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Social Survey (GSS) is a data analysis technique that is utilized to examine issues in the society. This technique has been utilized since 1972 to examine societal change and evaluate the increasing complexity of the American society (NOC, n.d.). The General Social Survey explains trends and constants based on attributes, behaviors and attitudes, which help in effective assessment of the structure and functioning of the society. Consequently, this technique is considered suitable for sociology research because of its focus on examining the structure and functioning of the society. This paper provides quantitative data analysis using the General Social Survey technique. In this case, the researcher has identified at least two research questions, their related variables, and the results of the data analysis.
esearch Questions and esults of Data Analysis
esearch Question 1: Does race impact attitudes towards gun control laws?
This research question has been selected for study on the…
Blake, J. (2014, October 12). Does Race Shape Americans' Passion for Guns? CNN. Retrieved June 7, 2017, from http://edition.cnn.com/2014/10/10/us/guns-race/index.html
Drug Policy Alliance. (n.d.). Marijuana Legalization and Regulation. Retrieved June 7, 2017, from http://www.drugpolicy.org/marijuana-legalization-and-regulation
NORC. (n.d.). General Social Survey (GSS). Retrieved June 7, 2017, from http://www.norc.org/Research/Projects/Pages/general-social-survey.aspx
O'Brien, K., Forrest, W., Lynott, D. & Daly, M. (2013, October 31). Racism, Gun Ownership and Gun Control: Biased Attitudes in US Whites May Influence Policy Decisions. PLOS One, 8(10). Retrieved from http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0077552
Translate the abstract into a summary that is more consumer-friendly and underline any technical terms.
This quantitative study looks at the impact of changing needles before administering intramuscular (i.e., injected into the muscle) pain medication to reduce patient pain.
What were the independent and dependent variables in the study?
In this research, pain outcome was the independent variable, while investigator and injection technique constituted the dependant variables.
Is this study, experimental or non- experimental?
This is an experimental research performed in a clinical (i.e., hospital) setting wherein subjects were studied within a randomized setting.
An experimental research is typically randomized, that is, participants are grouped in different clusters by chance. Although ever controlled research is not a randomized one, every randomized trial is invariably controlled. An RCT (Randomized Clinical Trial) approach has been adopted in the given study.
Randomized Clinical/Control Trial: Suitable subjects are placed at random in at least…
To further ensure this, Ambert brought it interdependent and unbiased coders.
9. Qualitative Analyses
However this is not implicit throughout the study, Anne-Marie Ambert seems to have used the cognitive styles analysis, which focuses on the future effects a past event may have upon the individual analyzed. For instance, peer abuse could materialize in conflicts with the parents, lowering grades or even failure in becoming socially integrated. The main codes were the classification of the student testimonials of past events into different categories. These categories contained similar recollections, but were highly different between themselves. The main theme revolved around the idea that peer abuse is not paid enough attention, even more so when it can generate tremendous effects upon children and young adults.
The context of peer abuse was explained in an adequate manner in the meaning that it dealt with past experiences and future impacts of peer abuse. The…
Ambert, a.M., 1994, a Qualitative Study of Peer Abuse and Its Effects: Theoretical and Empirical Implications, Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 56, No. 1
Ambert, a.M., Adler, P.A., Detzner, D., 1995, Understanding and Evaluating Qualitative Research, Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 57, No. 4
Baxter, J., Eyles, J., 1997, Evaluating Qualitative Research in Social Geography: Establishing 'Rigour' in Interview Analysis, Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, New Series, Vol. 22, No. 4
Polit, D.F., Hungler, B.P., Beck, C.T., 2003, Nursing Research: Principle and Practice, Chapter 23: Analyzing Qualitative Data, 7th Edition, Lippincott Williams and Wilkins
Quan and Qual Studies
Domestic violence is an ongoing experience of physical, psychological, and even sexual abuse in the home that is often a method used by one adult to establish control and power over another person. Exposure by children to marital aggression is now a recognized public health concern. The investigation of the effects of the exposure to this type of aggression on the functioning of a child is a significant societal concern.
Purpose/goal/research questions of the study
DeHart and Alshuler (2009) examined incarcerated women's accounts of their children's exposure to violence prior to the mother's incarceration. The researchers stated that previous research has explored the consequences of children having their mothers incarcerated (which is summarized and it appears that incarceration alone has few consequences to the health and behavior of children); however, there is a dearth of research on these children prior to the mother's incarceration.…
Moylan, C.A., Herrenkohl, T.I., Sousa, C., Tajima, E.A., Herrenkohl, R.C., & Russo, M.J. (2010). The Effects of Child Abuse and Exposure to Domestic Violence on Adolescent Internalizing and Externalizing Behavior Problems. Journal of Family Violence, 25(1), 53-63.
Nurses Leaving? Findings from an Initial Qualitative Study on Nursing Attrition
Substantive and Theoretical Dimensions
Problem and Significance
Presentation and Stylistic Dimension
Qualitative esearch Article Critique: Why Are Nurses Leaving? Findings from an Initial Qualitative Study on Nursing Attrition
In her article Why Are Nurses Leaving? Findings from an Initial Qualitative Study on Nursing Attrition, MacKusick (2010) outlines the fact there is a nursing shortage that remains problematic, however, research with nurses no longer in clinical practice is rare. This study focused was to understand the factors that are influencing the decision of registered nurses (Ns) to leave clinical nursing. MacKusick's report indicates a phenomenological research design was done in order to disclose the complex phenomena persuading the Ns' choices to leave clinical nursing practice. During the course of the study, certain themes emerged from the data which were collected and coded…
Buchan, J. (2006). Evidence of nursing shortage of Evidence. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 56(8), 457-458.
MacKusick, C. I. (2010). Qualitative Research Article Critique: Why Are Nurses Leaving? Findings from an Initial Qualitative Study on Nursing Attrition. MEDSURG Nursing, 19(6), 335-339.
Patton, M. Q. (2002). Qualitative research and Evaluation Methods. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.
Takase, M. M. (2005). Nurses' job dissatisfaction and turnover alternative approach. Nursing and Health, 7(3), 209-217.
United States, an estimated 5.2 million people suffer from Alzheimer's disease and the number is expected to increase dramatically over the next 30 years (reviewed by Lewis, 2014). Dementia care has therefore become a significant burden on the healthcare system and will only worsen over time. The costs of dementia care would be much higher if not for the contributions made by family caregivers, contributions which reduce the cost of care by almost half, but the psychological and physical toll on caregivers has resulted in additional medical expenses, reaching an estimated $9.1 billion for 2012. Caregiver support is therefore essential to lowering the overall cost of dementia care, but a number of barriers exist which prevent optimal health outcomes for both patients and caregivers, including those interfering with timely referrals to hospice care. Among the different barriers, those associated with physicians should be among the easiest to change.
Gelling, L. (2011). What is the difference between grounded theory and phenomenology? Nursing Times, 107(4), 25.
Lewis, L.F. (2014). Caregivers' experiences seeking hospice care for loved ones with dementia. Qualitative Health Research, 24(9), 1221-31.
Ullman, S.E. (2005). Interviewing clinicians and advocates who work with sexual assault survivors. Violence Against Women, 11(9), 1113-39.
