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Public vs. Private Sector Unions
Public and Private Sector Unions
Collective bargaining in public sector is a recent phenomenon that became common in 1960 and started gaining momentum at the time when unionism in private sector was slowly declining (eilly, 2012). Changes in the government policies and the legal requirements made the way for the increasing unionism in the public sector. There has always been a debate regarding the issue if private and public sector unions are same; however, Troy (2003) states that public sector bargaining is not the extension of bargaining in the private sector. This paper will answer the problem statement " Are there more similarities or differences between the public sector unions and the private sector unions" by comparing and contrasting the key similarities and key differences between the private sector and public sector unions and labor relations.
It is very essential to know the…
Belman, D., Gunderson, M and Hyatt, D. (1996). Public Sector Employment in a time of Transition.
Industrial Relations Research Association
Holley, W., Jennings, K., Wolters, R. (2011). The Labor Relations Process, 10th Edition, South Western
Public V Private chools
This work will argue in favor of private or school choice programs as a better alternative to public school education in the U.. The work will include in the argument both private schools that are traditionally run by wholly private entities as well as charter schools that run at a fraction of the cost of public schools, partly paid for by public school funding but able to function mostly independent of public school mandates. The work will argue that school choice is an essential aspect of diversity in education as the fact that private schools offer students lower student to teacher ratios, higher levels of personalized and student directed learning and often a better more tailored educational environment that stresses community and service learning, both in and outside the school.
chool choice has been a highly debated issue at least for the last two decades. The…
School choice has been a highly debated issue at least for the last two decades. The concern on the part of public school entities is that private schools will seek out and retain a caliber of student higher than those who have no choice but to attend public schools. This problem historically has been kept in check with the fact that many private institutions are far more costly than public institutions on both a primary and secondary level, high tuition and high secondary costs such as additional fees, transportation and supplies. Yet, as school choice became a more and more heated topic other alternatives began to prosper across the nation, first as benchmark schools and then as public schools with alternatives, i.e. charter schools that are sanctioned by and partly funded by public school monies. It has just been over the last decade or so that public and independent charter schools have become a part of the mix, creating an alternative for students with more limited resources to attend schools that do not have high tuitions that would have priced them out of the market previously but offer an environment and curriculum that is closer to that of a private school. (DiPerna & Friedman Foundation for Educational Choice 2012) Though charter schools and private schools vary greatly it is widely held that such schools are a better option for students than public schools, with their cookie cutter curriculums more and more focused on teaching to the test.
As has been said charter and private schools tend to vary a great deal yet they offer two things that public schools cannot seem to afford to offer, lower class sizes and more personalized learning. Though all schools are not the perfect fit for all students the reality is that many of these private schools surpass their public school rivals in engagement of students and retention of students to completion of their diploma. "The [Education Longitudinal Study] ELS data show that students in private schools made better academic gains than students in public schools, even after controlling for race, income, parental education and family composition." (Forster & The Milton & Rose D. Friedman Foundation, 2007) Charter and private schools also often have more flexibility in varying curriculum beyond the extremely litigious fears of the public school, can offer more outside events to students, more service learning opportunities and more community focused events, where public schools are often limited by district review and standards for all events and curriculum decisions. Though this may not seem like a big deal the reality is that service learning is an invaluable tool for students and isolating schools through fear creates insular and
Public security personnel may do the same but only in the confines of the time and space they are in at present, and provided they can readily identify the perpetrator. Thus, if the perpetrator is within their reach and waiting for police officers to arrive on scene might render to the perpetrator an avenue for escape, the private security forces can affect a citizen's arrest because "almost all states give citizens power to effect arrests for felonies, and for misdemeanors committed in their presence [especially when the person arresting] has reasonable grounds to believe that an offense other than an ordinance violation is being committed (Pastor, 2010)." In this case, the private security officers may initiate the arrest based on this premise but thereafter, the arrestee will have to be turned over to the police for further legal processing.
Without a doubt, the delineation between private security and police forces…
Pastor, J.F. (2010). Legal issues in private policing. SecureLaw. Retrieved May 28, 2011 from http://www.securelaw.info/art_legalissuesprivatepolicing.html
U.S. Department of Justice. (2007). Private security and public law enforcement. Retrieved May 28, 2011 from http://www.cops.usdoj.gov/Default.asp?Item=2034
Finally, social networks have the ability to tag specific content down to the image and determine their privacy stings. It would be a good idea to also understand these settings as well.
How confident could/should one be that such information is kept secure?
Given the advertising-based model many of the social networking sites are reverting to, there is little probability that all information a person requests to be secure will stay that way. The business models of social networks are predicated on quickly repurposing both content and profile information of users to sell more advertising (Chen, Sharma, 2012). This will translate into an even greater level of confusion s to what constitutes public and private information in the future
(Titiriga, 2011). Ultimately the decision to leave the most confidential information completely offline, despite how one perceives its relative social value, is a wise decision (O'Brien, Torres, 2012).
What are some…
Asiimwe, E.N. (2010). Opinions of social web users on privacy and online DAM. Journal of Digital Asset Management, 6(6), 312-318.
Bernoff, J., & Li, C. (2008). Harnessing the power of the oh-so-social web. MIT Sloan Management Review, 49(3), 36-42.
Chen, R., & Sharma, S. (2012). Understanding user behavior at social networking sites: A relational capital perspective. Journal of Global Information Technology Management, 15(2), 25-45.
Hugl, U. (2011). Reviewing person's value of privacy of online social networking. Internet Research, 21(4), 384-407.
The modern university is essentially an alien phenomenon in the Arab world where it lacks the societal support base enjoyed by the western university. Moreover, many of the new Arab universities, like Kuwait University, established in 1966, were either modeled after the French influenced Egyptian university -- in-turn based on semi-independent colleges -- or received their initial administrative and teaching faculty from Egypt. From this legacy is derived a significant share of the obstacles hindering organization and management reform. At the same time a variety of governmental traditions and regulations binding the university to general civil service regulations, an under-developed tradition of university autonomy and faculty participation in university decision-making, and a utilitarian concept of formal education which associates degress with employment status are among the more serious problems confronting the Arab university.
Kuwait University can be seen as a microcosm of the organizational, management and academic problems encountered in…
In most private schools, there are more technology tools available too, and textbooks (and even buildings) can be more modern and update. Private schools have bigger budgets for these things because they do not have to support school lunch programs, after school programs, and programs for disadvantaged parents and such, they can dedicate more of their monies to the actual educational experience, and that means that many of these schools can offer technologies and other materials that public schools simply cannot afford.
Many parents also believe that public education has become far too focused on test scores, moving children from grade level to grade level, and meeting federal mandates, rather than focusing on the children and their different needs. Many parents send their children to private schools because they believe they are more creative, nurturing, and important in a child's all around development (Mitchell, and Salsbury 43). Many private schools…
Boland, Maureen. "Public vs. Private: Which is Right for Your Child?" ParentCenter.com. 2008. 11 July 2008. http://parentcenter.babycenter.com/0_public-vs.-private-which-is-right-for-your-child_67271.pc
Clayton, Victoria. "School Debate: Public vs. Private." MSNBC.com. 2005. 11 July 2008. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/8743221/
Editors. "Public School vs. Private School." Public School Review. 2008. 11 July 2008. http://www.publicschoolreview.com/articles/5
Mitchell, Bruce M., and Robert E. Salsbury. Unequal Opportunity: A Crisis in America's Schools? Westport, CT: Bergin and Garvey, 2002.
Public Administration vs. Private Personnel Administration
Theories of public personnel administration as compared with private personnel administration have arose in recent decades as a result of the emergence of trends in business management. Public administration is directly dependent on the social system as well as the system of production prevalent in society and is an important element of all administrative systems. Changes in the system of production and in the patterns of international relations have contributed to the current state of public personnel administration. Furthermore, the theorists of the past such as Ogburn, Machiavelli, and Marx have offered many great contributions to our current understanding of public administration.
The practice of public personnel administration has evolved in a continuum from the Classical Management theory, through shifting emphasis on ehaviouralism, Systems theory and Contingency theory (Haque & Ahmed, 1992). Past research and theorists have suggested that the development of modern management…
Berman, E. (1998). Productivity in Public and Nonprofit Organizations: Strategies and Techniques. California: Sage Publications.
Freyss, S.F. (1995). Municipal government personnel systems. Review of Public
Personnel Management, 16, 69-93.
Haque, A. & Ahmed, F. (1992). Public Personnel Administration: Tradition, Problems
There are specific daily steps that students in these working class schools must take, and in math, for example, the teacher "told them what the procedure was for each problem, rarely asking them to conceptualize or explain it themselves" (Anyon 528). And so the emphasis was on memorizing the steps, not on understanding how or why they are taken. Language arts class was much the same (copy the teacher's notes from the board). In the middle-class school, it was all about "getting the right answers." In social studies, it was the old-fashioned routine of reading the chapter and answering questions, and the same was true in language arts. "Creativity is not often requested in social studies and science projects..." Anyon writes (532).
