Public Vs Private Essays (Examples)

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Education Public & Private in

Words: 1306 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49011482



There are specific daily steps that students in these working class schools must take, and in math, for example, the teacher "told them what the procedure was for each problem, rarely asking them to conceptualize or explain it themselves" (Anyon 528). And so the emphasis was on memorizing the steps, not on understanding how or why they are taken. Language arts class was much the same (copy the teacher's notes from the board). In the middle-class school, it was all about "getting the right answers." In social studies, it was the old-fashioned routine of reading the chapter and answering questions, and the same was true in language arts. "Creativity is not often requested in social studies and science projects..." Anyon writes (532).

Things were different in the affluent professional school and fathers' careers included corporate lawyer, cardiologist, engineer; difficult assignments required specific projects like film-making and script-writing; children wrote essays…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Clayton, Victoria. "Public vs. Private School - which is best for kids?" MSNBC.com.

Retrieved April 1 at http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/8743221/print/1/displaymode/1098/

Colombo, Gary; Cullen, Robert; & Lisle, Bonnie. Rereading America: Cultural Contexts for Critical Thinking and Writing. Boston: Bedford Books of St. Martin's Press, 1992.

Mendez, Teresa. "Public Schools: Do they outperform private ones?" The Christian Science
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Public Goods Private Goods Common Resources and

Words: 1216 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21309193

public goods, private goods, common resources, and natural monopolies.

Public goods are when there is a focus on providing benefits to someone without them having to offer different forms of compensation. This is because the interests of the community will outweigh the need for making any kind of profit. Some examples of this include: fire, police, and national defense. Private goods are those products that are sold directly to consumers with the intention of making a profit. This is when a private producer, will realize that there is unmet demand and provide this to consumers. In exchange for delivering these services or products, they will receive some form of compensation. (Mankiw, 2011)

Common resources are those reserves that are available to everyone. The most notable include: the fish in the ocean, the air that everybody is breathing and public lands. While natural monopolies are when there is one organization which…… [Read More]

References

Coffee Industry. (2010). Iowa State University. Retrieved from: http://www2.econ.iastate.edu/classes/econ535/hayenga/protected/2003papers/Coffee%20Industry%20 -- %20Myers.pdf

Mankiw, N. (2011). Principles of Economics. Mason, OH: Thomason.

Simon, B. (2009). Everything but the Coffee. Berkley, CA: University of California Press.
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Private Public Defense Private vs

Words: 709 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26257320

" (Spohn, 2009, p. 105) However, there is a distinct advantage to having a private attorney when it comes to the sentencing aspect of the proceedings. Studies have indicated that "a higher percentage of defendants with public defenders are sent to prison." (Gaines, 2010, p. 207) There may be extenuating circumstances in this study as many who use public defenders are repeat offenders do so because they are financially destitute.

There are distinct advantages and disadvantages to using a public defender or a privately hired attorney. While public defenders are overloaded with cases, they are free and their familiarity with the system, prosecutors, and judges can work to the client's advantage. On the other hand the sheer numbers of cases public defenders must take on can restrict the attorneys attention to one particular case. And while private attorneys can expend more resources toward the case, they sometimes do not have…… [Read More]

References

Gaines, Larry, and Roger Miller. (2010). Criminal Justice in Action: The Core. Belmont,

CA., Wadsworth/Cengage. Retrieved from http://books.google.com/books?id=DcTf9CQ7XAIC&pg=PT238&dq=private+vs.+public+defense&hl=en&ei=zcqETsrbNcWugQe_q-go&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CDMQ6AEwAQ%20//%20v=onepage&q=private%20vs%20public%20defense&f=false  http://www.usconstitution.net/miranda.html 

Spohn, Cassia and Craig Hemmens. (2009). Courts: A Text/Reader. California: Sage

Publications. Print.
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State Prisons vs Private Companies Operated Prisons

Words: 868 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75851714

State vs. Private Prison

The United States prison system is designed to ensure that the members of society who have chosen to violate the law and commit crimes are suitably punished. Prisoners are sent away for a period of time based on the crime committed and the severity of that crime. Additional factors such as age, mental and emotional state, and motive may have a contribution to the sentencing of the prisoner. The prison system is comprised of both state-funded institutions and those run and controlled by private funding. Both forms of institutions serve the same inherent function, to punish those who have committed crimes and to rehabilitate the offenders so that they can be released back into society without posing a potential threat to other law-abiding citizens. Those who cannot be rehabilitated will either be executed by the state or sent to prison for a life sentence. However, there…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Levine, D.M. "What's Costlier than a Government Run Prison? A Private One." Fortune. 2010.

Print.

"Private Privatization and the Use of Incarceration." The Sentencing Project. 2004. Print.

Siegel, Larry J., and Joseph J. Senna. Introduction to Criminal Justice. Belmont, CA:
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Private vs Public Schools Many Parents Find

Words: 1373 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9977176

Private vs. Public Schools

Many parents find themselves caught in a dilemma when trying to decide on which choice of education to take for their children. They ask themselves whether to take their children to private schools or public schools. For a parent to choose the ideal school for their children they always have to take into consideration all the available options. They consider things like the cost of the school, how much time they will invest as a parent, the social impact that the school have on their children based on the specific need of their children as well as the family.

Private schools offer the best option for the parent who is in need of better and quality education for their children. Private schools have a nearly perfect graduation rates which market them a great deal. Their performance is better as compared to the public schools. This is…… [Read More]

References

Mary Elizabeth, (2012). "Public Schools vs. Private Schools."Accessed May 10, 2012 from http://www.educationbug.org/a/public-schools-vs. -- private-schools.html

Parents For Better Education America (2011). "What Every Parent Should Know About Private Schools vs. Public Schools," ASIN: B004R9QKL8. Binding: Kindle Edition. Accessed May 10, 2012 from http://education.mitrasites.com/public-education-vs.-private-education.html

The Council for American Private Education. (2010). Private School Facts. Accessed May 10, 2012 from  http://www.capenet.org/facts.html 

The Council for American Private Education. (2003). Academic Performance 2003. Accessed May 10, 2012 from http://www.capenet.org/Outlook/Out9-03.html#Story5
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Private Finance the Private Financing Initiatives When

Words: 2393 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38585582

Private Finance

The private financing initiatives

When the Private Finance Initiative was launched in 1992, it was seen as a mechanism to achieve extra public-sector investment by bringing in private finance for capital projects as well as a means to improve the public procurement process that was routinely criticized for poor project management and construction cost overruns. PFIs cut across a range of public services, including hospitals, prisons, public transport, roads, and schools. Each PFI depended on the public-sector purchaser to specify the outputs or outcomes it hoped to achieve, and put private-sector capital at risk for the delivery of those outputs or outcomes. By relaxing the emphasis on input specification, PFIs sought to mobilize innovation and optimize whole-life costs and quality to meet the public requirements. The financing mechanism served to reinforce the long-term nature of the relationship by linking payments to the achievement of outputs over the life…… [Read More]

References

Chung, Demi. 2009. "Developing an Analytical Framework for Analysing and Assessing Public-Private Partnerships: A Hospital Case Study." Economic and Labour Relations Review 19:69+. Retrieved September 26, 2011 (http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5033188311).

Flemming, John, and Peter Oppenheimer. 1996. "Are Government Spending and Taxes Too High (or Too Low)?." National Institute Economic Review. Retrieved September 26, 2011 (http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001637892).

Forrer, John, James Edwin Kee, and Zhibin Zhang. 2002. "Private Finance Initiative: A Better Public-Private Partnership?." The Public Manager 31:43+. Retrieved September 26, 2011 (http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000818745).