Scientific Merit Paper: Patient Input
This qualitative study of Doekhie (et al., 2018) demonstrated scientific merit in advancing the knowledge base of the extent to which elderly, chronically ill patients can have a role in exercising oversight over their care. As more and more of the population base is classified as geriatric, facilitating patient autonomy and improved mental health becomes more and more critical. This is one of the reasons the study employed a qualitative approach, to allow patients to have direct input into shaping the trajectory of their care to the maximum extent possible. The article did not have an underlying theory, however, such a Dorothea Orem’s self-care deficit theory, which stresses that the nurse is present to step in only when the patient is unable to supply needed self-care for him or herself (Clarke, et al., 2009). This study suggests that patients have the willingness to provide more…
Cloud Computing Technology
The research methods and design of this non-experimental qualitative study are all aligned to the goal of investigating the factors affecting cloud computing adoption by general user's perception of cloud technologies. The research questions, population and sample size definition which are essential to any effective methodology, are predicated on the observation that the associated technologies that comprise cloud computing have significant potential to provide humanitarian and accelerate educational attainment on a global scale. The technology components that comprise cloud computing including Platform-as-a-Service (PaaS), Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS) and Software-as-a-Service (SaaS) must be tightly orchestrated together to deliver applications online that people can use. Performance and responsiveness of cloud computing applications, the majority of which are installed as SaaS-based software, will also need to be measured in this study, as their performance will be a predicator of general user's perception of this technology. The scalability of cloud-based applications will also…
leadership is understood today is in the dichotomy between transactional leadership and transformational leadership. Where the former focuses on execution of tasks, the latter has become more popular in the knowledge economy. The basic theory of transformational leadership is said to "transform followers' personal values and self-concepts and move them to higher level of needs and aspirations" (Gumusluogu & Ilsev, 2009, 1). In essence, transformational leadership encourages both individual transformational, and by way of that, transformation of the organization as a whole. Since the concept was first developed, transformational leadership has been studied extensively, and there is evidence to support the idea that transformational leadership is associated with superior performance at both individual and organizational levels (Wang et al., 2011). However, there remains a need to understand the way by which this process works. In other words, we know that transformational leadership often has a positive influence on an organization,…
Avolio, B., Walumbwa, F. & Weber, T. (2009). Leadership: Current theories, research and future directions. Annual Review of Psychology. Vol. 60 (2009) 421-449.
Gumusluogu, L. & Ilsev, A. (2009, 1). Transformational leadership, creativity, and organizational innovation. Journal of Business Research. Vol. 62 (2009) 461-473.
Gumusluogu, L. & Ilsev, A. (2009, 2). Transformational leadership and organizational innovation: The roles of internal and external support for innovation. Journal of Product Innovation Management. Vol. 26 (2009) 264-277.
Harms, P. & Crede, M. (2010). Emotional intelligence and transformational and transactional leadership: A meta-analysis. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies. Vol. 17 (1) 5-17.
Discussion of the Differences Between Quantitative and Qualitative Research
Q1. How does a research problem/question guide the determination to conduct a quantitative versus a qualitative research study?
In general, qualitative research is exploratory in nature and seeks to understand a particular phenomenon from a particular subject’s perspective (McLeod, 2017). It is open-ended in its focus and the researcher has no predetermined conclusions before embarking upon the study. As a result, it focuses on a small rather than a large population. In stark contrast, a quantitative study seeks to understand a phenomenon in an objective fashion that is generalizable to a large population (McLeod, 2017). It is often framed in the form of a predetermined hypothesis and is narrow in its focus.
Q2. Discuss the value of using a conceptual framework or theory (grand or mid-range) to guide a quantitative research study. Address the debate of the appropriateness of using of…
Sand-Jecklin, K., & Herman, J. (2014). A Quantitative Assessment of Patient and Nurse Outcomes of Bedside Nursing eport Implementation. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 23(19-20), 2854-2863.
This particular research piece is quantitative in nature. The basic analysis element in a study of this kind as Keele (2011) points out is statistical analyses and numbers. This is more so the case given that it generates data that could be transmuted into operational statistics, as it seeks to quantify the problem i.e. "quantify quantitative outcomes of a practice change to a blended form of bedside nursing report." It is clear that the authors in this case seek to quantify behaviors and opinions in an attempt to come up with results from a sample population that is significant. I selected this topic due to its relevance to clinical practice. This is particularly the case given that there are very few published studies that have…
Elsevier (2017). Guide for Authors: Author Information Pack. Retrieved from https://www.elsevier.com/journals/collegian/1322-7696/guide-for-authors
Keele, R. (2011). Nursing Research and Evidence-Based Practice. Sudbury, MA: John & Bartlett Learning
Polit, D.F., & Beck, C.T. (2017). Nursing Research: Generating and Assessing Evidence for Nursing Practice (9th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins.
Shamoo, A.E. & Resnic, D.B. (2009). Responsible Conduct of Research (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Healthcare Associated Infections: Critical Analysis
The prevention and control of healthcare associated infections is an issue that has attracted considerable attention across the globe given the increase of healthcare associated infections. Despite the development and use of several strategies and measures to lessen the burdens caused by healthcare associated infections, the practices of healthcare professionals are largely suboptimal while the infections persist. As a result, the prevention and control of these infections has attracted considerable concern, which has resulted in several studies on the practices and behaviors of healthcare practitioners. Carole Jackson, Karen Lowton and Peter Griffiths have conducted a research on nurses' prevention behaviors to control healthcare associated infections. The qualitative study utilizes vignettes created from nurses' reports of infection prevention behaviors and practices.
Healthcare associated infections can be described as infections that emerge from medical interventions like clinical or surgical processes or from contact with a…
Burns, N., & Grove, S. (2011). Understanding nursing research (5th ed.). Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier.
Jackson, C. Lowton, K. & Griffiths, P. (2013, July). Infection Prevention As "A Show": A Qualitative Study of Nurses' Infection Prevention Behaviours. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 10(16).
"Prevention and Control of Healthcare-Associated Infections." (2011, November). Quality Improvement Guide. Retrieved from National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence website: http://www.his.org.uk/files/9213/7483/8498/Prevention_and_control_of_healthcare-associated_infections_Quality_improvement_guide_NICE_Guidance_2011.pdf
"Qualitative Research Perspective." (n.d.). Chapter 4. Qualitative Research in Information Systems: Consideration of Selected Theories. Retrieved from Australian National University Press website: http://press.anu.edu.au/info_systems/mobile_devices/ch04s02.html
.....teachers in the field of Special Education are using (or attempting to use) technology in their classrooms, and address their concerns and problems with solutions based upon that research, if the research is conducted in an efficient and effective manner. This study seeks to determine what (if any) problems these teachers face in an ongoing manner, and then determine if there are answers that apply and can be used by teachers throughout the educational community. It is important therefore to ensure that the research is valid and reliable so that it can add to current literature, and be used in a considerate manner.
To accomplish the goal of the researcher as stated above, research questions will be compiled and answered. To ensure that the questions address the issue as stated above, the questions will be submitted to a number of educators with the goal in mind to determine whether the…
Falter in Quality
The strength of the use of interviews as a data collection device is that they ensure a high rate of response; that the interviewer can tailor his or her response to the subjects' responses over the course of the interview; and the interviewer can clarify any ambiguous responses. Problems with interviews can arise when the subjects make their responses conform to the unintentionally communicated expectations of the interviewer, based on a desire to 'please' the researcher. To ensure quality control in my process of interviewing I tried to adhere to a relatively similar script between interviews for comparison of subject responses. I did not want to be overly directive during the interview and only intervened if the subjects were confused and had no response to my queries. I transcribed and recorded the interviews to ensure I was not missing any critical word choices that might be revelatory…
Whittemore, R., Chase, S.K., & Mandle, C.L. (2001). Validity in qualitative research.
Qualitative Health Research, 11 (4): 533-37
Emotional Intelligence is the aptitude of an individual to be aware of their personal emotions and those of others surrounding them. Emotional intelligence is also referred to as Emotional Quotient (EQ). The knowledge of one’s emotional intelligence is important in that the information obtained from the knowledge can be used to influence thinking towards a given direction. It is also vital for it provides for the opportunity to be able to improve on one's behavior in order to adjust to an environmental or in order to achieve any set intentions.
Moreover, Emotional intelligence can define the performance of an individual academically, just as can be Intelligence Quotient since they are very closely linked. Emotions of an individual can affect the performance of individuals even at the workplace. Thus, it is key for an employer of a leader to ensure that they have the ability to discern the emotions of their…
Qualitative vs. Quantitative
Social science sometimes debates differences between quantitative and qualitative. On one side, positivists argue quantitative research is objective and measurable where post-positivists argue qualitative analysis allows for a rich understanding of the situation. Although qualitative and quantitative research differ in the techniques, types of data and ethical concerns, they both have their place in psychology. Let us begin by exploring the realm of quantitative research and then move on to qualitative research.
Quantitative research is research that uses numerical measures to evaluate the world. Often, this approach is used by positivists who believe in objective measures to predict the world. This epistemology says research can and should focus only on what can be observed and measured. Following is a discussion of features of quantitative research including techniques, types of data and possible ethical concerns.
There are multiple techniques used to collect quantitative data, but all techniques will…
Bartholomew, L.M., & Horowitz, K. (1991). Attachment styles among young adults: A test of a four-category model. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology .
