funding throughout the country. The next part of the paper then looks at the various reasons for these disparities, from the government level to the lack of public support.
In the conclusion, this paper argues that there remains a strong need to increase public support for education funding, and to re-work the current formula used by states to determine how school funds are…
Brooks, Charles. 2002. "Poor and minority districts get thousands less per student." New York Amsterdam News. August 15.
Jencks, Christopher and Meredith Phillips. 1998. The Black-White Test Score Gap. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution.
McDermott, Kathryn. 1999. Controlling Public Education: Localism vs. Equity. Lawrenc: University Press of Kansas.
Reed, Douglas. 2001. "Not in My Schoolyard: Localism and Public Opposition to Funding Schools Equally." Social Science Quarterly. March.
Private vs. Public Schools
Many parents find themselves caught in a dilemma when trying to decide on which choice of education to take for their children. They ask themselves whether to take their children to private schools or public schools. For a parent to choose the ideal school for their children they always have to take into consideration all the available options. They consider things like the cost of the school, how much time they will invest as a parent, the social impact that the school have on their children based on the specific need of their children as well as the family.
Private schools offer the best option for the parent who is in need of better and quality education for their children. Private schools have a nearly perfect graduation rates which market them a great deal. Their performance is better as compared to the public schools. This is…
Mary Elizabeth, (2012). "Public Schools vs. Private Schools."Accessed May 10, 2012 from http://www.educationbug.org/a/public-schools-vs . -- private-schools.html
Parents For Better Education America (2011). "What Every Parent Should Know About Private Schools vs. Public Schools," ASIN: B004R9QKL8. Binding: Kindle Edition. Accessed May 10, 2012 from http://education.mitrasites.com/public-education-vs.-private-education.html
The Council for American Private Education. (2010). Private School Facts. Accessed May 10, 2012 from http://www.capenet.org/facts.html
The Council for American Private Education. (2003). Academic Performance 2003. Accessed May 10, 2012 from http://www.capenet.org/Outlook/Out9-03.html#Story5
Private Public School Similarities and Differences
isk and Benefits in Public and Private Schools
Special Need Students
Teachers Credentials in Private and Public Schools
This research paper focuses on the similarities and differences of private and public school education. It deciphers several truths and realities associated with these two systems. isks and benefits along with teacher's credentials in private and public schools are discussed in detail. Another factor brought to light is the positive role played by ample resources in the betterment of private sector and the loss it has incurred to public sector education system.
Parents always face this query whether they should choose a private school or public schools. They want best for their children and it is a normal perception that private schools are way better than public schools in terms of quality and academic excellence. Although problems exist in both the sectors but due to ample…
Anonymous. American Academy Of Child And Adolescent Psychiatry. March 2011. 29 January 2013.
-- . PISA. 2 November 2012. 29 January 2012.
Nan, Stein. "Bullying, Harassment and Violence among Students." Radical Teacher (2007): 43-55.
Reese, William J. America's Public Schools: From the Common School to "No Child Left Behind." New York: John Hopkins University Press, 2005.
Such limitations seem necessary because of the limited resources that schools have and the need for students to learn English as soon as possible so that they can receive all the benefits of a public school education.
It is evident that this issue will be present for years to come. The increase in the number of children for whom English is not their first language is an indication of the importance of this subject. It is also evident that the issue must be resolved so that all of the children in this nation are able to receive the education needed to become viable members of society.
Brisk, Maria, Maria Estela Brisk. Bilingual Education: From Compensatory to Quality Schooling. 2005 Routledge
Calhoon, Mary Beth, et al. "Effects of a Peer-Mediated Program on Reading Skill Acquisition for Two-ay Bilingual First-Grade Classrooms." Learning Disability Quarterly 30.3 (2007): 169+. Questia. 9…
Brisk, Maria, Maria Estela Brisk. Bilingual Education: From Compensatory to Quality Schooling. 2005 Routledge
Calhoon, Mary Beth, et al. "Effects of a Peer-Mediated Program on Reading Skill Acquisition for Two-Way Bilingual First-Grade Classrooms." Learning Disability Quarterly 30.3 (2007): 169+. Questia. 9 July 2008 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5023349521 .
De Ramirez, Romilia Dominguez, and Edward S. Shapiro. "Curriculum-Based Measurement and the Evaluation of Reading Skills of Spanish-Speaking English Language Learners in Bilingual Education Classrooms." School Psychology Review 35.3 (2006): 356+. Questia. 9 July 2008 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5017755652 .
Montano, Theresa, Sharon H, Ulanoff, Rosalinda Quintanar-Sarellana, and Lynne Aoki. "The DEbilingualization of California's Prospective Bilingual Teachers." Social Justice 32.3 (2005): 103+. Questia. 9 July 2008 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5015870966 .
Food Served in Public Schools
he school nutrition environment, consisting of school meals and competitive meals, has actually properly gotten terrific attention due to the fact that kids eat, usually, one-third of their everyday calorie consumption at school (Briefel et al., 2009).
Improving the dietary consumption of our country's kids is of crucial value given that one-third of school-age kids are obese or overweight (Ogden et al., 2010).
Paper's Scope and significant areas:.
his research will clarify Kid Nutrition Reauthorization from FRAC. he research addresses school meal quality and gain access to (Hartline-Grafton, 2010). Moreover, the present research concentrates on competitive meals, which are extensively readily available in schools, mostly exempt from federal nutrition criteria, and have an unfavourable influence on the wellness and health of all pupils, particularly pupils from low-income households.
he semi-structured type of interview is utilized in the research in addition to the standardized…
Terry-McElrath, Y.M., O'Malley, P.M., Delva, J., & Johnston, L.D. (2009). The school food environment and student body mass index and food consumption: 2004 to 2007 national data. Journal of Adolescent Health, 45(3 Supplement), S45-S56.
