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Basket of Goods the PPP exchange rate calculations are also controversial because of the difficulties involved in finding comparable 'baskets of goods' to compare purchasing power across countries. People in different countries typically consume different baskets of goods; assign varying priorities to different goods; and even the goods available for purchase may differ across countries. Moreover, what is considered a luxury in one culture could be considered a necessity in another. The PPP exchange rate would consequently vary greatly depending on the choice of goods used for the index and makes it vulnerable to errors due to a deliberate or accidental bias in calculations by the choice of a differing bundle.
Quality of Goods: While comparing the prices of goods in different countries for the purpose of calculating PPP, the quality of goods is not taken into account. For instance, a hat is considered to be just a hat…… [Read More]
If the average person has two sets of clothes in one society and thirty in another, then the parity of price of clothes is hard to assess. It certainly cannot be assessed in terms of the cost alone or the number of outfits that a person "should" have (Taylor & Taylor, 2004). It might be set at the percentage of annual wages that a person spends on clothing, but even this can be very approximate because of different ideas of what constitutes a sufficient amount of a particular type of good needed for a satisfactory life.
To compensate for the fact that goods can and usually do have different values even when they have the same costs in different countries, economists can use a "relative" version of purchasing power parity in which no absolute value is attempted between certain goods or groups of goods and the only thing that is…… [Read More]
The policy prescription for the classical economist will not be to adjust inflation in order to deal with unemployment. In the short run, the classical economist may view that the Phillips Curve holds, but only until the point where workers become informed, at which point they would demand an increase in real wages. In today's information-rich economy, this time lag would be small to the point where a classical economist would not view inflation as a means to dealing with unemployment.
Keynesians believe that the Phillips Curve does hold and therefore government can trade inflation for unemployment. Setting interest rates low for high inflation will create economic expansion which in turn will reduce unemployment. The Keynesian would therefore adjust interest rates in order to deal with unemployment.
10. The real interest rate is 25% at equilibrium. The real exchange rate is 170. Consumption will be 700. Investment will be 125.…… [Read More]
purchasing power parity (PPP) states that the exchange rate between two currencies is related to the relative prices in the two countries so that exchange rate-adjusted prices will be equal between the two countries (Norrbin, and Conover).
(Dryden, Reut, and Slater) further stated that, as purchasing power parities (PPP's) are nothing more than interspatial price indexes (by analogy with the inter-temporal price indexes such as consumer price indexes), the methodology, and theory underlying their calculation are identical to those of index numbers that are more familiar. Just as consumer price indexes can be used to compare purchasing power in the same place at different times, PPP's compare purchasing power in different places at the same time.
Consequently, a system of purchasing power parities was developed to reflect the rate at which one currency could be converted to another to purchase equivalent goods and services in both countries. This system not…… [Read More]
Purchasing Power Parity
Purchasing Power Parity (PPP), also known as the law of one price, operates under the assumption that product prices in one country translate into an equal price in another country. The price similarity assumption is used to gauge currency exchange rate pressures. If the law of one price is assumed, then the premise establishes that the relational value of currencies must converge to equilibrium. The equation expresses that any inequality creates an arbitrage opportunity until equilibrium returns.
At best, the PPP is a rudimentary tool for long-term pricing pressures, however the simplicity of the equation is part of its shortcoming. Annual price level comparisons by The Economist illustrate that even the most uniform of products, for example the McDonald's Big Mac, provides little proof for the reliability of the PPP. Comparing the 2010 to 2012 Big Mac Index illustrates that none of the countries compared…… [Read More]
Global Imbalances in Trade and Purchasing Price Parity: Evidence From esearch and Current Trends
The recent global economic collapse threw into sharp relief the degree to which the world's economies are inextricably linked and co-dependent. A failure in one major economy will automatically and almost instantly have a negative effect on the other major economies of the world, and these effects trickle down in a substantial stream to all but the most isolated nations, and some shocks are even felt here (North Korea is an excellent example). One of the features of the current global economic situation that was arguably a prime contributor to the widespread and extreme nature of the recent recession is the imbalance that exists in trade relationships. These imbalances will be identified and further explored herein.
Global Imbalances: Current Trends and Potentials
One of the trade relationships most often cited in analyses of global imbalances is…… [Read More]
The important point is that there are various processes necessary to creating the product or service, but that not all of them add value. In the case of the piano manufacturer, the raw materials are a significant part of what creates value for the organization, since the quality of the raw materials determines the quality of the final product. In the case of the house-washing service, the materials needed are consumables and while they are necessary, they are not critical in creating value for the organization. These differences mean that purchasing is more important to the piano manufacturer than to the house-washing service. A difference in purchasing will also occur because the quality of the raw materials is significant for the piano manufacturer. Schermerhorn (1989, p. 498) notes that "quality comes from defect prevention, not defect correction." For the piano manufacturer, purchasing would be likely to involve demanding a certain…… [Read More]
Purchasing and Supply Chain Management: Apple
Apple Inc. (previously Apple Computer, Inc.) is one of the largest American multinational companies that designs and markets consumer electronics, computer software and personal computers. The company began in the business of personal computers but has expanded into a giant of global reach (lLinzmayer 1999). Currently, they are best known for McIntosh computers, the iPod, iPhone, and iPad. They are the proprietors of the Mac OS X operating system and the iTunes media browser. They offer the iLife suite of multimedia and creativity software, iWork productivity software, and Aperture for professional photographers. Their current list of offerings is extensive and includes other applications for specific industries or uses.
