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Ethics & esponsibility
The author of this report has been asked to do an article review regarding ethics and responsibility. To that end, the author of this report found an article by Agheorghiesei as written earlier this year. The article is about ethics and responsibility in the public sector and in public management. Indeed, the public sector is a world unto its own and the management of public agencies is not nearly the same as it would be for a private sector employer or situation. While there are similarities between the ethical and responsibility standards of the public and private sectors, the public sector will always be its own proverbial animal according to Agheorghiesei.
The article starts out by saying that "ensuring the ethical behavior in the public sector requires a permanent reflection on the decisions taken and their impact from a moral point-of-view on citizens" (Agheorghiesei, 2015). Agheorghiesei continues…… [Read More]
Public Policy and Service
Currently, I work on homeland security issues, with a focus on enforcing Federal egulations. My overall plan is to remain with the government with the likelihood of retiring from a governmental agency. My professional philosophy revolves around the nature of service, and I believe that my skills, enthusiasm and patriotism all combine in a better way by using my skills to help the United States.
Before this recent job change, I was a bank regulator. I transferred to Homeland Security because of its importance in the contemporary environment and its mission to protect America at home and abroad. When one stops to reflect a moment, we see that the world is a far different place than it was prior to the events of 9/11. In fact, as a direct response to the terrorist attacks on the United States in September, 2011, the Office of Homeland Security…… [Read More]
public corruption and its effect, including the claim that public corruption in an unavoidable side effect of development. Corruption in public service can be an ongoing concern in many areas. Corruption can lead to disorder, lack of trust in police or other public entities, and to ongoing problems with morale and citizen support. There is an argument that in countries with high levels of corruption, it has some benefit, but that is difficult to accept, as corruption only benefits those who participate in it, and it definitely does not benefit the general population.
The Transparency International Web site defines corruption as "Corruption is operationally defined as the misuse of entrusted power for private gain" (Editors, 2009). They go on to state that public servants (including criminal justice professionals), have a duty to remain above corruption. They note, "It is the duty of civil servants, managers and trustees to act visibly,…… [Read More]
public administration and considers the effect of their writings and theories on the field of public administration. It has 6 sources.
An analysis of the core areas of public administration and how these areas interrelate with one another; taking into account the theories and writings of major players in the field of public administration and how their views shaped these areas.
The principles of public administration are the clearest description of its usefulness to society and government. This administrative science is barely 100-125 years old in the U.S. And a little over 200 years old in France. Tracing its roots back to Napoleon, public administration evolved largely as a result of the increasing complexity of society, economy and technology. The French system of Public Administration is still considered by many to be the world's best. Compared to Germany and Britain, the U.S. was relatively slower to utilize public administration in…… [Read More]
The science of public administration is not a direct or concrete examination. ather, the human tendencies of emotion and subtle manipulation are also included in this discipline. The purpose of this essay is to explore the ideas and major theories of the science of public administration. This essay will examine 5 patriarchal figures to highlight the evolution and transformation of the use of public power for administration purposes.
The presidency of Woodrow Wilson is mostly known in the annals of history as being a disastrous president who legislated away many of the powers and freedoms that were earned by Americans after th 19th century. Wilson's lust for war and violence misled America into World War I and summarily weakened the nation in every way possible. Wilson also failed his people by relinquishing the people's power to print their own money to the Federal eserve in 1914.…… [Read More]
To be considered a concerned public agent, policy formulators are constantly scouting for possible conflict in the social setting. This is their key objective; to show course in the formulation of policy and pushing a social agenda. The public policy makers are often seen coming up with public advocacy program to sensitize the people one the existence of the conflict. Once the matter is seen as a social concern, they take it upon themselves to formulate a policy sufficient only to tackle the highlighted conflict. The culmination of the advocacy project leads to half-baked policy tackling a social concern based on previous policy.
Policy makers are seen to directly formulate policies based on previous experiences, as opposed to considerations for the real issues. The result of the policy formulated stretch from disjointed incremental measure that hardly tackle current issue. This is clearly "muddling through" and evading tackling of pertinent matters…… [Read More]
public budgeting comparisons of the federal, state and local budget distributions. This thesis will be focused on whether or not the increased budget allocations for transportation in the federal, state and local government will enhance travel security, efficiency, performance measures and &D development in the domain. The thesis will start off with a proposal for an agency that works across and is allocated budget in all the federal, state and local legislatures. The agency chosen for the thesis is the United States Department of Transportation. The proposal will include a detailed overview of the chosen agency inclusive of some financial data in recent years for the agency and a comparative analysis of the performance measures accomplished with those measures that were not completed. This will be followed by the details and comparative analysis of the budgetary performances of the federal, state and local budget departments in the United States which…… [Read More]
City of Alameda Online Budget Challenge
FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE
City of Alameda Announces Series of Targeted Budget Cuts and Tax Increases to Balance 2013-14 Budget
Faced with an impending budget deficit of $4.4 million caused by a combination of rising expenditures flat revenues, the City of Alameda has implemented a series of cuts to programs funded by the General fund, as well as minimal increases in certain taxes, to assure a balanced budget for Fiscal Year 2012-13. Before a detailed description of these actions is given, the City of Alameda would like to make clear for all citizens that the proscribed measures are temporary in nature, with the objective being to guide the city through a prolonged recession while assuring financial solvency. With that said, every major department which draws funding from the city's General Fund will absorb budget cuts that are similar to those enacted last year,…… [Read More]
Public policy in America can be neatly visualized with the Iron Triangle, in which government, special interest groups, and the bureaucratic systems interact. Congressional committees, special interest groups, and bureaucracies are the three points on the triangle, and the designator "iron" signifies the strength and immutability of the institutions and relationships between them. Iron also symbolizes the rigidity of policy making, which does not allow stakeholders or parties outside of the triangle to have a meaningful influence on decisions.