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food and Nutrition Service; U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; and U.S. Department of Education. (2005). Making It Happen! School Nutrition Success Stories. FNS-374. Available at: http://www.fns.usda.gov/TN/Resources/makingithappen.html . Accessed April 20, 2013.
Wharton, C.M., Long, M., & Schwartz, M.B. (2008). Changing nutrition standards in schools: the emerging impact on school revenue. Journal of School Health, 78(5), 245-251.
Students with various needs are crowded into the same classroom, and teachers have few resources to draw from in order to accommodate their individual needs. The most important factors in providing educational equity include improving access to educational and community services for people with special needs and for people whose first language is not English. Parents and students need to participate fully in the educational process. Also, teachers need to be aware of the specific needs of students from different cultural or linguistic backgrounds and alter curriculum accordingly. Another key factor in improving educational equity is ensuing that students who are struggling academically receive all the support they need from as early an age as possible. Rather than stick struggling students into remedial classes thereby negatively labeling them for life, educators need to stimulate their unique talents and abilities in order to help them thrive.
Banning Books in Public Schools
The 1st Amendment to the constitution does guarantee freedom of speech and freedom of the press. However, when children are involved, freedoms often become blurry. In some cases, they are not freedoms at all, when parents or society believes they are protecting children. One example would be the case of banning books in public schools. However, banning books in public schools is unacceptable because it deprives everyone (not just children) of their rights, imposes and fosters normative values, and generally harms the author.
Book banning in public schools is unethical because it deprives every one of their right have the material. While the target audience may be children, there are many adults who read books that are aimed at youth. For example, Harry Potter has been read by old and young alike, and The Hunger Games has been a best seller for many months. Many…
Aristotle's Ethics. (March 29, 2010). In Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved from http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/aristotle-ethics/
Frequently Challenged Books of the 21st Century. (n.d.) Retrieved from http://www.ala.org/ala/issuesadvocacy/banned/frequentlychallenged/21stcenturychallenged/index.cfm
Heteronormativity. (n.d.) Retrieved October 16, 2011 from http://www.cla.purdue.edu/english/theory/genderandsex/terms/heteronormativity.html
violence in the public schools. Teen violence in general has become a major concern in America today. One of the reasons for the issue being so prevalent is the number of school shootings in the last few years, especially the shooting at Columbine High in Littleton, Colorado. hile the welfare of young people is always of concern, much of the fear being generated at the present time is excessive. For one thing, teen violence is not the new phenomenon many people seem to think it is, and an analysis of our history shows that violence in the schools has always been a problem and that in fact it is diminished at the present time. In truth, though, any school violence is too much, and ways of eliminating it and protecting students in school must be found. Several "solutions" to the problem have been offered.
One such recommendation is school uniforms,…
Access Control & Security Systems Integration Facility Systems Staff. "Devising an effective school security plan." Access Control & Security Systems Integration (1 July 2000).
Bowman, Darcia Harris. "Federal Study Stresses Warning Signs of School Violence."
Education Week 21(15)(12 Dec 2001), 12.
Clinton, Bill. "Memorandum on the School Uniforms Manual." Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents (March 4, 1996), 368-369.
Home School vs. Public School
Home schooling was once reserved for homebound students due to a number of reasons, such as rural locations, or physical conditions. Religion has also been a major reason for home schooling. Today, however, many parents are choosing home schooling over public schools for variety of reasons and statistics show that for the majority it has proven to be the right choice.
The National Center for Education Statistics, NCES, collects and analyzes data related to education in the United States and other nations as well. In 1999, the NCES reported that approximately 850,000 students in the U.S. are being home schooled (McDermott Pp). This is 1.7% of all U.S. students, ranging from five to seventeen years old and a grade equivalent of kindergarten to high school senior level (McDermott Pp).
During the last two decades there has been a steady increase of parents choosing home schooling…
Houston, Robert G; Toma, Eugenia F. "Home schooling: an alternative school choice." Southern Economic Journal. April 01, 2003; Pp.
nnerst, Carol. "Home schooling's success shakes 'extremist' image." The Washington Times. December 11, 1996; Pp.
McDermott, Irene E. "Web resources for home-schooling." Searcher. September 01, 2003; Pp.
Mondlock, Helen. "Education hits home." World and I. June 01, 2000; Pp.
Lifting Up Our Children Through Public Schools
How to Lift Up Future Generations
Renee Moore, a teacher in a very poor Mississippi Delta school, is quoted in Tim alker's article as saying if we truly agree that education is the way out of poverty, " . . . then we need to stop making the schools that serve the poorer children the most impoverished schools" (alker 2013). Moore has a valid point, made even more urgent by the fact that more than half of the students in American public schools " . . . come from low-income families" (Rich 2015). Indeed the majority of students in "21 states are poor," Rich writes in The New York Times.
Hence, this paper proposes working with the federal government, with states, and with private sector corporations to properly fund all public schools, in particular those that serve towns and cities steeped in abject…
Jung, Helen. "11 Things You Need to Know About Betsy DeVos, Secretary of Education."
Cosmopolitan, 7 February 2017, www.cosmopolitan.com. Accessed 17 February, 2017.