Monk, A.N. (1993). Mixing oil and water? Ethnography vs. experimental psychology in the study of computer-mediated communication. INTERCHI'93, 3-6.
Rusbult, C.E. (1980). Commitment and satisfaction in romantic associations: A test of the investment model. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 16,, 172-186.
Rusbult, C.E. (1982). Exit, voice, loyalty, and neglect: Responses to dissatisfaction in romantic involvements. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1230-1242.
Qualitative Business Case Study: A Discussion
Business case studies are valuable educational tools used by educators, institutions, students and corporations within continuing education programs. Creating a case study or analyzing one written by a professor or executive, forces one to examine the strengths and weaknesses, successes and pitfalls of a particular business by analyzing precise situations, formulating one’s own conclusions and then making recommendations or other such inferences based on the data or predictions drawn from the data.
Case Study Design
The case study will manifest in a narrative or story-centric structure. The “main character” will be introduced early on in the case study as someone with a necessary objective or a specific but perhaps somewhat confounding choice that needs to be addressed (Schweitzer, 2015). The story of the main character remains interwoven throughout the case study design, offering necessary information about the company in question, the overall situation, and…
social science research are qualitative and quantitative research methods. Qualitative research is believed to operate from a subjective, constructionist view of reality, whereas quantitative research operates from an objective, positivist viewpoint of the world. There has been quite a bit of debate over the merits of each of these approaches, often with one paradigm belittling the assumptions of the other. The current literature review explores the philosophical foundations of each paradigm, compares their practical differences, and discusses the strengths and weakness of both approaches as they relate to research in the social sciences and to human resources research. The rationale for mixed-methods research, where the two paradigms are combined, is also discussed.
In recent years there has been substantial interest concerning the role of specific paradigms and philosophical assumptions with regards to doing research. There has been a growing concern regarding the adequacy of research methods in social sciences and…
Anderson, V. (2004) Research methods in human resource management. London, UK: Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development.
Blalock, M. (1984). Basic dilemmas in the social sciences. New York: Sage/
Burrell, G. & Morgan G. (1979). Sociological paradigms and organization analysis. London, UK: Heinemann.
Bryman, A. (2006). Integrating quantitative and qualitative research: How is it done? Qualitative Research, 6, 97-113.
manage and organize qualitative data. LeCompte (2000) notes that data can be organized using traditional organization techniques like creating files, cataloging, labeling, and creating indices. These techniques are often applied to qualitative data that comes in the form of field notes or other written information. Today, the information might be stored in a database on the computer. Often the data might be recorded on a smartphone or tablet, which will make it even easier to transfer to a computer. However, the techniques of indexing, cataloging and labeling are still used to manage large amounts of qualitative data.
It is important that the research is able to make sense of the data, but it should also be remembered that one of the most valuable traits of qualitative research is that it has a lot of flexibility with respect to how that data can be analyzed and presented. As such, it is…
Bansal, P. & Corley, K. (2011). The coming of age for qualitative research: Embracing the diversity of qualitative methods. Academy of Management Journal. Vol. 54 (2) 233-237.
Guest, G., Bunce, A. & Johnson, L. (2006). How many interviews are enough? An experiment with data saturation and validity. Field Methods. Vol. 18 (1) 59-82
LeCompte, M. (2000). Analyzing qualitative data. Theory Into Practice. Vol. 39 (3) 146-154.
Morse et al. (2002). Verification strategies for establishing reliability and validity in qualitative research. International Journal of Qualitative Methods. Vol. 1 (2) 13-22.
Value of Shifting from Qualitative to Quantitative and Back Again
Qualitative research is considered hypothesis generating, whereas quantitative research is designed to test hypotheses. Based on this perspective, the natural direction of research flow would be from qualitative to quantitative study designs (Black & Fauske, 2008). Qualitative research tends to focus on experiences, rather than the measuring and tracking of objective factors, but there are times when it makes sense to base a qualitative study on quantitative findings. This essay will examine the value of transitioning from qualitative to quantitative study designs and vice versa.
Qualitative to Quantitative
A qualitative study is traditionally conducted when little is understood about a phenomenon, such as the experiences of patients during treatment. For example, Black and Fauske (2008) were interested in understanding the experiences and practices of case managers during advanced care planning. A focus group design was used to conduct semi-structured interviews,…
Black, K. & Fauske, J. (2008). Measuring case managers' advance care planning practice: Translating focus group findings to survey development. Care Management Journals, 9(4), 166-76.
Ullman, S.E. (2005). Interviewing clinicians and advocates who work with sexual assault survivors: A personal perspective on moving from quantitative to qualitative research methodologies. Violence Against Women, 11(9), 1113-39.
Qualitative research is conducted according to several different philosophical orientations, one of which is phenomenology. The science of phenomenology studies the consciousness of individuals according to a first-person point-of-view. Experience is structured by meaning and intentionality toward something or some object, and phenology is the effort to describe the meanings of the lived experiences of individuals. That is to say that, the first person accounts of individuals constitute meaningful, authentic qualitative data. Ethnography is a form of qualitative research in which the investigator becomes immersed in the context in which the inquiry is taking place (ouleau, et al., 2014).
An ethnographic researcher essentially indwells in order to obtain thick, rich data about individuals in a population and about the environment in which they live their lives (ouleau, et al., 2014). The field of ethnology requires the researcher to be at once acutely tuned-in to the individuals in the…
Rouleau, L., de Rond, M., Musca, G. (2014). From the ethnographic turn to new forms of organizational ethnography. Journal of Organizational Ethnography, 3(1), 2-9. Retrieved http://www.emeraldinsight.com/journals.htm?issn=2046-6749&volume=3&issue=1&articleid=17109239&show=abstract doi: 10.1108/JOE-02-2014-006
Saka-Helmhout, A. (2007). Unravelling learning within multinational corporations. British Journal of Management, 18(3), 294-310. (EBSCOhost Accession Number: AN26260657).
The client is a 19-year-old single male who was referred for treatment by his parents who are concerned that his use of alcohol is interfering with his grades in college. The client reportedly had all A grades in high school and had been placed in a program for gifted students. However, he has reportedly flunked out of college in his first year. Following this he was also recently arrested for his second DUI offense, the first offense occurring when he was a senior in high school.
According to his parents, the client was born at full term with no complications occurring in the pregnancy and delivery of the baby. He met all of his developmental milestones ahead of expectation and has experienced no major health issues although his last physical examination was several years ago. He excelled in school and was placed in a program for gifted and…
American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.-text revision). Washington, DC: Author.
Beck, A.T., Epstein, N., Brown, G., & Steer, R.A. (1988). An inventory for measuring clinical anxiety: psychometric properties. Journal of consulting and clinical psychology, 56(6), 893-903.
Covin, R., Ouimet, A.J., Seeds, P.M., & Dozois, D.J. (2008). A meta-analysis of CBT for pathological worry among clients with GAD. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 22(1), 108-116.
Dutra, L., Stathopoulou, G., Basden, S.L., Leyro, T.M., Powers, M.B., & Otto, M.W. (2008). A meta-analytic review of psychosocial interventions for substance use disorders. American Journal Psychiatry, 165 (2) 179-187.
Good researchers tend to pull methods out of a tool kit as they are needed" (2006, p. 54). Notwithstanding these criticisms and constraints, though, most social researchers seem to agree that classification by some type of research paradigm is a useful approach based on the need to determine which approach is best suited for a given research enterprise. In this regard, Corby concludes that, "The contested nature of research makes it impossible and unhelpful to ignore the different aims and purposes of various research projects and the methods and approaches being used to carry them out" (2006, p. 54). Therefore, the different aims and purposes of the positivist research paradigm, the constructivist research paradigm and the pragmatic research paradigm are discussed further below.
Positivist Research Paradigm
The positivist research paradigm is a quantitative-based approach that generally seeks to identify trends and patterns that can be used to formulate predictions concerning…
Ames, S.L., Gallaher, P.E., Sun, P. & Pearce, S. (2005). A Web-based program for coding open-ended response protocols. Behavior Research Methods, 37(3), 470-471.