Apple's current distribution system includes a chain of their own retail stores in ten different countries around the globe. They also have an online store where they hardware and software products are sold. Apple's major competition…… [Read More]
The crux of this challenge however is the distribution and fulfillment system, an area Amazon.com for example had streamlined for low-quantity orders before ever launching their website and online store. This equates to what Elberse and Oberholzer-Gee (2006) mention as the ability of online retailers to in effect feed the creation of long-tail markets by representing thousands of products online and fulfilling them through synchronized order management and supply chain systems.
According to Newman (2005) the network centricity of the Power Law is a contributing factor to its efficiency. From the standpoint of online retailers, this network effect is illustrated by the level of supply chain integration, synchronization, and the use of real-time shared data to create stronger hub-like efficiencies within a Power Law-dominated industry. One assumption and area of future research is in the definition of velocities of information throughout a Power Law network. Figure 2 shows a graphical…… [Read More]
eviromental analysis, Porters powers SWOT analysis sbout a project . My project open a retailing medical company buys locally import medical surgical consumables . The company manufacture prodect, copmany import consumables saudi arabia resell local market, Also company buy medical surgical items local market bulk quantities factories resell .
Medic etailers is intended to be a large organization that will deal in the sale of medical supplies to consumers in Saudi Arabia. Indeed, doing business in the medical field is usually intensely involving given that the area is extremely regulated in order to ensure that standards are kept high. Similarly, the regulatory authorities are generally ultra-fast in closing down any businesses. Nevertheless, Medic etailers intend to come up with a precise elucidative process that will ensure high levels of hygiene and efficiency in its operations. The business will be about the importation of medical and surgical equipment from foreign countries…… [Read More]
Unfortunately many aspects of modern American society threaten individual liberties. For example, the disparity between the rich and the poor in American society impacts the level of freedom enjoyed by certain segments of the population. The "freedom" to pay workers a pittance in order to increase profits in a large corporation is therefore not really a "freedom" at all. Therefore, it is up to the government and to the people who support it to ensure that the rights and freedoms of all persons are preserved. Similarly, when religious institutions hope to influence public policy, they inadvertently infringe on the rights and freedoms of the American people. Even if well-meaning, religious institutions cannot bind people in a free society to do what they do or believe what they believe. Morals are a reflection of common sense and education, not of specific religious values. Therefore, the government cannot bend its legislation to…… [Read More]
Power critical understanding difficulties managers confront seeking manage change'. Discuss. This undergraduate Essay (Level III) If resources reading list I
Power is critical to understanding the difficulties managers confront when seeking to manage change
Long gone are the times when firms would operate solely to generate profits and this represented their stated mission. Today, economic agents across the globe peg their success not only to financial results, but also to their ability to serve the various needs of the multiple stakeholder categories. In other words, while the final objective is that of registering profits, the aim is attained through a combination of strategic efforts targeted at serving the stakeholders.
For instance, the employees are the most valuable organizational assets and they are treated as such. The customers are not the forces purchasing whatever the company produces, but they represent the force telling the company what to produce. The technologic community…… [Read More]
Materials Cost Policy and eduction of Materials Costs
McDonalds seeks to improve the cost of its materials through two different means. The first is that the company uses its bargaining power to get the best prices of suppliers Typically, this means that the suppliers are very large scale operations and provide goods for a large region. Switching from buns to baguettes for the French market would jeopardize some of that scale, because the baguettes would only be produced for the French market, whereas buns might be produced from half of Europe. Where the company can drive down food costs, this can affect the bottom line (Baertlein & Klayman, 2009).
McDonalds also controls materials costs by managing its inventories carefully. The company seeks to minimize waste while maintaining adequate supplies to meet customer needs. Goods are only delivered 3-5 times per week, and this includes bread products. There is…… [Read More]
Brand Equity and Customer Purchasing Behavior
Taking into account the numerous modifications witnessed in the marketing milieu- viz. The accessibility to plethora of knowledge through various electronic devices, the emergence of modern methods of buying, the ability of the companies to use technology to target consumer more specifically, getting a feel of customer tendencies is still more difficult. Purchasing activities is the sequence of choice and actions of individuals occupied in procuring and consuming the same. An enterprise must evaluate its purchasing activities. Purchaser's responses to the marketing technique of the enterprise put an enormous influence on the achievement of the enterprise. The marketing perception highlights that an enterprise must build up a unique blend of marketing initiatives that makes the customers happy, and hence the urgency to evaluate the substance, the place, the time and the purchasing pattern of consumers and by way of addressing this, marketing personnel can…… [Read More]
Internet e-Systems to Support Purchasing Supply Chain Management Activities
Although the fundamental goals of effective supply chain management have not changed in recent years, companies of all types and sizes now have the ability to streamline their supply chain management activities in general and their purchasing function in particular through the use of Internet-based e-systems. Such e-systems include corporate intranets and business-to-business exchanges that can satisfy the entire spectrum of supply chain management needs in more efficient and cost-effective ways. To gain some further insights into recent and current trends in the use of Internet e-systems to support purchasing supply chain management activities, this paper provides a review of the relevant literature, followed by a summary of the research and important findings in the conclusion.
eview and Discussion
Innovations in telecommunications and transportation have profoundly affected the manner in which companies go about achieving their organizational goals. For instance, according…… [Read More]
Also, gay characters have slowly become more prominent both on TV and in the movies.
