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protection human participants, data collection, data analysis, problem statement, interpretation findings. Each study analysis 750-1,000 words submitted document.
CITICAL APPAISAL: QUANTITATIVE STUDY
Protection of Human Participants
• Identify the benefits and risks of participation addressed by the authors. Were there benefits or risks the authors do not identify?
The subjects of the quantitative study were children who had undergone hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, "an intensive therapy used to improve survivorship and cure various oncologic diseases. However, this therapy is associated with high mortality rates and numerous negative side-effects" (Chamorro-Vina 2012: 1). The participants had already elected to go through the procedure before the study began.
• Was informed consent obtained from the subjects or participants?
Consent was obtained from the legal guardians; the children were not cognitively impaired and the children had to give their verbal agreement to participate (Chamorro-Vina 2012: 4).
• Did it seem that the subjects participated…
Chamorro-Vina, C. (et al. 2012). Exercise in pediatric autologous stem cell transplant patients.
BMC Cancer, 12, 401.
led by Venkatesan Prem conducted a research on nurses' knowledge regarding palliative care. This research was influenced by the fact that inadequate knowledge of a palliative care among these professionals is well-documented across various studies on palliative care. The lack of sufficient knowledge by nurses and other health care professionals regarding this health issue is considered as one of the major hindrances in providing high-quality palliative care services. This cross-sectional quantitative research provides important information that may be used in nursing practice through effective measures of enhancing the knowledge of these professionals in providing palliative care.
Summary of the Study:
One of the major obstacles to the provision of high-quality and effective palliative care in the recent past is inadequate knowledge by nurses and other health care practitioners. There are various reasons attributed to the lack of adequate knowledge on the issue such as deficiencies in nursing education, lack of…
Prem et. al. (2012, August). Study of Nurses' Knowledge about Palliative Care: A Quantitative
Cross-Sectional Survey. Indian Journal of Palliative Care, 18(2), 122-127. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3477365/
Qadire, M.A. (2014, February). Nurses' Knowledge About Palliative Care: A Cross-Sectional
Survey. Journal of Hospice and Palliative Nursing, 16(1), 23-30.
Quantitative Study Review
This paper provides a review of a quantitative study and determines the purpose, sample, method, findings and credibility of the study. It also examines the interventions and whether there was any clinical significance to the findings. By examining the significance and credibility of the study it shows its value in nursing research.
The purpose of the study by Gonzales et al. (2017) was to describe graduate entry nursing students' learning styles. The research question was: “What are the predominant learning styles of graduate entry nursing students?” (Gonzales et al., 2017, p. 56). The study did not make any hypothesis prior to conducting the Index of Learning Styles (ILS) survey.
The sample for the study was obtained by recruiting 202 graduate entry nursing student volunteers at a southwestern university. This was essentially a convenience sample. No inclusion or exclusion criteria were discussed in the study, but in…
AbuAssi, N. E., & Alkorashy, H. A. E. (2016). Relationship between learning style and readiness for self-directed learning among nursing students at king Saud university, Saudi Arabia. International journal of advanced nursing studies, 5(2), 109-116.
Brannan, J. D., White, A., & Long, J. (2016). Learning styles: Impact on knowledge and confidence in nursing students in simulation and classroom. International journal of nursing education scholarship, 13(1), 63-73.
Gonzales, L. K., Glaser, D., Howland, L., Clark, M. J., Hutchins, S., Macauley, K., ... & Ward, J. (2017). Assessing learning styles of graduate entry nursing students as a classroom research activity: a quantitative research study. Nurse education today, 48, 55-61.
McKenna, L., Copnell, B., Butler, A. E., & Lau, R. (2018). Learning style preferences of Australian accelerated postgraduate pre-registration nursing students: A cross-sectional survey. Nurse education in practice, 28, 280-284.
Vizeshfar, F., & Torabizadeh, C. (2018). The effect of teaching based on dominant learning style on nursing students' academic achievement. Nurse education in practice, 28, 103-108.
Designing a eseach study: Two scenaios
Lewisville Health Sevices, a family health clinic, has seen few people coming in to eceive the influenza vaccine. The bochue advocating getting the vaccine that is distibuted to clinic uses seems to be ineffective. The goal of the eseach is to encouage moe clients to eceive the vaccine.
Reseach method and souces of infomation
This quantitative study will distibute a suvey to clinic uses, asking them if they intend to get the vaccine, if they eceived the vaccine in the past and ask them vaious questions about why they did o did not eceive the vaccine. Thei peceptions of the clinic's cuent maketing of the vaccine will also be assessed.