Rich, Motoko. "Percentage of Poor Students in Public School Rises." The New York Times,
16 January 2015, www.nytimes.com. Accessed 18 February 2017.
Public school teachers are disproportionately white, middle-class females, in spite of the student body becoming increasingly diverse across the nation. As many as ninety percent of grade school teachers are white, but as many as thirty percent of students are persons of color, according to an article by Christine I. Bennett entitled "Enhancing Ethnic Diversity at a Big Ten University Through Project TEAM." The under-representation of teachers from various ethnic minority groups is a detriment for students of color, who are commonly placed in remedial learning classes and who have relatively low rates of high school completion. In order to correct this imbalance and provide students of color with an enriched learning environment, a group of researchers designed and implemented a program at several Indiana University campuses to recruit, support, and help graduate students of color in an educational tract. Called Project Transformative Educational Achievement Model (TEAM), the program…
The initial conflict at Lakeside was due to the high suspension rate, and after six years in the principal's chair, Mr. Downey apparently was not competent to rectify the situation. Downey had been in the district 40 years and that is too long for an administrator to be up-to-date with schools, kids, and social dynamics that surround public schools. Hence, one could pin blame on the district for not replacing Mr. Downey earlier with a younger, more energetic, more contemporarily adroit individual. Bottom line: the district was responsible for the conflict.
"Deprivation" is, according to Merriam-Webster, the "state of being deprived," and a "removal from an office, dignity, or benefice." In the case of the existing faculty at Lakeside Elementary, they were certainly deprived of their dignity when Principal Early marched in with high-heeled shoes and began to criticize them. This was an outrageous violation of decorum and…
public health threats, many grassroots organizations and individuals have found writing letters to the editors of their local newspapers to be an effective means of raising public awareness concerning these threats (White & Olson, 2010). A sample letter to the editor of the Philadelphia Inquirer concerning the alarming prevalence of childhood obesity in the Philadelphia community in general and inner-city communities in particular is provided below.
Public school students in Philadelphia need healthier choices in school cafeterias. As many people in Philadelphia already know, the prevalence of childhood obesity in our community is at near-epidemic levels. Nationwide, the increase in the number of overweight and obese American school-aged children has been staggering (McDuffie & George, 2009). In fact, in 2004, fully 16% of all young Americans were overweight and another 34% were at high risk of becoming overweight and these rates were far higher and increasing faster for…
Hogan, C.L. (2011, March 21). Michelle Obama stresses economic impact of childhood obesity. Nation's Cities Weekly, 34(11), 1-5.
McDuffie, T.E. & George, R.J. (2009, Spring). School day eating habits of inner-city, African
American adolescents. The Journal of Negro Education, 78(2), 114-119.
White, P. & Olsan, T. (2010, May). Legislative: Searching for health policy information on the Internet: An essential advocacy skill. Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, 15(2), 11-14.
Mann v. Gatto
The early public school reformer Horace Mann celebrated the institution of the public school as a profoundly democratizing force in American life. Mann believed that without public schooling, America could not become a true democracy. Public schooling enabled even the children of paupers to work hard and to gain a foothold in the middle class (Badolato 2011). Schools could provide students with technical expertise which would also make for a more productive society and also a more equitable society. Mann's philosophy is still seen today in the discourse about education, when it is bemoaned that so many students graduating college with liberal arts degrees are not 'marketable' despite their high levels of college debt. Instead of teaching learning for learning's sake, Mann believed that education had a social mission to empower people economically.
In contrast, the contemporary conservative educational theorist John Taylor Gatto views the public educational…
Gatto, John Taylor. (2003). Against school. Harper's. Retrieved:
Badolato, Robert. (2011). Educational theory of Horace Mann. New Foundations. Retrieved:
Choice of Schooling
I think it is important to have a choice of schooling especially, as Bill Moyers points out, the nation lurches towards an oligarchy in which the country’s wealth is concentrated in the hands of a few, while decisions are shaped and made by a small handful of powerful elites. If these people control everything, their agenda will very likely inform the type of schooling that is provided to young people. If parents do not want their children to be educated according to the agenda of the oligarchy, they should have the option of providing alternative schooling, such as homeschooling, charter schools, and so on.
I would personally favor homeschooling because I like to be in control of education myself, but having time for it can be difficult if you are already working full time, so charter schools would be another option. Finding a school that is safe…
TAPE V. HURLEY
Exclusion of cildren of non-wite races from public scools was a major cause of concern for immigrants in late 18t century and for te first alf of te 19t century. Te issue reaced its peak wen in 1884 wen Josep and Mary Tape sougt admission in a public scool for teir U.S.-born girl, Mamie. In tose days, Cinese immigrants were seen in a negative ligt especially in California, as tey were considered "dangerous to te well-being of te state." Te court ruled in favor of Tapes but scool administration refused to abide by te ruling on grounds on "separate but equal" doctrine. Te court ruled tat cildren of all nationalities and races could seek admission in public scools except tose of "filty or vicious abits." Superior Court Judge McGuire ruled: "To deny a cild, born of Cinese parents in tis State, entrance to te public scools would…
Tape v. Hurley (1885) 66 Cal. 473: retrieved online 15th May 2004:
This paper provides a summary of the Illinois Policy Institute’s Bargaining for Better Schools: An Introduction to Collective Bargaining in Illinois Public Education. The policy paper discusses how teachers unions take advantage of the collective bargaining process in Illinois by working with school boards. The school board members are elected thanks in part to the campaign funds provided by the unions. When it comes time to negotiate teachers’ salaries and benefits, the boards are thus in the pockets of the unions, as they feel compelled to reciprocate by giving the unions what they want. Taxpayers are left in the dark about much of this because of the misleading communications provided them by the unions.
Keywords: Illinois public schools, Illinois teacher unions, Illinois collective bargaining
This paper examines the Illinois Policy Institute’s (n.d.) Bargaining for Better Schools: An Introduction to Collective Bargaining in Illinois Public Education. It will provide…
The Intolerance of Zero Tolerance
Zero Tolerance Policies in Public Schools
One has only to turn on the television, log onto the Internet, or glance at a newspaper to see that violence is everywhere in our society. The nightly news is dominated by one act of depravity after another: murders, rapes, and violent assaults, among others. Hate crimes send shockwaves through seemingly peaceful communities. A cross is burned in a field, a Jewish cemetery is ransacked, the tombstones broken and covered with swastikas, a gay college student is crucified on a fence, left to die by his homophobic classmates, and a Black man is dragged behind a speeding car. Such horrific incidents seem almost commonplace. Mutual intolerance of one group for another breeds hatred and cruelty. People today appear quick to anger and even quicker to react...violently. Stabbings and shootings and bloody assaults are as frequent as fights on…
Bauder, David. (14 October 1999). The Washington Post.