Authors provide a description of a Web-based application that provides researchers with the ability to analyze participant-generated and open-ended data. Authors note that the application was developed in order to take advantage of online surveying based on its ease of use and flexibility. Authors note that this application may be of particular value to researchers who are employing large sample sizes that are frequently needed for projects in which frequency analyses are required. The application uses a grid-based set of criteria to establish codes for participant-generated and open-ended data collected from online surveys and can be applied for scoring results from stem completion,-word or picture associations, and comparable purposes in which such participant-generated responses require categorization and coding. Authors advise that they use this application for their professional online surveying purpose in experimental psychology to examine substance abuse patterns derived from participant-generated responses to various verbal and nonverbal associative memory problems, but that the application is also appropriate for other research areas as well. Authors also note that the application helps improve survey reliability by providing a systematic approach to coding participant-generated responses as well as evaluating the quality of coding and interjudge reliability by researchers with little or no specific training for the purposes. Authors conclude that the coding application is helpful for survey research that uses open-ended responses in virtually any research area of interest.
Austin, T.M., Richter, R.R. & Reinking, M.F. (2008). A primer on Web surveys. Journal of Allied Health, 37(3), 180-181.
Authors report that survey research has become a widely accepted research methodology that has been facilitated through the introduction of computer-based and online survey methods. Authors also emphasize that although electronic survey methods are useful in a wide range of settings for a variety of purposes, they are not appropriate in every situation. Online surveys involve various technologies that have not been available (or required) for paper-and-pencil surveys and require special considerations involving their design, pilot testing, and response rates. Authors present the results of their empirical observations and professional experience in using Web-based surveys to illustrate some of the advantages and disadvantages of the approach, including security and confidentiality issues (they make the point that electronic surveys are particularly vulnerable to compromise and that survey data must be protected as the research progresses) as well as the special considerations that must be taken into account as they apply to this surveying approach. Authors also discuss issues such as sampling error, a "how-to" guide to writing survey questions for online media, and how to order questions to ensure that respondents answer accurately and faithfully. All in all, this was a very timely guide for researchers for identifying when Web-based surveys are most appropriate and what factors should be taken into account in the design, posting and analysis of online surveys.
Managing Different Perspectives in the Literature
One of the strengths of qualitative literature -- as well as one of its frustrations -- is its innate subjectivity. Different authors may present the reader with different approaches, both of which can be equally valid and still be characterized as qualitative. The variety of perspectives offered on qualitative research from diverse sources allows the individual researcher to tailor his or her approach to the specific subject of his or her research study. Unlike a quantitative, statistical approach which requires passing certain mathematical tests to be valid, the validity of a qualitative approach depends on the needs of the specific study. For example, for a primarily narrative qualitative study that is merely designed to showcase experiences, having a research question might not be particularly useful. However, for a grounded theory approach, a research question would likely be required to focus the research process and…
Creswell, J. (2012). Qualitative inquiry and research design. Sage.
Maxwell, J. Designing a qualitative study. Retrieved from:
Qualitative, quantitative, mixed methodologies
Quantitative, qualitative and mixed methodology research
Quantitative methodologies tend to be data-driven in nature. The presumption of the correct 'way of knowing' in quantitative research is positivistic in nature. It is assumed there is an objective, concrete truth that can be learned through empirical observation and the careful construction of an experiment. Quantitative methods of research often use the scientific method or quasi-scientific methods of study design. The researcher has a clear idea of the phenomenon he or she is attempting to study. The researcher's primary tools include questionnaires, objective measurements and other methods of gathering statistical results. Often there is a control group to see if the results are statistically significant in nature. The study is carefully designed before the research takes place to isolate specific variables of inquiry and its focus of study is narrow, rather than broad. The types of knowledge…
Neill, James. (2007). Qualitative vs. quantitative research. Retrieved:
The qualitative vs. quantitative debate. (2012). Writing at CSU. Retrieved:
esponses may be 'coded' so that some numerical data can be amassed but overall, the most important part of the research is the lived 'experience' that is recorded. In contrast, with quantitative research, it is the data that is more significant. However, quantitative studies can provide the springboard for qualitative studies, as they point out phenomena in the general population that needs to be studied in more 'micro-level' detail. Similarly, qualitative studies can act as early fact-finding expeditions that provide the basis for quantitative analysis, to see if the study of the smaller population is reflective of a larger phenomenon. Neither one type of research needs to come before the other.
A good example of a comparison of qualitative and quantitative research from translation studies can be found in the field of "research in second language learning that identifies learners' problems in composition and attempts to explain them by referring…
Connor, Ulla. (1996). Contrastive rhetoric: Cross-cultural aspects of second-language writing.
Cambridge University Press. ERIC Database. Retrieved: http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/detailmini.jsp?_nfpb=true&_&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED401754&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=no&accno=ED401754
Lund, Thorleif. The qualitative -- quantitative distinction: Some comments. Scandinavian Journal
of Educational Research, 49 (2): 115 -- 132
drugs of varying sorts, whether legal or illegal. The studies in question are either quantitative, qualitative, or a mixture of both. Of course, quantitative refers to the use of numbers and statistics to draw conclusions. Qualitative studies make use of feelings, thoughts and summaries. Indeed, this is less academic and objective in nature but it can explain the "why" of things rather than just the "what." Of course, many other studies are a mixture of the two. This annotated bibliography has two of each of the different types listed above and these were chosen to show that the types of studies relating to drugs come in all three of the major forms.
Chandler, R. K., Finger, M. S., Farabee, D., Schwartz, R. P., Condon, T., Dunlap, L. J. & Lee, J.
(2016). The SOMATICS collaborative: Introduction to a National Institute on Drug
Abuse cooperative study of pharmacotherapy for opioid treatment…
This prompts the recommendation that a tape recorder be used to ensure that data sets are accurately reported and that, additionally, the findings and analysis may be cross-checked against actual recorded evidence of the exchange and intonations thereby produced.
External validity is somewhat more complex, because it demands that the outcome of our research is not just illuminating of findings concerning the specific resource officer and district interviewed, but can also be applied to our broader understanding of the subject. The best way to accomplish this is to conduct an array of interviews all guided by a very similar line of questions, differentiated only by the individual directions into which individual subjects will tend to steer questions. The result should be multiple sets of data allowing for comparison and synthesis of qualitative findings.
This interest is also useful in achieving a better understanding of the reliability of the proposed study.…
Golafshani, N. (2003). Understanding Reliability and Validity in Qualitative Research. The Qualitative Report, 8(4), 597-607/
Patton, M.Q. (2002). Qualitative Research and Evaluation Methods. Sage Publications.
attain qualitative infomation fom Advanced Nuse Pactitiones (APNs) to ascetain best pactices fo teating women who have expeienced Intimate Patne Violence (IPN)?
Take Home Message: Yes, it is possible to attain best pactices in such a way; these pactices include the fact that APNs can ceate a significantly positive impact on victims of IPN and thei families by poviding a safe envionment in which patients can addess these issues, and by continually asking questions egading thei safety in these mattes.
Bykczynsnki, K.A., Cane, P., Medina, C.K., Pedaza, D. (2009). Intimate stoes of patne violence: Advanced pactice nuses clinical stoies of success and challenge. Jounal of the Ameican Academy of Nuse Pactitiones. 23, 143-152.
Seach Stategy: The subsequent tems wee input into MEDLINE database: domestic violence advanced nuse pactitiones, health pomotion, intepeting esults. The aticles wee naowed down accoding to thei abstacts and titles. This aticle best suited the seach tems…
references to other studies. It is likely that when this research question is applied to IPV, the author's research was original. But it appears that it had already been established that input from experienced nurses can influence best practices.
Manage Postgraduate Study
Before going on the discussion for managing the postgraduate study program it's important to understand what the postgraduate is. After the Bachelor's degree, the Master's or doctoral degree, or a postgraduate diploma or certificate taken up for higher studies are part of postgraduate program. The level of difficulty of the postgraduate study program depends upon the subject or research work taken and the kind of exposure possessed for the field of study.
In the highly competitive professional environment where everyone is weigh on its competence, aptitude, skills and most importantly academic qualification (udd, 1984). Deciding on for the postgraduate study plan, when you are professionally over burdened and trying hard to balance between your personal life and work life is a tough job. You can't merely ignore the importance of postgraduate studies because you are rigorously committed elsewhere. The right balance between the work life, personal like…
Alves de Lima, A, Henquin, R, Thierer, J, Paulin, J, Lamari, S, Belcastro, V, & Van der Vleuten, C. (2005). A qualitative study of the impact on learning of the mini clinical evaluation exercise in postgraduate training. Medical Teacher, 27(1), 46-52.