Special interest groups, as monolithic as they seem, are really composed of constituents that ultimately cast votes for politicians and who promote and shape party lines. For this reason, the needs of special interest groups are of major concern to the government -- mainly members of the legislative bodies. The bureaucrats refer to the members of government agencies, groups that are comprised of non-elected officials who nevertheless act as…… [Read More]
This is a contractual obligation, as money has been received for a certain service.
This is closely related to the third obligation in the model, which is "duty to the organization." The press has an obligation to provide the public with a wide variety of viewpoints in order to ensure public debate and accurate information. If a certain piece of information is withheld from the public as a result of its controversial content, this constitutes unfair censorship. The general principle of the press is to promote knowledge rather than censorship. Hence, information that could cause disagreement should not be withheld on those grounds alone.
On the other hand, the press in general also has a duty to society in terms of providing accurate information. The advertisement is in direct opposition to generally accepted facts regarding slavery. Hence publishing it on the strength merely of publishing whatever opinion is paid for…… [Read More]
This system is stated to be flawed as "The school board members have a vested interest in the success of the existing local school system and are reluctant to introduce a competitor into the marketplace, said charter school supporters." (O'Donoghue, 2010)
Summary and Conclusion
It is very likely that laws will be changed and policy reformed relating to charter schools in the state of Virginia as to do otherwise means to miss the $350 million in funding opportunity for Virginia's school system and it appears highly unlikely that in the present state of the economy that Virginia will be willing to shun this much in educational funding.
Charter Schools, When Explained, Get Support (2009) Augusta Press. 16 Dec 2009. Online available at: http://augustafreepress.com/2009/12/16/charter-schools-when-explained-get-support/
Schaeffer, Adam . (2006) No, Virginia, There is No such thing as School Choice. 29 Oct 2006. CATO Institute. Online available at: http://www.cato.org/pub_display.php?pub_id=6756
raunlich, Christian (2009)…… [Read More]
Organizational Change in the Public Sector
This research proposal explores the feasibility of management in the public Sector as an organizational paradigm and new model in organizational development. The literature review reviews numerous journal articles that explore on the key concepts of change management strategies from a public sector project management perspective. The authors suggest that employee's participation, effective feedback across the board, and empowerment of subordinate staffs is a major step in transforming public organizations. This proposal further hypothesis that establishment of long-term and productivity advantages are crucial throughout the organization.
SCOPE AND PURPOSE
Factor 1: Need for change
Factor 2: implement a Plan for change
Factor 3: create political internal environment for Change
Factor 4: Support and Commitment from managers
Factor 5: enhancing External Support
Factor 6: Provide Resources for change
Factor 7: establish Change
Factor 8: ascertain comprehensive Change
Determinants of implementing…… [Read More]
If given the opportunity to amend the policy, what action would you take and why?
The national proposal to increase sin taxes on alcoholic beverages is long overdue and should be supported not only by all sectors of the government but the American public most especially. The fact is well-known that alcohol consumption is not only dangerous for the consumer but also has various economic and social harms for the society as well as users' immediate environment. It means that alcohol can affect not only the drinker but other people in the form of violence or road accidents. Taxing alcohol at higher rates will provide a mechanism that will taper buying due to high prices. But I believe that taxing alone should not be the only thrust of this policy. Rather, continuous education and awareness campaigns by both the public and private sector will go further to ensure that people…… [Read More]
Goals of a Public Administrator
The implementation of the policies devised by the government is referred to as public administration. Moreover, public administration is also a discipline that is taught in many higher education institutions. This discipline is based on the studies that revolve around the aforementioned implementation and therefore it prepares the civil servants that would be working for the public service in the future (Frederickson, 1997). The fundamental goal behind the layout of the curriculum of this discipline and the training in this field is to advance the policies and management in order for the government to function effectively (Frederickson, 1997). There are various definitions that have been used to describe this term; "translation of politics into the reality that citizens see every day"; "the management of public programs" and "the study of the process of decision making by the government, the analysis of the devised policies, the…… [Read More]
Human esource managers are therefore faced with the challenges of 1) finding suitably talented individuals for public sector positions; and 2) training these individuals to continually deliver excellent services to the public (Moir, 2008).
Please discuss some of the importance of the labor relations in the public sector.
Labor relations in the public sector are specifically influenced by external environmental factors such as the economic-financial context, the legal context, and the political context (Lewin, 1988, p. 23). At the core of these aspects is that fact that they interact in terms of the main responsibility of public servants: to act as a catalyst for service provision from the government to the public. Managers within the public sector should therefore be consistently aware of employee needs, demands, and rights, since these do not only concern the employees and managers themselves, but also the image of the government in the minds…… [Read More]
Social Equity Public Administration
Emergence as Concern in Field of Public Administration
Social equity has always been an important aspect of public administration, though only recently is it receiving much attention in the press. Whereas in times of old social equity concerned itself primarily with issues of fairness and equality in the public workplace, today social equity is emerging as a field encompassing many different aspects of administration.