Things were different in the affluent professional school and fathers' careers included corporate lawyer, cardiologist, engineer; difficult assignments required specific projects like film-making and script-writing; children wrote essays…
Clayton, Victoria. "Public vs. Private School - which is best for kids?" MSNBC.com.
Retrieved April 1 at http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/8743221/ print/1/displaymode/1098/
Colombo, Gary; Cullen, Robert; & Lisle, Bonnie. Rereading America: Cultural Contexts for Critical Thinking and Writing. Boston: Bedford Books of St. Martin's Press, 1992.
Mendez, Teresa. "Public Schools: Do they outperform private ones?" The Christian Science
public goods, private goods, common resources, and natural monopolies.
Public goods are when there is a focus on providing benefits to someone without them having to offer different forms of compensation. This is because the interests of the community will outweigh the need for making any kind of profit. Some examples of this include: fire, police, and national defense. Private goods are those products that are sold directly to consumers with the intention of making a profit. This is when a private producer, will realize that there is unmet demand and provide this to consumers. In exchange for delivering these services or products, they will receive some form of compensation. (Mankiw, 2011)
Common resources are those reserves that are available to everyone. The most notable include: the fish in the ocean, the air that everybody is breathing and public lands. While natural monopolies are when there is one organization which…
Coffee Industry. (2010). Iowa State University. Retrieved from: http://www2.econ.iastate.edu/classes/econ535/hayenga/protected/2003papers/Coffee%20Industry%20 -- %20Myers.pdf
Mankiw, N. (2011). Principles of Economics. Mason, OH: Thomason.
Simon, B. (2009). Everything but the Coffee. Berkley, CA: University of California Press.
" (Spohn, 2009, p. 105) However, there is a distinct advantage to having a private attorney when it comes to the sentencing aspect of the proceedings. Studies have indicated that "a higher percentage of defendants with public defenders are sent to prison." (Gaines, 2010, p. 207) There may be extenuating circumstances in this study as many who use public defenders are repeat offenders do so because they are financially destitute.
There are distinct advantages and disadvantages to using a public defender or a privately hired attorney. While public defenders are overloaded with cases, they are free and their familiarity with the system, prosecutors, and judges can work to the client's advantage. On the other hand the sheer numbers of cases public defenders must take on can restrict the attorneys attention to one particular case. And while private attorneys can expend more resources toward the case, they sometimes do not have…
Gaines, Larry, and Roger Miller. (2010). Criminal Justice in Action: The Core. Belmont,
CA., Wadsworth/Cengage. Retrieved from http://books.google.com/books?id=DcTf9CQ7XAIC&pg=PT238&dq=private+vs.+public+defense&hl=en&ei=zcqETsrbNcWugQe_q-go&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CDMQ6AEwAQ%20//%20v=onepage&q=private%20vs%20public%20defense&f=false http://www.usconstitution.net/miranda.html
Spohn, Cassia and Craig Hemmens. (2009). Courts: A Text/Reader. California: Sage
State vs. Private Prison
The United States prison system is designed to ensure that the members of society who have chosen to violate the law and commit crimes are suitably punished. Prisoners are sent away for a period of time based on the crime committed and the severity of that crime. Additional factors such as age, mental and emotional state, and motive may have a contribution to the sentencing of the prisoner. The prison system is comprised of both state-funded institutions and those run and controlled by private funding. Both forms of institutions serve the same inherent function, to punish those who have committed crimes and to rehabilitate the offenders so that they can be released back into society without posing a potential threat to other law-abiding citizens. Those who cannot be rehabilitated will either be executed by the state or sent to prison for a life sentence. However, there…
Levine, D.M. "What's Costlier than a Government Run Prison? A Private One." Fortune. 2010.
"Private Privatization and the Use of Incarceration." The Sentencing Project. 2004. Print.
Siegel, Larry J., and Joseph J. Senna. Introduction to Criminal Justice. Belmont, CA:
Private vs. Public Schools
Many parents find themselves caught in a dilemma when trying to decide on which choice of education to take for their children. They ask themselves whether to take their children to private schools or public schools. For a parent to choose the ideal school for their children they always have to take into consideration all the available options. They consider things like the cost of the school, how much time they will invest as a parent, the social impact that the school have on their children based on the specific need of their children as well as the family.
Private schools offer the best option for the parent who is in need of better and quality education for their children. Private schools have a nearly perfect graduation rates which market them a great deal. Their performance is better as compared to the public schools. This is…
Mary Elizabeth, (2012). "Public Schools vs. Private Schools."Accessed May 10, 2012 from http://www.educationbug.org/a/public-schools-vs . -- private-schools.html
Parents For Better Education America (2011). "What Every Parent Should Know About Private Schools vs. Public Schools," ASIN: B004R9QKL8. Binding: Kindle Edition. Accessed May 10, 2012 from http://education.mitrasites.com/public-education-vs.-private-education.html
The Council for American Private Education. (2010). Private School Facts. Accessed May 10, 2012 from http://www.capenet.org/facts.html
The Council for American Private Education. (2003). Academic Performance 2003. Accessed May 10, 2012 from http://www.capenet.org/Outlook/Out9-03.html#Story5
The private financing initiatives
When the Private Finance Initiative was launched in 1992, it was seen as a mechanism to achieve extra public-sector investment by bringing in private finance for capital projects as well as a means to improve the public procurement process that was routinely criticized for poor project management and construction cost overruns. PFIs cut across a range of public services, including hospitals, prisons, public transport, roads, and schools. Each PFI depended on the public-sector purchaser to specify the outputs or outcomes it hoped to achieve, and put private-sector capital at risk for the delivery of those outputs or outcomes. By relaxing the emphasis on input specification, PFIs sought to mobilize innovation and optimize whole-life costs and quality to meet the public requirements. The financing mechanism served to reinforce the long-term nature of the relationship by linking payments to the achievement of outputs over the life…
Chung, Demi. 2009. "Developing an Analytical Framework for Analysing and Assessing Public-Private Partnerships: A Hospital Case Study." Economic and Labour Relations Review 19:69+. Retrieved September 26, 2011 ( http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5033188311 ).
Flemming, John, and Peter Oppenheimer. 1996. "Are Government Spending and Taxes Too High (or Too Low)?." National Institute Economic Review. Retrieved September 26, 2011 ( http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001637892 ).
Forrer, John, James Edwin Kee, and Zhibin Zhang. 2002. "Private Finance Initiative: A Better Public-Private Partnership?." The Public Manager 31:43+. Retrieved September 26, 2011 ( http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000818745 ).
Gibb, Kenneth, and Duncan Maclennan. 2006. "Changing Social Housing: Economic System Issues." Public Finance and Management 6:88+. Retrieved September 26, 2011 ( http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5045014514 ).
Comparisons of conviction rates both in federal courts and in criminal cases that are tried in the most populous counties of the United States are statistically the same regardless of whether a public or a private defense attorney as representing the defendant (Siegel 2009; Gaines & Miller 2011). This initially suggests that there is not a great deal of difference in the selection of an attorney when it comes to the outcome of the case: prosecutors do not tend to focus resources on cases they are not fairly confident they can win, and thus the vast majority of criminal cases (ninety percent of federal cases and approximately seventy-five percent of cases in the most populous counties) result in guilty verdicts with the type of attorney having no discernible effect (Siegel 2009). This does not mean that differences don't exist, however. Though conviction rates are the same for public and private…
Gaines, L. & Miller, R. (2011). Criminal Justice in Action. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
Siegel, L. (2009). Introduction to Criminal Justice. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
Shi Jianqiao became a media sensation in Nationalist China during the 1930s for shooting the ex-warlord Sun Chuanfang, a leading member of the Tianjin Qingxiu lay-Buddhist society (jushilin). She shot Sun three times on November 13, 1935 in prayer hall (congregation site) on Nanma Road. Although she was prosecuted for murder, the courts returned a controversial final verdict of judicial leniency, and the Nationalist (Guomindang) regime overturned this final verdict by issuing a state pardon. These events led to a public debate on the merits and demerits of filial revenge, although contemporary accounts do not examine the larger sociopolitical implications the case may have had. Shi Jianqiao represented the female assassin's singular and violent expression of filial sentiment (xiao), as well as the female warrior code of "chivalrous virtue" (xia), and helped give rise to a new communal form of ethical sentiment - "public sympathy" (tongqing). For liberal…
Lean, Eugenia. Public Passions: The Trial of Shi Jianqiao and the Rise of Popular Sympathy in Republican China. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2007.
Philosophy of public finance
All states must raise some sort of revenue to pay for the basic services it must offer to protect its citizens and provide them with needed services. The degree to which the state should act in such a supportive fashion may vary depending on the perspective of the individual but the notion that some state financing is needed for a nation to be functional is difficult to debate. Taxation is one of the primary methods through which the state extracts revenue. Although there are many different competing philosophies about the purpose of government financing, most would agree that the government can serve as an engine of growth if it allocates its assets in an appropriate manner.