Gibb, Kenneth, and Duncan Maclennan. 2006. "Changing Social Housing: Economic System Issues." Public Finance and Management 6:88+. Retrieved September 26, 2011 (http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5045014514).
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Private or Public Defense the

Words: 610 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24689703



Comparisons of conviction rates both in federal courts and in criminal cases that are tried in the most populous counties of the United States are statistically the same regardless of whether a public or a private defense attorney as representing the defendant (Siegel 2009; Gaines & Miller 2011). This initially suggests that there is not a great deal of difference in the selection of an attorney when it comes to the outcome of the case: prosecutors do not tend to focus resources on cases they are not fairly confident they can win, and thus the vast majority of criminal cases (ninety percent of federal cases and approximately seventy-five percent of cases in the most populous counties) result in guilty verdicts with the type of attorney having no discernible effect (Siegel 2009). This does not mean that differences don't exist, however. Though conviction rates are the same for public and private…… [Read More]

References

Gaines, L. & Miller, R. (2011). Criminal Justice in Action. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

Siegel, L. (2009). Introduction to Criminal Justice. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
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Public Passions

Words: 4266 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82628012

Public Passions

Shi Jianqiao became a media sensation in Nationalist China during the 1930s for shooting the ex-warlord Sun Chuanfang, a leading member of the Tianjin Qingxiu lay-Buddhist society (jushilin). She shot Sun three times on November 13, 1935 in prayer hall (congregation site) on Nanma Road. Although she was prosecuted for murder, the courts returned a controversial final verdict of judicial leniency, and the Nationalist (Guomindang) regime overturned this final verdict by issuing a state pardon. These events led to a public debate on the merits and demerits of filial revenge, although contemporary accounts do not examine the larger sociopolitical implications the case may have had. Shi Jianqiao represented the female assassin's singular and violent expression of filial sentiment (xiao), as well as the female warrior code of "chivalrous virtue" (xia), and helped give rise to a new communal form of ethical sentiment - "public sympathy" (tongqing). For liberal…… [Read More]

WORKS CITED

Lean, Eugenia. Public Passions: The Trial of Shi Jianqiao and the Rise of Popular Sympathy in Republican China. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2007.
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Public Health Emergency Preparedness and

Words: 917 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89303695



What are the existing resources on a micro, mezzo, and macro level that address the needs of this particular group?

On a micro level, health professionals and counselors can help elderly individuals live in a manner that honors their independence in a realistic fashion. eligious leaders can play a role in helping families engage in difficult discussions about an elderly person's transition into a new phase of life. On a mezzo level religious groups provide the individual with a community and opportunities to volunteer. On a macro level, people must become more aware of the complex needs of the elderly that must be honored, including elderly person's right to decent healthcare and assisted living, and protection through anti-discrimination laws. eligious communities can act as advocates for the needs of the elderly on a social and legislative level as well as on a micro level.

What are the gaps in services…… [Read More]

References

Harder, Arlene. (2005). The developmental stages of Erik Erickson. Learning Place. Retrieved May 10, 2011 at http://www.learningplaceonline.com/stages/organize/Erikson.htm

New research finds link between religion and health in the elderly. (1997). Yale University

School Of Medicine. ScienceDaily. Retrieved May 10, 2011, from http://www.sciencedaily.com? / releases/1997/11/971101093808.htm

Onken, Orrin R. (1999). Gerontology and the study of religion and health: A vital role for a social science melting pot. Portland State University. Retrieved May 10, 2011, from  http://www.loris.net/thepaperweb.html
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Motivate Private Kindergarten Teachers the Objective of

Words: 2795 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83976030

Motivate Private Kindergarten Teachers

The objective of this work in writing is to conduct a review of literature in the area of motivation and specific to motivation of teachers in private kindergartens. Towards this end, this study will examine motivation and specifically employee motivation as well as kindergarten and the previous research on private kindergarten.

Motivation

Motivation is defined as "the act or an instance of motivating, or providing with a reason to act in a certain way" or the "state or condition of being motivated" or finally, as "something that motivates." (Dictionary.com, 2012) The work of Cherry (nd) states that motivation can be defined as "the process that initiates, guides and maintains goal-oriented behaviors. Motivation is what causes us to act, whether it is getting a glass of water to reduce third or reading a book to gain knowledge." (p.1) Motivation is reported as involving the "biological, emotional, social,…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Ackerman, Debra J., Barnett, W. Steven and Robin, Kenneth B. (2005) Present Trends and Future Issues in the Provision of Full-Day Programs. 2005 Mar. NIEER. Retrieved from:  http://nieer.org/resources/policyreports/report4.pdf 

Alt, Martha Naomi and Peter, Katharin (2002) Private schools: A Brief Portrait. 5 Sept 2002. Alamance of Policy Issues. Retrieved from:  http://www.policyalmanac.org/education/archive/private_schools.shtml 

Bishay, Andre (1996) Teacher Motivation and Job Satisfaction: A Study Employing

Career Story: Kindergarten Teacher at a Public School. CTI Career Search. Retrieved from: http://www.citytowninfo.com/career-story/elementary-school-teachers/kindergarten-teacher-at-a-public-school
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Difference Between Public and Private Entity Accounting

Words: 966 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74980879

Public Finance

Philosophy of public finance

All states must raise some sort of revenue to pay for the basic services it must offer to protect its citizens and provide them with needed services. The degree to which the state should act in such a supportive fashion may vary depending on the perspective of the individual but the notion that some state financing is needed for a nation to be functional is difficult to debate. Taxation is one of the primary methods through which the state extracts revenue. Although there are many different competing philosophies about the purpose of government financing, most would agree that the government can serve as an engine of growth if it allocates its assets in an appropriate manner.

One of the most influential texts defining a philosophy of public financing was that of ichard Musgrave's The Theory of Public Finance. Musgrave's (1959) text stressed that "normative…… [Read More]

References

Bartle, J., Scott, D. & Shields, P. (2008). Applying pragmatism to public budgeting and financial management. Association for Budgeting and Financial Management conference.

Retrieved from:  https://digital.library.txstate.edu/handle/10877/3995 

Financial accounting. (2015). National Center for Educational Statistics. Retrieved from:

 https://nces.ed.gov/pubs2004/h2r2/ch_3.asp
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Single-Payer vs Private Solutions in Healthcare

Words: 880 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27596161

Federal ole in Healthcare

There are two very entrenched camps in the universal health care debate as well as regarding what the federal role in healthcare should be. It is clear that the private and employer-based system is not serving the American public as well as it should be but scandals and problems with the Veteran's Administration (VA) and Medicare are proof positive that the government cannot be the driving force either. While both of the major suggested approaches to solving the crisis of uncovered people and the lack of portability of employer-based healthcare are both problematic each in their own way and a more balanced approach is necessary to give people the assistance they need but without toying with the private market for insurance in too protracted a way.

Analysis

The federal role of healthcare has probably been an issue on some level or another since the 1930's when…… [Read More]

References

Corbett, J., & Kappagoda, M. (2013). Doing Good and Doing Well: Corporate Social

Responsibility in Post Obamacare America. Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics, 4117-21. doi:10.1111/jlme.12032

An assessment of what businesses could or should be responsible for after the passage of the Affordable Care Act, aka ObamaCare.

Gottschalk, M. (2011). They're Back: The Public Plan, the Reincarnation of Harry and Louise, and the Limits of Obamacare. Journal Of Health Politics, Policy & Law, 36(3), 393-400. doi:10.1215/03616878-1271009
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Public Management and the Prospects of a

Words: 668 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97365202

Public Management and the Prospects of a Personal Career in Government

Public service may be a noble pursuit, but alas, the author of this essay is not suited for it. A career in government, although it may be theoretically altruistic in its benefits to others and the personal rewards it gives a government employee, also has many disadvantages for those whom pursue it as their main course of vocational existence. And many of these theoretical rewards, for both the employee and the worker, are in fact illusory

First of all, from a purely 'knowledge' point-of-view, government careers tend to pay less in real dollar amounts than careers in the private sector. They thus tend to attract less qualified people, in terms of education and accomplishments, to make an admittedly rough but fair statement. Government jobs also tend to select individuals based upon grades on civil service exams or, through grades…… [Read More]

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Public Space The Living Room

Words: 1966 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17604419

The presence of water is also central to the architecture of mosques, albeit for religious more than aesthetic purposes.

Conclusion: Two Squares, Two Cultures

The Place de la Concorde shares more in common with the Maidan-i-Shah than is immediately apparent. The two squares are about the same size: around 8 hectares. Both have been used for multiple purposes and whisper the changes that have taken place within their respective cities. Political and social life has centered on each of these public spaces.

More than a century separates the two squares, as the Maidan-i-Shah in the early seventeenth century and the Place de Louis XV in the mid-eighteenth century. The architecture and intended use of the two squares proves to be radically different. Unlike the Maidan-i-Shah, the Place de la Concorde serves no religious function. The lack of places of worship as part of the city square speaks directly to the…… [Read More]

References

Boyer, M.C. (1996). The City of Collective Memory: Its Historical Imagery and Architectural Entertainments. MIT.

Carmona, M. (2003). Public Spaces, Urban Spaces: The Dimensions of Urban Design. Oxford: Architectural Press.