Fagan, Patrick. (1998). "The Breakdown of the Family: The Consequences for Children and American Society." Issues '98: The Candidate's Briefing Book, 6, 11. The Heritage Foundation.
Garbarino, James, PhD. (January 2001). "Where Do We Point the Finger of Blame?" Journal of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, 155. The American Medical Association.
Kemp, Dawn; and Center, David. (2000, August) "Troubled Children Grown Up: Antisocial Behavior in Young Criminals." Education and Treatment of Children, 23, 3. Atlanta, GA: Georgia State University, 223-238.
Throughout the nation the American public has clamored for school change and reform. One of the alternatives that has moved to the forefront of the arena is the ability of parents to choose the public school that their children will attend without geographic boundaries and mandates.
Experts continue to debate whether or not school choice ability will force the hand of the public school system to make the desired changes. Some believe that parents having the ability to move their children to the school of their choice will force all schools to improve to compete, while others think it will harm the economically disadvantaged schools with little benefit to the then overcrowded wealthy schools. This paper presents a research proposal that addresses the question of school choice. This might include the choice to choose a different public school, choose to home school, and choose private school or another…
CHESTER E. FINN, JR. & REBECCA L. GAU, New ways of education. Vol. no130, The Public Interest, 01-15-1998.
Gail Russell Chaddock, Staff writer of The Christian Science Monitor, Public schools enter a new world of competition., The Christian Science Monitor, 03-30-1999, pp FEATURES,.
Author not available, As home schooling rises, districts fail to meet needs., USA Today, 08-21-2002, pp 09A.
Author not available, What's so liberal about keeping children in dreadful schools?., The Washington Post, 02-23-2003, pp B08.
By bringing into the equation of transitional services the special needs personnel at local colleges and vocational institutions, the interagency agreement described here will ensure that upon the student's eventual arrival at one such institution, there will be people familiar with his case and prepared to accommodate his needs. These respective agency types can then help a disabled student to train a focus on the specific career goals which have been identified either with the assistance of counselors.
Using the Strategic Planning Meeting as a method to identifying willing and helpful stakeholders in the process, the public partnership in question relies heavily on such networking to both orient the community toward our collective goals and to foster natural communication between such agencies at a personal level. By inviting and bringing into contact such groups as decision-makers from local law organizations, leaders from public recreation leagues and university personnel, as well…
Graddy, E. & Chen, B. (2006). Influences on the size and scope of networks for social service delivery. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory Advance Access.
Milward, H.B. & Provan, K.G. (2006). A Manager's Guide to Choosing and Using Collaborative Networks. Network and Partnership Series.
Office of Career Assessment, Planning and Placement (OCAPP). Setting a Course for Students with Disabilities & their Parents. Charlottesville City Schools. Online at www.ccs.k12.va.us/departments/items/career/docs/TransitionWebPage.pdf
Schools in the 21st century are very different from the one-room schoolhouses that once dotted the American landscape. Today a single school can house thousands of students at various grade levels and many schools integrate the latest technologies into their curriculums. With this being understood, it will be interesting to see how school curriculum will change in the future. The purpose of this discussion is to examine how schools will change in the future as it pertains to technology. The discussion will also focus on the introduction of schools as social anchors, that are both moral and purposeful.
Schools of the future
Indeed technology will continue to play a large role in schools of the future. Educators will continue to incorporate technology into the curriculum. According to Caldwell and Hayward (1998) "schooling at the upper secondary level will become more complex and diverse, with multiple providers; combined with advances made…
Briefing paper on Emerging Issues and Best Practices -- Introduction. Retrieved April 19, 2005 from; http://www.arc.org/gripp/publicEducation/grippPublicEducPg06.html
Florida Virtual School: The Future of Learning? A Forum Brief -- October 18, 2002. American Youth Policy Forum. Retrieved April 19, 2005 from; http://www.aypf.org/forumbriefs/2002/fb101802.htm
Caldwell, B.J., & Hayward, D.K. (1998). The Future of Schools: Lessons from the Reform of Public Education. London: Falmer Press.
Huskey, B.L., & Wiley, R. (1993, August). Using Public Education Campaigns to Build Community Partnerships. Corrections Today, 55, 154+.
Utilization of the data and collection of the data should be one of the main aims of the policy makers. The data can be used by the policymakers in order to develop the policies and implement these in order to make sure that improvement can be ensured (Basch, 2011, p. 9).
3. One of the main roles that can be played by the policy makers includes reviewing the policies that have already been designed for the schools. How these previous policies have played roles in an improvement of academics of the children, their environments and their health are important parts of the review by the policymakers. It is important that funding is collected for the issues that affect health and academics of children.
4. The policymakers should make sure that the importance of school-based health clinics that can play roles in looking after the needs of the students.
Basch, C. (2011). Executive Summary: Healthier Students Are Better Learners. Journal of School Health 81, pp. 4-107.
Bruzzese, J., Sheares, B.J., Vincent, E.J., Du, Y., Sadeghi, H., Levison, M.J., Mellins, B.R., and Evans, D. (2011). Effects of a School-based Intervention for Urban Adolescents with Asthma: A Controlled Trial. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. April 15, 2011 183, pp. 998-1006.
Gall, G., Pagano, M.E., Desmond, S., Perrin, J.M., and Murphy, J.M. (2000). Utility of Psychosocial Screening at a School-based Health Center. Journal of School Health 70, pages 292 -- 298.