Among these include public education, policy development, hiring and promotional practices, public welfare and even transportation. In modern public administration, all of these issues are applied to the field in order to establish fairness, justice and equality for all. Social equity in the field of public administration has emerged as a response to consumer demands for equitable policy making and fairness in governance.
Public administration as a whole may be defined as the management of "matters which have principally to do with…… [Read More]
So, even in such situations as when the countryside has also been hit by war, the local administrators are much more likely to be able to function productively as they are fundamentally closer to the need and have strong community ties and possible a strong desire for social order but more importantly for the meeting of the local publics' needs.
The importance of establishing a public administration theoretical framework that prioritizes citizenship over consumerism, in a society where so much of the citizenry relies on public services is foundational to social order and to mitigating the change that has occurred as a result of war. There is no one right answer to all the functional changes to public administration, with regard to war as the many facets of war also create many facets of change in public administration. The level of degradation to physical and psychological networks must be analyzed…… [Read More]
Leadership and HM in the Public Sector
At the national level, leadership in human resource management has been problematic, if not negative, in its effects. The Civil Service eform Act of 1978 and related legislation established the Office of Personnel Management (OPM) to provide leadership and innovative personnel programs for the federal establishment. Instead, in the first ten years after its creation, OPM established a record of missed opportunities, failed initiatives, and declining organizational effectiveness, as documented in comprehensive reports issued in 1989 by both the U.S. General Accounting Office and the U.S. Merit Systems Protection Board (Ingraham and Ban, 2008).
By any measure of performance against legislative intent, OPM has been largely an organizational failure in the conduct of its programs and the achievement of its goals. OPM has not become the primary management office for the president, as envisioned by its first director, Alan Campbell. It has…… [Read More]
ethical obligations -- as discussed, for example, in Chapter 16 of the Northouse text -- allegedly breached by Smith or Halloran while in office. (These obligations will not "fit" perfectly, as the real world does not always match the academic world precisely. Contemplate and give the best answer.) In each case, describe the ethically-proper course of action that was not taken by the relevant actors. Does New York -- like Chicago, Illinois, which was called the most corrupt city in the United States (Cody, 2012) -- have a special culture where corruption is accepted or even expected? Be sure to contrast the differences between leadership and power. Also discuss whether Smith and Halloran's behavior would have been unethical in the private sector.
New York State Sen. Malcolm Smith and New York City Councilman Dan Halloran were arrested by federal authorities in an alleged plot to rig the New York…… [Read More]
Guerrilla Government and Waldo's Map of Ethical Obligations of a Public Servant
Public administrators are frequently faced with conflicting interests that demand a subjective analysis that can lead to suboptimal outcomes unless their professional obligations are taken into account. To gain some additional insights into these issues, this paper provides an explanation of the Nevada Four guerrillas' competing obligations using Waldo's map of ethical obligations of a public servant. An explanation concerning the impact of the guerrillas' actions on the individuals involved, the organization, and public policy is followed by a discussion concerning this author's disagreement with their actions and why.
eview and Discussion
The term "guerrilla government" is used to describe actions that are taken by career public servants that are contrary to the policies of their superiors for various reasons, primarily because they are dissatisfied with these policies but other reasons play a role as well (O'Leary, 2014).…… [Read More]
Pension Plan eplacement ates
Public Pension eplacement ates
The portion of monthly pre-retirement income that will be replaced by monthly pension plan funds is called the pension plan replacement rate (Quadagno, 2011). In the United States, the majority of pre-retirement income replacement comes from Social Security payments (Quadagno, 2011). The actual replacement rate for wage earners with lower incomes is higher than for those who have had higher wages during their working years (Quadagno, 2011). But overall, wealthier recipients of Social Security payments still achieve higher income replacement (Quadagno, 2011). "By 2030, a worker who retires at age 62 will receive only 70% of the whole retirement benefit, and workers who want to receive the maximum benefit will have to wait until they reach age 67" (Quadagno, 2011, p. 10). How does this compare with the situation in other countries? Comparing prior earning replacement rates for Greece and the United…… [Read More]
Masters in Public Administration
I seek a Masters in Public Administration because I want to obtain the skills and tools to be able to make solid public decisions that positively impact the community. Public administrators are both servants and leaders and occupy an important role in society: they have to at one and the same time serve the public and put its interests before their own, and they also have to lead the public and the organization with which they are involved. It is their responsibility to manage and meet the needs of those from whom their mandate is ultimately obtained.
With a Masters in Public Administration, I expect to be able to build on the knowledge I have already obtained in my undergraduate years. This is the next level of academic experience that will enable me to enter into an administrative career with professionalism, expertise, and devotion to care…… [Read More]
In the final purpose of accountability, where the goal is to enhance the learning capacity and effectiveness of the executive branch, we should realize that what needs to happen in this situation is that public authorities act on feedback about their own performance (Deutsch, 1963; Luhmann, 1966; Behn, 2001 as cited in Bovens et al., 2008). Thus, a good accountability mechanism, from this angle, is one that illustrates how the actor in question is learning and becoming more efficient as a result of the mechanism itself.