In the 1990s, producers gave up on feeling that they had to challenge gender representations as models of masculinity and femininity had become less offensive and clearly defined. We can, for instance, refer to the hit sit-com Friends which presented three male characters, Ross, Chandler and Joey whose masculinity was placed within conventional models of masculinity without excluding qualities such as gentleness and sensitivity. imilarly, the female characters were clearly feminine but sufficiently intelligent in order to escape the housewife cliche. Furthermore, the context of the show was relatively innovative as the six main characters were linked by friendship as opposed to the more traditional family circle which had dominated the previous two decades. The model of equal genders appears in many shows from the 1990s onwards (Gauntlett 61).
Race is depicted in the media…… [Read More]
My organization has a fairly high commitment to VBP, and I believe that with a plan it can become even more engaged with VBP over the course of the next three years. While one might naturally think that those who deliver medical services are the most important – they are very important – I would like to key in on the roles that the Finance, Purchasing and IT departments play in achieving the balance between high quality service delivery and cost control. By engaging all of the relevant stakeholders, and making VBP a central focus on the basis, with consistent messaging over the course of the three years, it is believed that we can set and achieve some fairly aggressive goals with respect to meeting VBP objectives.
All three of the departments will need to prepare by taking the time to review how the VBP program…… [Read More]
These agents must sustain profitably and prove, economically and logistically why innovative "green" supply chains are realistically more effective than the status quo of historical procurement. Continuing education in both formal and informal fashions must be developed to increase the efficacy of the procurement agent, with regard to "green" purchasing. Changing both large and small organization patterns for procurement can eventually trickle down to even the most uncaring consumers, of which there is a dwindling number. Sroufe, provides a list of environmental performance indicators which have become increasingly important and recognizable issues in today's production society.
2006, p.15) ii) the business reasons for "greener purchasing"
There are literally hundreds of reasons for the development of sustainable business practices, not the least of which is ensuring the long-term existence of the business and production needs.
Among those that are most important are the following:
Sustainable production: Purchasing "green" enhances sustainable production…… [Read More]
Gun Trafficking and Straw Purchasing
Traffic Jam: Straw Runners' Complicity
Rational choice theory is the theory of criminal behavior that posits that when people commit illicit acts, they generally tend to do so while considering their own self-interest. This theorem posits that criminals are well aware of the illegality of that which they are contemplating, and that they take into account a number of factors before first pursuing these actions. Such factors generally include what sort of benefits they will incur (as well as to what degree they will profit) from criminal behavior, which is typically weighed against the likelihood of their getting caught. Furthermore, this theory contends that people who commit crime also are cognizant of the nature and the degree of the punishment they may induce if they are apprehended for committing a crime. In view of all of these factors, when people decide to still commit a…… [Read More]
History Naval Warfare
What was naval power in the age of sail and how did different sea going states exercise it from the period 1650-1850?
"There is a deep landlubber bias in historical and social research," writes Charles King. "History and social life, we seem to think, happen on the ground. What happens on the water…is just the scene-setter for the real action when the actors get where they are going. ut oceans, seas, and rivers have a history of their own, not merely as highways or boundaries but as central players in distinct stories of human interaction and exchange." Current essay is an exploration of the naval power and sea command during the period of the age of sail (1650-1850). The author has mentioned the war history and war strategies of major navies and sailors during this era. The author has also discussed how different sea going states exercise…… [Read More]
Throughout American history the power of the federal government in comparison with the states has been continually debated. This is because there is a principal known as the separation of powers. In the Constitution, this is reserving certain areas of authority for the federal and state governments. The problem is that many of these powers can often come into conflict with one another on a regular basis. As the Constitution, will provide some basic guidelines, but it will not address specific areas. To account for this, the courts are relying on individual interpretations and case precedent. This creates conflicting areas of authority, based upon the general powers that are given to the states and federal government. (Bonnie)
In the case of the federal government, this kind of conflict occurred in 1984 with the passage of the National Minimum Drinking Age Act. This law encouraged the states to raise the…… [Read More]
A teenager relates with another teenager, member of the same social framework (be it group of friends, school, etc.), partially through the products he or she uses. Many of these need to be the latest style and embody not necessarily a social status, but a sense of style. At the same time, many of these are products that are used in the household, such as the car that the family drives or the electronics used.
This type of approach also has an important aspect to be considered in the marketing segment: the lifecycle of the product is much shorter than for other products and for other periods of time. ecause of this trend imposed by teenagers to be continuously in style, as well as by certain characteristics of a teenager that are reflected in the purchasing behavior (such as the fact, for example, that a teenager will tend to get…… [Read More]
Fo instance, appoximately 33 pe cent of Thailand's wate souces ae categoized as having poo quality and the phenomenon is consideed a seious envionment poblem. Moeove, Thailand is anked among the last Asian counties based on amounts of fesh wate available pe capita (WWF, 2010).
In this context, the Thai govenment and the Thai people have commenced to pay moe attention to the effect of the envionmental poblems, as well as to the adjacent economics of the poblem. People make an effot to buy poducts which ae envionmentally hamless and, though them, to minimize the negative envionmental implications of consumption. A fist effot in this diection was the intoduction of the Thai Geen Label Scheme in 1993 and its fomal launch one yea late (Geen Label Thailand, 2010). In shot, the scheme suppots the development of the geen poducts secto by intoducing infomation fo consumes and standads fo businesses. Moe…… [Read More]
In 2004, FASB (Financial Accounting Standards Board) issued a draft meant to provide guidelines of how entities should estimate fair value prices for reporting purposes.
Escape clause - is a part in any contract that specifies the conditions in which one or more parties involved in the contract may avoid performing its duties as specified in the contract.