The Center for Design Excellence (n.d.). Public space. Urban Design. Retrieved online:  http://www.urbandesign.org/publicspace.html 

Craven, J. (n.d.). Public spaces: cities, towns, and landscapes. About.com Guide to Architecture. Retrieved online: http://architecture.about.com/od/urbandesign/u/PublicSpaces.htm
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Public Economy the Percentage of

Words: 970 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12521585



The government of Canada has outstanding debt of approximately $550 billion. To service the debt, it issues bonds. The government has also announced previously that it is committed to fighting inflation. Please explain clearly how government debt management policy can lend credibility to the government's fight against inflation. In doing so, provide a clear explanation of the key differences between indexed and nominal debt.

hen a government wishes to curb inflation, one of the most effective ways to use the monetary supply to do so is to sell securities, in short through the sale of government bonds. By selling government securities, the government takes money or liquid capital out of the economy, and makes it more attractive to save rather than to spend money. Also, selling government bonds can reduce government debt. Reducing government debt is an important goal for any administration because the higher the debt, the less that…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Alfaro, Laura & Fabio Kanczuk. "Nominal vs. Indexed Debt: A Quantitative Horse

Race." Harvard Business School. January 2006. 20 Oct 2007.  http://www.people.hbs.edu/lalfaro/Nominal%20versus%20Indexed%20Debt.pdf 

U.S. Government Spending as a Percentage of GDP." Carried Away. Oct 2003. 20 Oct 2007.  http://carriedaway.blogs.com/carried_away/2003/10/us_government_s.html
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Management Account in the Public Sector and

Words: 2226 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99217837

Management Account in the Public Sector and Management Accounting in the Private Sector: A Comparative Review

The late 20th and early 21st centuries have brought increasing change to almost every country in the world, Australia included. Globalism describes, in fact, the increasing unification of the world through economic means (reduction of trade barriers, support of international trade, and mitigation of export and import quotas). They goal for globalization is to increase material wealth and the distribution of goods and services through a more international division of labor and then, in turn, a process in which regional cultures integrate through communication, transportation and trade. The overall theory is that if countries are tied together cooperatively economically, they will not have needed to become political enemies. Additionally, the idea of globalism and international trade has changed the way Australian's view public and private businesses and the opportunities afforded them because of investment,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Alexander Performance Management, Inc. 2004, Private vs. Public Sector, viewed May 2012, .

Broadbent, J & Laughlin, R 1988, 'Public Private Partnerships: An Introduction', Accounting, Auditing and Accountability Journal, vol 16, no. 3, pp. 332-41.

Financial Accounting Standards Board 2012, Convergence with the International Accounting Standards Board, viewed May 2012, http://www.fasb.org/international/convergence_iasb.shtml.

Funnell, W & Cooper, K 1998, Public Sector Accounting and Accountability in Australia, University of New South Wales Press, Sydney.
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Desecration of Public Education in Urban Settings

Words: 5238 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64030037

Desecration of Public Education in Urban Settings

Desecration of Public Education

Attack on Public Education

Urban Education

Public Education: A Democratic Demand

Government's Interest in Charter Schools

Why Charter System Needs to be Opposed

Division of the Community

Failing Public Schools will Loose Funding to the Charter Schools

Difference between Public and Charter Schools

Innovation

Funding

Choice

Accountability

Educational Philosophy

No Standard Policies

Peer Pressure and Violence

Lack of Extracurricular Activities

Learning Disabilities

Authority and their igid System

Ignorance about Children's Bad Habits

Following measures can be taken to improve public schools

Charter Schools vs. Public Schools

The Basics of Educational Policy: The Pressure for eform in American Education

The Pressure for eform in American Education

Traits of Charter Schools

Why Charter Schools Exist in Urban Settings

Why to Save Public Schools 21

Conclusion 23

eferences 24

Abstract

The purpose of this research paper is to decipher the truth about…… [Read More]

References

Behrman, J.R. (1997). The Social Benefits of Education. London: CIP.

Hassel, B.C. (1999). The Charter School Challenge: Avoiding the Pitfalls, Fulfilling the Promise. Washington: Congress Cataloging.

Lieberman, M. (1993). Public Education: An Autopsy. New York: Congress Cataloging.

Buckley, J., & Buckley, J. (2007). Charter Schools: Hope or Hype? London: Princeton University Press.
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Affect of Lying on Public Administrators

Words: 1609 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38487866

role as a public administrator is usually beset by conflicts. These conflicts, as in all organizations, stem from the vested interests of various individuals with their own agendas meeting personal objectives while working in a public institution. In private companies, performance stems from imperatives to meet fiscal objectives; generating revenue and having the ability to borrow more money to finance new projects. No such natural restraint exists in the public sector, where monetary success elevates one leader while destroying another. One method of getting ahead, in any situation, is to tell blatant lies about another. This is the subject of Lying: Moral Choice in Public and Private Life.

Lying is sometimes appropriate in one's role as a public administrator. This is because the life of a public institution, as well as its funding, depends on political patronage. It is always critical that public administrators maintain that the public institution is…… [Read More]

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Regal Obligations Owed by Private Individuals and

Words: 2559 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10678384

regal obligations owed by private individuals and company can help to protect community from environmental damage, and consider the effectiveness of such a system in preventing future harm.

The research proposal tries to explain how private laws owed by private individuals and companies have being applied in environmental conservation and effectiveness of these laws in terms of being able to prevent any form of environmental threat in the future.

The first section introduces the research topic, then the paper tries to answer the question; whether private law are more inclined towards environmental preservation or not?, After which the research explores more in-depth on private law by considering issues such as; advantages and disadvantages of private law, the difference between public and private law then a case study is given to show how cases involving private law are dealt with in court of law and another alternative case is also given…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Aristides, N., 2002. "The Nature of the Firm." European Journal of Law and Economics 14 (3): 253-263.

Barlow. M., 2009, Blue Covenant: The Global Water Crisis and the Coming Battle for the Right to Water, New York: The New Press.

Boyce, J., & Shelley, B. 2003, Natural Assets: Democratizing Environmental Ownership, Washington, DC: Island Press

Cunningham, W., Mary Cunningham, M., & Saigo.W. 2007,Environmental Science: a Global Concern, McGraw-Hill.
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Managing Out the Public Sector in the Community Australia

Words: 1879 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2106732

Managing Out -- the Public Sector in the Community

Two major economic positions have dominated the public sector for more than a decade. One side believes that the government should take primary responsibility for the welfare of its citizens, while the other contends that greater reliance on the private sector is the method by which an economy can be more effectively managed. The first idea has largely been gleaned from the works of Keynes. He was an economist who believed that government intervention was required to maintain a stable economy and that the state was better equipped to be the central figure in economic management because it has a duty to the citizens which the private sector does not (Pressman, 2011). The counter to this politically liberal position is that of Frederich Hayek. He believed that free markets were the best regulators of the economy ( Griffiths, 2007) and that…… [Read More]

References

Bhatti, Y., Olsen, A.L., & Pedersen, L.H. (2009). The effects of administrative professionals on contracting out. Governance: An International Journal of Policy, Administration, and Institutions, 22(1), 121-137.

Broughton, C., & Chalmers, J. (2001). Reconsidering the revolution? Australian public sector administration in 2000. Australian Journal of Public Administration, 60(1), 81-88.

Caldwell, B. (2011). Hayek on socialism and on the welfare state: A comment on Farrant and McPhail's "Does F.A. Hayek's Road to Serfdom deserve to make a comeback?" Challenge, 54(1), 82-97.

Davis, G., & Wood, T. (1998). Is there a future for contracting in the Australian public sector? Australian Journal of Public Administration, 57(4), 85-97.
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Round School vs A Regular

Words: 10557 Length: 40 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76655571

Students in these kinds of schools do not attend school longer, but they do not have a summer break that is longer than any of the other breaks that they take during the school year.

esearch done by McMillen (2001) indicated that there were 106 schools in the state of North Carolina that operated on the year-round school calendar for third through eighth grades during the 1997-1998 school year. McMillen (2001) then conducted an analysis of the academic achievements of these students and compared them to the academic achievements of students in the same grades that attended schools where the traditional calendar was still used.

Data for the study came from a database of statewide testing in which 95% of the public schools in the state participate. In order to determine the academic achievements of the students, McMillen (2001) looked at achievement test scores and demographic information that was collected…… [Read More]

References. Retrieved April 17, 2008, at  http://www.ericdigests.org 

Painesville City School District. (2008). Year Round Education. Retrieved February 20, 2008, at http://www.painevillecityschools.org

Polite, V.C. (1999). Combating educational neglect in suburbia: African-American males and mathematics. In V.C. Polite & J.E. Davis (Eds.), African-American males in school and society: Practices and policies for effective education (pp. 97-107). New York: Teachers College Press.

Poplin, M., & Weeres, J. (1992). Voices from the inside: A report on schooling from inside the classroom. Claremont, CA: Claremont Graduate School, Institute for Education in Transformation.