Bailey, J, & Ford, C. (2006). Management as science vs. management as practice in postgraduate business education. Business Strategy Review, 7(4), 7-12.
Bergquist, L. (1984). Rapid Silent Reading: Techniques for Improving Rate in Intermediate Grades. The Reading Teacher, 38(1), 50-53.
Braddock, R, Fien, J, & Rickson, R. (1994). Environmental studies: Managing the disciplinary divide. The Environmentalist, 14(1), 35-46.
The objective of this study is to conduct a critical analysis of issues in clinical education. Toward this end, this study will conduct a review of literature in this area of inquiry.
The work of Strohschein, Hagler and May (2002) entitled 'Assessing the Need for Changes in Clinical Education Practice' reports a study that identifies areas of need within clinical education and well as describing "…various models and tools that are proposed and utilized in clinical education, as well as the exploration of the extent to which these models and tools might meet the identified needs of the clinical education process in physical therapy." (p.1) Physical therapists are reported as working in a health care climate "of increasing complexity and rapid change, of fiscal restraint and demands for accountability, of scrutiny from both internal and external sources. In such a climate, the ability to respond appropriately to these…
Cross V. (1997) The professional development diary: a case study of one cohort of physiotherapy students. Physiotherapy.1997; 83:375 -- 383.
Hagler P, McFarlane L. (1991) Achieving maximum student potential: the supervisor as coach. Canadian Journal of Rehabilitation.1991; 5:5 -- 16.
Hayes KW, Huber G, Rogers J, Sanders B. (1999) Behaviors that cause clinical instructors to question the clinical competence of physical therapist students. Phys Ther.1999; 79:653 -- 667.
Higgs J, Glendinning M, Dunsford F, Panter J. Goals and components of clinical education in the allied health professions. In: Proceedings of the 11th International Congress of the World Confederation for Physical Therapy, London.1991: 305 -- 307.
IB for My Pilot Study
Effects of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) on Classroom Communication in Immigrant Children
This study will compare the communication of immigrant children with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in classroom with immigrant children who do not have PTSD. Immigrant children are a vulnerable population thus the focus of this research and they are often at high risk of post-traumatic stress disorder from their experience in their origin Fawzi et al., 2009.
This study seeks to describe the differences in how English as a second language (ESL) immigrant with PTSD communicate compared to ESL immigrants without PTSD. The study participants who will be 3rd and 4th grade students will be interviewed in public schools in Seattle.
Potential benefits of this study include:
Understanding the communication needs of ESL immigrant students with PTSD to enable them to cope with classroom situations like other normal students;
Agbenyega, J. (2009). The Australian early development index, who does it measure: Piaget or Vygotsky's child? Australasian Journal of Early Childhood, 34(2), 31-38.
Bengtsson-Tops, A., & Svensson, B. (2010). Mental health users' experiences of being interviewed by another user in a research project. A qualitative study. Journal Of Mental Health, 19(3), 234-242. doi: 10.3109/09638230903531084
Fawzi, M., Betancourt, T.S., Marcelin, L., Klopner, M., Munir, K., Muriel, A.C., & Mukherjee, J.S. (2009). Depression and post-traumatic stress disorder among Haitian immigrant students: Implications for access to mental health services and educational programming. BMC Public Health, 9482-9492. doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-9-482
Fitzgerald, K., Henriksen, R.R., & Garza, Y. (2012). Perceptions of counselors regarding the effectiveness of interventions for traumatized children. International Journal of Play Therapy, 21(1), 45-56. doi: 10.1037/a0026737
Consider how qualitative and quantitative research methods complement one another, and consider the role of mixed methods designs.
Quantitative and qualitative social science study techniques have, for long, remained discrete, barely overlapping, spheres. But, of late, innovations have shed light on quantitative and qualitative techniques’ complementarity (Maxwell, 1998). Complementarily employing both methods offers broader understandings besides facilitating research findings’ confirmation or triangulation using different techniques, thus improving overall result validity and making the research more useful for targeted entities. However, the quest for genuinely complementary research techniques is also a greatly challenging task as it implies extra expenses, in terms of human as well as monetary resources, in addition to the development of ethical quandaries pertaining to follow- up and a need for collaboration and respecting diverse epistemological and methodological stands (Maxwell, 1998).
Using a qualitative process prior to engaging in survey work is, without a doubt, the most widely…
Qualitative thematic and content analyses represent two widely utilized nursing data analysis techniques. However, no explicit boundaries have been identified between them. That is, researchers utilize them interchangeably and, apparently, find it hard to choose one of the two. In this regard, Vaismoradi's paper explains and deliberates on the borders between qualitative thematic and content analyses, presenting implications for improving the uniformity between information analysis techniques and related researches' purpose. The discussion paper comprises of a logical outline and examination of thematic and content analyses' objectives, definitions, philosophical context, data acquisition and analysis, also dealing with their methodological nuances.
With respect to study setting, this qualitative study doesn't afford any scope for discussions on sample attributes and size. The researcher has founded it on thematic and content analyses concepts. Content analysis aims at describing document content features by studying the speaker, the target audience, and the intended and…
Ayres L. Qualitative research proposal -- part I: posing the problem.
J. Wound Ostomy Continence Nurs. 2007a; 34: 30 -- 32.
Ayres L. Qualitative research proposals -- part II: conceptual models and methodological options. J. Wound Ostomy Continence Nurs.
2007b; 34: 131 -- 133.
My learning in the field of qualitative research
1. In terms of qualitative methodology and the problems of scientism/positivism, what does it mean to recognize the limits of exactitude and certainty, but still to have respect for empirical work? Where do you presently locate yourself paradigmatically and methodologically in terms of your own investments in producing knowledge?
As a research strategy, positivism can be an approach that is based on the ontological principle and the concept that reality and truth are usually free and independent of the individual and observer. A large number of critics and philosophers who are concerned with the idea and concept of investigation and research agree with this statement. The definition of truth as an independent, objective and autonomous existence of positivism can be seen in various works. A positivist researcher believes that the world adjusts to the unchanging and perpetual rules and laws of circumstances…
Criteria for Evaluating Qualitative Research
Qualitative research is different from quantitative in that the data analyzed and the methods by which the data are analyzed are unique. Qualitative research tends to be exploratory—the data obtained is used to describe the phenomenon under scrutiny, usually in thematic terms, while quantitative research tends to test a hypothesis—the data obtained can usually be statistically analyzed and understood in numeric terms. When it comes to evaluating the quality of research designs, reliability and validity are two considerations that have to be made: does the study measure what it purports to measure, and can the study’s findings be reproduced among the same population using the same method? Those are the questions to ask. For qualitative research, the criteria are a little different than for quantitative research, primarily because in the former the nature of the data is more subjective, more intuitive, more personal—it is difficult…
intersection of ESL learners and ESL teachers, both of whom have specific needs that have to be met in order for a positive and productive interaction to take place.
Educators of a high percentage of English Language Learners (ELLs) students are faced with financial concerns as the cost of training has increased significantly in recent years (PS, 2015) while students are impacted by the pressure of needing to become proficient in academic English in order to be prepared and to excel at secondary studies. Furthermore, neither of these situations is static but rather is dynamic and affects each other, as needs change on an individual basis. Moreover, the new ESL curriculum places new demands on both, further affecting the issue. The problem is how to measure the effect that the two (student and teacher) have on one another in terms of impacting preparation and effectiveness.
The research question is two-fold…
Baxter, P., Jack, S. (2008). Qualitative case study methodology: Study design and implementation for novice researchers. The Qualitative Report, 13(4): 544-559.
Creswell, J. W. (2007). Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design: Choosing among
Five Approaches. CA: Sage.
Lin, C. (2013). Revealing the "Essence" of Things: Using Phenomenology in LIS
nursing because a solution to it directly impacts the level of quality care that staff can provide to patients.
The research is quantitative.
The underlying purpose of the study is to test whether providing information from assessments about patient-caregiver hospice dyads to interdisciplinary teams is effective in improving hospice outcomes. The purpose does correspond to an EBP focus -- namely, therapy/treatment.
Greater awareness leads to a greater ability to provide care.