Anechiarico, F. & Jacobs, F.B. (1996). The Pursuit of Absolute Integrity: How Corruption
Control Makes Government Ineffective. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Aucoin, P. & Heintzman, . (2000). "The Dialectics of Accountability for Performance in Public
Management eform." International eview of Administrative Sciences, 66, 45-55.
Arnull, a. And D. Wincott. (2001). Accountability and Legitimacy in the European Union.
Oxford: Oxford University…… [Read More]
Public Administration involves the implementation of policies of the government, and it is a term used to refer to the study of the implementation these policies and the training given to civil servants to prepare them towards that role (Dubois & Fattore, 2009). Public Administration has three different methods stemming out of distinct perspective of its function. These strategies include the managerial approach, the political approach, and the legal approach. Each of the mentioned approach emphasizes on different values, procedures and structures of how public administration functions. These approaches were theorized by Professor David osenbloom, who was a Public Administration scholar (Dubois & Fattore, 2009).
According to this approach, public administration is used in managing the performance of organizations to increase efficiency, effectiveness, and the economy of resources. This approach aims at making organizations successful. The key areas of consideration in this approach are leaders, managerial techniques, decision…… [Read More]
Democracy and Public Administration
This report is a theoretical essay on the inevitable conflicts that consistently occur between public agencies that are managed by unelected civil servants and the political environment in which these individuals and organizations operate in. Public agencies in the healthcare environment are prime examples of successful interdepartmental cooperation in most cases, but, there are also examples where they can demonstrate both internal and external in-fighting. "The health sector workforce, which usually comprises a significant element within the total public sector workforce, may be either directly employed by the public sector health system, or work in public-funded agencies or organizations (e.g., social insurance funded). In many countries healthcare will also be delivered by organizations in the private sector and by voluntary organizations." (World Bank Group) As concerns like the nation's aging population, a rapidly depleting Medicare Trust or the many potential pandemics such as SAs, Swine…… [Read More]
Steven Kelman's Making Public Policy: A Hopeful View of American Government
Steven Kelman's 1998 book on politics is entitled Making Public Policy: A Hopeful View of American Government. This is a brief but accurate summary of the central thesis of Kelman's philosophy of what enables the American system of government to function as well as it does. Perhaps because of the contentious nature of the modern media, discussions of the American governmental system and political process tend to focus on criticisms rather than on praises of its ability to address social ills. However, it is this stress upon the functionality, rather than upon the disfunctionality of American government that drives the structure, arguments, and philosophy advocated by Kelman's book.
In his introduction, Kelman states that he wishes to "evaluate how well the policy-making process works in the United States." In other words, Kelman wishes to rate the efficacy of the…… [Read More]
Labor Relations in Public Sector
Collective bargaining in the public sector organizations will be quite different from that of the private sector organizations. The factors that drive the collective bargaining process in the private sector might not be present in the public sector. Private sector organizations are more concerned on the profit maximization philosophy whereas the public sector firms are more focused on serving general public therefore their priorities would be totally different and management approaches to collective bargaining would also be different. Moreover, private sector firms project for long-term budget forecasting, whereas in the public sector it is managed through third party legislature depending on the voters. These create challenges for the public sector to formulate a policy document that looks after the labor relations.
The Public Employees Fair Employment Act, commonly known as the Taylor Law, is a labor relations ruling policy document that covers public employees in…… [Read More]
Corporate Mergers and the Public Good
The United States of America, during the last years of the Nineteenth Century, witnessed a rash of corporate mergers. The Industrial Revolution had taken firm hold, and the nation was changing rapidly. Millions of Americans who had once been independent farmers or tradesmen now found themselves in the position of what some termed "wage slaves." At the mercy of their corporate employers, they worked long hours at low pay, and often under appalling conditions. The reasons for the merger mania of this period are many and complex, as are its effects upon the population as a whole. In breaking down the traditional vocational environment, the gigantic new conglomerates also transformed the entire social landscape. ork was no longer a family business shared by all generations. Communities no longer clung together for mutual protection and aid. Suddenly, the citizen of this new world was out…… [Read More]
Division of labor occurs not only in the formal workplaces of the world, but also in the informal spheres of work. Domestic duties are often sharply divided by gender, with women commanding the bulk of domestic chores, duties, roles, and corresponding positions of power. The power of women in the domestic sphere is limited, though, confined to that realm and not transferable to the public domain. Men's power in the public, political, and economic dimensions is far more transferable. Therefore, women's power and influence in households is distinct from the power and influence of men in the economic and political spheres. Women remain marginalized in public and formal positions of power.
In societies in which the public and private divide is less clear, and when there are more blurred lines between the public and private domains, women do enjoy a higher overall status in the society ("Domestic Worlds and Public…… [Read More]
Have you heard about servant leadership in the army? What about followership in the army? Have you been asked to write an essay about these topics? Many students in the military will be asked to write about leadership.
This article will show you how to write an essay about a specific topic of leadership as it pertains to the army or the military more generally. For one, this article shows you how to broach the topic of servant leadership and followership in the army, which is a common concept in the field of leadership studies.