Natue of data to be gatheed and analyzed
The data gatheed and analyzed will be quantitative in natue, as it will be based upon a distibuted suvey to all clinic paticipants. Client's demogaphic infomation…
references and given sample pizzas to taste-test. Then, they will answer a quantitative survey on their buying habits.
Nature of data to be gathered and analyzed
A mixed method approach will be used: testers will be interviewed and observed in a qualitative fashion. They will also answer a quantitatively analyzed questionnaire about their tastes, eating habits, and frozen food consumption.
Hypothesis or hypotheses to be proved or disproved
The new frozen pizzas will be popular amongst teenagers and working couples who need to put a hot meal quickly on the table every night.
In research, data and information collected needs to be organized in a manner that makes sense for the researcher at the analysis and report writing stages. Data can be organized depending on the data analysis objectives of the researcher. The researcher would organize qualitative data differently than a survey or quantitative data. It is through data organization that the researcher, at times, would make sense of the data at hand and would either confirm or change the direction or focus of the data analyses (while keeping in mind that any changes should still be aligned with the study's objectives).
Organizing data collected using qualitative methods require a different kind of organization or approach to data analysis. Qualitative data are made up of text relevant to the study at hand, and may be in the form of a key word, phrase, sentence, or passage from a specific discussion into…
Creswell, J. (2009). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Reisman, J., Gienapp, A. And S. Stachowiak. 2007. A Handbook of Data Collection Tools: Companion to "A Guide to Measuring Advocacy and Policy." Organizational Research Services.
leadership is understood today is in the dichotomy between transactional leadership and transformational leadership. Where the former focuses on execution of tasks, the latter has become more popular in the knowledge economy. The basic theory of transformational leadership is said to "transform followers' personal values and self-concepts and move them to higher level of needs and aspirations" (Gumusluogu & Ilsev, 2009, 1). In essence, transformational leadership encourages both individual transformational, and by way of that, transformation of the organization as a whole. Since the concept was first developed, transformational leadership has been studied extensively, and there is evidence to support the idea that transformational leadership is associated with superior performance at both individual and organizational levels (Wang et al., 2011). However, there remains a need to understand the way by which this process works. In other words, we know that transformational leadership often has a positive influence on an organization,…
Avolio, B., Walumbwa, F. & Weber, T. (2009). Leadership: Current theories, research and future directions. Annual Review of Psychology. Vol. 60 (2009) 421-449.
Gumusluogu, L. & Ilsev, A. (2009, 1). Transformational leadership, creativity, and organizational innovation. Journal of Business Research. Vol. 62 (2009) 461-473.
Gumusluogu, L. & Ilsev, A. (2009, 2). Transformational leadership and organizational innovation: The roles of internal and external support for innovation. Journal of Product Innovation Management. Vol. 26 (2009) 264-277.
Harms, P. & Crede, M. (2010). Emotional intelligence and transformational and transactional leadership: A meta-analysis. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies. Vol. 17 (1) 5-17.
Consider how qualitative and quantitative research methods complement one another, and consider the role of mixed methods designs.
Quantitative and qualitative social science study techniques have, for long, remained discrete, barely overlapping, spheres. But, of late, innovations have shed light on quantitative and qualitative techniques’ complementarity (Maxwell, 1998). Complementarily employing both methods offers broader understandings besides facilitating research findings’ confirmation or triangulation using different techniques, thus improving overall result validity and making the research more useful for targeted entities. However, the quest for genuinely complementary research techniques is also a greatly challenging task as it implies extra expenses, in terms of human as well as monetary resources, in addition to the development of ethical quandaries pertaining to follow- up and a need for collaboration and respecting diverse epistemological and methodological stands (Maxwell, 1998).
Using a qualitative process prior to engaging in survey work is, without a doubt, the most widely…
Qualitative thematic and content analyses represent two widely utilized nursing data analysis techniques. However, no explicit boundaries have been identified between them. That is, researchers utilize them interchangeably and, apparently, find it hard to choose one of the two. In this regard, Vaismoradi's paper explains and deliberates on the borders between qualitative thematic and content analyses, presenting implications for improving the uniformity between information analysis techniques and related researches' purpose. The discussion paper comprises of a logical outline and examination of thematic and content analyses' objectives, definitions, philosophical context, data acquisition and analysis, also dealing with their methodological nuances.