Pothering, S.L. (1998). The decision-making processes of higher education undergraduate academic program development in a public liberal arts institution. (Doctoral Dissertation, University of South Caroline, 1998). UMI Dissertation Services.
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Leadership in Public Sector There Has Been

Words: 1348 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71526507

Leadership in Public Sector

here has been a declining public sector performance and a constant stream of complains from the general public. Over the years, there have been attempts to restructure the public sector in a bid to improve the performance and the satisfaction among the public. he main concern is whether the focus on leadership in the public sector, and the HRM in particular can bring noticeable changes to the public sector and improve the outcome and the results that are manifest.

he public sector in America has various challenges that bundled together leads to the general failure of the entire sector. However, these problems all point towards a crippled leadership, however there are remedies to it as shown in the selected annotated bibiographie below.

Government Fleet, (2011). Solutions to the op Challenges Facing Public Sector Fleets.

Retrieved May 5, 2011 from http://www.government-fleet.com/Article/Print/Story/2011/03/Solutions-to-the-op-Challenges-Facing-Public-Sector-Fleets.aspx

Outlines the various challenges that are…… [Read More]

This is a report of the WHO workshop that was held in December 2000 in France to look at ways in which the HRM can contribute positively to the improvement of the Health Care Sector in the entire world. This paper focuses on the capacity building for the HRM leadership and team with a bid to ensuring that the same training can capacity building would lead to a new dispensation of the leadership and skills needed to well and appropriately manage the Health Care sector, which in effect is one of the world's biggest private sectors.

Conclusion

The public sector, just like all other private and NGOs can deliver the services with a lot of efficiency and in a timely manner. The leadership in the various departments of the public sector is very instrumental in the ultimate effective service of the public sector. The public sector is see as a highly multifaceted field that poses a lot of challenges and the leadership that is determined and possesses the positive attributes and follows the stipulated procedures in order to perform and make the public sector a beneficial entity to the Americans in general.
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Alternative Trained Teachers vs Traditional

Words: 1872 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34206920

Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 15(1), 51-64.

Beaudin, B.Q. (1995). Former teachers who return to public schools:

Characteristics of those who return to the classroom. Educational Evaluation & Policy Analysis, 17(1): 462-475.

Guarino, C., SantibaNez, L., Daley, G., & Brewer, D. (2004) a review of the research material on teacher recruitment and retention, Santa Monica, CA: and Publishers

Nakai, D. & Turley, S. (2003). Going the alternate route: Perceptions from non-credentialed teachers. Education, 123(4): 831-46.

Scott, a. & Freeman-Moir, J. (2000) Tomorrow's teachers: International and critical perspectives on teacher education. Christchurch, NZ: Canterbury University Press.

Suell, J.L. & Piotrowski, C. Alternative teacher education programs: A review of the literature and outcome studies, Journal of Instructional Psychology, 34(1), 54.

United States Department of Education (2003) "Meeting the highly qualified teacher challenge," Education Publications Center, U.S. Dept. Of Education.

Zetchner, K.M., & Schulte, a.K. (2001) What we know and don't from peer-…… [Read More]

References

Original sent by customer)

Cohen, Vogel & Smith, (n.d). "Qualifications and Assignments of Alternative Certified Teacher. Cohen-Vogel and Smith," Journal, Vol. 44, pages 732-753

Calderhead, J. & Shorroch, S. The Professional Development of Beginning Teachers,

Merriam, S.A. (2006) Qualitative Research and Case Study Application in Education.
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Actuarial vs Clinical Predictions There Are Several

Words: 1214 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15352387

Actuarial vs. Clinical Predictions

There are several issues of note in the time-honored debate as to whether it is more effective to employs actuarial or clinical predications for the purpose of assessment. On the one hand, it would appear congruent with the job of psychologists to actually perform clinical studies and utilize predictions as such to evaluate various issues of people and of incidents. The principle problem with this approach is that it leaves room for human error, which can overthrow the entire purpose of a clinical study. Conversely, there is little denying the fact that an actuarial "set of rules" (Kaplan, year, p. 554) can oftentimes determine the results of clinical studies without such human error. However, the actuarial approach may possibly be bested by a clinical approach when there is a "variety of sources" (Kaplan, year, p.554) contributing data to clinical predications. Of course, the clinicians would still…… [Read More]

References

Kaplan, R.M. (no date). Psychological assessment and theory creating and using psychological tests. Beverly: Wadsworth Publishing Company.

Suzuki and Ponterotto. (2000). Multicultural assessment. Handbook of Multicultural Assessment. New York: Jossey-Bass.
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For-Profit Education vs Non-Profit Education

Words: 17404 Length: 60 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85288713

NPSAS was the only study in 1996 that encompassed the people who enrolled in the for-profit institutions which is why not even the very basic criteria of the for-profit sector and its educational setup has been well-recognized (reneman, Pusser and Turner 2000; Chung, 2006).

The confirmation that the students who had some sort of shortcoming whether in the financial sector, minority aspect or admittance-timeline factor were the ones who mainly enrolled in the for-profit educational institution was made by Apling and Aleman in a study they conducted in 1990, and Lee and Merisotis in a study they conducted in the same year which were also then matched by Phipps et al. (2000) and JL Associates (2004).

Grubb was the only researcher who, in the year 1993, explored and assessed the influence and affect of the concept of the industrial market proceeds in relation to the non-profit institutions and education. He…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Altheide, D.L., & Johnson, J.M. (1994). Criteria for assessing interpretive validity in qualitative research. In N.K. Denzin & Y.S. Lincoln (Eds.), Handbook of qualitative research (pp. 485-99). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Apling, R. & Aleman, S. (1990). Proprietary schools: a description of institutions and students. (Report No, 90-428EPW). Washington, DC.: Library of Congress, Congressional Research Service.

Apling, R. (1993). Proprietary schools and their students. Journal of Higher Education 64:4, pp. 379-416.

Barone, T.E. (1992). Beyond theory and method: A case of critical storytelling. Theory into Practice, 31(2), 142-146.
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How to Get the Public Sector to Promote Conservationist Tactics

Words: 1575 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67216872

Conservationism vs. Development

Land is a serious subject for the private and public sectors, both of which vie against one another for its control. All over the states, partisans exist who are either pro-conservationism or pro-development. Typically these partisans can be divided into two camps: the pro-business camp which supports development and the conservationists/environmentalists who resist development and promote land preservation. There is no easy resolution for the two disagreeing sides on how to approach the issue; either the land must be protected or it must be developed. However, a solution is possible -- and in many cases it is not just one solution but a number of solutions that work together to effect a compromise. In short, it is up to the public sector to establish rules and regulations stating exactly where the private and public sectors start and stop regarding land usage.

Santos, Watt and Pinceti (2014) show…… [Read More]

References

Eilperrin, J. (2009). Obama signs major land conservation law. Washington Post.

Retrieved from http://voices.washingtonpost.com/44/2009/03/30/obama_signs_major_land_conserv.html

Santos, M., Watt, T., Pinceti, S. (2014). The push and pull of land use policy:

Reconstructing 150 years of development and conservation land acquisition. PLOS One, 9(7): 1-9.
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Efficiency of Nonprofit vs Government

Words: 4548 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46660649



Then, a second major difference resides in the sources used to retrieve the necessary funds. The nonprofit organizations do indeed get the support of the federal budget in the meaning that they are often exempt from tax payment; but they have to raise the funds by themselves without any additional help or interference. They do this through the organization of various events, such as concerts, dinner parties or theatre plays, during which wealthy members of the community donate money to the causes promoted by the NPOs. In the case of governmental institutions however, the funds come directly from the state officials. The money is initially collected from the general public in the form of taxes, fines or other transfers to the state budget, and then redistributed to the state agencies.