Geierstanger, P.S., Amaral, G., Mansour, M., and Walters, R.S. (2004). School-Based Health Centers and Academic Performance: Research, Challenges, and Recommendations. Journal of School Health 74, pages 347 -- 352.
School Finance: Its Economics and Politics
School financing in America
Revenue sources for federal and state governments
Judicial reviews of school finance policy with evolving standards of equality
School-based decision making
Family choice of schooling
Reform of schooling-finance
Providing equality in educational opportunities to all is one of the cornerstones of American democracy. The founding fathers of America were aware of the necessity of having a population, which is educated since it enables an opportunity for all the citizens of the country to be successful. The necessity and the desire to create an environment where all children have equal opportunities for education to achieve success are now creating fundamental challenges in the field of education in America. In the 20th century, the issues which concerned school finance was about dealing with how to overcome fiscal disparities with the use of state and federal resources within a public school system. The…
Alexander, Kern, & Salmon, Richard, G. Public school finance. Mass.: Allyn and Bacon.(1995)
Hertert, Linda, Carolyn Busch, and Allan Odden. "School Financing Inequities Among the States: The Problem from a National Perspective." Journal of Education Finance 19 (Winter 1994), 231-255.
Odden, Allan, R., & Busch, Carolyn, C, "Financing schools for high performance: Strategies for improving the use of educational resources." California: Jossey-Bass, Publishers. (1998)
National Research Council. "Making Money Matter: Financing America's Schools." Committee on Education Finance, Helen F. Ladd and Janet S. Hansen, eds. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. (1999)
It raises the need for both written and verbal communication skills to reach an optimum level that can persuade and cajole.
It is believed by many experts that this economic role will become more important in future years and that in order to achieve the status of superintendent, a candidate will have to display some experience or education in that field to ensure board members that he or she is capable of representing the district well (Thomas, 2002).
With Administrators, Staff and Teachers
School superintendents face a new level of issues when dealing with these three groups of employees, and it is very important how the man or woman in that position communicates layoffs, curriculum changes, school closures, firings, or an order to re-apply for their jobs, as has been done now in a significant number of districts around the country.
One of the superintendent's first priorities is to get…
Board perceptions. (2007, December). Retrieved May 28, 2009, from School Administrator Journal - GALE database (A172251160): .
Glass, T.E., Bjork, L., & Brunner, C. (2000). A study of the American school superintendency. Retrieved May 28, 2009, from eric.ed.gov (ED440475): http://eric.ed.gov/ERICDocs/data/ericdocs2sql/content_storage_01/0000019b/80/16/2d/e9.pdf
Hopper, J. (2005, December). Communication essentials: What superintendents need to know and want to share about communicating. Retrieved May 28, 2009, from Michigan edusource: http://188.8.131.52/search?q=cache:PvTiyj6oFJsJ:www.michiganedusource.org/PublicRelations/Supt_Communication_Essentials.doc+school+superintendents+communication+methods&cd=11&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=us
McAdams, D.R. (2009, February). Top 10 'guarantees' for a great relationship. Retrieved May 28, 2009, from EBSCO data base (AN 36326105): http://ezproxy.ppld.org:2054/ehost/detail?vid=2&hid=9&sid=99164b10-d3d2-43 AD-b5be-a37ac1448272%40sessionmgr7&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db=tfh&AN=36326105
Schools and Education
Over the last several years, the field of education has been facing tremendous challenges. This is because of shifts in how they address a host of issues and there are changing demographics of students. These are all signs of broader social implications which are having an effect on individual performance and their ability to adapt with a variety of situations. (Rury, 2013)
Evidence of this can be seen with observations from Rury (2013) who said, "e live in a time of considerable social and political turmoil, marked by economic uncertainty that has directly touched the lives of millions of Americans. Deep divisions and critical problems, as a range of issues are debated fervently, extending from economic policy, to poverty and inequality. If there is anything everyone seems to agree upon it the growing importance of education for the future. ithout expanding our present knowledge and abilities, it…
Ballantine, Jeanne. 2012. Schools and Society. Thousand Oaks: Sage.
Hendrix, L. (2013). Education and Society. (Educational Autobiography).
Morris, Edward. 2012. Learning the Hard Way. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.
Rury, John. 2013. Education and Social Change. New York: Routledge.
These issues of professionalism and innovation seem to be a major problem in many public schools in America. In recent years these issues have come to light as teachers have been disciplined and even fired for their interactions with students that have been unprofessional and even criminal at times. Teachers have an ethical responsibility to act professionally and when they fell to do so the ability of students to excel academically is also compromised.
The aforementioned authors also mention the lack of innovation that often occurs as a result of using democratic methods. One of the reasons why school choice is even an issue is because the curriculums that have been implemented in public schools lack variety. Part of the reason for this lack of innovation has to do with bureaucracy and government mandates such as the No Child Left Behind Act. This particular act stifles innovation because many teachers…
Cullen, J.B. Brian A. Jacob and Steven D. Levitt (2005) The impact of school choice on student outcomes: an analysis of the Chicago Public Schools. Journal of Public Economics. 89 (5-6):729-760
Hastings, Justine S. Thomas J. Kane Douglas Staiger (2005) Parental Preferences and School Competition: Evidence from a Public School Choice Program .Yale Economic Applications and Policy Discussion Paper No. 10
Moe, Terry. 2001. Schools, Vouchers and the American Public. Washington: Brookings Institution Press
Sikkink, D., Emerson M.O. (2008) School choice and racial segregation in U.S. schools: The role of parents' education. Ethnic and Racial Studies 31(2): 267-293
They predict age and gender variations relate to bullying concerns. Of the 25 cartoons implemented in the study, two depict characters with different shades of skin color where skin color appeared to be an issue. One cartoon relating to sexual orientation was not used in several countries. Smith et al. report Olweus to assert bullying to be characterized by the following three criteria:
1. It is aggressive behavior or intentional "harmdoing"
2. which carried out repeatedly and over time
3. In an interpersonal relationship characterized by an imbalance of power. (Smith et al., 2002, p. 1120)
In their study, Smith et al. (2002), participating researchers in the 14 countries to completed the following