One of the most influential texts defining a philosophy of public financing was that of ichard Musgrave's The Theory of Public Finance. Musgrave's (1959) text stressed that "normative…
Bartle, J., Scott, D. & Shields, P. (2008). Applying pragmatism to public budgeting and financial management. Association for Budgeting and Financial Management conference.
Retrieved from: https://digital.library.txstate.edu/handle/10877/3995
Financial accounting. (2015). National Center for Educational Statistics. Retrieved from:
Federal ole in Healthcare
There are two very entrenched camps in the universal health care debate as well as regarding what the federal role in healthcare should be. It is clear that the private and employer-based system is not serving the American public as well as it should be but scandals and problems with the Veteran's Administration (VA) and Medicare are proof positive that the government cannot be the driving force either. While both of the major suggested approaches to solving the crisis of uncovered people and the lack of portability of employer-based healthcare are both problematic each in their own way and a more balanced approach is necessary to give people the assistance they need but without toying with the private market for insurance in too protracted a way.
The federal role of healthcare has probably been an issue on some level or another since the 1930's when…
Corbett, J., & Kappagoda, M. (2013). Doing Good and Doing Well: Corporate Social
Responsibility in Post Obamacare America. Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics, 4117-21. doi:10.1111/jlme.12032
An assessment of what businesses could or should be responsible for after the passage of the Affordable Care Act, aka ObamaCare.
Gottschalk, M. (2011). They're Back: The Public Plan, the Reincarnation of Harry and Louise, and the Limits of Obamacare. Journal Of Health Politics, Policy & Law, 36(3), 393-400. doi:10.1215/03616878-1271009
The presence of water is also central to the architecture of mosques, albeit for religious more than aesthetic purposes.
Conclusion: Two Squares, Two Cultures
The Place de la Concorde shares more in common with the Maidan-i-Shah than is immediately apparent. The two squares are about the same size: around 8 hectares. Both have been used for multiple purposes and whisper the changes that have taken place within their respective cities. Political and social life has centered on each of these public spaces.
More than a century separates the two squares, as the Maidan-i-Shah in the early seventeenth century and the Place de Louis XV in the mid-eighteenth century. The architecture and intended use of the two squares proves to be radically different. Unlike the Maidan-i-Shah, the Place de la Concorde serves no religious function. The lack of places of worship as part of the city square speaks directly to the…
Boyer, M.C. (1996). The City of Collective Memory: Its Historical Imagery and Architectural Entertainments. MIT.
Carmona, M. (2003). Public Spaces, Urban Spaces: The Dimensions of Urban Design. Oxford: Architectural Press.
The Center for Design Excellence (n.d.). Public space. Urban Design. Retrieved online: http://www.urbandesign.org/publicspace.html
Craven, J. (n.d.). Public spaces: cities, towns, and landscapes. About.com Guide to Architecture. Retrieved online: http://architecture.about.com/od/urbandesign/u/PublicSpaces.htm
The government of Canada has outstanding debt of approximately $550 billion. To service the debt, it issues bonds. The government has also announced previously that it is committed to fighting inflation. Please explain clearly how government debt management policy can lend credibility to the government's fight against inflation. In doing so, provide a clear explanation of the key differences between indexed and nominal debt.
hen a government wishes to curb inflation, one of the most effective ways to use the monetary supply to do so is to sell securities, in short through the sale of government bonds. By selling government securities, the government takes money or liquid capital out of the economy, and makes it more attractive to save rather than to spend money. Also, selling government bonds can reduce government debt. Reducing government debt is an important goal for any administration because the higher the debt, the less that…
Alfaro, Laura & Fabio Kanczuk. "Nominal vs. Indexed Debt: A Quantitative Horse
Race." Harvard Business School. January 2006. 20 Oct 2007. http://www.people.hbs.edu/lalfaro/Nominal%20versus%20Indexed%20Debt.pdf
U.S. Government Spending as a Percentage of GDP." Carried Away. Oct 2003. 20 Oct 2007. http://carriedaway.blogs.com/carried_away/2003/10/us_government_s.html
Management Account in the Public Sector and Management Accounting in the Private Sector: A Comparative Review
The late 20th and early 21st centuries have brought increasing change to almost every country in the world, Australia included. Globalism describes, in fact, the increasing unification of the world through economic means (reduction of trade barriers, support of international trade, and mitigation of export and import quotas). They goal for globalization is to increase material wealth and the distribution of goods and services through a more international division of labor and then, in turn, a process in which regional cultures integrate through communication, transportation and trade. The overall theory is that if countries are tied together cooperatively economically, they will not have needed to become political enemies. Additionally, the idea of globalism and international trade has changed the way Australian's view public and private businesses and the opportunities afforded them because of investment,…
Alexander Performance Management, Inc. 2004, Private vs. Public Sector, viewed May 2012, .
Broadbent, J & Laughlin, R 1988, 'Public Private Partnerships: An Introduction', Accounting, Auditing and Accountability Journal, vol 16, no. 3, pp. 332-41.
Financial Accounting Standards Board 2012, Convergence with the International Accounting Standards Board, viewed May 2012, http://www.fasb.org/international/convergence_iasb.shtml .
Funnell, W & Cooper, K 1998, Public Sector Accounting and Accountability in Australia, University of New South Wales Press, Sydney.
Desecration of Public Education in Urban Settings
Desecration of Public Education
Attack on Public Education
Public Education: A Democratic Demand
Government's Interest in Charter Schools
Why Charter System Needs to be Opposed
Division of the Community
Failing Public Schools will Loose Funding to the Charter Schools
Difference between Public and Charter Schools
No Standard Policies
Peer Pressure and Violence
Lack of Extracurricular Activities
Authority and their igid System
Ignorance about Children's Bad Habits
Following measures can be taken to improve public schools
Charter Schools vs. Public Schools
The Basics of Educational Policy: The Pressure for eform in American Education
The Pressure for eform in American Education
Traits of Charter Schools
Why Charter Schools Exist in Urban Settings
Why to Save Public Schools 21
The purpose of this research paper is to decipher the truth about…
Behrman, J.R. (1997). The Social Benefits of Education. London: CIP.
Hassel, B.C. (1999). The Charter School Challenge: Avoiding the Pitfalls, Fulfilling the Promise. Washington: Congress Cataloging.
Lieberman, M. (1993). Public Education: An Autopsy. New York: Congress Cataloging.
Buckley, J., & Buckley, J. (2007). Charter Schools: Hope or Hype? London: Princeton University Press.
regal obligations owed by private individuals and company can help to protect community from environmental damage, and consider the effectiveness of such a system in preventing future harm.
The research proposal tries to explain how private laws owed by private individuals and companies have being applied in environmental conservation and effectiveness of these laws in terms of being able to prevent any form of environmental threat in the future.
The first section introduces the research topic, then the paper tries to answer the question; whether private law are more inclined towards environmental preservation or not?, After which the research explores more in-depth on private law by considering issues such as; advantages and disadvantages of private law, the difference between public and private law then a case study is given to show how cases involving private law are dealt with in court of law and another alternative case is also given…
Aristides, N., 2002. "The Nature of the Firm." European Journal of Law and Economics 14 (3): 253-263.
Barlow. M., 2009, Blue Covenant: The Global Water Crisis and the Coming Battle for the Right to Water, New York: The New Press.
Boyce, J., & Shelley, B. 2003, Natural Assets: Democratizing Environmental Ownership, Washington, DC: Island Press
Cunningham, W., Mary Cunningham, M., & Saigo.W. 2007,Environmental Science: a Global Concern, McGraw-Hill.
Managing Out -- the Public Sector in the Community
Two major economic positions have dominated the public sector for more than a decade. One side believes that the government should take primary responsibility for the welfare of its citizens, while the other contends that greater reliance on the private sector is the method by which an economy can be more effectively managed. The first idea has largely been gleaned from the works of Keynes. He was an economist who believed that government intervention was required to maintain a stable economy and that the state was better equipped to be the central figure in economic management because it has a duty to the citizens which the private sector does not (Pressman, 2011). The counter to this politically liberal position is that of Frederich Hayek. He believed that free markets were the best regulators of the economy ( Griffiths, 2007) and that…
Bhatti, Y., Olsen, A.L., & Pedersen, L.H. (2009). The effects of administrative professionals on contracting out. Governance: An International Journal of Policy, Administration, and Institutions, 22(1), 121-137.
Broughton, C., & Chalmers, J. (2001). Reconsidering the revolution? Australian public sector administration in 2000. Australian Journal of Public Administration, 60(1), 81-88.
Caldwell, B. (2011). Hayek on socialism and on the welfare state: A comment on Farrant and McPhail's "Does F.A. Hayek's Road to Serfdom deserve to make a comeback?" Challenge, 54(1), 82-97.
Davis, G., & Wood, T. (1998). Is there a future for contracting in the Australian public sector? Australian Journal of Public Administration, 57(4), 85-97.