14. The import substitution is a policy through which countries decide to substitute some of the imported products with others manufactured locally. The advantage of this policy is the import limitation, which in some instances may turn out to be positive for the trade balance and national value-added creation. The disadvantage is that national products lose export competitiveness because they are protected by the state. The export promotion is a policy through which countries decide to develop measures meant to increase the exports of national products. The advantage of this policy is…… [Read More]
[Hector de Leon] Also, in the more recent presidential primary elections, Hispanics voted Miss Clinton to victory in Ohio by a two-thirds margin while Obama was victorious in the Hispanic dominated Chicago wards. [Russ Stewart] So political parties could no longer take Hispanic votes for granted or ignore the Latino population especially when they are going to constitute a quarter of the American population by 2030. [Jennifer Hunter] the growing purchasing power of Hispanics is already finding big corporate support for their increasing political participation with a long list of blue chip companies already sponsoring the 'National Association of Latino Elected and Appointed Officials' (NALEO) [usiness wire]
With huge corporations being the financial backbone of political parties, it is all the more a vested interest of businesses and political parties that the Hispanics are duly represented in the oards of all the public corporations. If the phenomenal growth projections…… [Read More]
This means that the investor might lose part of his investment because the currency his investment was in devalued over the period of time as regards to the currency he will eventually change the money into.
In order to avoid such a risk (or to minimize the risk) or to increase the profits, the investor is likely to use covered interest arbitrage. When the investor purchases a financial instrument in a foreign currency, he will sell, at the same time, a forward contract in an estimated amount, which would change the foreign currency back into the reference currency at the time the operations are completed (over the respective timeframe). The investor will either see the initial investment protected against currency risks or the profits from the investment will actually increase.
5. The link between the inflation and exchange rates comes from the definition of the purchasing power parity theory, according…… [Read More]
Supply Demand Simulation
Macro and Microeconomic Principles
From the simulation, the two major microeconomic principles are supply and demand. The simulation majorly focuses on the supply and demand of rental properties in Atlantis. In addition, the influences on supply and demand form the major topic discussed in the simulation. The macroeconomic factors clearly stated in the simulation are changes in the population trend, choosing to rent or buy apartments and factors that directly influence these changes. Colander (2010), states that the quantity demanded always increases with falling prices and quantity supplied reduces with receding market prices (Colander, 2004). The company's supply is almost 2,000 apartments; the company speculates at reducing the vacancy rates to 15% to increase demand, a clear applicability of the demand law.
Demand and Supply Shifts
The availability of rental apartments, demand for rentals, number of potential renters and the pricing are the common factors that affect…… [Read More]
A McDonald's hamburger in the United tates and in the United Kingdom for example is to be sold within the same price range when the exchange rate is calculated. McDonald's has had a large amount of success in its global expansion. The reasons for this comprise a number of factors, one of which is the perceived value to the purchaser. In all countries where McDonald's is sold, the customer perceives the value of food purchased for a certain price as economically viable. The food is of the same quality and portion size globally. This kind of stability is valued by the customer.
Possible short-term problems for McDonald's relate to the daily changes in foreign exchange rates. It is hardly practicable to change prices on a daily basis. Customers have come to expect stability from the company, especially in terms of price, which makes maintaining PPP a challenge. This problem is…… [Read More]
S. production value. Exports account for approximately half this amount (Binnquist, Lopez, and Shanley). Figure 2 portrays three views of bamboo. One: A bamboo forrest; Two: A bamboos shoot; Three: A bamboo grove walkway.
Figure 2: Three Views of Bamboo (adapted from Stickman).
As bamboo production levels have risen, the amounts of raw materials needed to facilitate the production have simultaneously increased. The bamboo industry in Anji predominantly harvests bamboo from plantations, as it primarily grows a fast growing and easily cultivated, bamboo species, locally known as "maozhu" or "moso bamboo" (phyllostachys heterocycla) (Binnquist, Lopez, and Shanley). .
Currently in Anji, the cultivation of moso bamboo encompasses 60% of the forest area, with the percentage rising as plantations expand. Along with the hefty production of bamboo, the intense cultivation bamboo industry uses mammoth amounts of fertilizers and pesticides; which contributes to negative environmental effects. In reference to the bamboo production…… [Read More]
deviations from purchasing power parity for countries' competitive positions in the world markets?
Per a Wisconsin University study, there are two major effects. The first is a "real barriers" effect and the other is a sticky-consumer-price issue. The first of those two can cause deadweight welfare losses. However, that could be counteracted by fixed exchange rates. However, this can be flummoxed by a lack of pass-through along the entire market due to breakdowns in passing along the price fixation. Also important to keep in mind is that deviations can be both regional within one country or international between a number of countries. However, fixed exchange rates are often eschewed in favor of a floating one as even though there will be more efficiency in some ways, new issues will be created due to the artificial influence exerted on the market. A country deviating from its PPP levels and speclaizations can…… [Read More]
. This measure led to the creation of the country's financial power and allowed the peasantry to work in the urban sectors.
Therefore, the productivity growth, the great behavior of the workforce, the low salaries, the good education, and maybe most important of all, the hard work and social peace have lead to the occurrence of another Asian Tiger. "In the 80's, Taiwan had become an economic power with a mature and diversified economy, solid presence in international markets and huge Foreign exchange reserves." Its companies diversified their activities and started to export their products, especially in China and United States. The higher salaries, a better organization and the reduction of the exports quotas allowed these companies to move their production to China and Southeast Asia as well. The civil society started to fight for democracy, and the first step to adopt this regime was done through the arrival of…… [Read More]
U.S. based company concerned earthquake, tsunami nuclear power plant accident occurs Japan? 2. With rapid technology, boundaries industries redefined. What industry company Google ? Who Google's main competitors today competition ? 1 page 1 Reference Case 9: Panera read Company 2012 - Pursuing Growth a Weak Economy, Arthur A. Sources
First of all, all companies today operate in a global business environment, where local influences are often felt and have repercussions worldwide. In this specific case, there are several reasons why the American company should be concerned with such an event. It has a significant impact on the Japanese market, lowering the purchasing power of existing and potential customers.