1. Listed and selected bullying terms as well as social exclusion in the applicable language.
2. Used fundamental focus groups with participating children to confirm usage and extensive comprehensive of terms.
3. Using cartoons, sorted tasks to…
Anti-Bullying programs for schools. (2009). NoBully.com. Retrieved March 3, 2010 from http://www.nobully.com/index.html
Beaty, L.A., & Alexeyev, E.B. (2008). The Problem of School Bullies: What the Research Tells Us. Adolescence, 43(169), 1+. Retrieved March 3, 2010, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5026476147
Beran, T.N., Tutty, L. & Steinrath, G. (2004). An evaluation of a bullying prevention program for elementary schools. Canadian Journal of School Psychology. Vol. 19, Iss. 1/2, p. 99
116 . Retrieved March 3, 2010 from http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=1188387401&Fmt=4&clientId=9269&RQT=30
Her point is to get support for her views, and she did, because three months after she wrote this piece there was a rally at the State Capitol in Austin where 5,000 people called for school choice in front of the Capitol building. Therefore, her words helped people make up their minds and seek action from their legislators. However, she failed to convince the legislators, who did not even address school choice during the 2007 legislative session (Editors). Either this means that the legislators are not listening to the will of the people, or that her rhetoric failed to gain their support.
The media has certainly picked up this issue, and it is an issue all around the country, not just in Texas. The Milwaukee school district has had a voucher system like this for over sixteen years, and it has proven to be a money saving plan for taxpayers,…
Editors. "School Choice Legislation." CEOAustin.org. 2008. 4 May 2009.
Storey, Jamie. "The Dropout Drain: How Dropouts -- Not School Choice -- Take Money From Public Schools." Texas Public Policy Foundation. 2007. 4 May 2009.
Conant challenged a very old standard with regard to education, as he identified that making decisions about who is given opportunity and who is excluded should be based on merit and ability rather than wealth, privilege and race. (235) His actions and ideals drive the continued utilization of federal student aide, even today, as well as the expansion of scholarship offering, both public and private as his work redefined the determination of who deserves education and who does not. (235-237) in a speech given by Conant he stressed that education in the past had fostered social stratification and in so doing created a potential situation of unrest among those who could not receive it. This Conant warned was the seed of revolution and the only manner in which to change this reality, he warned was through educational opportunity, "the chances of a nonrevolutionary development of our nation in the…
This system is stated to be flawed as "The school board members have a vested interest in the success of the existing local school system and are reluctant to introduce a competitor into the marketplace, said charter school supporters." (O'Donoghue, 2010)
Summary and Conclusion
It is very likely that laws will be changed and policy reformed relating to charter schools in the state of Virginia as to do otherwise means to miss the $350 million in funding opportunity for Virginia's school system and it appears highly unlikely that in the present state of the economy that Virginia will be willing to shun this much in educational funding.
Charter Schools, When Explained, Get Support (2009) Augusta Press. 16 Dec 2009. Online available at: http://augustafreepress.com/2009/12/16/charter-schools-when-explained-get-support/
Schaeffer, Adam . (2006) No, Virginia, There is No such thing as School Choice. 29 Oct 2006. CATO Institute. Online available at: http://www.cato.org/pub_display.php?pub_id=6756
raunlich, Christian (2009)…
Charter Schools, When Explained, Get Support (2009) Augusta Press. 16 Dec 2009. Online available at: http://augustafreepress.com/2009/12/16/charter-schools-when-explained-get-support/
Schaeffer, Adam B. (2006) No, Virginia, There is No such thing as School Choice. 29 Oct 2006. CATO Institute. Online available at: http://www.cato.org/pub_display.php?pub_id=6756
Braunlich, Christian (2009) Virginia Needs More Public Schools. Bacon's Rebellion. 18 Jan 2009. Online available at: http://baconsrebellion.com/2009/01/18/virginia-needs-more-charter-schools/
Grimes, Cathy (2010) Virginia Seeks $350 Million in Federal Race to the Top Education Funds. Daily Press.21 Jan 2010. Online available at http://www.dailypress.com/news/dp-local_racetothetop_0122jan22,0,5686858.story
School Legal Entanglement Plan
This Legal Entanglement Plan seeks to examine the policies, programs, strategies, and practices of a particular school with respect to its moral, legal, and ethical implications. The plan is developed based on a three-step process that will help in addressing the issue that could potentially become a liability or legal entanglement if left unaddressed. The plan will help in addressing the issue since it will be communicated to appropriate stakeholders.
Step 1 – Analysis
Moral and Legal Issues in School Strategies
One of the moral, ethical or legal issue facing Carson Elementary School in West Price and could escalate into a legal entanglement is school bullying, which poses significant threats on the welfare and well-being of students. Bullying is a broad concept that involves intentional aggression, power imbalance between the perpetrator and victim, and repetitive aggressive behavior (Cornell & Limber, 2015). Carson Elementary School recognizes that…
Williams Case Settlement
Mr. Governor, our youth represents our state's future - addressing and correcting the discrepancies that will be addressed in this memo should be a main priority and maybe even the ultimate objective of the Williams Class action lawsuit educational budget adjustments. The Courts have spoken and have obviously concurred that the California Educational System has been broken for quite some time and is in need of serious financial reform. The decision reached by the courts in the Williams' Class action lawsuit affirms the requirement of the State's obligation to provide an adequate educational process for this state's citizens.