Students in these kinds of schools do not attend school longer, but they do not have a summer break that is longer than any of the other breaks that they take during the school year.
esearch done by McMillen (2001) indicated that there were 106 schools in the state of North Carolina that operated on the year-round school calendar for third through eighth grades during the 1997-1998 school year. McMillen (2001) then conducted an analysis of the academic achievements of these students and compared them to the academic achievements of students in the same grades that attended schools where the traditional calendar was still used.
Data for the study came from a database of statewide testing in which 95% of the public schools in the state participate. In order to determine the academic achievements of the students, McMillen (2001) looked at achievement test scores and demographic information that was collected…
References. Retrieved April 17, 2008, at http://www.ericdigests.org
Painesville City School District. (2008). Year Round Education. Retrieved February 20, 2008, at http://www.painevillecityschools.org
Polite, V.C. (1999). Combating educational neglect in suburbia: African-American males and mathematics. In V.C. Polite & J.E. Davis (Eds.), African-American males in school and society: Practices and policies for effective education (pp. 97-107). New York: Teachers College Press.
Poplin, M., & Weeres, J. (1992). Voices from the inside: A report on schooling from inside the classroom. Claremont, CA: Claremont Graduate School, Institute for Education in Transformation.
Pothering, S.L. (1998). The decision-making processes of higher education undergraduate academic program development in a public liberal arts institution. (Doctoral Dissertation, University of South Caroline, 1998). UMI Dissertation Services.
Leadership in Public Sector
here has been a declining public sector performance and a constant stream of complains from the general public. Over the years, there have been attempts to restructure the public sector in a bid to improve the performance and the satisfaction among the public. he main concern is whether the focus on leadership in the public sector, and the HRM in particular can bring noticeable changes to the public sector and improve the outcome and the results that are manifest.
he public sector in America has various challenges that bundled together leads to the general failure of the entire sector. However, these problems all point towards a crippled leadership, however there are remedies to it as shown in the selected annotated bibiographie below.
Government Fleet, (2011). Solutions to the op Challenges Facing Public Sector Fleets.
Retrieved May 5, 2011 from http://www.government-fleet.com/Article/Print/Story/2011/03/Solutions-to-the-op-Challenges-Facing-Public-Sector-Fleets.aspx
Outlines the various challenges that are…
This is a report of the WHO workshop that was held in December 2000 in France to look at ways in which the HRM can contribute positively to the improvement of the Health Care Sector in the entire world. This paper focuses on the capacity building for the HRM leadership and team with a bid to ensuring that the same training can capacity building would lead to a new dispensation of the leadership and skills needed to well and appropriately manage the Health Care sector, which in effect is one of the world's biggest private sectors.
The public sector, just like all other private and NGOs can deliver the services with a lot of efficiency and in a timely manner. The leadership in the various departments of the public sector is very instrumental in the ultimate effective service of the public sector. The public sector is see as a highly multifaceted field that poses a lot of challenges and the leadership that is determined and possesses the positive attributes and follows the stipulated procedures in order to perform and make the public sector a beneficial entity to the Americans in general.
Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 15(1), 51-64.
Beaudin, B.Q. (1995). Former teachers who return to public schools:
Characteristics of those who return to the classroom. Educational Evaluation & Policy Analysis, 17(1): 462-475.
Guarino, C., SantibaNez, L., Daley, G., & Brewer, D. (2004) a review of the research material on teacher recruitment and retention, Santa Monica, CA: and Publishers
Nakai, D. & Turley, S. (2003). Going the alternate route: Perceptions from non-credentialed teachers. Education, 123(4): 831-46.
Scott, a. & Freeman-Moir, J. (2000) Tomorrow's teachers: International and critical perspectives on teacher education. Christchurch, NZ: Canterbury University Press.
Suell, J.L. & Piotrowski, C. Alternative teacher education programs: A review of the literature and outcome studies, Journal of Instructional Psychology, 34(1), 54.
United States Department of Education (2003) "Meeting the highly qualified teacher challenge," Education Publications Center, U.S. Dept. Of Education.
Zetchner, K.M., & Schulte, a.K. (2001) What we know and don't from peer-…
Original sent by customer)
Cohen, Vogel & Smith, (n.d). "Qualifications and Assignments of Alternative Certified Teacher. Cohen-Vogel and Smith," Journal, Vol. 44, pages 732-753
Calderhead, J. & Shorroch, S. The Professional Development of Beginning Teachers,
Merriam, S.A. (2006) Qualitative Research and Case Study Application in Education.
Actuarial vs. Clinical Predictions
There are several issues of note in the time-honored debate as to whether it is more effective to employs actuarial or clinical predications for the purpose of assessment. On the one hand, it would appear congruent with the job of psychologists to actually perform clinical studies and utilize predictions as such to evaluate various issues of people and of incidents. The principle problem with this approach is that it leaves room for human error, which can overthrow the entire purpose of a clinical study. Conversely, there is little denying the fact that an actuarial "set of rules" (Kaplan, year, p. 554) can oftentimes determine the results of clinical studies without such human error. However, the actuarial approach may possibly be bested by a clinical approach when there is a "variety of sources" (Kaplan, year, p.554) contributing data to clinical predications. Of course, the clinicians would still…
Kaplan, R.M. (no date). Psychological assessment and theory creating and using psychological tests. Beverly: Wadsworth Publishing Company.
Suzuki and Ponterotto. (2000). Multicultural assessment. Handbook of Multicultural Assessment. New York: Jossey-Bass.
NPSAS was the only study in 1996 that encompassed the people who enrolled in the for-profit institutions which is why not even the very basic criteria of the for-profit sector and its educational setup has been well-recognized (reneman, Pusser and Turner 2000; Chung, 2006).
The confirmation that the students who had some sort of shortcoming whether in the financial sector, minority aspect or admittance-timeline factor were the ones who mainly enrolled in the for-profit educational institution was made by Apling and Aleman in a study they conducted in 1990, and Lee and Merisotis in a study they conducted in the same year which were also then matched by Phipps et al. (2000) and JL Associates (2004).
Grubb was the only researcher who, in the year 1993, explored and assessed the influence and affect of the concept of the industrial market proceeds in relation to the non-profit institutions and education. He…
Altheide, D.L., & Johnson, J.M. (1994). Criteria for assessing interpretive validity in qualitative research. In N.K. Denzin & Y.S. Lincoln (Eds.), Handbook of qualitative research (pp. 485-99). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Apling, R. & Aleman, S. (1990). Proprietary schools: a description of institutions and students. (Report No, 90-428EPW). Washington, DC.: Library of Congress, Congressional Research Service.
Apling, R. (1993). Proprietary schools and their students. Journal of Higher Education 64:4, pp. 379-416.
Barone, T.E. (1992). Beyond theory and method: A case of critical storytelling. Theory into Practice, 31(2), 142-146.
Conservationism vs. Development
Land is a serious subject for the private and public sectors, both of which vie against one another for its control. All over the states, partisans exist who are either pro-conservationism or pro-development. Typically these partisans can be divided into two camps: the pro-business camp which supports development and the conservationists/environmentalists who resist development and promote land preservation. There is no easy resolution for the two disagreeing sides on how to approach the issue; either the land must be protected or it must be developed. However, a solution is possible -- and in many cases it is not just one solution but a number of solutions that work together to effect a compromise. In short, it is up to the public sector to establish rules and regulations stating exactly where the private and public sectors start and stop regarding land usage.
Santos, Watt and Pinceti (2014) show…
Eilperrin, J. (2009). Obama signs major land conservation law. Washington Post.
Retrieved from http://voices.washingtonpost.com/44/2009/03/30/obama_signs_major_land_conserv.html
Santos, M., Watt, T., Pinceti, S. (2014). The push and pull of land use policy:
Reconstructing 150 years of development and conservation land acquisition. PLOS One, 9(7): 1-9.
Then, a second major difference resides in the sources used to retrieve the necessary funds. The nonprofit organizations do indeed get the support of the federal budget in the meaning that they are often exempt from tax payment; but they have to raise the funds by themselves without any additional help or interference. They do this through the organization of various events, such as concerts, dinner parties or theatre plays, during which wealthy members of the community donate money to the causes promoted by the NPOs. In the case of governmental institutions however, the funds come directly from the state officials. The money is initially collected from the general public in the form of taxes, fines or other transfers to the state budget, and then redistributed to the state agencies.