With respect to study setting, this qualitative study doesn't afford any scope for discussions on sample attributes and size. The researcher has founded it on thematic and content analyses concepts. Content analysis aims at describing document content features by studying the speaker, the target audience, and the intended and…
Ayres L. Qualitative research proposal -- part I: posing the problem.
J. Wound Ostomy Continence Nurs. 2007a; 34: 30 -- 32.
Ayres L. Qualitative research proposals -- part II: conceptual models and methodological options. J. Wound Ostomy Continence Nurs.
2007b; 34: 131 -- 133.
Cloud Computing Technology
The research methods and design of this non-experimental qualitative study are all aligned to the goal of investigating the factors affecting cloud computing adoption by general user's perception of cloud technologies. The research questions, population and sample size definition which are essential to any effective methodology, are predicated on the observation that the associated technologies that comprise cloud computing have significant potential to provide humanitarian and accelerate educational attainment on a global scale. The technology components that comprise cloud computing including Platform-as-a-Service (PaaS), Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS) and Software-as-a-Service (SaaS) must be tightly orchestrated together to deliver applications online that people can use. Performance and responsiveness of cloud computing applications, the majority of which are installed as SaaS-based software, will also need to be measured in this study, as their performance will be a predicator of general user's perception of this technology. The scalability of cloud-based applications will also…
Healthcare Associated Infections: Critical Analysis
The prevention and control of healthcare associated infections is an issue that has attracted considerable attention across the globe given the increase of healthcare associated infections. Despite the development and use of several strategies and measures to lessen the burdens caused by healthcare associated infections, the practices of healthcare professionals are largely suboptimal while the infections persist. As a result, the prevention and control of these infections has attracted considerable concern, which has resulted in several studies on the practices and behaviors of healthcare practitioners. Carole Jackson, Karen Lowton and Peter Griffiths have conducted a research on nurses' prevention behaviors to control healthcare associated infections. The qualitative study utilizes vignettes created from nurses' reports of infection prevention behaviors and practices.
Healthcare associated infections can be described as infections that emerge from medical interventions like clinical or surgical processes or from contact with a…
Burns, N., & Grove, S. (2011). Understanding nursing research (5th ed.). Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier.
Jackson, C. Lowton, K. & Griffiths, P. (2013, July). Infection Prevention As "A Show": A Qualitative Study of Nurses' Infection Prevention Behaviours. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 10(16).
"Prevention and Control of Healthcare-Associated Infections." (2011, November). Quality Improvement Guide. Retrieved from National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence website: http://www.his.org.uk/files/9213/7483/8498/Prevention_and_control_of_healthcare-associated_infections_Quality_improvement_guide_NICE_Guidance_2011.pdf
"Qualitative Research Perspective." (n.d.). Chapter 4. Qualitative Research in Information Systems: Consideration of Selected Theories. Retrieved from Australian National University Press website: http://press.anu.edu.au/info_systems/mobile_devices/ch04s02.html
Sampling Data Analyses the single-study critique paper 2 individual assignment. Develop individual response Single-Study Paper 2 IOM topic area. Use article Single Study Critiques 1-2. It a requirement a quantitative study paper.
Quantitative article analysis
The Nursing esearch article "Effectiveness of an Aspiration isk-eduction Protocol" addresses a proposed method to reduce the risk of aspiration in critically ill patients through a three-pronged intervention strategy. The intervention strategy components include "maintaining head-of-bed elevation at 30 degrees or higher, unless contraindicated; inserting feeding tubes into distal small bowel, when indicated; and using an algorithmic approach for high gastric residual volumes" (Metheny, Davis-Jackson & Stewart 2010: 1). It used a two-group quasi-experimental design of critically ill, mechanically ventilated adult patients receiving tube feedings. 329 were in the control population, 145 in the experimental group (Metheny, Davis-Jackson & Stewart 2010: 1). The patients were all drawn from the same five ICUs at a Level…
Metheny, Norma A., Jami Davis-Jackson & Barbara J. Stewart. (2010). Effectiveness of an Aspiration Risk-Reduction Protocol. Nursing Research, 59(1): 18 -- 25. Retrieved: doi:10.1097/NNR.0b013e3181c3ba05.
Good researchers tend to pull methods out of a tool kit as they are needed" (2006, p. 54). Notwithstanding these criticisms and constraints, though, most social researchers seem to agree that classification by some type of research paradigm is a useful approach based on the need to determine which approach is best suited for a given research enterprise. In this regard, Corby concludes that, "The contested nature of research makes it impossible and unhelpful to ignore the different aims and purposes of various research projects and the methods and approaches being used to carry them out" (2006, p. 54). Therefore, the different aims and purposes of the positivist research paradigm, the constructivist research paradigm and the pragmatic research paradigm are discussed further below.