The Williams' Class action lawsuit has become a successful demonstration that points out the blearing differences between an education received by our states rich and poor children when it comes to a K. through 12th grade education. The California State Legislature has confirmed that there is a significant funding…
Hill, John (2002). School Cutbacks Concern Analysts. Bee Capitol Bureau.
School cutbacks concern analyst
Hill warns lawmakers the governor's proposed budget-cutting plan could cause undue harm in classrooms.
John Hill -- Bee Capitol Bureau
And when the parent comes to an event held in the classroom, it makes good sense to have interpreters available, and "invite the extended family," which of course is a very welcoming act of kindness and good judgment. The other parent in this list of "types" is the "Busy Parent," who is a person with a work schedule that is hard to get a hold of, or plan meetings for. Get the cell phone number of parents like this, and the email addresses, and "continue to send home their children's work on a regular basis, including writing samples, artwork, and test copies" - and even consider taking digital photos of class activities and attaching those pictures to emails that go to parents.
On a more serious note, the literature on school administration duties as far as training staff to be parent-active and family-friendly offers an article called "here's the Ministry…
Beaudoin, Nelson. (2006). Giving Stakeholders a Voice. Educational Leadership, 63(8), 74-75.
Flannery, Mary Ellen. (2005). A field guide to parents: famed for its vast appetite for information
And ability to protect its offspring, the parent genus has nonetheless eluded scientific study.
Until now. NEA Today, 24(2), 36-38.
"Failure of any district to budget funds to meet statutory requirements is a very serious matter and will result in the executive county superintendent rejection of the budget. The district will be advised of any lack of budget approval with specific recommendations on necessary corrective revisions." (New Jersey Department of Education 2013, P 14).
3. Key Budget Terminology
There are numerous terminologies with regard to the school district budget. The most important budget terminologies are
The revenue is the money received by the school district within an accounting year. A fund is part of the revenue and there are four sources of revenue for the school district and this include:
Intermediate source, state, and Federal sources.
Expenditures are the expenses that the school district must fulfill within an accounting year. Part of the school district expenditures are the payment of teachers' salary, and travel expenses for…
Ernest & Young (2012).U.S. GAAP vs. IFRS the basics. Ernst&Young LLP.
State of New Jersey (2008).The Uniform Minimum Chart of Accounts for New Jersey Public Schools. Department of Education, Division of Finance.
New Jersey Department of Education (2013).Budget Guidelines Fiscal Year 2013-2014.Office of School Finance.
The author of the article, "Achieving the Challenge: Meeting Standards in the Continuation High School" (Stits, 2001) related that "prior to 1983, many continuation high schools existed in districts where expectations were limited to keeping the students in school as much as possible," and also the ideas was to keep those continuation students "away from the traditional high school campus." The implication was clear: there was a stigma that students in continuation school were bad seeds, and the idea was to keep them away from the mainstream lest they have a negative effect on the "good students" in the regular high school.
But eventually, the image of continuations schools in California changed, as communities more and more were trying to prevent school dropouts, and the need for a high school diploma became more important, as well, Stits writes.
HO DO CONTINUATION SCHOOLS OPERATE?
In an article in the journal Thrust…
Arlington Public Schools. (2005). Alternative Education: Purpose, Mission, Beliefs. Retrieved Nov. 10, 2007, at http://www.apsva.us/hsc .
Community College Week. (2004). R.I. Plan Would Help at-risk Students.
Hardy, Lawrence. (2007). Children at Risk: Graduation Day. American School Board Journal,
No. 37907. Retrieved Nov. 11, 2007, at http://www.asbj.com .
Several areas, if poorly designed, can lead to violent and criminal behavior, including parking lots, isolated spots on campus, locker rooms, and corridors. Often, violent behavior occurs in these areas when adults are not present (Astor, Meyer, and Behre, 1999, p. 3). Designing schools with more open areas, more planned classrooms, and a more defined perimeter can create a safer, less violent campus by creating a more functional and enjoyable educational experience. Thus, older, poorly designed schools often attract more violent behavior.
Location can also be a risk factor in certain schools, although that is not always the case. Another researcher notes, "Some urban schools are located [...] in slum neighborhoods where drug sellers routinely kill one another, as well as innocent bystanders, on the streets surrounding the school" (Toby, 1994, p.169). Children growing up in violence prone neighborhoods such as these may simply accept violence as a way of…
Astor, R.A. Meyer, H.A. And Behre, W.J. (1999). Unowned places and times: Maps and interviews about violence in high schools. American Educational Research Journal, Vol. 36, No. 1, 3-42.
Crowe, T.D. (1990). Designing safer schools. School Safety. 43-47.
Jenkins, P.H.(1997). School delinquency and the school social bond. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, Vol. 34 No. 3, 337-367.
May, D.C. (September 1999). Scared kids, unattached kids, or peer pressure: Why do students carry firearms to school? Youth & Society, Vol. 31 No. 1, 100-127.
school prepare children for life -- and should it? The public school system in the United States has undergone dramatic changes over the past century. It has become a required institution in which children spend a minimum of 12.5 years and more time than in any other place than home for their formative years. Thomas Jefferson, for instance, believed that universal education would have to precede universal suffrage. The ignorant, he argued, were incapable of self-government. But he had profound faith in the reasonableness and ability of the masses and in their collective wisdom when educated. As one of the founding fathers, Jefferson in fact set the precedent for American education: reading, writing, mathematics, the Classics, and European and American History.
The American Educational system is supported in several ways -- primarily through taxation and Federal/State grant money. It is this support that gives us a clue as to the…
His intention is to use an experimental approach by using statistical tools to quantify and assess program effectiveness by comparing school effectiveness ratings before implementation of the program with schools effectiveness ratings following the implementation of the program.
5. Is there anything in the procedures for collecting the information or in the instruments themselves that could bias the results or weaken the study?