A third difference also deals with the financial nature of the organizational activities, but is somewhat different from the previous…… [Read More]

References

Alvarado, E.I., 1998, Is there a Difference between 'Nonprofit' and 'Not-for-profit'?, Idealist, http://www.idealist.org/if/idealist/en/FAQ/QuestionViewer/default?section=01&item=09last accessed on June 19, 2008

Feiock, R.C., Andrew, S.A., Understanding the Relationships Between Nonprofit Organizations and Local Governments, Florida State University, Retrieved at http://www.fsu.edu/~spap/feiock/papers/Nonprofits_&_Public_Services.pdfon June 19, 2008

Frumkin, P., Kim, M.T., 2000, Strategic Positioning and the Financing of Nonprofit Organizations: Is Efficiency Rewarded in the Contributions Markeplace?, the Hauser Center for Nonprofit Organizations and the Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, Retrieved at http://www.ksghauser.harvard.edu/PDF_XLS/workingpapers/workingpaper_2.pdfon June 19, 2008

Hopkins, B.R., 2005, Starting and Managing a Nonprofit Organization: A Legal Guide, Wiley
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Annual Reports vs Strategic Plans

Words: 2562 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1063988

The paradox of strategic planning is that the fact that market and industry conditions often force companies to shorten their &D and strategic plan execution timeframes while the complexity of products and resulting coordination with suppliers, buyers and channel partners increases. This paradox of strategic planning is the pressure to drastically speed up the &D and launch processes while at the same time ensuring the same agility, accuracy and precision of execution over the long-term that more conservatively-based plans required. The outsourcing of new product development in highly competitive industries includes Motorola and relying on Solectron and Flextronics for &D and convergence product development is an example. In order to solve the paradox of strategic planning of long &D cycles accentuated by short product lifecycles, brand marketers in commoditized industries rely on outsourcers as well. Clearly trying to compress the amount of time needed to create new convergence products, outsourcing…… [Read More]

References

Jesper Banghoj, Thomas Plenborg. (2008). Value relevance of voluntary disclosure in the annual report. Accounting and Finance, 48(2), 159. Retrieved July 29, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 1482178641).

Victoria L. Crittenden, William F. Crittenden. (2008). Building a capable organization: The eight levers of strategy implementation. Business Horizons, 51(4), 301. Retrieved July 27, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 1496012171).

Martin Giraudeau (2008). The Drafts of Strategy: Opening up Plans and their Uses. Long-Range Planning, 41(3), 291. Retrieved July 29, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 1490797091).

Udo-Ernst Haner, John Willy Bakke. (2008). Proximity, mobility and aesthetics in strategies for innovation management. International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation Management, 8(2), 168. Retrieved July 26, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 1515564461).
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Today vs 1960 as the

Words: 1959 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67644430

However, since terrorism has finally struck on the soil of powerful nations like the U.S. And their key allies like the U.K., resources and attention have been focused on the eradication of terrorism like never before. Because of this, polarization has taken place among the people of the world as far as the approach that should be taken in response. There are those who feel that the only way to neutralize terrorism is to attack it head-on through armed intervention in the nations that are suspected, right or wrong, of promoting terrorism. Conversely, there are those who feel that diplomacy and negotiation are the path to what is being called "peace in our time."

However one feels the problem of terrorism should be tackled, either alternative comes down once again to the key question of peace and harmony or violence and disruption of the established order in the world, although…… [Read More]

References

Gueron, N.L. (1995). An Idea Whose Time Has Come: A Comparative Procedural History of the Civil Rights Acts of 1960, 1964, and 1991. Yale Law Journal, 104(5), 1201-1234.

Lancaster, P. (2002, October). Poised for Take off? since Gaining Independence from France in 1960, Mauritania Has Been Working to Establish a Better Way of Life for Its Population and a Place on the World Stage. The Middle East 50+.

Williamson, D. (2003). Berlin: The Flash-Point of the Cold War, 1948-1989 David Williamson Explains Why Events in Berlin Twice Threatened to Unleash a Third World War. History Review, (47), 3+.
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Obesity and Public Health

Words: 1033 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81962038

Government Health Initiatives:

Obesity and public health

Given the rise in obesity rates in the United States, prioritizing reducing the prevalence of this illness has become a critical cornerstone of many federal, state, and local health agencies. Because the federal government encompasses the USDA and the FDA which set health and safety standards for the foods consumed in the U.S. As well as offer nutritional guidelines, the federal government can exert a profound influence upon consumption habits. The government has also overseen a number of anti-obesity campaigns. First Lady Michelle Obama's "Let's Move" initiative is perhaps the most notable of these: it focuses on increasing physical activity and improving the diet of America's children. "esearch indicated that kids needed less sugar, salt and fat in their diets, so we revamped school lunch menus accordingly. When data showed that the lack of nearby grocery stores negatively affected people's eating habits, we…… [Read More]

References

Conflict of interest in USDA nutrition guidelines, doctors say. (2011). IBTimes

Retrieved from:  http://www.ibtimes.com/conflict-interest-usda-nutrition-guidelines-doctors-say-364426 

Lohr, K. (2014). Controversy swirls around harsh anti-obesity ads. NPR.

Retrieved from: http://www.npr.org/2012/01/09/144799538/controversy-swirls-around-harsh-anti-obesity-ads
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Male vs Female Is it Harder to

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80808196

Male vs. Female

Is it Harder to Grow Up Male or Female in America?

There is strong evidence that indicates it is no longer a man's world. Women now make up the majority of students in America's colleges and universities in addition to making up the majority of those receiving bachelor and master's degrees. Women are now entering business and law schools in record numbers. Michelle Colin reports that in the United States, women earn 57% of all BA's and 58% of all master's degrees. There are 133 woman getting BA's for every 100 men. By the year 2020 it is projected that there will be 156 women per 100 men earning BA degrees. This paper will examine this phenomenon in light of Title IX of the education amendments of 1972, which opened doors of opportunity for women. (Collin)

Title IX

Title IX of the education amendments of 1972 is…… [Read More]

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Theoretical Applications in Sociology Critical Theory vs

Words: 3169 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88672210

Theoretical Applications in Sociology: Critical Theory vs. Systems Theory

Exciting advances are being made in the development and application of sociological theories to social work practices. Two of the foremost theories are systems theory -- currently undergoing an architectural evolution due to the implications of the chaos and complexity disciplines -- and critical theory, which seeks to change the current systematical frameworks of society for the better. For the purposes of this paper, I will compare and contrast the two theories, highlighting the similarities between them as well as the segments of departure and their practical implications. I will then apply both theories to a single case study in order to show the strengths and weaknesses of each theory in practice.

In "New Directions in Systems Theory: Chaos and Complexity," authors Warren, Franklin and Streeter examine how advances in the chaos and complexity disciplines are instigating an evolution of traditional…… [Read More]

References

Dominell, L. (2003). Anti-Oppressive Social Work Theory & Practice. Publisher's City: Publisher's Name.

Warren, K., Franklin, C. & Streeter, C.L. (1998). New Directions in Systems Theory: Chaos and Complexity. Social Work, 43 (4), 357-372.

**Not sure of all the information for the other sources (Book Title, Publisher, Publisher City ect). Take a look at the following cite for help in completing the reference page: http://www.library.cornell.edu/resrch/citmanage/apa
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Cynicism vs Idealism in Antony

Words: 2246 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78501959

This godlessness might initially be viewed as being cynical. However, when one looks at the social and political climate of Shakespeare's time, and the reality that England was just passing through a conversion from Catholicism to the Anglican church, driven by Henry VIII's desire to divorce and remarry, it might not be accurate to label godlessness in the play as cynical. Perhaps that is the view that Shakespeare is suggesting is idyllic, given the turmoil that organized religion had helped create in his country in recent history. This lack of a clear-cut explanation of the godlessness in the play, and of the playful way in which Cleopatra obliterates any claim Antony might actually have to self-divinity, shows how cynicism and idealism are caught in this cycle.

Nowhere in the play is the cycle of cynicism and idealism more dramatically showcased than in the play's final scenes. Caesar has conquered Egypt…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Fuller, David. "Passion and Politics: Antony and Cleopatra in Performance." Antony and Cleopatra: New Critical Essays. Ed. Sara Muson Deats. New York: Routledge, 2005.

111-136.

Hirsh, James. "Rome and Egypt in Antony and Cleopatra and in Criticism of the Play." Antony

and Cleopatra: New Critical Essays. Ed. Sara Muson Deats. New York: Routledge, 2005. 175-192.
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Private Security vs National Security

Words: 597 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11865206

Private Security

The various factors that influence both the definition and the perception of private security are typically environmental but can be internal and external to the issue of security itself. In most developed nations, the state provides security forces that are paid for by tax payers (local, municipal, state and federal police, and military forces); however, private security forces, typically operated by ex-military officers who bring their training and experience into the private sector to fill gaps in the market where demand cannot be satisfied by state security apparatuses alone, do exist and do operate both in developed and developing nations. Private security contractors like Academi, GRS, and Aegis look like military forces and often work with military forces when political factors require governments to apply to them for assistance (as has been the case with the U.S. government in the Middle East (Elsea) as well as with Middle…… [Read More]

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Public Sexual Female Self --

Words: 2037 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20799990

But even in Pope, there is an intense sense of Eloisa's self-dramatization, as she uses herself as a potent warning to others, in a way that oversteps the conventions that she is merely talking to her former lover:

hen this rebellious heart shall beat no more;

If ever chance two wand'ring lovers brings

To Paraclete's white walls and silver springs,

O'er the pale marble shall they join their heads,

And drink the falling tears each other sheds;

Then sadly say, with mutual pity mov'd,

"Oh may we never love as these have lov'd!"