Positivist Research Paradigm
The positivist research paradigm is a quantitative-based approach that generally seeks to identify trends and patterns that can be used to formulate predictions concerning…
Ames, S.L., Gallaher, P.E., Sun, P. & Pearce, S. (2005). A Web-based program for coding open-ended response protocols. Behavior Research Methods, 37(3), 470-471.
Authors provide a description of a Web-based application that provides researchers with the ability to analyze participant-generated and open-ended data. Authors note that the application was developed in order to take advantage of online surveying based on its ease of use and flexibility. Authors note that this application may be of particular value to researchers who are employing large sample sizes that are frequently needed for projects in which frequency analyses are required. The application uses a grid-based set of criteria to establish codes for participant-generated and open-ended data collected from online surveys and can be applied for scoring results from stem completion,-word or picture associations, and comparable purposes in which such participant-generated responses require categorization and coding. Authors advise that they use this application for their professional online surveying purpose in experimental psychology to examine substance abuse patterns derived from participant-generated responses to various verbal and nonverbal associative memory problems, but that the application is also appropriate for other research areas as well. Authors also note that the application helps improve survey reliability by providing a systematic approach to coding participant-generated responses as well as evaluating the quality of coding and interjudge reliability by researchers with little or no specific training for the purposes. Authors conclude that the coding application is helpful for survey research that uses open-ended responses in virtually any research area of interest.
Austin, T.M., Richter, R.R. & Reinking, M.F. (2008). A primer on Web surveys. Journal of Allied Health, 37(3), 180-181.
Authors report that survey research has become a widely accepted research methodology that has been facilitated through the introduction of computer-based and online survey methods. Authors also emphasize that although electronic survey methods are useful in a wide range of settings for a variety of purposes, they are not appropriate in every situation. Online surveys involve various technologies that have not been available (or required) for paper-and-pencil surveys and require special considerations involving their design, pilot testing, and response rates. Authors present the results of their empirical observations and professional experience in using Web-based surveys to illustrate some of the advantages and disadvantages of the approach, including security and confidentiality issues (they make the point that electronic surveys are particularly vulnerable to compromise and that survey data must be protected as the research progresses) as well as the special considerations that must be taken into account as they apply to this surveying approach. Authors also discuss issues such as sampling error, a "how-to" guide to writing survey questions for online media, and how to order questions to ensure that respondents answer accurately and faithfully. All in all, this was a very timely guide for researchers for identifying when Web-based surveys are most appropriate and what factors should be taken into account in the design, posting and analysis of online surveys.
In its purest definition, quantitative research focuses on a systematic and empirical approach to research based on statistical, mathematical and/or computational techniques. The overall objective of this type of research is to develop models, theories and hypotheses that consist of measurable and verifiable datum. The overall basis for quantitative research is within the process of measurement. This process establishes the necessary connection between empirical observation and the mathematical expression of the interrelationships of quantitative datum. Thus, the researcher must ask specific, rather narrow questions; collect samples of numerical data; analyze that data mathematically; and then develop an unbiased result that can be replicated as well as generalized to a larger population. This is in contrast to qualitative research, that tends to follow broader questions with verbiage-based datum; and focuses on themes to describe patterns within the research set; then extrapolates that information into a larger group (Given, 2008,…
Allingham, M. (2002). Choice Theory: A Very Short Introduction. New York: Oxford University Press.
Creswell, J. (2013). Research Design (4th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Given, L. (2008). The Safe Encyclopedia of Qualitative Research Methods. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Goertz, G., & Mahoney, J. (2012). A Tale of Two Cultures: Qualitative and Quantitative Research in the Social Sciences. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Value of Shifting from Qualitative to Quantitative and Back Again
Qualitative research is considered hypothesis generating, whereas quantitative research is designed to test hypotheses. Based on this perspective, the natural direction of research flow would be from qualitative to quantitative study designs (Black & Fauske, 2008). Qualitative research tends to focus on experiences, rather than the measuring and tracking of objective factors, but there are times when it makes sense to base a qualitative study on quantitative findings. This essay will examine the value of transitioning from qualitative to quantitative study designs and vice versa.
Qualitative to Quantitative
A qualitative study is traditionally conducted when little is understood about a phenomenon, such as the experiences of patients during treatment. For example, Black and Fauske (2008) were interested in understanding the experiences and practices of case managers during advanced care planning. A focus group design was used to conduct semi-structured interviews,…
Black, K. & Fauske, J. (2008). Measuring case managers' advance care planning practice: Translating focus group findings to survey development. Care Management Journals, 9(4), 166-76.