At the same time, there are potential negative effects on the political and economic system in Japan. The government will need to invest in the saving operations, which will likely impact the budget and lower the chances that Japan can offer…… [Read More]
Technology and Social Change
The Industrial evolution completely changed the way that human beings live and work. Before the Industrial evolution, society was dominated by agrarian economies. The Industrial evolution created a new way of life in which an increasingly large percentage of the population either owned or worked in factories involved in mass production. Populations became increasingly concentrated in urban areas; fewer people worked on farms or owned farms. Instead of making their own goods and services, people now bought the majority of the items they needed in stores.
The current Knowledge evolution is technologically driven, just like the Industrial evolution. It is fueled by the Internet and radically expanded accessibility of information to everyone who has an Internet connection. In some ways, like the Industrial evolution, it is extremely democratic -- just as many people made their fortune through capitalism, the knowledge economy of World Wide Web has…… [Read More]
a) As the AUD is gaining value (buying power) and the EUR is losing value over time, June is in an excellent position with her European suppliers granting her a 60-day credit period and her Australian customers paying on 30-day credit terms: the AUD she receives in payment within 30 days will be worth more in EUR 30 days later, when her own payments are due, meaning she will save money.
b) One hedging strategy June could employ to shield against movements in either direction by either currency would simply be to shorten credit terms with suppliers and customers, paying as soon as bills were in and collecting as fast as possible, in a currency-swap type scenario. This has other business implications that would not necessarily be beneficial, however. June could also use forward contracts, locking in agreed-upon exchange rates for future purchases and sales over longer periods…… [Read More]
For example, an employee should be categorized on his or her ability to move up the corporate ladder, and the timing of such a move. If Coach wishes to enter India in 2011, then, the company would know which among the firm's managers is able to move into one of the new roles today, and which might be able to move into such roles in the future.
The second policy implication of the integrated approach to strategic human resources management is the locus of control (Bratton, n.d.). This is the control-based component of the strategy. The locus of workplace control at Coach focuses on outcomes and the primary means of employee acquisition are internal, so the policy prescription is focused on a commitment HR strategy. This strategy emphasizes training as a means to increase employees' competencies and outcome control (Ibid). The high consistency of service standards implies that the paternalistic…… [Read More]
The rationale behind this is that current liabilities represent obligations that must be met. In meeting those obligations, the firm will deplete its asset base. The longer the firm can delay payment - thereby retaining those assets - the longer the firm can earn a return on those assets. This equation is especially powerful during periods of high inflation. Liabilities, such as those for outstanding trade payable, are in nominal terms. Therefore, unless the firm is in a deflationary environment, the value of payables in real terms will diminish over time. Thus, the longer the firm delays payment, the less they will have to pay in real terms. During periods of high inflation, the amount paid in real terms can be significantly less. Therefore, all other factors being equal, a firm benefits from delaying payables as much as possible.
Effective cash management is recommended at all times, but is essential…… [Read More]
Unleaded gasoline: Yes
pple Computer: Definitely.
Technological has affected quality of these products?
Hershey's Milk Chocolate Bar: Maybe. Upgrades in equipment that contribute to saving time, may potentially adversely affect quality, as with time savings, company may allocate increased responsibilities to employees.
Pepsi: $.99 for a 2 liter bottle: Maybe. Same reasons given for Hershey's Chocolate Bar.
McDonald's hamburger: Maybe. Same reasons given for Hershey's Chocolate Bar and Pepsi.
Unleaded gasoline: Yes.
Improve techniques, including robotics in refining oil contributes to improving the quality of the tickets.
pple Computer: Definitely. Today's computers have greatly improved to two technological advances fracturing them.
Based on what has happened to the purchasing power of people earning the minimum wage?
Hershey Bar: 1.45 oz - 40 cents; 1.65 oz cents/75 cent = 88% increase.
Pepsi: $.89 for a 2 liter bottle (historic food prices) = 11% increase.
McDonald's hamburger: 43 cents (historic food prices)…… [Read More]
Big Mac Index is contstructed upon the theory of purchasing-power parity (PPP) where it is postulated that a dollar should buy roughly the same amount in all countries. Theoretically the exchange rate over time between two countries should move towards parity that will equalize the prices identical basket of goods and services in each country indexed. The "basket" that the Economist chose is the McDonald's Big Mac. This product is produced in 120 countries world wide. According to the Economist, Big Mac PPP is the exchange rate that would translate into hamburgers costing the same in America as abroad. Comparing the actual exchange rate with the PPP indicates whether a currency is overvalued or undervalued ("Big mac index," 2011)
Based upon the 2010 figures, the country where the Big Mac is the most expensive is in Norway where it cost $7.88 ("2010 big mac index," 2010). It is least expensive…… [Read More]
International Monetary System and Exchange ate Policies
A report/essay: chapter 17, multinational companies. select topic research write: Multinational vs. domestic financial management exchange rates international trade international monetary system exchange rate policies trading foreign exchange european monetary union interest
rate parity/purchasing power parity international capital structures.