Eloisa wishes to account for the gap between her unruly inner life and a static monastic life that she professes in order to help herself and others 'do good and avoid evil, for the love of God, requirements that entail an ongoing interior struggle with one's motives, memories and desires' (Hotz 2001:205). Hers is a morality tale…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Haywood, Eliza. Fantomina: or, Love in a Maze. From Secret Histories, Novels, and Poems, by Eliza Haywood (ca.1693-1756). London: Dan Browne and S. Chapman, 1725. III, 2. (2d. Ed.)

Hicks, Stephen. "Eliza Haywood's letter technique in three early novels (1721-27)."

Papers on Language and Literature. Fall 1998.

Hotz, Mary Elizabeth. "Precious to grace: Necessary desolation in Pope's Eloisa to Abelard." Renascence. Spring 2001.
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Public Accountability Work An Assessment

Words: 1991 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12021725

232).

In the final purpose of accountability, where the goal is to enhance the learning capacity and effectiveness of the executive branch, we should realize that what needs to happen in this situation is that public authorities act on feedback about their own performance (Deutsch, 1963; Luhmann, 1966; Behn, 2001 as cited in Bovens et al., 2008). Thus, a good accountability mechanism, from this angle, is one that illustrates how the actor in question is learning and becoming more efficient as a result of the mechanism itself.

eferences

Anechiarico, F. & Jacobs, F.B. (1996). The Pursuit of Absolute Integrity: How Corruption

Control Makes Government Ineffective. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Aucoin, P. & Heintzman, . (2000). "The Dialectics of Accountability for Performance in Public

Management eform." International eview of Administrative Sciences, 66, 45-55.

Arnull, a. And D. Wincott. (2001). Accountability and Legitimacy in the European Union.

Oxford: Oxford University…… [Read More]

References

Anechiarico, F. & Jacobs, F.B. (1996). The Pursuit of Absolute Integrity: How Corruption

Control Makes Government Ineffective. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Aucoin, P. & Heintzman, R. (2000). "The Dialectics of Accountability for Performance in Public

Management Reform." International Review of Administrative Sciences, 66, 45-55.
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Power and Politics Organizational Culture

Words: 2708 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67131637

Team building, group dynamics, talent management, leadership development, and any number of other functional areas are much more about clarity, focus, aligning expectations, and defining roles than creating equality" (Myatt, 2012). In the last twenty years, organizations have come to the realization that the better their employees are at working together, the more successful their organizations will be.

eductions in budgets in the public sector mean that there is an increased pressure for these organizations to deliver more effectively. Team-building is a verifiable way to ensure a greater success at employee cohesion. Private sector organizations have largely realized this, as private sector organizations more frequently enlist the help of outside organizations such as team-building experts to teach and implement effective means of team-building for their workers. Given these trends in team-building, I would want to further explore: what are the immediate benefits of team building? What are the long-term benefits…… [Read More]

References

Cellucci, T. (2008, October). Bridging the Communication Gap. Retrieved from DHS.gov: http://www.dhs.gov/xlibrary/assets/bridging_the_communication_gap.pdf

Dillon, S., Buchannon, J., & Corner, J. (2010, November).Comparing public and private sector decision making: Problem structuring and information quality issues. Retrieved from  https://secure.orsnz.org.nz/conf45/program/Papers/ORSNZ2010_Buchanan.pdf 

Drexel.edu. (2013). 5 Stages of Group Development. Retrieved from Drexel.edu: http://www.drexel.edu/oca/l/tipsheets/Group_Development.pdf

Groeneveld, S., & verbeek, S. (2011). Diversity Policies in Public and Private Sector Organizations. Review of Public Personnel Administration, 353-381.
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Ana Mendieta Rape Scene

Words: 3145 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54958669

As a result, the invited audience was essentially being asked to play the role of the person who is shocked by such a discovery -- and insofar as they knew they were being invited by Mendieta, and probably had basic knowledge of the crime that occurred, they were also being invited to imagine that the victim of such a crime might well have been Mendieta or any other female student on campus. This is interesting insofar as it relates to an observation made by Kwon about Mendieta's early work from this period: Kwon notes that "Mendieta's use of her/the body almost always approached erasure or negation: her 'body' consistently disappeared. This is striking given that most feminist artists during the 1970s vied for visibility and self-affirming expression through figurative, literal, sometimes 'in-your-face' presence. It is curious that Mendieta traced her absence instead."[footnoteRef:5] In "Rape Scene" this is paradoxically true: the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bowers, Nancy. "Spring Break Killer: Murder of Sarah Ann Ottens, 1973." IowaUnsolvedMurders.com, March 2010. Web. Retrieved 24 April 2014 at:  http://www.iowaunsolvedmurders.com/beyond-1965-selected-unsolved-iowa-murders/spring-break-killer-murder-of-sarah-ann-ottens-1973/ 

Butler, Cornelia and Mark, Lisa Gabrielle. WACK!: Art and the Feminist Revolution. Los Angeles: Museum of Contemporary Art and MIT Press, 2007. Print.

Chau, Monica, Feldman, Hannah J.L., Kabat, Jennifer, and Kruse, Hannah. The Subject of Rape: June 23-August 29, 1993. New York: Whitney Museum of American Art, 1993. Print.

Deutsche, Rosalyn. "Breaking Ground: Barbara Kruger's Spatial Practice." In Kruger, Barbara. Thinking of You. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2000. 77-84. Print.
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Vindication of the Rights of

Words: 12319 Length: 40 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94246949

Ross (1988) notes the development of Romanticism in the late eighteenth century and indicates that it was essentially a masculine phenomenon:

Romantic poetizing is not just what women cannot do because they are not expected to; it is also what some men do in order to reconfirm their capacity to influence the world in ways socio-historically determined as masculine. The categories of gender, both in their lives and in their work, help the Romantics establish rites of passage toward poetic identity and toward masculine empowerment. Even when the women themselves are writers, they become anchors for the male poets' own pursuit for masculine self-possession. (Ross, 1988, 29)

Mary ollstonecraft was as famous as a writer in her day as her daughter. Both mother and daughter were important proponents of the rights of women both in their writings and in the way they lived and served as role models for other…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Alexander, Meena. Women in Romanticism. Savage, Maryland: Barnes & Noble, 1989.

Burke, Edmund. Reflections on the Revolution in France. Indianapolis: Hackett, 1987.

Cone, Carl B. Burke and the Nature of Politics. University of Kentucky, 1964.

Conniff, James. "Edmund Burke and His Critics: The Case of Mary Wollstonecraft" Journal of the History of Ideas, Vol. 60, No. 2, (Apr., 1999), 299-318.
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Funding Public School Disparities

Words: 1165 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36300140

Public School Funding

ith reports on the lower standardized test scores among the nation's students, policy makers are once again turning their attention to the issue of education reform. For many educators, one of the culprits behind this is not only the dearth of money spent on public education. Rather, the available funding is disbursed unequally, benefiting the already more affluent school districts.

This paper examines the inequity that exists in funding public school education.

The first part of this paper looks at examples of this unequal funding throughout the country. The next part of the paper then looks at the various reasons for these disparities, from the government level to the lack of public support.

In the conclusion, this paper argues that there remains a strong need to increase public support for education funding, and to re-work the current formula used by states to determine how school funds are…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Brooks, Charles. 2002. "Poor and minority districts get thousands less per student." New York Amsterdam News. August 15.

Jencks, Christopher and Meredith Phillips. 1998. The Black-White Test Score Gap. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution.

McDermott, Kathryn. 1999. Controlling Public Education: Localism vs. Equity. Lawrenc: University Press of Kansas.

Reed, Douglas. 2001. "Not in My Schoolyard: Localism and Public Opposition to Funding Schools Equally." Social Science Quarterly. March.
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Teacher Unions a Very Controversial

Words: 4400 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68900940

Since smaller class size has been shown to positively affect student learning, at least in the early grades, one might also infer that this affects teachers' work positively. Further, researchers have found a positive relationship between collective bargaining and increased preparation time for teachers, which many educators believe is essential for good teaching and collaborative work among colleagues within a school.

Collective Bargaining, Unions and Teacher/Educational Quality

In a March 1999 study of Texas Schools, teacher salaries were shown to have a modest impact on teacher mobility and upon student performance. The authors of the study found that teacher mobility was more affected by the characteristics of the students, including income, achievement and race.