Ullman, S.E. (2005). Interviewing clinicians and advocates who work with sexual assault survivors: A personal perspective on moving from quantitative to qualitative research methodologies. Violence Against Women, 11(9), 1113-39.
esponses may be 'coded' so that some numerical data can be amassed but overall, the most important part of the research is the lived 'experience' that is recorded. In contrast, with quantitative research, it is the data that is more significant. However, quantitative studies can provide the springboard for qualitative studies, as they point out phenomena in the general population that needs to be studied in more 'micro-level' detail. Similarly, qualitative studies can act as early fact-finding expeditions that provide the basis for quantitative analysis, to see if the study of the smaller population is reflective of a larger phenomenon. Neither one type of research needs to come before the other.
A good example of a comparison of qualitative and quantitative research from translation studies can be found in the field of "research in second language learning that identifies learners' problems in composition and attempts to explain them by referring…
Connor, Ulla. (1996). Contrastive rhetoric: Cross-cultural aspects of second-language writing.
Cambridge University Press. ERIC Database. Retrieved: http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/detailmini.jsp?_nfpb=true&_&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED401754&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=no&accno=ED401754
Lund, Thorleif. The qualitative -- quantitative distinction: Some comments. Scandinavian Journal
of Educational Research, 49 (2): 115 -- 132
drugs of varying sorts, whether legal or illegal. The studies in question are either quantitative, qualitative, or a mixture of both. Of course, quantitative refers to the use of numbers and statistics to draw conclusions. Qualitative studies make use of feelings, thoughts and summaries. Indeed, this is less academic and objective in nature but it can explain the "why" of things rather than just the "what." Of course, many other studies are a mixture of the two. This annotated bibliography has two of each of the different types listed above and these were chosen to show that the types of studies relating to drugs come in all three of the major forms.
Chandler, R. K., Finger, M. S., Farabee, D., Schwartz, R. P., Condon, T., Dunlap, L. J. & Lee, J.
(2016). The SOMATICS collaborative: Introduction to a National Institute on Drug
Abuse cooperative study of pharmacotherapy for opioid treatment…
A prediction of the outcomes is not made in the initial development of the research. ather, this appears to be an exploratory study to better understand the issue.
eview of the Literature
The literature included in the review is relevant and recent. The data demonstrates the need for understanding the problem and the importance of the issue to the health and safety of healthcare workers. Although the initial literature review is quite brief, the literature is expanded in the discussion of the results.
The research design is a quantitative methodology utilizing a survey to collect data. Information collected was appropriate given the overall scope and focus of the research -- i.e. exploratory. Although the results provide some insight into the specific survey that was used, pertinent information about the survey has been omitted from the study. This may make replication of the study difficult.
Examining the target…
Ozkan, O., & Gokdogan, F. (2003). The prevalence of latex allergy among health care workers in Bolu (Turkey). Dermatology Nursing, 15(6), 543-548.
Additionally, participating teachers will be drawn from public schools in the same state to mitigate the possibility that geographic factors will intervene to too great a degree. That said, consideration will be made to distinguish the specific school districts, socioeconomic conditions and racial factors present in different schools. Without making any preemptive deductions, these preliminary details may be used to help yield evidence of connections which might be used for future study.
The Likert Scale model of survey will be distributed through the email listserv at participating schools, requesting respondents to rate on a scale of 1 to 5 to what extent they agree or disagree with statements provided in the survey. These statements will primarily concern the presence or absence of sufficient outdoor recreational opportunities and the connection between said opportunities and academic performance.
This would be considered a true experimental quantitative study, where a control and experimental group…
Brown, P.; Sutterby, J.A. & Thornton, C.D. (2002). Dramatic play in outdoor play environments. Parent Teacher Organization Today.
Burberry, J. & Learoyd, B. (2005). Leeds Childhood Obesity Prevention and Weight Management Strategy. Leeds Children & Young People. Online at .
Montessori, M. (1986). The Discovery of the Child. 4th. New York: Ballantine Books.