Another topic this article covers is followership in the army. Follwership is a concept that focuses more on followers and their behaviors, which create all the overt features of an organization’s culture. Followership is especially salient in military organizational behavior, military leadership, and military management because of the organizational structure and culture of the…… [Read More]
Undocumented Immigrants in Gainesville
The city of Gainesville has a population of about 54,000 and of these, approximately 3,200 are illegal aliens. The law enforcement community in this city is charged with protecting these undocumented aliens on the one hand and enforcing illegal immigrant laws on the other. To the extent that undocumented residents are afraid that the police will enforce the latter may be the extent to which they are discouraged from seeking help from the law enforcement community when they need it, exacerbating existing crime levels. Conversely, the extent to which law enforcement authorities fail to enforce illegal immigration laws may be the extent to which they are viewed as being malfeasant in the prosecution of their official duties. To determine the optimal course of action for law enforcement authorities faced with these conflicting priorities, this paper reviews the relevant literature including a discussion of so-called "sanctuary cities"…… [Read More]
Leadership: Succeeding in the Private, Public, and Not-for-Profit Sectors
Competency-Based Approach (Federal Government). The "competency-based" approach to leadership helps leaders "fully explore the challenge before them" so they can come up with solutions on a collaborative basis. The competences presented include: a) paying close attention to the situation; b) tapping into person life experiences to better tackle "group challenges"; c) using images (metaphors, photos, stories) to make sense of "complex information"; d) gaining knowledge through improvisation; e) being collaborative with others; and f) "synthesizing issues, objects, events and actions" so they have meaning (Sims, et al., 2005, 159). I fully agree that these competencies are what government leaders must adhere to.
The President's Management Agenda (Federal Government): Since the Federal Government is such a vast and expensive workforce it makes sense that the federal government sub-contracts some of the duties of government out to private vendors. Sims claims that the…… [Read More]
This is why it is important to see Greece not so much as a successful story of the administrative reform, but rather as an ongoing process of it.
Braunstein, Florence, and Pepin, Jean Francois. Les Grandes Doctrines. Paris: Ellipses, 1998.
Chlepas, N.K.. Administration of multiple levels. Theoretical debates and institutional reforms. Athens, Komotini: Sakkoulas, 1994.
Dunleavy, Patrick, and Brendan O'Leary. Theories of the state. The Politics of Liberal Democracy. London and New York: Macmillan and Meredith, 1987.
E- Government Observatory. Factsheet: e-Government in Greece. 2005. 29 Jan. 2008. http://europa.eu.int/idabc/servlets/Doc?id=21011
European Federation of Public Service Unions. Greece - civil servants to strike on 21 October, protesting 2005 budget. 2005. 29 Jan. 2008. http://www.epsu.org/a/767
E-User. The context for supply and demand of public online services in Greece. 2008. 29 Jan. 2008 http://www.eurofound.europa.eu/eiro/2001/07/feature/gr0107116f.htm
Fotinopoulou, Thalia. From the "application by telephone" to the "citizens' centers": An integrated system for public service delivery -the…… [Read More]
here are many different things that I have done in my career that relate to business acumen. One of these came fairly recently, in July of 2004, when I was asked to plan and execute a dedication ceremony that involved the opening of a Veterans Conference Room in Washington, DC. he auditorium at the VA Headquarters was renovated for this purpose. I was given three months to pull this together and create a program and ceremony that was worthy of this event. In addition to planning this ceremony, the day-to-day activities of myself and my staff had to go on, and there were other notable events that were going on at the same time, such as awards ceremonies, the observance of Veteran's Day, and VA holiday activities. hese were all coordinated and planned during the same time that I was working to create the ceremony for the conference…… [Read More]
Examining & Weighing Community Participation
Community means more than people who live in proximity and occupy the same relative environment. Community, when in reference to terms such as community participation and community engagement, means several orders of interaction and motivation. People who participate in their communities are internally motivated. They care about the community socially, culturally, environmentally, economically, and otherwise; their motivation extends into action that supports their belief in their community. Community participation in many parts of the world may be the best and fastest ways for communities to rectify their own problems and establish firm ties with public administration and government.
Bureaucracy, administration, politics, and other factors often interfere with communities receiving the assistance or allocation of resources necessary to solve a problem. They may be issues, sociological ones for example, that may only find firm resolution if it is generated and executed by the community…… [Read More]
I have a clear written mandate that guides this decision. The other alternatives do not have the same clear, written mandate as the one that I made. hile a utilitarian approach may have yielded a different decision, in my position as a safeguard of public safety I am not obligated to undertake a utilitarian position unless I can do so without compromising my primary mandate. This is something I was able to do with generic drugs that I cannot do with biosimilars, even though it would be expedient for me to ignore the differences between the two products.
There are certainly those who would object with this decision. A utilitarian in particular would have a strong argument that total health outcomes depend not only on drug safety but on availability as well. I would argue, however, that this objection is invalid for a couple of reasons. The most important of…… [Read More]
He shows how the leadership style he asserts in the private sector is often hard to come by in public organizations. Many of the more competitive and assertive people are drawn to private organizations, as they offer more monetary gain and rewards. Additionally, the hedgehog concept is different in a private sector. Public agencies are not directed to pure profits, and so must be readjusted to work in different avenues within the public sector. These differences can be great, as he shows that nonprofit agencies cannot benefit from the same style of leadership and execution that private companies can.