Salaries are also more weakly related to performance on teacher certification tests. This appears to be relevant only in districts where there are high levels of hiring (ibid., 30). The study found that certification tests were…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Driscoll, D., Halcoussis, D., & Svorny, S. (2003). School district size and student performance. Economics of Education Review, 22, 193 -- 201.

Farber, H.S. (2006). "Union membership in the United States: the divergence between the public and private sectors." In J. Hannaway & A.J. Rotherham (Eds.), Collective Bargaining in Education: Negotiating Change in Today's Schools (pp. 27-51). Cambridge, MA: Harvard Educational Pub Group.

Hanushek, E.A., Kain, J.F., & Rivkin, S.G. (1999). Do higher salaries buy better teachers?. In American Economic Association (pp. 1-51). New York, NY: American Economic Association.

Hess, F.M. And Kelly, A.P. (2006). "Scapegoats, albatross or what? The status quo in teacher collective bargaining." In J. Hannaway & A.J. Rotherham (Eds.), Collective Bargaining in Education: Negotiating Change in Today's Schools (pp. 53-61 ). Cambridge, MA: Harvard Educational Pub Group.
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Entrance Proposal -- Strategy Management

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85334292

It is an ongoing process that continuously evaluates and controls the business and looks at the overall goal and how the company is moving towards that goal. It identifies large disconnects and assigns tactical solutions to those issues. It must be the most honest and guiding part of the business because it asks three key success questions: 1) Is it suitable (will it work)? 2) Is it feasible (can it be made to work)? And, 3) Will it be accepted (will they work/use it)? (Johnson, choles and Whittington, 2008).

As there is no best style of leadership in situational leadership, the most effective one is the one that will keep balance between what is task-relevant and the maturity of the individual or group that they are attempting to lead or influence (Hersey and Blanchard, 1977). Being transformational means that the leader must be affecting and influencing followers to excel in…… [Read More]

Strategic management provides the overall direction to the organization and ensures that goals between departments and business units are in line with each other -- consistent with the plan. It is an ongoing process that continuously evaluates and controls the business and looks at the overall goal and how the company is moving towards that goal. It identifies large disconnects and assigns tactical solutions to those issues. It must be the most honest and guiding part of the business because it asks three key success questions: 1) Is it suitable (will it work)? 2) Is it feasible (can it be made to work)? And, 3) Will it be accepted (will they work/use it)? (Johnson, Scholes and Whittington, 2008).

As there is no best style of leadership in situational leadership, the most effective one is the one that will keep balance between what is task-relevant and the maturity of the individual or group that they are attempting to lead or influence (Hersey and Blanchard, 1977). Being transformational means that the leader must be affecting and influencing followers to excel in their effort to attain organizational goals (Robbins & Judge, 2007). These types of leaders fully understand the concerns and improvement needs of employees and said leaders are willing to change the awareness and difficulties of their employees by supporting the later in their problem resolution. These leaders are capable also of leading employees to attain the organizational goals. It is even believed that transformation leaders have the trust of their employees that could move employees' productivity to be more than expected (Hitt, et al., 2007). They therefore can build trust, admiration, loyalty and even respect from their employees.

Clearly, there is a need for new blood in the transformational management field. My past experience in numerous fields has been a perfect multidimensional introduction to advanced studies in the area, and to both
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Change Management in Healthcare Organizations

Words: 16366 Length: 42 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93329389



1.3. Summary of argument, Hypothesis

The role of leadership styles and their applicability to the success or failure of mergers, acquisitions and alliances is the focus of this research. Any leadership study, to be relevant, must also focus on the needs of those served by the organizations studies. That is why in the proposed Change Management Equilibrium Model have customer-driven processes at their center or core. The focus of the research to either validate or refute the model is based on consistency and collaboration as two factors that also serve to create greater levels of integration between the two or more healthcare providers merging or changing their organizational structures to better serve the market. This market orientation is what many public-ally-owned and operated healthcare providers struggle with, as often the source of funding becomes their "customer" or whom they serve (Brinkmann, O'Brien, 2010). Studies by AM esearch for example show…… [Read More]

References

Abbott, R., Ploubidis, G., Huppert, F., Kuh, D., & Croudace, T.. (2010). An Evaluation of the Precision of Measurement of Ryff's Psychological Well-Being Scales in a Population Sample. Social Indicators Research, 97(3), 357-373.

Faten Fahad Al-Mailam. (2004). Transactional vs. Transformational Style of Leadership-Employee Perception of Leadership Efficacy in Public and Private Hospitals in Kuwait. Quality Management in Health Care, 13(4), 278-284.

Antonakis, J., & House, R.J. (2002). The full-range leadership theory: The way forward. In B.J. Avolio & F.J. Yammarino (Eds.) Transformational and Charismatic Leadership, Volume 2, p. 3 -- 33. Boston: JAI Press.

Avolio, B.J., & Yammarino, F.J. (2002). Introduction to, and overview of, transformational and charismatic leadership. In B.J. Avolio & F.J. Yammarino (Eds.) Transformational and Charismatic Leadership, Volume 2, p. xvii -- xxiii. Boston: JAI Press.
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Educational Vouchers

Words: 3125 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34155545

Educational Vouchers: Multiple Issues and Contradictory esults

The Merriman-Webster online dictionary offers three definitions for "voucher": "...a documentary record of a business transaction; a written affidavit or authorization; a form or check indicating a credit against future purchases or expenditures." None of the three even approaches the emotionally charged version of the term "voucher" when it comes to the current debate swirling around public vs. private schools. This paper digs into the "vouchers" - or "scholarships," or "subsidies," if you prefer - provided to families in several cities and states, to move their children from less desirable, academically troubled public schools to more desirable, for-profit private, mainly religious schools.

Long before there was any discussion about vouchers, Horace Mann of Massachusetts - the "Father of American public school education" - was in the vanguard of the movement (1837) to solidify support for quality public education, excellence in teacher training, and…… [Read More]

Reference

ABC News (June 27, 2002). [Online] "Divided Court: Voucher Program Victory http://abcnews.go.com/sections/us/DailyNews/scotus_vouchers020627.html.

American Federation of Teachers (2002). [Online] "Report Reveals Right-Wing Backers of BAEO" "Milwaukee Vouchers Cost Twice the Tuition Amount Charged Non-Voucher Students http://www.aft.org/research/vouchers/.

Friedman Foundation (2002). [Online] "School Choice Works http://www.friedmanfoundation.org/schoolchoiceworks/schoolchoiceresearch.html.

Greene, Jay P. (2002). [Online] "Vouchers in Charlotte" Education Next Magazine http://www.educationnext.org/20012/46greene.html.
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National Broadband Policy and Spectrum

Words: 2179 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56184228

FCC Broadband

The FCC and National Broadband Policy

The Federal Communications Commission was establish in 1934 as a standalone government agency that was created to regulate the communications capabilities of the United States. As part of the agencies charter, there is the provision that the agency maximize the use of the spectrum that is available through competition and innovation. The role of the FCC has evolved over the years with the introduction of new technologies. hereas once the FCC was primarily concerned with voice and radio portions of the spectrum, now the agency must regulate a more complex sphere of communication technologies that include both the landline and wireless network bandwidths.

The FCC is truly a powerful organization with their oversight of the public spectrum. The organization has an objective of ensuring that U.S. population has access to communication technologies as well as the latest innovations in the industry. However,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Acquisti, A. (2004, February). The Economics of Privacy. Retrieved from Heinz School: http://www.heinz.cmu.edu/~acquisti/papers/acquisti_privacy_economics.ppt

Anderson, N. (2010, August 17). Your fears confirmed: "up to" broadband speeds are bogus. Retrieved from ARS Technica:  http://arstechnica.com/tech-policy/2010/08/your-worst-fears-confirmed-real-broadband-speeds-half-of-whats-advertised/ 

Atkins, R. (2007, June). The Case for a National Broadband Policy. Retrieved from The Information Technology and Innovation Foundation:  http://www.itif.org/files/CaseForNationalBroadbandPolicy.pdf 

Economics and Statistics Administration. (2010, November). Exploring the Digital Nation. Retrieved from U.S. Department of Commerce: http://www.ntia.doc.gov/files/ntia/publications/esa_ntia_us_broadband_adoption_report_11082010_1.pdf
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Negative Externalities of Education the Externalities of

Words: 620 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76446028

Negative Externalities of Education

The externalities of education are the social and public rewards or incentives that emanate from a person's education that help members of the society within the current and future generations. Positive externalities are regarded as the spillover effects whereas negative externalities are external costs. While education has largely been identified with positive externalities since it generates external returns for the society, it also has negative externalities. The negative externalities form the basis with which the adoption of private schooling systems is endorsed rather than public schooling systems.