Office of Communications (Ofcom). (2004). Children's food choices, parents' understanding and influence, and the role of food promotions. Office of Communications. Online at http://www.ofcom.org.uk/research/tv/reports/food_ads/ .
international emphasis on education, including the study of languages and foreign cultures, is today still very limited and biased, creating a gap between the job skills and competencies acquired during studies and the international component increasingly present in every work environment, where the young graduate will have to travel or relate to foreign clients, suppliers and several stakeholders. De Wit, Jaramillo, and Knight (2005) report that the development of advanced communication, new technology, increased labor mobility, market economy and trade liberalization, increased private investment, decreased support of higher education, and the development of lifelong learning, are all key drivers for universities to have to internationalize their curricula. They also add that on the government side, the only attention given to this need is for educational programs preparing for government departments, and not for business and the industry at large. Therefore, it is evident that with an increasing global environment, the…
Glaser, B.G. And Strauss, A.L., (1967), The Discovery of Grounded Theory: Strategies for Qualitative Research, Chicago: Aldine
Pattameak, J. (2009) EMPLOYERS' EXPECTATIONS AND PERCEPTIONS OF TOURISM Vol. 5 No. 4 June 2009 Pp. 306-321.
Perron, R. (2011) The 8th SMEs in a Global Economy Conference 2011: " Rising to the Global Challenge: Entrepreneurship and SMEs development in Asia " Retrieved from: http://assets.aarp.org/rgcenter/econ/finding-training-keeping-qualified-workers.pdf
Glaser, B.G. (1978) Advances in The Methodology of Grounded Theory, Sociology Press, Mill Valley, CA.
Public Administration Concepts
Babcock Place -- A 6-story subsidized apartment that houses 150 seniors. 20% of the residents requests that the city put in a crosswalk to reach food, library services, and religious centers. The city's traffic engineer said that the crosswalk was not warranted based on need. The Council has postponed voting until an analysis can be done.
There would be a considerable cost to putting in the cross-walk, as well as a reallocation of resources. Essentially, this asks a question of utilitarianism -- what would provide the greatest good for the greatest number. 30 senior citizens might be happier, but if traffic became a problem, thousands might suffer.
There is a fine balance in this situation; certainly no one wishes to deny seniors the ability to walk to services; yet there are larger issues; how will this be funded, what impact will it have economically, and what…
The researcher was an independent analyst therefore, seemingly, detached from the study.
Crucial observations include the fact that the researcher mentions the interviews and outcomes of the interviews, yet it would be valuable to know how the interviews were conducted. Various confounding elements can creep into the interviews not least the person of the interviewer (that he should, in this case, be matched to the culture of the students, or, at least, understand their culture) and speak in a manner related to their age, level of understanding, and cultural perspectives (as related to the students) so that interviewees relate to him and respond honestly, rather than be intimidated by possible interviewer characteristics.
Specific interview questions may also be slanted in an ambiguous, totally, or partially, non-comprehensible manner. Furthermore, interviewees may respond according to presumed expectations, whilst interfering elements such as peer or, perceived organizational, pressure (to respond in a certain…
risk of progression when a person is exposed to the tuberculosis bacilli to the formation of active illness is a two-stage process that is directed by both endogenous and exogenous risk factors.
Exogenous factors play a key role in accentuating the progression from exposure to infection among which the bacillary load in the sputum and the proximity of an individual to an infectious TB case are key factors. Similarly, endogenous factors lead in progression from infection to active TB disease (Narasimhan, Wood, MacIntyre, & Mathai, 2013, p. 1).
Certain risk factors that have been well-established such as HIV, young age, and malnutrition could exist alongside certain emerging variables like alcohol, indoor air pollution, tobacco smoke, and use of immunosuppressive drugs making the risk for contracting the disease that much higher. Joel is a heavy smoker, homeless, and an alcoholic. It is highly likely he is malnourished and is exposed to…
Collinson, S. (2014). Homeless with TB? Housing Should Be Part of the Treatment, not Part of the Problem. Journal of Social Inclusion, 5(2), 1. Retrieved from https://josi.journals.griffith.edu.au/index.php/inclusion/article/view/547
Kurbatova, E., Cegielski, J., Lienhardt, C., Akksilp, R., Bayona, J., & Becerra, M. et al. (2015). Sputum culture conversion as a prognostic marker for end-of-treatment outcome in patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis: a secondary analysis of data from two observational cohort studies. The Lancet Respiratory Medicine, 3(3), 201-209. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s2213-2600 (15)00036-3
Narasimhan, P., Wood, J., MacIntyre, C., & Mathai, D. (2013). Risk Factors for Tuberculosis. Pulmonary Medicine, 2013, 1-11. http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/828939
Onozuka, D., & Hagihara, A. (2014). The association of extreme temperatures and the incidence of tuberculosis in Japan. Int J Biometeorol, 59(8), 1107-1114. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00484-014-0924-3
Does the ad contain any research-based evidence, or any evidence to substantiate its claims? If yes, what is the evidence?