The international monetary system and exchange rate policies
International Monetary systems
These are a set of rules and that regulate how international trade and payments are handled. It facilitates the exchange of capital, goods and services among countries. However, this system does not have a physical presence but, it consists of interlacing rules and procedures and is influenced by the market of foreign exchange. An example of an international monetary system is the International monetary fund. These interlacing rules and procedures are referred to as exchange rate Policies.
Exchange rate policies
These are rules that officials of public finance from different nations have developed…… [Read More]
Mission and Vision tatement Analysis
Linking Wal-Mart's Mission and Vision to Their trategic Goals and Objectives
Assessing the Link Between Wal-Mart's Financial Performance And Its trategic Goals
Wal-Mart Competitive and Marketing Analysis
Wal-Mart Marketing Analysis
Potential Wal-Mart Merger & Acquisition trategy
Incentive and Reward trategies for Wal-Mart Employees
Evaluating How Current trategies Define Ethicacy Levels at Wal-Mart
Wal-Mart Ratio Analysis
Income tatement Analysis, 2007 -- 2012
Analysis of WalMart Corporation
Mission and Vision tatement Analysis
All internal systems, processes, external stakeholder management initiatives, supply chain management, sourcing, quality management and merchandising initiatives in WalMart revolve around the fulfillment of the expectations they create with their customers daily. Their Low Price Everyday (LPED) value proposition permeates their entire value chain, galvanizing it around the mission of delivering exceptional value on a consistent basis to customers. The mission and vision of WalMart rely on LPED as the catalyst and unifying…… [Read More]
Disintegrating elationships Between Organizational Leaders and Employees
Organizational leadership behavior towards employees can significantly affect their perception of the workplace, and contribute to the organization high performance and most essentially create and maintain a proper organizational culture that lead to the success of the organization . The good health of the organization depends greatly on the relationship between leaders and employees. However, the relationship that exists between organizational leaders and employees are failing at a high rate in today's workplaces and the reasons for this are not clear. Leaders in organizations have a tendency to use employees in the time of the organizational needs and them to simply ignore the employee's commitment and their potential. Committed employees should be rewarded with committed organizational leadership. Critical in organizational leadership interaction with employees is communication. Communication keeps employees informed and results in a feeling of connectedness and inclusiveness in the organizational operations,…… [Read More]
Beckton Dickson Case Study: Negotiation Strategy
Becton Dickinson (BD) is recognized as a large family-owned concern with HQs in New Jersey that highlights diagnostic devices and healthcare. Establishment in 1897, Becton Dickinson has proven its status founded on a paternalistic human resource viewpoint, e.g. rewards loyalty and never fires anyone (Currie, 2006). In 1981, things had become different when Roger Kern was selected as the vice president of human resources. Kern managed to create a first-class traditional HR purpose at Becton Dickinson that emphasized on compensation, education, benefit and other important HR purposes. Throughout the late 1980s, in spite of these significant changes, difficulties started coming to the surface. Ever more workers protested most functions and HR programs were "less than operative," "not truthful enough" or "unfeeling to specific needs', and numerous managers started to feel that Kern was not successful when it came to assembling a strong business-oriented staff…… [Read More]
While it was generally agreed that the increase in prices was due mainly to an insufficient offer as the stock house was limited, opinions have also been forwarded according to which the buy-to-let purchases have contributed to the inflation of the house prices (Property Mark).
The debate concerning the reasons for the massive price increases for residential properties (materialized mostly between 1996 and 2005) is however still ongoing. On the one hand, there are the property bulls, who argue that the increase in the prices of residential builds is the result of natural processes of economic growth and development. In other words, they state that the increase in prices was the natural reaction to higher levels of employment, economic stability and lower interest rates. On the other hand however, sit the property bears, who claim that the increase in property prices is not linked to any economic processes, but is…… [Read More]
Criminals don't always need to have shotguns and masks to threat and rob money; it only takes a social security number, or a pre-approved credit card application from trash to make things according to their wicked way (ID Theft, 2004).
Some consumers have had credit card numbers and Social Security numbers stolen and used fraudulently or identity theft. By taking reasonable steps to protect your personal information, this can mitigate the chance that it may be stolen (What you should know about internet banking, 2007) by identity thieves.
Identity theft is a term used for serious crimes associated with someone uses your name, address, Social Security number, bank or credit card account number or other identifying information without your knowledge to commit fraud. This fraud may only take setting up accounts in your name and make online transactions without you knowing (Get the Upper Hand on Credit Crime, 2004).
Identity…… [Read More]
The shopping experience for the typical American has changed dramatically over the last few years. Due to economic circumstances plaguing both the global and domestic economy, shoppers are now more apprehensive about their purchasing behavior. Likewise, other economic circumstances such as the decreasing trend of the average Americans income are also contributing to the extreme bout of pessimism the nation is currently experiencing. It is no secret that the economy is in shambles with unemployment around 8%. Many states such as Florida and Nevada are experiencing unemployment rates still near the 10% range. As such, shoppers are attempting to save more money and are foregoing luxury purchases until they feel more secure in their finances. From my interview, I also realized the prevalence of government intervention on the overall sentiments of the average American shopper. As I will allude to in the following pages, American shoppers are fearful…… [Read More]
1% and agriculture 6.0%. ("Jamaica," 2010) The U.S. is more heavily focused on services, with this accounting for 76.9% of the GDP. This is followed by: industry (coming in at 21.9%) and agriculture (accounting for 1.2%). ("United States," 2010)
The labor force of Jamaica is currently 1.311 million people. ("Jamaica," 2010) While the labor force of the United States is 154.2 million. ("United States," 2010)
Labor Force by Occupation
The labor force by occupation for Jamaica would include: 64% working in services, 19% in industry and 17% in agriculture. ("Jamaica," 2010) In the U.S. The labor force is divided differently with: 37% working in managerial / professional positions, 24.2% in sales / services, 20.3% in manufacturing, 17.6% in other services and .7% in farming. ("United States," 2010)
Population below the Poverty Line
The total population that is living below the poverty line in Jamaica is: 14.8%. ("Jamaica," 2010)…… [Read More]
S. pp). For more than ten years, Chinese officials have stated that production from Chinese firms investing overseas is more secure than imports purchased on the international market (U.S. pp). In order to secure more reliable access, Chinese firms are being directed to invest in projects in the Caspian region, Russia, the Middle East and South America (U.S. pp).