A third difference also deals with the financial nature of the organizational activities, but is somewhat different from the previous…
Alvarado, E.I., 1998, Is there a Difference between 'Nonprofit' and 'Not-for-profit'?, Idealist, http://www.idealist.org/if/idealist/en/FAQ/QuestionViewer/default?section=01&item=09last accessed on June 19, 2008
Feiock, R.C., Andrew, S.A., Understanding the Relationships Between Nonprofit Organizations and Local Governments, Florida State University, Retrieved at http://www.fsu.edu/~spap/feiock/papers/Nonprofits_&_Public_Services.pdfon June 19, 2008
Frumkin, P., Kim, M.T., 2000, Strategic Positioning and the Financing of Nonprofit Organizations: Is Efficiency Rewarded in the Contributions Markeplace?, the Hauser Center for Nonprofit Organizations and the Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, Retrieved at http://www.ksghauser.harvard.edu/PDF_XLS/workingpapers/workingpaper_2.pdfon June 19, 2008
Hopkins, B.R., 2005, Starting and Managing a Nonprofit Organization: A Legal Guide, Wiley
The paradox of strategic planning is that the fact that market and industry conditions often force companies to shorten their &D and strategic plan execution timeframes while the complexity of products and resulting coordination with suppliers, buyers and channel partners increases. This paradox of strategic planning is the pressure to drastically speed up the &D and launch processes while at the same time ensuring the same agility, accuracy and precision of execution over the long-term that more conservatively-based plans required. The outsourcing of new product development in highly competitive industries includes Motorola and relying on Solectron and Flextronics for &D and convergence product development is an example. In order to solve the paradox of strategic planning of long &D cycles accentuated by short product lifecycles, brand marketers in commoditized industries rely on outsourcers as well. Clearly trying to compress the amount of time needed to create new convergence products, outsourcing…
Jesper Banghoj, Thomas Plenborg. (2008). Value relevance of voluntary disclosure in the annual report. Accounting and Finance, 48(2), 159. Retrieved July 29, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 1482178641).
Victoria L. Crittenden, William F. Crittenden. (2008). Building a capable organization: The eight levers of strategy implementation. Business Horizons, 51(4), 301. Retrieved July 27, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 1496012171).
Martin Giraudeau (2008). The Drafts of Strategy: Opening up Plans and their Uses. Long-Range Planning, 41(3), 291. Retrieved July 29, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 1490797091).
Udo-Ernst Haner, John Willy Bakke. (2008). Proximity, mobility and aesthetics in strategies for innovation management. International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation Management, 8(2), 168. Retrieved July 26, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 1515564461).
However, since terrorism has finally struck on the soil of powerful nations like the U.S. And their key allies like the U.K., resources and attention have been focused on the eradication of terrorism like never before. Because of this, polarization has taken place among the people of the world as far as the approach that should be taken in response. There are those who feel that the only way to neutralize terrorism is to attack it head-on through armed intervention in the nations that are suspected, right or wrong, of promoting terrorism. Conversely, there are those who feel that diplomacy and negotiation are the path to what is being called "peace in our time."
However one feels the problem of terrorism should be tackled, either alternative comes down once again to the key question of peace and harmony or violence and disruption of the established order in the world, although…
Gueron, N.L. (1995). An Idea Whose Time Has Come: A Comparative Procedural History of the Civil Rights Acts of 1960, 1964, and 1991. Yale Law Journal, 104(5), 1201-1234.
Lancaster, P. (2002, October). Poised for Take off? since Gaining Independence from France in 1960, Mauritania Has Been Working to Establish a Better Way of Life for Its Population and a Place on the World Stage. The Middle East 50+.
Williamson, D. (2003). Berlin: The Flash-Point of the Cold War, 1948-1989 David Williamson Explains Why Events in Berlin Twice Threatened to Unleash a Third World War. History Review, (47), 3+.
Government Health Initiatives:
Obesity and public health
Given the rise in obesity rates in the United States, prioritizing reducing the prevalence of this illness has become a critical cornerstone of many federal, state, and local health agencies. Because the federal government encompasses the USDA and the FDA which set health and safety standards for the foods consumed in the U.S. As well as offer nutritional guidelines, the federal government can exert a profound influence upon consumption habits. The government has also overseen a number of anti-obesity campaigns. First Lady Michelle Obama's "Let's Move" initiative is perhaps the most notable of these: it focuses on increasing physical activity and improving the diet of America's children. "esearch indicated that kids needed less sugar, salt and fat in their diets, so we revamped school lunch menus accordingly. When data showed that the lack of nearby grocery stores negatively affected people's eating habits, we…
Conflict of interest in USDA nutrition guidelines, doctors say. (2011). IBTimes
Retrieved from: http://www.ibtimes.com/conflict-interest-usda-nutrition-guidelines-doctors-say-364426
Lohr, K. (2014). Controversy swirls around harsh anti-obesity ads. NPR.
Retrieved from: http://www.npr.org/2012/01/09/144799538/controversy-swirls-around-harsh-anti-obesity-ads
Male vs. Female
Is it Harder to Grow Up Male or Female in America?
There is strong evidence that indicates it is no longer a man's world. Women now make up the majority of students in America's colleges and universities in addition to making up the majority of those receiving bachelor and master's degrees. Women are now entering business and law schools in record numbers. Michelle Colin reports that in the United States, women earn 57% of all BA's and 58% of all master's degrees. There are 133 woman getting BA's for every 100 men. By the year 2020 it is projected that there will be 156 women per 100 men earning BA degrees. This paper will examine this phenomenon in light of Title IX of the education amendments of 1972, which opened doors of opportunity for women. (Collin)
Title IX of the education amendments of 1972 is…
This godlessness might initially be viewed as being cynical. However, when one looks at the social and political climate of Shakespeare's time, and the reality that England was just passing through a conversion from Catholicism to the Anglican church, driven by Henry VIII's desire to divorce and remarry, it might not be accurate to label godlessness in the play as cynical. Perhaps that is the view that Shakespeare is suggesting is idyllic, given the turmoil that organized religion had helped create in his country in recent history. This lack of a clear-cut explanation of the godlessness in the play, and of the playful way in which Cleopatra obliterates any claim Antony might actually have to self-divinity, shows how cynicism and idealism are caught in this cycle.
Nowhere in the play is the cycle of cynicism and idealism more dramatically showcased than in the play's final scenes. Caesar has conquered Egypt…
Fuller, David. "Passion and Politics: Antony and Cleopatra in Performance." Antony and Cleopatra: New Critical Essays. Ed. Sara Muson Deats. New York: Routledge, 2005.
Hirsh, James. "Rome and Egypt in Antony and Cleopatra and in Criticism of the Play." Antony
and Cleopatra: New Critical Essays. Ed. Sara Muson Deats. New York: Routledge, 2005. 175-192.
The various factors that influence both the definition and the perception of private security are typically environmental but can be internal and external to the issue of security itself. In most developed nations, the state provides security forces that are paid for by tax payers (local, municipal, state and federal police, and military forces); however, private security forces, typically operated by ex-military officers who bring their training and experience into the private sector to fill gaps in the market where demand cannot be satisfied by state security apparatuses alone, do exist and do operate both in developed and developing nations. Private security contractors like Academi, GRS, and Aegis look like military forces and often work with military forces when political factors require governments to apply to them for assistance (as has been the case with the U.S. government in the Middle East (Elsea) as well as with Middle…
But even in Pope, there is an intense sense of Eloisa's self-dramatization, as she uses herself as a potent warning to others, in a way that oversteps the conventions that she is merely talking to her former lover:
hen this rebellious heart shall beat no more;
If ever chance two wand'ring lovers brings
To Paraclete's white walls and silver springs,
O'er the pale marble shall they join their heads,
And drink the falling tears each other sheds;
Then sadly say, with mutual pity mov'd,
"Oh may we never love as these have lov'd!"
Eloisa wishes to account for the gap between her unruly inner life and a static monastic life that she professes in order to help herself and others 'do good and avoid evil, for the love of God, requirements that entail an ongoing interior struggle with one's motives, memories and desires' (Hotz 2001:205). Hers is a morality tale…
Haywood, Eliza. Fantomina: or, Love in a Maze. From Secret Histories, Novels, and Poems, by Eliza Haywood (ca.1693-1756). London: Dan Browne and S. Chapman, 1725. III, 2. (2d. Ed.)
Hicks, Stephen. "Eliza Haywood's letter technique in three early novels (1721-27)."
Papers on Language and Literature. Fall 1998.
Hotz, Mary Elizabeth. "Precious to grace: Necessary desolation in Pope's Eloisa to Abelard." Renascence. Spring 2001.
In the final purpose of accountability, where the goal is to enhance the learning capacity and effectiveness of the executive branch, we should realize that what needs to happen in this situation is that public authorities act on feedback about their own performance (Deutsch, 1963; Luhmann, 1966; Behn, 2001 as cited in Bovens et al., 2008). Thus, a good accountability mechanism, from this angle, is one that illustrates how the actor in question is learning and becoming more efficient as a result of the mechanism itself.
Anechiarico, F. & Jacobs, F.B. (1996). The Pursuit of Absolute Integrity: How Corruption
Control Makes Government Ineffective. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Aucoin, P. & Heintzman, . (2000). "The Dialectics of Accountability for Performance in Public
Management eform." International eview of Administrative Sciences, 66, 45-55.
Arnull, a. And D. Wincott. (2001). Accountability and Legitimacy in the European Union.
Oxford: Oxford University…
Anechiarico, F. & Jacobs, F.B. (1996). The Pursuit of Absolute Integrity: How Corruption
Control Makes Government Ineffective. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Aucoin, P. & Heintzman, R. (2000). "The Dialectics of Accountability for Performance in Public
Management Reform." International Review of Administrative Sciences, 66, 45-55.