No, the ad does not contain any research-based evidence or any kind of evidence that is able to substantiate its claims.
What is the overall concept related to the claim in the ad? (e.g., to improve some aspect of development, to increase well-being, to change behaviours, etc.).
There are three general concepts associated to the claim in the ad. The first is that bright colors, textures and fun sounds that are exuded by the toy aid in the stimulation of the baby's senses. Secondly, there is the concept that the action reaction activity nurtures understanding of cause and effect as the child manages to discover how to make noise with the activity blocks. Lastly, there is the concept of fine motor skills. The claim made by the ad is that…
Discussion of the Differences Between Quantitative and Qualitative Research
Q1. How does a research problem/question guide the determination to conduct a quantitative versus a qualitative research study?
In general, qualitative research is exploratory in nature and seeks to understand a particular phenomenon from a particular subject’s perspective (McLeod, 2017). It is open-ended in its focus and the researcher has no predetermined conclusions before embarking upon the study. As a result, it focuses on a small rather than a large population. In stark contrast, a quantitative study seeks to understand a phenomenon in an objective fashion that is generalizable to a large population (McLeod, 2017). It is often framed in the form of a predetermined hypothesis and is narrow in its focus.
Q2. Discuss the value of using a conceptual framework or theory (grand or mid-range) to guide a quantitative research study. Address the debate of the appropriateness of using of…
inductive manner or a deductive manner. Quantitative research is deductive and is conducted according to a hypothesis that has been generated from a review of the literature in the field of study. Qualitative research, on the other hand, is an inductive process that does not use a hypothesis to guide the inquiry. Making a choice between the two research methods is largely determined by the research questions that have been generated by the researcher and by data collection feasibility constraints. Put simply, quantitative research emphasizes theory testing, while qualitative research takes a theory building approach.
Quantitative research methods. A hypothesis is a tentative assumption about a relationship between two or more variables. It is stated as a question that the research is designed to answer. Quantitative research is constructed on the basis of two hypothesis statements in order to use statistical processes to determine relationships among variables. A null hypothesis,…
Shuttleworth, M. (2011). Quantitative research design. Experiment-Resources. Retrieved http://www.experiment-resources.com/quantitative-research-design.html
Trochum, W.M.K. (2006). Qualitative approaches. Research Methods Knowledge Base, Social Research Methods. Retrieved http://www.socialresearchmethods.net/kb/qualapp.php
nursing because a solution to it directly impacts the level of quality care that staff can provide to patients.
The research is quantitative.
The underlying purpose of the study is to test whether providing information from assessments about patient-caregiver hospice dyads to interdisciplinary teams is effective in improving hospice outcomes. The purpose does correspond to an EBP focus -- namely, therapy/treatment.
Greater awareness leads to a greater ability to provide care.
This study could have been undertaken as a qualitative study by conducting interviews with caregivers and/or patients to assess personal reactions to the issue at hand.
Example 2: Qualitative Research
The research problem is very relevant to the actual practice of nursing because it regards how patients deal with suffering, self-blame, guilt, etc., all of which nurses will encounter when treating them.
The research is qualitative.
The underlying purpose of the study is to provide description of a situation.…
Research Report: Ridge and Goodson
The Ridge and Goodson study, "The Relationship Between Multidisciplinary Discharge Outcomes and Functional Status After Total Hip Replacement" (2000), takes place in an academic medical center. Inclusion criteria required the patient to be planning to undergo total hip replacement during the study period. Of those eligible, 25 declined to participate. Further exclusion criteria included a lack of English language proficiency and being under 40 years of age, which left a total of 24 eligible participants. Of these, 21 returned usable surveys and were included in the final sample.
This is a descriptive sample, representing a non-probability sampling design technique. The authors chose their sample based on prospective patients at one hospital, who were available and willing to participate during the study time frame. As such, these subjects may differ from a strictly random sample of the general surgical population.