The National Intelligence Council's report also states that Europe's energy needs will probably not grow to the same extent as those of the developing world, partly because of Europe's expected lower economic growth and more efficient use of energy (U.S. pp). Europe's increasing preference for natural gas, combined with depleting reserves in the North Sea, will provide an added boost to political efforts that are already under way to strengthen ties with Russia and North Africa, since gas requires a higher level of political commitment by both sides in designing and…… [Read More]
External Analysis Motorcycle Industry
External Analysis of the Motorcycle Industry
Harley Davidson, the heavy-bike manufacturer holds the purpose of fulfilling dreams of personal freedom (Purpose: Harley Davidson, 2013). The company functions in segments of Motorcycles & elated Products and the Financial Services. It is however globally known for heavy bikes that have engine displacement of 651+cc (Harley-Davidson Inc. 2013). The company enjoys a unique position in the market yet it is exposed to many new market challenges in recent future. The demand for heavy bikes has increased among those that are not necessarily filthy rich and other companies are also entering the industry. Here is the PEST analysis of Harley Davidson to study what challenges it is facing in external environment.
The PEST analysis offers a detailed picture of how the macro environment factors affect the performance of Harley Davidson. The PEST stands for Political, Economic,…… [Read More]
Oil Price Fluctuation
Actions adopted by the government to reduce or limit price fluctuation
Oil Price Fluctuation iii
This report will focus on the actions adopted by the government to reduce the fluctuation in oil prices. A brief introduction is discussed in the assignment. The reasons are also described in the assignment for which the oil prices fluctuate. This assignment also puts light on the price stability and why governments need to intervene to reduce the volatility in oil prices. Strategies adopted by the government to stable the oil prices are also discussed.
easons of price fluctuation
Government intervention to stable the oil prices
Strategic oil reserves
Actions adopted by the government to reduce or limit price fluctuation
The prices of oil were increased in 2007 to 2008. The oil prices were highly fluctuating in 2007 between the months January…… [Read More]
Dorchester Inc. takeovers
Dorchester, Inc. is a U.S. based conglomerate and has the intentions of expanding its operation to international levels. ecently there has been a trend by its competitors to expand their operations internationally as well. This is the prompter to the decision by the management of Dorchester, Inc. To follow their competitors' trend and venture into the new and emerging markets globally as a long-term business strategy. Through this international expansion Dorchester, Inc. hopes to gain a competitive advantage over its competitors. The particular area of expansion targeted by Dorchester, Inc. is consumer electronics. The conglomerate has indicated their interest in purchasing companies that specialize in consumer electronics in three countries that identified herein (Prodi, 2010).
The management of the conglomerate has a task of determining the potential countries to purchase the companies. Before settling on the countries they are to expand into, the management will have to…… [Read More]
For this reason, they have stepped out to pursue alternatives, especially foreign cars. On the contrary, as consumers become price oriented, they have minimal purchasing power because they are not buyers of large volume automobiles (Porter, 1985).
3.3 Threat of New Entrants
It is extremely difficult for new entrants penetrate the auto industry because of the existing high level of brand loyalty. Nevertheless, the few popular overseas firms and entered the American auto industry easily. For example, Honda Motors entered Ohio by opening a new office. This marked the beginning of a major stiff competition in the industry. Foreign entrants have expanded leading to decreased markets for American auto companies (ubenstein, 2011).
3.4 Bargaining Power of Buyers
In the current marketplace, consumers have been given various options, models, and brands to make their selection. However, various factors affect the buying decisions of consumers. They include price, appearance, and effect on…… [Read More]
The term marketing refers to identification and anticipation of consumer needs and wants and then satisfying them in a profitable manner. With the increase in globalization and consumer knowledge, marketing has evolved to become a comprehensive field with rapidly changing dynamics and is a key contributor in the success and failure of any business.
The way a marketing strategy of any product is designed depends greatly on whether the commodity is market oriented or product oriented. Detergent falls in the category of Fast Moving Consumer Goods (FMCG) which means it is a highly market oriented product and the commodity operates in a market where consumers have more than adequate knowledge about the product (Kotler & Keller, 2008). Being a highly competitive market, detergent companies have to ensure that their marketing strategy is aggressive enough to promote a strong brand image and generate a strong brand loyalty in order to…… [Read More]
The topic for this paper is to determine what is meant by social change from the perspective of graduate students today. The paper is organized into four parts. The first part presents a background statement concerning the issue of interest and the gap in the existing body of knowledge the study intends to address. A description concerning the role of the researcher is provided in the second part and an explanation concerning the process of gathering, organizing, and analyzing data to form the basis of the methods used in this study are presented in part three followed by the analysis and interpretation of those data. Finally, a discussion concerning the trustworthiness of the findings that emerged from this analysis and a summary of the research are presented in part four.