However, criminal justice agencies do have a lot to benefit from the strategies that Collins presents within all of his works. Law enforcement can still benefit from the Hedgehog concept, although such strategies must be adjusted to rework economic benefits into social benefits. Essentially, the economic drives within the business structure…… [Read More]
, 2002). This may be particularly so since, as Van Wart (2003) points out, part of the reason for the omission of research on the subject of administrative leadership is due to the circumstance of contextual complexity in other words the difficulty of distinguishing between the varying nuances of leadership and administrative positions. One needs tight conceptualizations and empirical operationalization in order to do so. Whilst in a general stance, we may see 'leaders' as sharing the same tonal content, empirical research points out differences. The leader of paid employees, for instance, would have very different duties and expectations (and consequently responsibility) than the leader of a volunteer organization, and so forth. Issues of contextual complexity also apply to otter concepts such as mission. (Baliga & Hunt, 1988). The act of observation is also a factor in that the very act of the observer may affect the end-results (Kiel, 1994).…… [Read More]
Ethics in elationship to Power Structures
Ethical obligations allegedly breached by Smith or Halloran while in office
Senator Malcolm Smith and New York City Councilman Dan Halloran were accused of attempting to fix the mayoral ballot. They were allegedly reported having exchanged thousands of dollars in cash. This money was intended to pay off the officials of the epublican Party to agree to one of the Democrats, Smith on the GOP line. Halloran demonstrated clear ignorance as he walked into the evil bargain as the confidential witness dangled campaign funds for a personal interest bid. In the context of public ethics, the actions of Smith and Halloran raise questions their principles of justice, democratic society, and common good (Stensota, 2010).
Smith and Halloran must adhere to the principle of ethical policymaking. This principle requires that they hold one another accountable for what they know and value. As such, it draws…… [Read More]
integrated HRM approach organizational performance
Human Resource Management
HRM consists of managing people in a company, it's all about managing the employees. For the sake of simplicity, we can conclude that it's managing humans / people. HRM is purely a managerial operation in which a company tries to meet the company's goal by skill set of its workforce. Human Resource Management addresses the management of employees within a company. It assists the employees in syncing with the company and their work, rewarding their work and resolving issues as well (Naeem, 2011).
Growing Importance of HRM
An organization basically thrives from skill set of the employees; know how, abilities, knowledge and capabilities of its employees. This pool of talented reservoir entails the core competencies of a company (pooled reserve of knowledge an organization possesses which sets it apart from its rivals and gives value to its clientele). HRM plays a pivotal…… [Read More]
Sociology of Work
Max Weber advocated a management system, which would replace the influence of tradition and personal connection with clearly defined roles independent of those who occupied them. It was the need of his time when he and fellow theorists sought ways of increasing efficiency in production. Machines were then taking over the workload of many industries and people's lives, necessitating an immortal organization. He believed that a hierarchy had to be established to get things done. With the help of his contemporary Henry Ford, the concept of specialization was incorporated into system. Weber firmly believed it would increase efficiency of production. Strong rules and regulations must be set to keep tight control by management ranks. The bureaucratic organizational structure has been handed down to the present time with mixed effects. It has enabled governments and corporations to assert and exert power and to project power in…… [Read More]
It would strive to minimize the pay and quality-of-life differential between the wealthiest individuals and the poorest, although it would permit whatever differential justified by the greater good served by certain professional commitments and responsibilities.
Rawls' ideas if incorporated into society would not compel any person to contribute to the greater good any more than he or she desired; they would simply impose mechanisms for distributing resources and potential rewards in the most socially beneficial and equitable manner. Industries that produce socially beneficial products and services that contribute to the greater good would be permitted to profit more from those endeavors than superfluous industries; physicians would be entitled to sufficient compensation and benefits to ensure against any shortage of physicians in society; and police officers and firefighters would earn more than professional athletes, although closer to several times the average wage in society instead of the equivalent of hundreds or…… [Read More]
Graff Asserts that literacy played a less significant role in the industrialization of American than was one thought. He argues that training people to read and write was not enough. Literacy alone was not enough to advance the industrialized nation (Cattau).
Douglas did not need to know how to read to perform his job in the shipyard. He only needed to know how to write four letters. He did not need to how to read and write proficiently. The workforce may have needed little bits of knowledge to perform their jobs, but this is different from being able to read and write fluently, which supports Graff's ideas on the importance of reading and writing to the industrial age. It relied more on the availability of a workforce, rather than the need for a literate workforce. The only ones that needed to learn to read and write were the managers and…… [Read More]
George Tenet and the Last Great Days of the CIA
The face of American politics has changed greatly over past fifteen years. After 9/11 incident, the American version of democracy and the credibility of higher offices of United States has been questioned time and again. Even CIA is not different from any other organization in the machinery of United States government and its integrity and objectivity has been the subject of doubt consistently over past few years. Where CIA has been the questioned repeatedly, so has its former and last DCI, George Tenet. George Tenet has been accused of crossing ethical boundaries and overlapping his ethical obligations with his personal preferences which caused the downfall of CIA as an organization.
During his tenure as CIA's head, George has been praised over time for brining CIA back to the status of fully-functional organization full of motivated employees and has…… [Read More]
representative at work does not just represent him or herself -- he or she also represents his or her district, and his or her actions reflect back on how that district is viewed in the House or Senate. dditionally, if the representative compromises his or her relations with other members of congress, this could result in a failure of the constituent's interests to be advanced and articulated. It is more significant than a company's resources being used to commit evil action. The actions of a congressman who makes sexual advances on a page compromise the interests of people who deserve to be heard. What about the citizens who lose jobs, for example, because money is not approved for a public works project because Foley has lost all of his political 'capital' and clout?