Team building, group dynamics, talent management, leadership development, and any number of other functional areas are much more about clarity, focus, aligning expectations, and defining roles than creating equality" (Myatt, 2012). In the last twenty years, organizations have come to the realization that the better their employees are at working together, the more successful their organizations will be.
eductions in budgets in the public sector mean that there is an increased pressure for these organizations to deliver more effectively. Team-building is a verifiable way to ensure a greater success at employee cohesion. Private sector organizations have largely realized this, as private sector organizations more frequently enlist the help of outside organizations such as team-building experts to teach and implement effective means of team-building for their workers. Given these trends in team-building, I would want to further explore: what are the immediate benefits of team building? What are the long-term benefits…
Cellucci, T. (2008, October). Bridging the Communication Gap. Retrieved from DHS.gov: http://www.dhs.gov/xlibrary/assets/bridging_the_communication_gap.pdf
Dillon, S., Buchannon, J., & Corner, J. (2010, November).Comparing public and private sector decision making: Problem structuring and information quality issues. Retrieved from https://secure.orsnz.org.nz/conf45/program/Papers/ORSNZ2010_Buchanan.pdf
Drexel.edu. (2013). 5 Stages of Group Development. Retrieved from Drexel.edu: http://www.drexel.edu/oca/l/tipsheets/Group_Development.pdf
Groeneveld, S., & verbeek, S. (2011). Diversity Policies in Public and Private Sector Organizations. Review of Public Personnel Administration, 353-381.
As a result, the invited audience was essentially being asked to play the role of the person who is shocked by such a discovery -- and insofar as they knew they were being invited by Mendieta, and probably had basic knowledge of the crime that occurred, they were also being invited to imagine that the victim of such a crime might well have been Mendieta or any other female student on campus. This is interesting insofar as it relates to an observation made by Kwon about Mendieta's early work from this period: Kwon notes that "Mendieta's use of her/the body almost always approached erasure or negation: her 'body' consistently disappeared. This is striking given that most feminist artists during the 1970s vied for visibility and self-affirming expression through figurative, literal, sometimes 'in-your-face' presence. It is curious that Mendieta traced her absence instead."[footnoteRef:5] In "Rape Scene" this is paradoxically true: the…
Bowers, Nancy. "Spring Break Killer: Murder of Sarah Ann Ottens, 1973." IowaUnsolvedMurders.com, March 2010. Web. Retrieved 24 April 2014 at: http://www.iowaunsolvedmurders.com/beyond-1965-selected-unsolved-iowa-murders/spring-break-killer-murder-of-sarah-ann-ottens-1973/
Butler, Cornelia and Mark, Lisa Gabrielle. WACK!: Art and the Feminist Revolution. Los Angeles: Museum of Contemporary Art and MIT Press, 2007. Print.
Chau, Monica, Feldman, Hannah J.L., Kabat, Jennifer, and Kruse, Hannah. The Subject of Rape: June 23-August 29, 1993. New York: Whitney Museum of American Art, 1993. Print.
Deutsche, Rosalyn. "Breaking Ground: Barbara Kruger's Spatial Practice." In Kruger, Barbara. Thinking of You. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2000. 77-84. Print.
Ross (1988) notes the development of Romanticism in the late eighteenth century and indicates that it was essentially a masculine phenomenon:
Romantic poetizing is not just what women cannot do because they are not expected to; it is also what some men do in order to reconfirm their capacity to influence the world in ways socio-historically determined as masculine. The categories of gender, both in their lives and in their work, help the Romantics establish rites of passage toward poetic identity and toward masculine empowerment. Even when the women themselves are writers, they become anchors for the male poets' own pursuit for masculine self-possession. (Ross, 1988, 29)
Mary ollstonecraft was as famous as a writer in her day as her daughter. Both mother and daughter were important proponents of the rights of women both in their writings and in the way they lived and served as role models for other…
Alexander, Meena. Women in Romanticism. Savage, Maryland: Barnes & Noble, 1989.
Burke, Edmund. Reflections on the Revolution in France. Indianapolis: Hackett, 1987.
Cone, Carl B. Burke and the Nature of Politics. University of Kentucky, 1964.
Conniff, James. "Edmund Burke and His Critics: The Case of Mary Wollstonecraft" Journal of the History of Ideas, Vol. 60, No. 2, (Apr., 1999), 299-318.
Public School Funding
ith reports on the lower standardized test scores among the nation's students, policy makers are once again turning their attention to the issue of education reform. For many educators, one of the culprits behind this is not only the dearth of money spent on public education. Rather, the available funding is disbursed unequally, benefiting the already more affluent school districts.
This paper examines the inequity that exists in funding public school education.
The first part of this paper looks at examples of this unequal funding throughout the country. The next part of the paper then looks at the various reasons for these disparities, from the government level to the lack of public support.
In the conclusion, this paper argues that there remains a strong need to increase public support for education funding, and to re-work the current formula used by states to determine how school funds are…
Brooks, Charles. 2002. "Poor and minority districts get thousands less per student." New York Amsterdam News. August 15.
Jencks, Christopher and Meredith Phillips. 1998. The Black-White Test Score Gap. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution.
McDermott, Kathryn. 1999. Controlling Public Education: Localism vs. Equity. Lawrenc: University Press of Kansas.
Reed, Douglas. 2001. "Not in My Schoolyard: Localism and Public Opposition to Funding Schools Equally." Social Science Quarterly. March.
Since smaller class size has been shown to positively affect student learning, at least in the early grades, one might also infer that this affects teachers' work positively. Further, researchers have found a positive relationship between collective bargaining and increased preparation time for teachers, which many educators believe is essential for good teaching and collaborative work among colleagues within a school.
Collective Bargaining, Unions and Teacher/Educational Quality
In a March 1999 study of Texas Schools, teacher salaries were shown to have a modest impact on teacher mobility and upon student performance. The authors of the study found that teacher mobility was more affected by the characteristics of the students, including income, achievement and race.
Salaries are also more weakly related to performance on teacher certification tests. This appears to be relevant only in districts where there are high levels of hiring (ibid., 30). The study found that certification tests were…
Driscoll, D., Halcoussis, D., & Svorny, S. (2003). School district size and student performance. Economics of Education Review, 22, 193 -- 201.
Farber, H.S. (2006). "Union membership in the United States: the divergence between the public and private sectors." In J. Hannaway & A.J. Rotherham (Eds.), Collective Bargaining in Education: Negotiating Change in Today's Schools (pp. 27-51). Cambridge, MA: Harvard Educational Pub Group.
Hanushek, E.A., Kain, J.F., & Rivkin, S.G. (1999). Do higher salaries buy better teachers?. In American Economic Association (pp. 1-51). New York, NY: American Economic Association.
Hess, F.M. And Kelly, A.P. (2006). "Scapegoats, albatross or what? The status quo in teacher collective bargaining." In J. Hannaway & A.J. Rotherham (Eds.), Collective Bargaining in Education: Negotiating Change in Today's Schools (pp. 53-61 ). Cambridge, MA: Harvard Educational Pub Group.
It is an ongoing process that continuously evaluates and controls the business and looks at the overall goal and how the company is moving towards that goal. It identifies large disconnects and assigns tactical solutions to those issues. It must be the most honest and guiding part of the business because it asks three key success questions: 1) Is it suitable (will it work)? 2) Is it feasible (can it be made to work)? And, 3) Will it be accepted (will they work/use it)? (Johnson, choles and Whittington, 2008).
As there is no best style of leadership in situational leadership, the most effective one is the one that will keep balance between what is task-relevant and the maturity of the individual or group that they are attempting to lead or influence (Hersey and Blanchard, 1977). Being transformational means that the leader must be affecting and influencing followers to excel in…
Strategic management provides the overall direction to the organization and ensures that goals between departments and business units are in line with each other -- consistent with the plan. It is an ongoing process that continuously evaluates and controls the business and looks at the overall goal and how the company is moving towards that goal. It identifies large disconnects and assigns tactical solutions to those issues. It must be the most honest and guiding part of the business because it asks three key success questions: 1) Is it suitable (will it work)? 2) Is it feasible (can it be made to work)? And, 3) Will it be accepted (will they work/use it)? (Johnson, Scholes and Whittington, 2008).
As there is no best style of leadership in situational leadership, the most effective one is the one that will keep balance between what is task-relevant and the maturity of the individual or group that they are attempting to lead or influence (Hersey and Blanchard, 1977). Being transformational means that the leader must be affecting and influencing followers to excel in their effort to attain organizational goals (Robbins & Judge, 2007). These types of leaders fully understand the concerns and improvement needs of employees and said leaders are willing to change the awareness and difficulties of their employees by supporting the later in their problem resolution. These leaders are capable also of leading employees to attain the organizational goals. It is even believed that transformation leaders have the trust of their employees that could move employees' productivity to be more than expected (Hitt, et al., 2007). They therefore can build trust, admiration, loyalty and even respect from their employees.