This study could have been undertaken as a qualitative study by conducting interviews with caregivers and/or patients to assess personal reactions to the issue at hand.
Example 2: Qualitative Research
The research problem is very relevant to the actual practice of nursing because it regards how patients deal with suffering, self-blame, guilt, etc., all of which nurses will encounter when treating them.
The research is qualitative.
The underlying purpose of the study is to provide description of a situation.…
Research Report: Ridge and Goodson
The Ridge and Goodson study, "The Relationship Between Multidisciplinary Discharge Outcomes and Functional Status After Total Hip Replacement" (2000), takes place in an academic medical center. Inclusion criteria required the patient to be planning to undergo total hip replacement during the study period. Of those eligible, 25 declined to participate. Further exclusion criteria included a lack of English language proficiency and being under 40 years of age, which left a total of 24 eligible participants. Of these, 21 returned usable surveys and were included in the final sample.
This is a descriptive sample, representing a non-probability sampling design technique. The authors chose their sample based on prospective patients at one hospital, who were available and willing to participate during the study time frame. As such, these subjects may differ from a strictly random sample of the general surgical population.
Ridge and Goodson followed 21 subjects…
Focus group discussions provide in-depth information and allows for free-flowing discussion. They can help management better understand the thoughts and sentiments of the employees during this time of economic crisis. At the same time it can be a venue for gaining new ideas on how to keep the business afloat during these hard times through ideas from the employees themselves. However, care must be taken in reading findings from focus group discussions as they are only meant to give indications and not to act as a conclusive research where a final course of action will be based upon. Another limitation of focus group discussions is the presence of a participant who dominates the discussion. The reaction of the other participants to the dominant participant might have a "halo" effect on the responses of the other participants.
An important aspect of focus group discussions is the synergy created among the participants.…
Al Awami, Hussain. (n.d.). Business Research Methods [PDF document]. Retrieved at http://cvlearn.com/Documents/Exploratory%20research%20and%20Qualitative%20analysis.pdf
Blaxter, L., Hughes, C., & Tight, M. (2006). How to Research. McGraw-Hill International.
Gladstone, B., & Volpe, T. (2008). Qualitative Secondary Analysis: Asking 'New' Questions of 'Old Data [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved at http://www.phs.utoronto.ca/qualmethod/attachmentDL/Upload/Qualitative%20Secondary%20Analysis_Gladstone_Volpe.ppt
National Institute of Standards and Technology. (2006). Bridging from Project Case Study to Portfolio Analysis in a Public R&D Program: A Framework for Evaluation ad Introduction. Retrieved January 25, 2009, at http://www.atp.nist.gov/eao/gcr06-891/part-1.htm
The purpose of this qualitative study is to better understand the dynamic and intricate process of child development within inner city neighborhoods. This study will seek to shed light upon the various factors which impact child development in such places, and determine out of issues like crime, lack of strong educational institutions, and the abundance of single-parent households -- which causes the greatest amount of harm to child development. This research project endeavors to determine which obstacle causes the greatest impediment to the ability of children to thrive so that the variable or variables which create them most harm are adequately pinpointed.
It is with great hope and intention that this research project creates lasting and precise social change. esearch like this is indeed meant to make a difference in the world and ultimately change the life trajectories of children who are born into such disadvantaged neighborhoods. This…
Branum, A. (2008, October). Food Allergy Among U.S. Children: Trends in Prevalence and Hospitalizations. Retrieved from cdc.gov: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/databriefs/db10.htm
Currie, J. (2007, March). Poverty Among Inner-City Children . Retrieved from princeton.edu: http://www.princeton.edu/~jcurrie/publications/inman_june07.pdf
Fitzgerald, S. (2013, July). 'Crack baby' study ends with unexpected but clear result. Retrieved from philly.com: http://articles.philly.com/2013-07-22/news/40709969_1_hallam-hurt-so-called-crack-babies-funded-study
McCord, J. (1997). Violence and Childhood in the Inner City. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Outpatient Transition Clinics: A Mixed-Methods Study Protocol
This a mixed method study with a controlled and retrospective design that involves interviews that are semi structured among healthcare experts, consultation observation focused on young people, and transferred between 2 to 4 years before the date of collecting data. Questionnaires among the youth are incorporated in the interviews (Sattoe, Peeters, Hilberink, Ista, & Staa, 2016).
Patient experiences of decentralized acute healthcare services
The study was qualitative. Data analysis was done through done through thematic analysis (Leonardsen, et al., 2016).
Study on the impact of patient satisfaction on a rural hospital
A qualitative method was applied to analyze historical patient contentment surveys and the accompanying revenue collection statements from a hospital in a rural area in the North Eastern part of Oklahoma for a period stretching 25 months (Jacobs, 2011).
Discuss the types of statistical tests used within each article and why they…
Abdulazeez, A. (2014). Differences and Similarities between Parametric and Non-Parametric Statistics. Academia.
Jacobs, K. E. (2011). A quantitaive correlational study on the impact of patient satisfaction on a rural hospital. The Internet Journal of Allied Health Sciences and Practice.
Leonardsen, A.-C., Del Busso, L., Grondahl, V., Ghanima, W., Barach, P., & Jelsness-Jorgensen, L.-P. (2016). A qualitative study of patient experiences of decentralized acute healthcare services. Scand J. Prim Health Care, 317 -- 324.
Robson, C., 1994. Experiment, Design and Statistics in Psychology, Chapter 7: Parametric and Nonparametric tests. [PDF] Available at: http://www.blackwellpublishing.com/robson/pdfs/EDAC07.pdf.
traits and factors. These traits and factors will include this short introduction, a review of the design of the studies, the rationale of the studies, the results from the studies, a critique of the studies, whether the research questions and their method of answering make sense, the overall research questions and hypothesis in each study, the measurement and instrumentation in each study, the sampling procedures in each study and the ethical considerations in each study. While the two studies are the same in some respects, they are also very different.
The Lin and Bates procedures did the first home visit after the sixth week of the semester and the participants were given any guidelines. The participants chose the families that they wanted to visit and they gathered the information that they thought would prepare them to better serve children and families in different cultures. In the Lanigan study, it was…
Lanigan, J.D. (2011). Family child care providers' perspectives regarding effective professional development and their role in the child care system: A qualitative study. Early Childhood Education Journal, 38, 399-409.
Lin, M. & Bates, A.B. (2010). Home visits: How do they affect teachers' belief about teaching and diversity? Early Childhood Education Journal, 38, 179-185.
Timmons (1994) in his study presents a three-dimensional model of practical application of a good idea:
Comprehensive evaluation of the opportunity;
Comprehensive evaluation of one's own expertise and inclination; and Comprehensive evaluation of the resources gathering process to maintain the launch of business venture.
Long and McMullan (1984) propose that application of a good idea depends on two processes; namely, elaboration and evaluation. Singh (1998) found that those entrepreneurs who spend more time studying the pros and cons of an idea before embarking on its application tend to set up fewer businesses than those who spend less time in the elaboration and evaluation phase. However, Singh (1998) points out that higher majority of successful entrepreneurs are those who spend more time in elaboration and evaluation.
1.4 Traits of entrepreneurs
Wright et al. (1997a) studied motivational drivers of entrepreneurs and found that entrepreneurs are primarily driven by either one or both…
Adler, P. & Kwon, S. (2000). Social capital: The good, the bad and the ugly. In E. Lesser (Ed.), Knowledge and social capital: Foundations and applications (pp. 80-115). Boston: Butterworth-Heineman.
Aldrich, H. & Zimmer, C. (1986). Entrepreneurship through social networks. In D. Sexton and R. Smilor (Eds), the art and science of entrepreneurship (pp. 3-23). Cambridge, MA: Ballinger.
Aldrich, H., Rosen, B., and Woodward, W. (1987) "The impact of social networks on business foundings and profit: a longitudinal study," in Churchill, N.C., Hornaday, J.A., Kirchoff, B.A. et al. (eds) Frontiers of Entrepreneurship Research, Welles-ley, MA: Babson College.
Amabile, T.M. (1988) "A model of creativity and innovation in organizations," in Staw, B. And Cummings, L.L. (eds) Research in Organizational Behavior, Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.