Response Elizabeth Laage Jul 21, 2011 10:18 M
ll people who agree to become members of certain…… [Read More]
Ethics in Organizational Culture
Many organizations are requesting that prospective job applicants reveal their Facebook passwords as part of the process of vetting candidates. Given that the current job market is a 'buyer's market,' employers have a great deal of leverage in expanding the type of information they may request from prospective job applicants. From the perspective of the employer, such a violation of a candidate's privacy allows them to find out if the information that the candidate submitted on his or her resume was accurate, and also to discern potentially revelatory aspects of the candidate's life (such as sexual orientation, marital status, the desire to have children, and other factors) that cannot be asked in an interview according to the law.
In the case of some jobs, such as those in which national security is at stake, this intrusion into employees' private lives is expected. However, for routine jobs…… [Read More]
Governor's Summer Internship
Discuss your interests in being a governor's summer intern. How does this program compliment your personal goals and/or professional aspirations? (Please no more than 300 words)
Having come of age during a time of widespread economic instability, myself and the generation of young adults who are my peers have been forced to recalibrate our collective expectations. The pursuit of personal profit, while en vogue during prior decades, has been revealed to be a ruse as the Great Recession rolls onward, and this revelation has compelled the youth of today to turn increasingly toward the realm of public service. With our nation suffering through a prolonged social malaise, it has become quite evident that the remedy can only be found through a willing return to our fundamental ideals. For these reasons I have decided to devote my education, my skills and my passion to serving the community, and…… [Read More]
California has always been a leader. Many times it is the first to implement new ideas, plans and laws. In 1996 the state of California implemented something called proposition 209 which adjusted the requirements for admissions to colleges as well as employment opportunities based on race and gender. he proposition called for the weighting of admission standards regarding the enrollment of those who entered the state universities and colleges.
More recently the proposition was voted down and the last two years have been spent dismantling its structure. his paper will explore the impact that proposition has had on the admissions and enrollment of California universities. he writer explores the topic by defining proposition 209, explaining the pros and cons of it, looks at statistical data from California state schools.
he paper specifically look at the minority admissions impact that the proposition had on enrollment. Some of the ways this will…… [Read More]
Codes of Conduct
Describe your company and benchmark the codes of conduct used by similar companies. Critique the codes of conduct for three other companies.
Benchmark codes: The code of conduct for my company (a newspaper publisher in a small town) is quite straightforward and unsophisticated. Basic to the code for my company are ethical issues which are in effect behavioral issues: there shall be no use or profanity, no alcohol or drug use, no wagering and no activities that detract from the daily routine. The federal laws against discrimination (based on gender, ethnicity, age, disabilities and other issues), and sexual harassment, are clearly spelled out in the code of conduct. Also federal laws pertaining to the workplace are posted conspicuously in several areas, including the cafeteria.
Our company also warns against conflicts of interest, that is, using one's position or the knowledge an employee has to some kind of…… [Read More]
corporate ethical breaches in recent times, assess whether or not you believe that the current business and regulatory environment is more conducive to ethical behavior. Provide support for your answer.
Unethical behavior has drawn the attention of the public for the few last decades in all kinds of business. Many transformations in the business environment have taken place, including immoral conducts and the tendency for corruption. Unethical accounting behavior is also included as a consequence. So the government has been forced to increase regulations and inspect actions taken in business, most especially after the Enron, Tyco, WorldCom and other unethical accounting scandals. As a result of the mentioned scandals, the government then passed the Sarbanes-Oxley Act in 2002 providing regulatory requirements for better precision in business action, accountability and assurance of ethical accounting behavior by publicly held companies and accounting firms. According to Calle (2000), the total number of boards…… [Read More]
Australian Federal Politics
One of the most disillusioning things that can happen to a citizen of a democracy is to discover that one's own government - the legal and political extension of oneself - has lied to one. This is far more damaging both to an individual's belief in his or her government and in the end to that government itself than is a citizen's disagreement with that government. This does not, of course, only happen in Australia. Many Americans (to look across the Pacific) believed that their government should not go to war with Iraq, but even as they disagreed with their government's actions approval for American President Bush remained high. However, after it was discovered that the Bush administration lied to the American people about its claims for the necessity of going to war and going to war quickly, more and more Americans have begun to have an…… [Read More]
The petit theft of the second degree charge will stand as well. Larceny in old common law was classified as compound or simple. Simple larceny was called grand larceny when the value of the stolen property was more than 12 pence, and petit (petty) larceny when the value was less. Compound larceny was the taking and carrying away of property from the person or house of the owner. In the U.S. today, the various criminal codes of the states generally define larceny and classify it as either grand larceny or petit larceny. Under these codes, property is stolen and larceny committed when, with definite intent to deprive oneself or a third person, one wrongfully takes, obtains, or withholds such property from an owner of it. In New York State, for example, grand larceny is classified as a felony. It is characterized as first-degree if the property is obtained by extortion…… [Read More]
This could also be dangerous, as it could mean that people with better political connections, but little real knowledge could be making life-altering decisions about the drugs Americans use, the food they consume, and detailed foreign policy decisions that require sensitive knowledge about small nations abroad. Still, at minimum, bureaucrats must understand that they are, in fact, policymakers, and develop a system of ethics to deal with the demands their duties require, even if they do bring specialized knowledge to their work. This idea of the essential nature of ethics is, granted, not new or radical, but it is a paradigmatic deviation from the morally neutral model of bureaucratic conduct favored before. (7).