The author does not describe the source of his schools merely stating the inclusive and exclusive criteria that they satisfied. The schools, all in Milwaukee, had to satisfy three main criteria: firstly that the program under study was introduced during a period when rating were available, secondly, that the number of schools introducing the program must be sufficient for statistical results, and thirdly, that there should be sufficient and adequate comparison groups. His research seems immune to bias.
The author does, however, mention the possibility of bias…
Thompson, B. (2006). Evaluating Three Programs Using a School Effectiveness Model: Direct Instruction, Target Teach, and Class Size Reduction, Third Education Group Review, 2, 1-10.
The Grow tool can certainly be used in other educational systems to the same end that NYC uses it in its own schools. More so, similar reports and web-based data summaries can be created to help teachers better understand and assist their students.
What additional data would you suggest they collect and analyze to enhance their understanding of the problem and identify sound solutions?
Other web-based data systems may be a comparison of effective strategies that are used to encourage students to learn; or innovations that teachers in various schools have created; or a synthesis of instructional models that have proved useful in the educational system. Comparison of scores of public schools in particular regions can be the content of another web-based data system. Describe at least one method they used that you might consider adopting to diagnose a problem in your school or district.
I might use a web-based…
Light, D et al. (2004) How Practitioners Interpret and Link Data to Instruction:Research Findings on New York City Schools' Implementation of the Grow Network. EDC/Center for Children and Technology
school-wide inquiry into learning and teaching performance and participating in professional inquiry as a colleague" I have often found my school lacking (Copland & Knapp 2006). My current Capstone project is on the phenomenon of 'teaching to the test,' or the extent to which the pressures of standardized testing have inhibited teacher's creativity and limited the development of individuated curriculums in schools today. Copland and Knapp (2006) suggest that under ideal circumstances, a partnership exists between teachers and administrators as they engage in a joint effort to discover what works and what does not work when comparing teaching strategies. But I often find (which is not uncommon amongst teachers) that the standardized test becomes a kind of 'third party' in the relationship between teachers and other stakeholders.
ather than engaging in research to determine what works and does not work to enhance learning, instead teachers and administrators alike must shape…
Rose, L.P. (2009). Students as researchers: a framework for using action research. International Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education, 20(2).
Maryland Charter Schools
Proponents of charter schools insist that they are the solution to America's educational woes and many state legislatures have begun to agree with that assessment. In Maryland, charter schools have become a viable alternative to the public school system which is seen as a lumbering anachronism, no longer able to educate or motivate. This is especially true in Baltimore where the schools are in dire need of reform. But the implementation of a charter school system did not come easily and there is still substantial opposition to the charter schools, mostly from public school educators. The Public Policy Lifecycle of Maryland's charter schools has been a very interesting one.
hile Maryland has continued to make great strides in its educational system, like many states the performance of its graduating students has been subpar. Even among those who attend college there are notable problems. At Baltimore…
Mossburg, M.H. (2011, May 10). Maryland's uneducated high school graduates. The Maryland
Public Policy Institute. Retrieved from:
Maryland Charter School Network. (2011). History of Maryland legislation. Retrieved from:
Educational Technology Plan 2014-2017
TIP 1: Vision, Mission, Goals and Strategies
TIP 2: Needs Assessment
TIP 3: The Planning Process
State Goals and Objectives with Local Strategies and Measures
TIP 4: Implementation: Timetable and Budget for Goals, Objectives and Strategies
TIP 5: Executive Summary
TIP 6: eferences
TIP 1: Vision, Mission, Goals and Strategies of Imaginary County Public Schools
The Imaginary County Public Schools District seeks to empower students with the latest technological resources and training to provide them with the knowledge to take advantage of educational and professional opportunities throughout their communities -- and the rest of their lives.
Vision: The vision of the Imaginary County Public Schools District is to enable students to become vital contributing members to the surrounding society with the most effective and modern methods indicative of the 21st century.
Goals and Strategies
Goal 1: Students must have a safe environment…
Harper, J. (2014). Mobile data governance. www.dataversity.net Retrieved from http://www.dataversity.net/mobile-data-governance/
Hogan, K.. (2013). The Edtech era. Tech & Learning. 33(8), 4.
Sangani, K. (2013). BYOD to the classroom. Engineering & Technology.8(3), 42-45.
Savitz, E. (2012). How we can use technology to transform the classroom. www.forbes.com. Retrieved from http://www.forbes.com/sites/ciocentral/2012/11/27/how-we-can-use-technology-to-transform-the-classroom/
public schooling harming our society?
The survey in this research effort will be intended to a randomly selected group of Americans outside the education system. This data will be collected to learn the attitudes and opinion of the public at large in relation to the public education system. The intent is to take a fresh and new look at the overall practicality, effectiveness and economics of the system and to learn what people are thinking about their personal experiences with their schooling.
The focus group source of data will help examine the research question by gathering data about how leaders in education are self-assessing their own performance. In this group, the goal is to attain honest and frank responses to important challenges that the public school system is providing. This group should include administrators, teachers, teachers aides, coaches and any other professional working directly in the public school…
Module 1 Activity. Provided by customer.
For the public sector, performance management is a valuable process. Organizations increasingly rely on performance data to make decisions relating to various organizational processes, including strategic planning, internal management, resource allocation, reporting, as well as monitoring and evaluation. This is what performance management is all about -- continuous measurement of performance, definition of performance objectives and outcomes, communication of the outcomes, and taking action based on those outcomes. As demonstrated by literature, implementing PBM can be viewed as implementing organizational change: it requires assessment of the status quo, defining the organization's desired future state, and undertaking action to achieve that state. For this to be achieved, however, a number of factors are important: strong leadership commitment, organizational culture changes, as well as attention to individual, operational, and strategic dimensions. If effectively implemented, PBM can positively influence employee and organizational outcomes.
Performance Management: Brief Literature Review
With the operational environment becoming…