Negative Externalities of Education:

Some of the evident negative externalities of education that take place in several ways include the following

More Individual Benefits:

One of the major negative externality of education is that the individual acquiring education accrues more benefits that the society. Consequently, the societal benefits of are pretty small as compared to those that the individual…… [Read More]

References:

Baum, S. & McPherson, M. (2011, January 18). Is Education a Public Good or a Private Good?

Retrieved February 11, 2012, from  http://chronicle.com/blogs/innovations/is-education-a-public-good-or-a-private-good/28329 

Kling, A. (2008, August 27). Public Goods, Externalities, and Education. Retrieved February 11,

2012, from  http://econlog.econlib.org/archives/2008/08/public_goods_ex.html#
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Obstacles of Organizational Development Theorists

Words: 721 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45404834

What unique challenges if any do OD practitioners face when dealing with a public sector intervention rather than a private sector one? Explain thoroughly.

Certain concepts of organizational development are common to all organizations, such as the idea that people function differently in groups and the need to motivate individuals to perform their essential organizational functions with transformational as well as purely transactional rewards. But not all organizations are created alike. It is important for organizational development (OD) practitioners to keep this in mind when assisting organizations in the public versus private sector. Public sector entities are not constructed to make a profit but, as their name suggests, exist to serve the needs of the public. They have different accountability structures and often have very different organizational cultures.

In fact, according to Stupak & Moore (1987), one of the first challenges of any organizational development practitioner dealing with a public…… [Read More]

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Gender Dynamics in Educ Org

Words: 1088 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45235201

Of the 19 students attending that day (gender breakdown was nine boys and ten girls) the boys asked questions 9 times and answered questions (those of the teacher and/or classmates) 13 times. By comparison, the girls asked questions 4 times, and answered questions 5 times. Then, when the students split into groups toward the end of the class to check each other's previous work, the groups were split along gender lines. The focus of the students, and the atmosphere of the class overall, was more diffuse than those of either of the other two classes. One interesting thing I noticed during this small group work (which could perhaps also have a bearing on the findings of Datnow et al.) was that in these groups, the now gender-segregated girls asked for teacher help with and clarification of the task at hand a great deal more than did the boys, in their…… [Read More]

Reference

Datnow, a. et al. (April 2001). How context mediates policy: The implementation of single gender public schooling in California. Teachers college record, 103(2). 184-206.
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Gay Couple Walks Hand-In-Hand Across Campus A

Words: 1906 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55860857

gay couple walks hand-in-hand across campus. A man driving by in a car sees them and shouts, "Fags!" A black student is working late at a local coffee shop. A professor from one of her classes comes in and tries to order a meal. She explains that the coffee shop is closing. He insists, becomes more and more upset until he calls her a "*****" and a "nigger" and stalks away.

Both the gay couple and the young woman have been subjected to extreme verbal abuse. But should the people who said these hateful things be punished? According to Thomas Grey's article, "Civil Rights vs. Civil Liberties: The Case of Discriminatory Verbal Harassment," whether or not the speakers should pay a price for their words depends on whether one adopts a civil liberties point-of-view or a civil rights point-of-view.

The civil liberties point-of-view holds that the speakers, though undeniably obnoxious,…… [Read More]

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Long Island

Words: 1197 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69381099

Verrazano-Narrows Bridge

Upon it's grand opening in 1964, Gay Talese of the New York Times had this to say about one of Robert Moses' most ambitious projects, the Verrazano-Narrows Bridge, "The sun shone, the sky was cloudless; bands played, cannons echoed up and down the harbor, flags waved, and thousands of motorists yesterday became part of the first -- and perhaps only-- blissful traffic jam on the Verrazano-Narrows Bridge" (Talese). Aside from the humorous traffic jam comment, this picturesque account of the opening of the world's largest suspension bridge (for its time) seems very auspicious (MTA metro). That is to say, one gets a sense that this bridge was conceived and constructed without a glitch, without a sense of trepidation, and with the full support and cooperation of neighboring communities. However, a close examination of history and the facts suggest that although the Verrazano-Narrows Bridge serves the greater public good,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

"Verrazano-Narrows Bridge." MTAinfo.com. n.d. Web. 04 July 2011.

Talese, Gay. "Verrazano Bridge Opened to Traffic." New York Times. 22 Nov. 1964

Web. 04 July 2011.

Reier, Sharon. The Bridges of New York. New York: Dover Publications, 2000. Print.
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Outsourcing Corrections Facilities

Words: 1966 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65070197

industrialized nation in the world has a higher percentage of its population residing in its prison than the United States (Liptak). This fact has witnessed a corresponding increase in the cost of housing and caring for the incarcerated which has correspondingly raised the public concerns for these costs. This combination has spurred conversation relative to how to address both issues and one of the methods suggested is the possible privatization of the corrections system.

The advantages and disadvantages of privatization have been debated for years and many view privatization as new and unique method for managing the corrections system; however, privatization has a long history in the United States (Perrone). Private management of prisons has been attempted at several points in America's history but was actually abandoned during the early years of the twentieth century. One of the primary reasons for its being abandoned was the Convict Leasing System that…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Liptak, Adam. "U.S. prison population dwarfs that of other nations." New York Times 23 April 2008: A1.

Morris, John C. "Government and Market Pathologies of Privatization: The Case of Prison Privatization." Politics & Policy (2007): 318-341.

Nicholson-Crotty, Sean. "The Politics and Adminstration of Privatization: Contracting Out for Corrections Management in the United States." Policy Studies Journal (2004): 41-57.

Perrone, Dina. "Comparing the Quality of Confinement and Cost-Effectiveness of Public vs. Private Prisons: What We Know, Why We Do Not Know More, and Where to Go From Here." The Prison Journal (2003): 301-322.
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Domestic Violence in Pregnancy and

Words: 6040 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3380201

In light of the evidence in this literature review then it is of great import that monitoring of the health of pregnant women is vital in reference to LW infants not only in the sense of present terms but as well to lifelong health considerations for the LW infant which is probably why stated further is: "Given the relative neglect that mothers and newborns have suffered, their centrality to the Millennium Development Goals, and the cost-effectiveness of maternal and newborn health interventions, a greater emphasis on safe motherhood and newborn health is clearly needed within many health sectors." (JHPIEGO, 2003)

Literature Review

Stated in the publication "Shaping Policy for Maternal and Newborn Health: A Compendium of Case Studies (2003) is that: "The health of a newborn is inextricably linked to the health of the mother; the majority of newborn deaths are caused by the poor health of the mother during…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Krieger N. & Smith, G.(2004) Bodies County and body counts: Epidemiology and embodying inequality. Epidemiological Review Journal 200:26:92-103

Coker, AL et al. (2004) Partner Violence During Pregnancy and Risk of Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes. Pediatrics Perinatal Epidemiology 2004 Jul; 18 (4): 260-9. University of Texas School of Public Health.

Bohn, D.K. et al. (2004) Influences of Income, Education, Age, and Ethnicity on Physical Abuse before and During Pregnancy. Journal Obstetrics Gynecology Neonatal Nursing 2004 Sep-Oct; 33(5): 561-71.

Salihu, Boy a. (2004) Intimate Partner Violence and Birth Outcomes: A Systematic Review International Journal of Fertility Women's Medicine 2004 Jul-Aug; 49(4): 159-64. Department of Maternal and Child Health, School of Public Health, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Alabama.
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Issues in Corrections

Words: 867 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3352346

Corrections:

One of the most significant issues in correctional management is the effectiveness of juvenile correctional facilities. Generally, juvenile correctional facilities were established to provide effective treatment and rehabilitation of juveniles. In the past few years, the ability of these facilities to achieve their primary objective has been an issue of major concern to correctional administrators and management. Actually, correctional administrators currently agree that effective treatment and rehabilitation of juveniles will not be achievable in an environment that does not guarantee the security and safety of juveniles being served. As a major issue in correctional management and administration, the importance of this issue has been the subject of increased study by various researchers. Examples of these research initiatives include studies by Darryl Olson and Michael Baglivio as well as Patrick Bayer and David E. Pozen's work.

The esearches:

esearch work by Patrick Bayer and David E. Pozen focuses on examining…… [Read More]

Reference:

Bayer, P. & Pozen, D.E. (2004, November). The Effectiveness of Juvenile Correctional

Facilities: Public vs. Private Management. Journal of Law & Economics, 48(2), 549-589. Retrieved from  http://www.econ.yale.edu/growth_pdf/cdp863.pdf 

Olson, D. & Baglivio, M. (2013, February/March). Creating a Safe Residential Environment for Juvenile Offenders: The Florida Experience. Corrections Today, 75(1), 64-67.