Clearly, there is a need for new blood in the transformational management field. My past experience in numerous fields has been a perfect multidimensional introduction to advanced studies in the area, and to both
1.3. Summary of argument, Hypothesis
The role of leadership styles and their applicability to the success or failure of mergers, acquisitions and alliances is the focus of this research. Any leadership study, to be relevant, must also focus on the needs of those served by the organizations studies. That is why in the proposed Change Management Equilibrium Model have customer-driven processes at their center or core. The focus of the research to either validate or refute the model is based on consistency and collaboration as two factors that also serve to create greater levels of integration between the two or more healthcare providers merging or changing their organizational structures to better serve the market. This market orientation is what many public-ally-owned and operated healthcare providers struggle with, as often the source of funding becomes their "customer" or whom they serve (Brinkmann, O'Brien, 2010). Studies by AM esearch for example show…
Abbott, R., Ploubidis, G., Huppert, F., Kuh, D., & Croudace, T.. (2010). An Evaluation of the Precision of Measurement of Ryff's Psychological Well-Being Scales in a Population Sample. Social Indicators Research, 97(3), 357-373.
Faten Fahad Al-Mailam. (2004). Transactional vs. Transformational Style of Leadership-Employee Perception of Leadership Efficacy in Public and Private Hospitals in Kuwait. Quality Management in Health Care, 13(4), 278-284.
Antonakis, J., & House, R.J. (2002). The full-range leadership theory: The way forward. In B.J. Avolio & F.J. Yammarino (Eds.) Transformational and Charismatic Leadership, Volume 2, p. 3 -- 33. Boston: JAI Press.
Avolio, B.J., & Yammarino, F.J. (2002). Introduction to, and overview of, transformational and charismatic leadership. In B.J. Avolio & F.J. Yammarino (Eds.) Transformational and Charismatic Leadership, Volume 2, p. xvii -- xxiii. Boston: JAI Press.
Educational Vouchers: Multiple Issues and Contradictory esults
The Merriman-Webster online dictionary offers three definitions for "voucher": "...a documentary record of a business transaction; a written affidavit or authorization; a form or check indicating a credit against future purchases or expenditures." None of the three even approaches the emotionally charged version of the term "voucher" when it comes to the current debate swirling around public vs. private schools. This paper digs into the "vouchers" - or "scholarships," or "subsidies," if you prefer - provided to families in several cities and states, to move their children from less desirable, academically troubled public schools to more desirable, for-profit private, mainly religious schools.
Long before there was any discussion about vouchers, Horace Mann of Massachusetts - the "Father of American public school education" - was in the vanguard of the movement (1837) to solidify support for quality public education, excellence in teacher training, and…
ABC News (June 27, 2002). [Online] "Divided Court: Voucher Program Victory http://abcnews.go.com/sections/us/DailyNews/scotus_vouchers020627.html .
American Federation of Teachers (2002). [Online] "Report Reveals Right-Wing Backers of BAEO" "Milwaukee Vouchers Cost Twice the Tuition Amount Charged Non-Voucher Students http://www.aft.org/research/vouchers/ .
Friedman Foundation (2002). [Online] "School Choice Works http://www.friedmanfoundation.org/schoolchoiceworks/schoolchoiceresearch.html.
Greene, Jay P. (2002). [Online] "Vouchers in Charlotte" Education Next Magazine http://www.educationnext.org/20012/46greene.html .
The FCC and National Broadband Policy
The Federal Communications Commission was establish in 1934 as a standalone government agency that was created to regulate the communications capabilities of the United States. As part of the agencies charter, there is the provision that the agency maximize the use of the spectrum that is available through competition and innovation. The role of the FCC has evolved over the years with the introduction of new technologies. hereas once the FCC was primarily concerned with voice and radio portions of the spectrum, now the agency must regulate a more complex sphere of communication technologies that include both the landline and wireless network bandwidths.
The FCC is truly a powerful organization with their oversight of the public spectrum. The organization has an objective of ensuring that U.S. population has access to communication technologies as well as the latest innovations in the industry. However,…
Acquisti, A. (2004, February). The Economics of Privacy. Retrieved from Heinz School: http://www.heinz.cmu.edu/~acquisti/papers/acquisti_privacy_economics.ppt
Anderson, N. (2010, August 17). Your fears confirmed: "up to" broadband speeds are bogus. Retrieved from ARS Technica: http://arstechnica.com/tech-policy/2010/08/your-worst-fears-confirmed-real-broadband-speeds-half-of-whats-advertised/
Atkins, R. (2007, June). The Case for a National Broadband Policy. Retrieved from The Information Technology and Innovation Foundation: http://www.itif.org/files/CaseForNationalBroadbandPolicy.pdf
Economics and Statistics Administration. (2010, November). Exploring the Digital Nation. Retrieved from U.S. Department of Commerce: http://www.ntia.doc.gov/files/ntia/publications/esa_ntia_us_broadband_adoption_report_11082010_1.pdf
Negative Externalities of Education
The externalities of education are the social and public rewards or incentives that emanate from a person's education that help members of the society within the current and future generations. Positive externalities are regarded as the spillover effects whereas negative externalities are external costs. While education has largely been identified with positive externalities since it generates external returns for the society, it also has negative externalities. The negative externalities form the basis with which the adoption of private schooling systems is endorsed rather than public schooling systems.
Negative Externalities of Education:
Some of the evident negative externalities of education that take place in several ways include the following
More Individual Benefits:
One of the major negative externality of education is that the individual acquiring education accrues more benefits that the society. Consequently, the societal benefits of are pretty small as compared to those that the individual…
Baum, S. & McPherson, M. (2011, January 18). Is Education a Public Good or a Private Good?
Retrieved February 11, 2012, from http://chronicle.com/blogs/innovations/is-education-a-public-good-or-a-private-good/28329
Kling, A. (2008, August 27). Public Goods, Externalities, and Education. Retrieved February 11,
2012, from http://econlog.econlib.org/archives/2008/08/public_goods_ex.html#
What unique challenges if any do OD practitioners face when dealing with a public sector intervention rather than a private sector one? Explain thoroughly.
Certain concepts of organizational development are common to all organizations, such as the idea that people function differently in groups and the need to motivate individuals to perform their essential organizational functions with transformational as well as purely transactional rewards. But not all organizations are created alike. It is important for organizational development (OD) practitioners to keep this in mind when assisting organizations in the public versus private sector. Public sector entities are not constructed to make a profit but, as their name suggests, exist to serve the needs of the public. They have different accountability structures and often have very different organizational cultures.
In fact, according to Stupak & Moore (1987), one of the first challenges of any organizational development practitioner dealing with a public…
Of the 19 students attending that day (gender breakdown was nine boys and ten girls) the boys asked questions 9 times and answered questions (those of the teacher and/or classmates) 13 times. By comparison, the girls asked questions 4 times, and answered questions 5 times. Then, when the students split into groups toward the end of the class to check each other's previous work, the groups were split along gender lines. The focus of the students, and the atmosphere of the class overall, was more diffuse than those of either of the other two classes. One interesting thing I noticed during this small group work (which could perhaps also have a bearing on the findings of Datnow et al.) was that in these groups, the now gender-segregated girls asked for teacher help with and clarification of the task at hand a great deal more than did the boys, in their…
Datnow, a. et al. (April 2001). How context mediates policy: The implementation of single gender public schooling in California. Teachers college record, 103(2). 184-206.
gay couple walks hand-in-hand across campus. A man driving by in a car sees them and shouts, "Fags!" A black student is working late at a local coffee shop. A professor from one of her classes comes in and tries to order a meal. She explains that the coffee shop is closing. He insists, becomes more and more upset until he calls her a "*****" and a "nigger" and stalks away.
Both the gay couple and the young woman have been subjected to extreme verbal abuse. But should the people who said these hateful things be punished? According to Thomas Grey's article, "Civil Rights vs. Civil Liberties: The Case of Discriminatory Verbal Harassment," whether or not the speakers should pay a price for their words depends on whether one adopts a civil liberties point-of-view or a civil rights point-of-view.
The civil liberties point-of-view holds that the speakers, though undeniably obnoxious,…
Upon it's grand opening in 1964, Gay Talese of the New York Times had this to say about one of Robert Moses' most ambitious projects, the Verrazano-Narrows Bridge, "The sun shone, the sky was cloudless; bands played, cannons echoed up and down the harbor, flags waved, and thousands of motorists yesterday became part of the first -- and perhaps only-- blissful traffic jam on the Verrazano-Narrows Bridge" (Talese). Aside from the humorous traffic jam comment, this picturesque account of the opening of the world's largest suspension bridge (for its time) seems very auspicious (MTA metro). That is to say, one gets a sense that this bridge was conceived and constructed without a glitch, without a sense of trepidation, and with the full support and cooperation of neighboring communities. However, a close examination of history and the facts suggest that although the Verrazano-Narrows Bridge serves the greater public good,…
"Verrazano-Narrows Bridge." MTAinfo.com. n.d. Web. 04 July 2011.
Talese, Gay. "Verrazano Bridge Opened to Traffic." New York Times. 22 Nov. 1964
Web. 04 July 2011.