What you have learned about social change as a social issue. Because the historical record confirms that…… [Read More]
This economic indicator can be used to determine inequality within a given region or area. It can also be view the capacity for individuals within a particular nation to consume
b. ate of Value- $41,560
c. Source of Information- "Per Capita Personal Income U.S. And All States." Per Capita Personal Income U.S. And All States. Bureau of Business & Economic esearch, 12 Oct. 12. Web. 02 Feb. 2013.
d. Date of information- September 2012
6) Housing Starts-
a. Economic Indicator- Housing starts are usually indicated by the number of privately owned, new houses, under construction within a given period. This data is usually comprised of three, very distinct components of single family houses, condos, and apartment buildings. Housing starts are very important economic indicators as housing is a substantial component of the middle class family's net worth. Home ownership is also a means by which are other industries are successful.…… [Read More]
Wal-Mart's growth and profitability to become the leading retailer across the world is partly attributed to its seemingly effective logistics system that has enabled the firm to manage its wide range of goods effectively and efficiently. Actually, the company's logistics system generates results that have enabled Wal-Mart to become one of the top revenue earning firms. In addition to being the top generating company in 2007, Wal-Mart was the first retailer to place first sales in the Fortune 500 rank (Khade & Lovaas, 2009). During this period, the organization overtook other giants like General Motors, Chevron, and Exxon Mobil. Generally, the growth of the organization is based on a business model whose foundation is logistics excellence since logistics is vital. One of the major aspects of the firm's logistics operations is maximization of its efficiency through facility location planning.
In light of the significance of logistics,…… [Read More]
Typically, buyers have the ability to switch their tastes from one soft drink brand to the other.
Barrier to Entry: It is very difficult to enter the industry due to several factors:
First, a new firm will need to implement economic of scale to enjoy cost reduction and compete favourably within the industry. To establish economic of scale, a new firm will require huge capital investment ranging from several millions of dollar. Huge capital needed to enter the industry serves as a barrier for a new firm. More importantly, a new firm will need to overcome the tremendous marketing muscle to establish market presence within the industry, and entering into the industry requires substantial capital. Moreover, government regulation is another factor making entry into the industry very difficult. egulations such as Soft Drink Inter-brand Competition Act are making the new entry nearly impossible in the U.S. market.
Assessment of the…… [Read More]
An American who spent sometime in Germany recounted his experience [Will Higher Gasoline Prices Inspire Lifestyle Changes, 2001] of energy prices in that country, "When I lived in Germany, the price of gasoline went from the equivalent of $2.50 per gallon to $3.25 per gallon over night. The Bundesregierung had added another $0.75/gallon gas tax, in addition to the existing $2.00 per gallon gas tax. (That's right: $2.75 out of every $3.25 per gallon was Federal taxes.)," He remembered the effect on prices on his use of transport, "I used the public transport system, easily the best in the world."
This is the direction our country will have to go too. Do we allow this country to be totally dependent on imported oil? Should we keep gasoline prices low to prevent development of alternatives or take necessary steps now to create a change in the present Gas Guzzling life style?…… [Read More]
Economics - Country Analysis
Country Overview and Current Events (News)
Ethiopia, traditionally known as Abyssinia, is a landlocked Sub-Saharan country located at the Horn of Africa in East Africa, bordering Somalia, Kenya, Eritrea, Djibouti, Sudan, and the newly-created South Sudan. It covers approximately 1,126,829km2 of land; about the size of the state of Texas, and was, until the split of Sudan, the second-largest country in Africa. Being landlocked, Ethiopia largely relies on the port of Djibouti, to which it is connected by both rail and road. Economic elements such as this, together with the country's history, population, geography and economic performance have been explored in the subsequent sections of this text.
Population: the U.S. Census Bureau, in June 2013, estimated Ethiopia's population to be 93,877,025; a figure that makes the country the second-most populous in Africa, after Nigeria (orld Bank, Index Mundi). Ethiopia's population has been on a steady increase…… [Read More]
Another consequence of the exploitative use of water resources is the destruction of mangrove forests and the fragmentation of the habitats of endangered species. The United Nations Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna listed 189 endangered species in China among the 740 in the world.
Sand content is quite high in the Yellow iver. In the dry season, sand rises and flies up with the wind and soil desertization becomes severe. In addition, the iver's dri-up directly reduces the quantity of water for farmland irrigation. The supply of ground water decreases while the exploitation quantity of ground water increases. The results would include a deep crescent of ground water, a decrease of land evapo-transpiration, local climate drying, soil desertization, a reduction of biotic population and a simplification of biocommunity structure.
Another serious problem confronted in the Yellow iver is nitrogen contamination. A study found…… [Read More]
Countries that have previously been wealthy have not have troubles before, but globalization is a process that allows states to evolve depending on their skills and on their ability to adapt. Americans have formerly been advantaged because of the period of polarity, when the world was mainly controlled by a few states. However, matters are different in the present, with Americans being less skilled in comparison to the Swedes, for example. Swedes are accustomed to both the English and the Swedish culture, thus making it easier for them to succeed at home and in English speaking countries.
Sweden is slowly but surely taking what it deserves from the world. Even though they don't show it, Swedes certainly are wealthy. However, the concept of wealth differs there, as Swedish people prefer to spend money for their own well-being instead of throwing it away on expensive and rather useless products.
orks cited:…… [Read More]