In research, data and information collected needs to be organized in a manner that makes sense for the researcher at the analysis and report writing stages. Data can be organized depending on the data analysis objectives of the researcher. The researcher would organize qualitative data differently than a survey or quantitative data. It is through data organization that the researcher, at times, would make sense of the data at hand and would either confirm or change the direction or focus of the data analyses (while keeping in mind that any changes should still be aligned with the study's objectives).
Organizing data collected using qualitative methods require a different kind of organization or approach to data analysis. Qualitative data are made up of text relevant to the study at hand, and may be in the form of a key word, phrase, sentence, or passage from a specific discussion into…
Creswell, J. (2009). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Reisman, J., Gienapp, A. And S. Stachowiak. 2007. A Handbook of Data Collection Tools: Companion to "A Guide to Measuring Advocacy and Policy." Organizational Research Services.
data collection and the sources to be utilized for this project. The highlighted gaps in knowledge will be investigated with the help of two research methods. The research methods have been chosen on the basis that they have the best chance of answering the research questions. Lastly, the procedures that will be utilized to analyse the results and also the limitations of the methods will be highlighted. Ethical considerations will also be given (Frandsen & Johansen, 2010).
There is a need for a comprehensive evaluation in order to capture the sophisticated processes of public relations crisis communication and also to provide a broader perspective on the matter in addition to helping with the investigation of the related issues. A mixed-method study approach (a mix of quantitative and qualitative study methodologies) will be employed for the purposes of providing an overview of the subject matter and also to help provide data…
Bryman, A. (2008). Social research methods (3rd ed.). New York: Oxford University Press
Collis, J., & Hussey, R. (2003). Business research -- a practical guide for undergraduate and postgraduate students (2nd ed.). Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan.
Cutler, A. (2004). Methodical failure: The use of case study method by public relations researchers. Public Relations Review, 30(3), 365-375. doi:10.1016/j.pubrev.2004.05.008
Falkenheimer, J., & Heide, M. (2010). Crisis communicators in change: From plans to improvisations. In W. T. Coombs, & S. J. Holladay (Eds.). The handbook of crisis communication. (pp. 512-526). Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell.
nursing client relationships and how the study is a valid research for practitioners. It has 26 sources in Harvard Style.
esearch titles must be limited to fifteen words. In this case the author has exceeded the limitation by one count which is negligible. The importance of relevance of the title to the body of the research is that it must collaborate with the core study area. In the first line the author has already specified the relationship of the nurse-client at the beginning and categorizes it as a "partnership" whereas the title of the study must not reveal the results or even the anticipated results.
Authors and Abstracts
The authors T. Hostick and F. McClelland both the authors indicate in their abstract that the article aim in establishing nursing behavior when they are engaged in a nurse-client relationship. The abstract though is limited in expressing the content of the study…
Hostick, T. & McClelland, F. 2002, Partnership: a co-operative inquiry between Community Mental Health Nurses and their clients. 2. The nurse-client relationship. Journal of Psychiatry and Mental Health Nursing 9, 111-117.
Beyea, S.C. 1997, Research utilization begins with learning to read research reports, Research Corner, AORN, February. Accessed on 29-9-2003 at http://www.aorn.org/journal/research/rc297.htm
Author not available, 2003, Reading Nursing Research to Critique a Study and to Summarize Findings for Use in Practice, Available at http://classes.kumc.edu/son/NURS460smith/460critiquingreseach.html
Forchuk, C. 1989, Establishing a Nurse-Client Relationship. Journal of Psychosocial Nursing vol.27,no.2. Available at http://willmar.ridgewater.mnscu.edu/library/338271.htm
These are questions dealing with attitude and are the most important questions when doing qualitative social science research to gauge relationships among events. In addition to construction questions about attitudes, it is important to have the questions drafted in the correct format (Nachmias, 2008).
The Quantitative methodologies will be the statistical tests designed for the overall model to incorporate the information provided through one, two or all of the Qualitative data analysis methodologies. The tests used to determine the relationship between these "qualitative" factors and increases in Infection rates, will be the Chi-Square, Student's T-Test, ANOVA (to test for variations among the data), the construction of a Linear Regression Model and the calculation of the Pearson Correlation Coefficient, otherwise known as "R-Squared" (Nachmias, 2008).
These tests will be utilized in conjunction with a predetermined level of significance, or alpha. Since these tests will all be measuring the means and relationships…
Barrett, R. & Randle, J. (2008). Hand hygiene practices: nursing students' perceptions. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 17(14), 1851-1857.
Beggs, C.; Noakes, C.; Shepherd, S.; Kerr, K.; Sleigh, P. & Banfield, K. (2006). The influence of nurse cohorting on hand hygiene effectiveness. American Journal of Infection Control, 34, 10, 621-626.
Larson, E.; Quiros, D. & Lin, S. (2007). Dissemination of the CDC's Hand Hygiene Guideline and impact on infection rates. American Journal of Infection Control, 35(10), 666-675.
Roberts, C.; Roberts, J. & Roberts, R.J. (2009). Investigation into the effect of an alcohol-based hand product on infection rate in a nursing home setting. Journal of Infection Prevention, 10(4), 138-142.
Patricia Benner's Theory of Novice to Expert: Does It emain Valid?
What makes a nurse a good nurse? Patricia Benner's Theory of Novice to Expert examines the growth of a nurse's expertise and emotional development from her first years of practice to what Benner calls expertise, or higher-level competency. In Benner's view, expertise depends upon the development of the nurse's intuitive capacity. As noted by Lyneham, Parkinson, & Denholm (2008), this competency that Benner defined as "intuitive" is a little-understood term, given the basis of modern nursing in evidence-based practice (p.380). By intuition, Benner meant the internalization of experience as well as technical capabilities. To better understand Benner's ideas, the authors adopted a qualitative, phenomenological approach, interviewing 14 emergency room nurses who met Benner's standards of expert practice, to determine if Benner's framework was relevant. Specifically, the study attempted to respond to criticisms of Benner's model of expert practice.
Lyneham, J. Parkinson, C. & Denholm, C. (2008) Explicating Benner's concept of expert
practice: intuition in emergency nursing. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 64(4), 380 -- 387.
Another concern is the lengthiness of the survey -- 35 items -- that may have fatigued some of the respondents and may have resulted in rushed and insufficient care in answering the questions.
Furthermore, attributions may have been incorrectly placed. The participant, too, may have erred due to subjective bias (i.e. A 'falling out' with the principal may have led her to incorrectly accusing administrator of reluctance to integrate); furthermore, few teachers would readily admit to negative attitudes in integrating children, teachers may over-rate or under-rate their abilities (as, for instance, with the question: "I find that my knowledge about teaching pupils with physical disabilities in PE class is satisfactory"), and teachers may have deliberately or unwittingly deviated in order to protect their identity and their identity of the school.
Finally, although the survey was built on earlier studies of inclusion, it would be interesting to know amongst which population…
Jerlinder, K., Danermark, B., & Gil, P. (2010). Swedish primary-school teachers' attitudes to inclusion - the case of PE and pupils with physical disabilities, European Journal of Special Needs Education, 25, 45 -- 57
Pruitt, D. (2000). Your adolescent: Emotional, behavioral, and cognitive development from early adolescence through the teen years. Washington, DC: American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
Spencer-Cavaliere, N. & Watkinson, E.J. (2010). Inclusion Understood From the Perspectives of Children With Disability, Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 27, 275-293
The United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) (2007). Promoting the Rights of Children with Disabilities Innocenti Digest No. 13
Statistics A-Ha Moment
The author of this brief reflection has been learning or reabsorbing a number of terms and concepts throughout the duration of the applicable class being completed. During that time, there has been some things that have just made sense and did not take a lot of brainpower or epiphany to make sense of. However, there have been other things that are much more vexing and hard to fathom. The author of this report will focus on one of the latter and the "a-ha!" moment that revealed a revelation. This revelation centers on qualitative studies that are based on perception and opinion and how hard those can be to do properly given how perceptions and feelings can quite easily differ from person to person for even the same phenomenon or even. While medical tests that use a measurement of pain are hard to do right and well, the…
Dawson, B. & Trapp, R. (2004). Basic & clinical biostatistics. New York: Lange Medical
Books-McGraw-Hill, Medical Pub. Division.