Although systems of ethics are often viewed in a derisive fashion as mere formalities it is important that bureaucratic ethics have teeth and muscle behind them, to foster a sense of public trust. The hostile attitude of…… [Read More]
Policy Paradox" and the ire
In Chapter 14 of Policy Paradox, Stone (2001) unearths the shaky foundations upon which citizen's rights rest. According to Stone, there is a constant friction between those rights which are defined by a legal system and those which an individual ought to have. hen these rights are defined, it is often as a result of a judge's ruling: "...judges thus articulate new standards of behavior in the course of resolving disputes about existing constitutional, statutory, administrative, or judicial standards" (p. 330). This implies that judges, and all officials at the judicial level of a legal system, work in the interest of the public and society as a whole. However, as episodes 10 and 11 of the first season of the television series The ire reveal, this is a naive assumption.
Episode 10, "The Cost," reveals the corruption and self-interest that runs rampant at state, and…… [Read More]
A metaphor is used to describe this relationship, Schachter says, because it creates a situation where we can see if a different way of viewing citizen roles shifts the emphasis to necessary changes for improving the effectiveness of government.
One of the major topics Schachter addresses in einventing Government or einventing Ourselves is the semantic and methodical framing of reform efforts. She speculates about how effective reform efforts would be in the case that their focus was on modifying the structure of government, rather than modifying the patterns of the behavior of the public. Schachter additionally wonders if administration reform efforts should aim at modifying people's perceptions of themselves, and suggests that if people were taught to perceive themselves as true "owners" of the government, "efforts to improve government efficiency and responsiveness [might] be more successful" (p. 179).
H. George Frederickson is a scholar at the forefront of the public…… [Read More]
Paul dealt with the various issues of the Thessalonian church in both a practical and theoretical manner. He chose to deal with grief and loss by enabling discussion and explanation of the Second Coming and the concept of resurrection. He provided comfort and guidance to his members, a social aspect of associations and clubs often witnessed within their cities. In addition, he preached a ministry of pleasing God to prepare for the day when Christ returns.
Greek city life often involved clubs and associations. This meant most Greeks participated in social clubs and activities. Paul operated within a club or association context. He knew this was a practical way to appeal to the Thessalonians as clubs and associations allowed members to participate, created a sense of community, and even covered funeral expenses. Paul also knew the omans would not view the synagogue as a threat if it were seen as…… [Read More]
The government official has a legal as well as an ethical responsibility to put the interests of the public first, as a public servant. To fail to do so will result in greater cost to the taxpayer, and perhaps even an inferior product. This type of waste takes money away from other, more worthy public projects as well, including aid to the poor.
Government contracting officers have unique responsibilities and special, additional privileges as a result of their duties: "Of all government personnel, only a Contracting Officer has the authority to enter the government into a binding contract. He or she will be the one to sign the final contract agreement, and only a Contracting Officer has the power to change the terms of the contract" (Government contracting personnel: Understanding roles played, 2011, ONVIA). The contracting officer is thus acting on behalf of the entire government, and has unique powers…… [Read More]
Ratio analysis is a useful way of gaining a snapshot of an organization. It is a transparent system of analysis reporting. These ratios can then be analyzed to identify an organization's strengths and weaknesses as well as useful insights. One thing that is important to realize is that the ratios lack the backing of financial theory. Theory says what should be the case or value. In the case of financial ratios, there is no way to identify a "theoretically best" value for any of these ratios. Essentially, financial ratios are simply nothing more measures that have been developed and evolved over time. They are therefore imperfect measures and need to be treated that way. It is usual that financial ratios are grouped together by their purpose in the ledger. There are a host of different classifications. However, the most commonly used classifications are liquidity, debt, activity. Typically one would not…… [Read More]
man who was apparently fired from his job for a Facebook 'like'. The person in question works for a sheriff's department, and liked the page of his boss' challenger in the election. hen his boss won re-election, the staffer was fired for supporting the challenger. In this case, the circuit court judge ruled that a Facebook 'like' was insufficient speech to be considered protected under the First Amendment. I am taking the position that this is protected speech under the First Amendment and the staffer should not have been fired. The Sheriff's Office committed a violation of the law and an even more serious violation of ethics in firing the staffers for expressing their opinions online.
The first issue that needs to be addressed in the article is the legality of the issue. The deputy sheriff holds an unelected staff position within the sheriff's office, while the sheriff is elected…… [Read More]
equest must be made in writing by the employee within 15 working days of termination. The employer has 10 working days from receipt of the request to give a truthful reason in writing for the termination." (P 1).
Despite that many employers have been very careful in terminating the contract employment agreement based on justifiable cause; there are still series of cases where employees challenge the termination of their employment contracts. Mandelsohn, (1990) argues that employees may establish in the court of law that they have the right to continue working based on the employment contract. Typically, employees could establish that there is no provision in the employment contract that employers have the right to terminate their employment contracts. If a plaintiff is able to establish that he has the right to continued employment, an employer must convincingly present its case that he has a good cause to terminate the…… [Read More]