Reier, Sharon. The Bridges of New York. New York: Dover Publications, 2000. Print.
industrialized nation in the world has a higher percentage of its population residing in its prison than the United States (Liptak). This fact has witnessed a corresponding increase in the cost of housing and caring for the incarcerated which has correspondingly raised the public concerns for these costs. This combination has spurred conversation relative to how to address both issues and one of the methods suggested is the possible privatization of the corrections system.
The advantages and disadvantages of privatization have been debated for years and many view privatization as new and unique method for managing the corrections system; however, privatization has a long history in the United States (Perrone). Private management of prisons has been attempted at several points in America's history but was actually abandoned during the early years of the twentieth century. One of the primary reasons for its being abandoned was the Convict Leasing System that…
Liptak, Adam. "U.S. prison population dwarfs that of other nations." New York Times 23 April 2008: A1.
Morris, John C. "Government and Market Pathologies of Privatization: The Case of Prison Privatization." Politics & Policy (2007): 318-341.
Nicholson-Crotty, Sean. "The Politics and Adminstration of Privatization: Contracting Out for Corrections Management in the United States." Policy Studies Journal (2004): 41-57.
Perrone, Dina. "Comparing the Quality of Confinement and Cost-Effectiveness of Public vs. Private Prisons: What We Know, Why We Do Not Know More, and Where to Go From Here." The Prison Journal (2003): 301-322.
In light of the evidence in this literature review then it is of great import that monitoring of the health of pregnant women is vital in reference to LW infants not only in the sense of present terms but as well to lifelong health considerations for the LW infant which is probably why stated further is: "Given the relative neglect that mothers and newborns have suffered, their centrality to the Millennium Development Goals, and the cost-effectiveness of maternal and newborn health interventions, a greater emphasis on safe motherhood and newborn health is clearly needed within many health sectors." (JHPIEGO, 2003)
Stated in the publication "Shaping Policy for Maternal and Newborn Health: A Compendium of Case Studies (2003) is that: "The health of a newborn is inextricably linked to the health of the mother; the majority of newborn deaths are caused by the poor health of the mother during…
Krieger N. & Smith, G.(2004) Bodies County and body counts: Epidemiology and embodying inequality. Epidemiological Review Journal 200:26:92-103
Coker, AL et al. (2004) Partner Violence During Pregnancy and Risk of Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes. Pediatrics Perinatal Epidemiology 2004 Jul; 18 (4): 260-9. University of Texas School of Public Health.
Bohn, D.K. et al. (2004) Influences of Income, Education, Age, and Ethnicity on Physical Abuse before and During Pregnancy. Journal Obstetrics Gynecology Neonatal Nursing 2004 Sep-Oct; 33(5): 561-71.
Salihu, Boy a. (2004) Intimate Partner Violence and Birth Outcomes: A Systematic Review International Journal of Fertility Women's Medicine 2004 Jul-Aug; 49(4): 159-64. Department of Maternal and Child Health, School of Public Health, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Alabama.
One of the most significant issues in correctional management is the effectiveness of juvenile correctional facilities. Generally, juvenile correctional facilities were established to provide effective treatment and rehabilitation of juveniles. In the past few years, the ability of these facilities to achieve their primary objective has been an issue of major concern to correctional administrators and management. Actually, correctional administrators currently agree that effective treatment and rehabilitation of juveniles will not be achievable in an environment that does not guarantee the security and safety of juveniles being served. As a major issue in correctional management and administration, the importance of this issue has been the subject of increased study by various researchers. Examples of these research initiatives include studies by Darryl Olson and Michael Baglivio as well as Patrick Bayer and David E. Pozen's work.
esearch work by Patrick Bayer and David E. Pozen focuses on examining…
Bayer, P. & Pozen, D.E. (2004, November). The Effectiveness of Juvenile Correctional
Facilities: Public vs. Private Management. Journal of Law & Economics, 48(2), 549-589. Retrieved from http://www.econ.yale.edu/growth_pdf/cdp863.pdf
Olson, D. & Baglivio, M. (2013, February/March). Creating a Safe Residential Environment for Juvenile Offenders: The Florida Experience. Corrections Today, 75(1), 64-67.
e. By quitting or staging a work slow down. Employers must treat their employees properly or they will gain a reputation for mistreatment, a notoriety that will likely cause severe damage to their businesses as they will be unable to hire and retain qualified workers. Lastly, by perennially facing the threat of termination if they do not prove themselves worthy of employment, workers actually hone their employment skills. The "arbitrariness" of the relationship raises the emphasis on skill and devotion to duty. In Epstein's example, workers do not commonly hold two or more jobs because most individuals are incapable of properly performing so much work at the same time.
Their devotion to one, or at most two, jobs must be recognized and rewarded by their employers who must pay them more, give them greater benefits, and so forth..
In many ways, the argument of public vs. private good is a…
Epstein, Richard a. "In Defense of the Contract at Will." University of Chicago Law Review 34. 1984.
Werhane, Patricia J. And Radin, Tara J. "Employment at Will and Due Process." Ethical Treatment of Employees, 266. 1995.
Richard a. Epstein, "In Defense of the Contract at Will," University of Chicago Law Review 34, 275, 1984.
Patricia J. Werhane and Tara J. Radin, "Employment at Will and Due Process," Ethical Treatment of Employees, 266, 1995.
Ideas are part of the grand process of business. Businesses create unique products and services that are then marketed to a customer base. This involves the use of innovation, commercialization and intellectual property rights to both create something unique, have the ability to market, and have the rights to protect it. Without either of these aspects, it can be difficult for a business to generate something worthwhile.
The case study of Apple Inc., and the iPhone is one that provides the tell-tale sign of innovation. People like Steve Jobs work hard to contribute something to their respective industries that is one of a kind, thus making their companies highly successful. To be a pioneer in an industry is to gain a chance to dominate in an emerging or established market. The iPhone represents the epitome of a new product revolutionizing the cell phone and electronics industry.
Without the hard…
The major reason why social media plays a vital role in the recruitment process is because of the fact that applicants reveal more information about themselves via social media than during the normal hiring process.
However, while it continues to exist in the public domain, many applicants oppose the use of their social media profiles as part of the recruiting process ("Social Media's Place," n.d.). This opposition raises public debate about public vs. private life and the right to an individual's privacy. Majority of job applicants argue that social media profiles shouldn't be part of an employer's decision making process since personal life should be regarded as private life. Actually most of them consider reviewing their social media profile as a practice that is equivalent to conducting a security check. On the contrary, employers use social media to vet a candidate when they feel that this person does not portray…
Jackson, R.M. (2010, January 11). Social Media Permeate the Employment Life Cycle:
Employers Must Address their Use and Misuse Before, During and After An Employee's Tenure. Retrieved June 11, 2011, from http://www.law.com/jsp/nlj/PubArticleNLJ.jsp?id=1202437746082&slreturn=1&hbxlogin=1
"Pre Employment Background Checks for HR -- A Much Better Choice Then Social Profiling."
(2011, May 19). Pub Articles: Better Articles Pub. Retrieved June 11, 2011, from http://www.pubarticles.com/article-pre-employment-background-checks-for-hr-a-much-better-choice-then-social-profiling -- 1305791090.html
organizations compared within this document include the Little iver United States Post Office and the Miami Shores United States Post Office. These two post offices are less than two miles from one another. Still, the former is in the city of Miami, whereas the latter is in the city of Miami Shores Village and is a suburb of the former.
One can argue that the roles within these two articles are virtually identical. There are postal clerks who work inside each of these post offices; there are various postal representatives who are responsible for ensuring that mail is both delivered and received. There are managers in supervisory positions at each of these public organizations. The principle difference in the roles is that there are more employees at virtually every position at the post office in Miami (which is located in the Little iver section of Miami). This fact is not…
Baldwin, J.N. (1990). Perceptions of public vs. private sector personnel and informal red tape: their impact on motivation. The American Review of Public Administration. 20 (1) 7-28.
Fairholm, M.R. (2009). Leadership and organizational strategy. The Innovation Journal: The Public Sector Innovation Journal. 14(1) 1-16.
Globalization has had a remarkable effect on both the technological developments and the cultural attributes of a number of companies. Instant global communication is now possible, and individuals know they can instantly communicate with almost anywhere in the world -- and at an affordable cost. The more technology improves, the more this global economy, culture, and society develops. However, one of the key results of globalization is that it helps continually break down societal barriers, with international communication being one of the strongest barriers it weakens. This means that te companies must be especially poised to understand, meet the needs, and actualize a number of multicultural employees in any number of countries. This multicultural paradigm, though, is complex for managers and coworkers regardless of the type of organization. Miscommunication can easily occur, and it would be logistically impossible for any one company to adequately train staff of the multicultural aspects…
Lanza, R. (2000). One World - The Health and Survival of the Human Species in the 21st Century. New York: One World Press.
Nutt, P. And R. Backoff. (1993). Transforming Public Organizations with Strategic
Management and Strategic Leadership. Journal of Management. 19 (2):