Hawker, G., Mian, S., Kendzerska, T., & French, M. (2011). Measures of adult pain: Visual
Analog Scale for Pain (VAS Pain), Numeric Rating Scale for Pain (NRS Pain), McGill Pain
Mixed Methods Research
Two important aspects of qualitative research relates to the role of the researcher and the manner in which knowledge is viewed. These two aspects fundamentally distinguish qualitative research from quantitative research (Creswell, 2014). In qualitative research, the researcher seeks to cultivate a closer relationship with the subject(s). This means that the researcher focuses on a single or a small number of subjects, and utilises designs that allow closer interaction with the subjects such as in-depth interviews, observations, and focus group discussions. Cultivating a closer relationship with the subjects is informed by the need to gain a deeper understanding of the research phenomenon (Denscombe, 2010). This arises from the assertion that knowledge is subjective (Bryman, 2008). In other words, different individuals tend to have different meanings and worldviews about a given phenomenon. The role of the researcher, therefore, is to understand the unique interpretation a subject holds about…
Nursing Study on Hourly ounding
Qualitative nursing Study on Hourly ounding
Similarities and difference to other quantitative articles
Similar to other qualitative papers, ethnographic researchers target the inclusion and representation of the views and observations of the subjects. The questions in qualitative and ethnographic researchers try to focus on the understanding of the subjects in their engagements in the day-to-day experiences. It is the interests of qualitative and ethnographic researchers to seek the relative positions and evaluations of the subjects about the subject matter (Green, Dixon, & Zaharlick, 2002).
Qualitative and ethnographic researchers obtain guidance on implementation and design in conducting their study from the theoretical orientations. These orientations include data collections tools -- interviews, artifacts, participant observation -- and data analysis measures (Green et al., 2002). Theoretical guides also direct on measures of entering the field, data to collect, the relevant literature to retain, necessary records to make and…
Green, J., Dixon, C., & Zaharlick, A. (2002). "Ethnography As A Logic Of Inquiry." In Handbook For Methods Of Research On English Language Arts Teaching, Ed. James Flood, Julie Jensen, Diane Lapp, And James Squire. New York: Macmillan.
LoBiondo-Wood, G., & Haber, J. (2013). Nursing Research: Methods and Critical Appraisal for Evidence-Based Practice: Elsevier - Health Sciences Division.
Health and Safety Questionnaire
Qualitative research questions regarding health and policy issues are difficult to put together in a comprehensive fashion. For this reason, it is necessary to have a brief literature review to see how some scholars have dealt with this problem. Then it will be possible to put together a properly structured interview. Then, the author structured a sample interview.
Qualitative Interview Methodology Literature
In a journal article in the International Journal for Quality in Health Care, the authors put together a 32 item checklist to help set up competent focus group interviews with consolidated criteria for reporting The authors performed their comprehensive search in Cochrane and Campbell Protocols, CINAHL, Medline,, systematic reviews of studies of a qualitative nature, reviewer or author guidelines of major medical journals and also reference lists of the relevant journals and other publications for existing checklists that are widely used to assess qualitative…
Lingard, L., Albert, M., & Levinson, W. (2008). Grounded theory, mixed methods, and action research.
British Medical Journal, 337, 459-461.
Tong, A., Sainsbury, P., & Craig, J. (2007). Consolidated criteria for reporting qualitative research
(coreq): a 32-item checklist for interviews and focus groups. International Journal for Quality
Anchored on the research objective of determining differences, if there are any, in human trafficking rates between male and female adults, the researcher will develop a tool (in-depth interview guide) that will cull out important insights into the issue of human trafficking, from the perspective of both the victims and representatives from organizations/agencies on preventing it.
An in-depth interview is the appropriate qualitative data collection method, as the issue of human trafficking is a very sensitive issue for its victims, and one that requires deeper discovery, thus the inclusion of interviews of experts on the issue. Two in-depth interview guides will therefore be developed for the study: a guide for interviewing human trafficking victims (both male and female) and another for the issue experts.
From these tools, the researcher is expecting that themes relevant to the focus of the two informant groups will emerge. From the victims, a deeper understanding…
Creswell, J. (2009). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Hepburn, S., & Simon, R.J. (2010). Hidden in plain sight: Human trafficking in the United
States. Gender Issues, 27(1-2), 1-26. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12147-010-9087-7
.....employee data to answer some human resources related questions using the SPSS software. The screenshots of the entire data are presented in the Appendix 1 and Appendix 2. The report provides the findings for the HR (human resources) issues after carrying out the data analysis of employee's data. The outcome of the analysis reveals that workers between 25 and 55 years of age form the largest percentage of employees in the organization where the mean age of all the entire workforce is 39.19 years. However, workers between 18 and 29 years of age consist of 30.4% of the workforce. However, workers between age of 30 and 40 consist of 23.2% of employees within the organization. Employees between 41 and 50 years of age consist of 23.2% of the workforce while employees between 51 and 63 of age consist of 21.7%.
The findings also reveal the proportion of the employees belonging…
Autism is a problem with significant negative impacts on affected children and their parents/families who require wide-ranging support services for their children. For family members, the condition generates distress when raising the affected child due to the psychological and social problems it creates. Therefore, the consideration of parental mental health is an important aspect for social workers and mental healthcare providers when attending to these special needs' kids and creating interventions for children diagnosed with autism. In this regard, the research problem to be examined in this study is the link between hopefulness, quality of life (QOF) and internalized stigma for parents with autistic children.
Plan for Identifying Research Question and Sub-questions
The plan for identifying the research question and relevant sub-questions in this study involves utilizing the PICO format. First, the researcher identified the population or problem of interest i.e. parents with children suffering from autism. This was followed…
Costco Internal Assessment
Brief Company Overview
Having commenced its operations in 1976 with the establishment of the very first retail warehouse club in San Diego by a warehouse club retailing pioneer by the name Sol Price, Costco has grown to become one of the largest retailers in the world. The company’s first location mainly served small enterprises and was located in a modified/adapted plane hangar (Costco, 2019). The name of this first establishment was Price Club. It was, however, not until 1983 that the first Costco was opened by James D. Sinegal and Jeffrey H. Brotman in Seattle. In 1993, the two formations (Costco and Price Club) merged to become Price/Costco, and six years later, the corporation adopted its current name.
Presently, the company is headquartered in Issaquah, Washington and company has operations in not only the United States, but also Spain, Australia, the UK, and…
Bahrain Ministries IT Service
Studying the Potential of Moving Bahrain Ministries IT Services Into Private Cloud Computing
Information technology (IT) is not only an important part of life for many people, but it is also a booming business (Amies, et al., 2012). One of the most significant steps IT has made in recent years is the advent of cloud computing. This is similar to the old style of storing information, where everything went to a central server, or mainframe (Voorsluys, Broberg, & Buyya, 2011). The technological advances that have been seen since then mean that the way the information is sent, stored, and retrieved has vastly improved from the original design. Now companies can store all their information off-site, yet they know that information is being kept safe and can be retrieved anytime (Amies, et al., 2012). This frees up their computers and keeps them from needing IT departments and…
Amies, A., Sluiman, H., Tong, Q.G., & Liu, G.N. (2012). Infrastructure as a Service Cloud Concepts. Developing and Hosting Applications on the Cloud. IBM Press.
Cohn, C., & Samuels, J. (2012). Megaupload and the Government's Attack on Cloud Computing. Electronic Frontier Foundation.
Faroughy, A. (1951). The Bahrein Islands (750 -- 1951): A Contribution to the Study of Power Politics in the Persian Gulf. NY: Verry, Fisher & Co.
Houtsma, M.T. (1960). "Ba-rayn." Encyclopedia of Islam. I. Leiden: E.J. Brill.
Baxter P. & Jack S. Qualitative Case Study Approach: Design and Implementation for Inexperienced Researchers. The Qualitative Report, 13(4), 544-559
This paper treats case study as an approach in research. A qualitative case study approach avails tools for research in complex phenomena in context. If appropriately applied, the methodology is a valuable tool for health sciences in evaluating programs, crafting interventions and developing theory. This paper seeks to guide the inexperienced researcher in picking out the important elements for purposes of design and implementation of qualitative case study research tasks. There is a summary of the available designs of case study. The generalized recommendations for drafting the research questions, crafting propositions, binding the case, determination of the case in focus, triangulation and discussion of the sources of data are also availed. In order to apply the principles, there must be clear samples of research questions, propositions of study and various…