Ridge and Goodson followed 21 subjects…
T-tests in Quantitative Doctoral Business Research
Quantitative research is one of the methodologies that is commonly used in doctoral business research. The use of this approach is attributable to the availability of more data that requires analysis to help generate competitive advantage in the business field. The use of quantitative research entails conducting statistical analysis, which involves the use of different methods such as t-tests and ANOVA. T-test is used in hypothesis testing in quantitative studies to determine whether variations between the averages of two groups is unlikely to have emerged because of a random chance in selection of a sample. In essence, t-tests help to compare whether two groups have varying average values. In light of the role and significance of the assumptions underlying each parametric test, this paper provides a comparison of one-sample, paired-samples, and independent-sample t-tests within the context of quantitative doctoral business research. The comparison is…
In the vehicle study, witnesses had to select from various types and colors of vehicles, four of the former and three of the latter. The variables in the study in which listeners heard from 'witness testimony included the participation of both jurors and judges in Arizona, five differently worded findings, as well as two versions of conclusions in which it was stated that the 'suspect' either did or did not commit the crime -- in the opinion of the expert (McQuiston-Surrett and Saks, 2009, p. 441).
However, the data collection was extremely different. In the vehicle witness study, the findings were simply the mathematical results of the percentages of the people who were correct in identifying the requisite vehicle. In the other study, researchers were able to determine how different phrasing and diction swayed the credibility of witness testimony -- with some of the phrasing even mentioning the circumscriptions of…
McQuiston-Surrett, D., Saks, M.J. (2009). "The testimony of forensic identification science: what expert witnesses say and what factfinders hear." Law and Human Behavior. 33: 436-453.
Villegas, a.B., Sharps, M.J., Satterthwaite, B., Chisolm, S. (2005). "Eyewitness memory for vehicles." The Forensic Examiner. Retrieved from http://ehis.ebscohost.com.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/eds/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=18&sid=e4265201-4916-4a30-9f85-a8889681037f%40sessionmgr14&hid=17
Secondly, that a positive correlation exists between the instruments CNSVS and the PMC-Q and therefore improve road craft awareness. The alternative null research hypotheses are that: Firstly the intervention program did not produce any significant difference in the concentration levels of Police motorbike riders, and secondly that no positive correlation exists between the instruments CNSVS and the PMC-Q. Therefore there is credence to suggest that a program of cognitive training should be implemented to improve the Police motorbike riders' concentration levels.
As this study is a pioneering study there is a great importance placed upon conducting a pilot study prior to the main study. Thomas & Nelson (2001) report that 75% of research papers are not publishable and make no contribution to theory or practice because of crucial methodological blemishes that could have easily been eradicated if a pilot study had been conducted first. A pilot study helps to develop…
Saving private and professional motorcyclists, (2004). Department for Transport. Retrieved February 2, 2005 from www.dft.gov.uk/stellent/groups/dft_about/documents/pdf/dft_about_pdf_030423.pdf
Class One Advanced Training, 2002. Retrieved February 2, 2005 at http://www.class1motorcycletraining.com/policetraining.htm
THINK! - motorcycle safety campaign: leisure riders. Retrieved February 2, 2005 at http://www.thinkroadsafety.gov.uk/campaigns/motorcycles/motorcycles03.htm
health care centers (PHCC) in Stockholm County, 40 of them were randomly selected using an old-fashioned, non-probability method of basically drawing names from a hat. The author notes, "every PHCC was given a unique number that was written on a paper card and placed in a pot. For transparency, two colleagues independently drew 20 paper cards each, a total of 40." Of these 40, one declined to participate. Therefore, 39 PHCCs were selected, and one nurse from each PHCC served as contact person. The sample size is adequate and actually fairly large for the study. Although unconventional, bias was not introduced by using this method of sample selection, and the sample can be considered representative of the population given the randomness of the PHCC selection procedure. Eligibility criteria are also clearly identified, as the contact person nurse needed to comply with the study design, namely to distribute anonymous questionnaires to…
Sundborg, E.M., Saleh-Stattin, N., Wandell, P. & Tornkvist, L. (2012). Nurses' preparedness to care for women exposed to Intimate Partner Violence: a quantitative study in primary health care. BMC Nursing 11(1). Retrieved online: http://bmcnurs.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1472-6955-11-1
Kottke, J., & Pelletier, K. (2013). Measuring and differentiating perceptions of supervisor and top leader ethics. Journal of Business Ethics, 113(3), 415-428. doi:10.1007/s10551-012-1312-8
Davis, A. L., & othstein, H. . (2006). The Effects of the Perceived Behavioral Integrity of Managers on Employee Attitudes: A Meta-Analysis. Journal of Business Ethics, (4). 407.
Locate, download, and print "Empirical esearch Checklist."
For this assignment, selection of quantitative studies is preferred.
Instructors will be scoring your submission based on the number of correct identifications of empirical articles as noted in the checklist submitted. To be accepted as an empirical article, at least 13 of the 15 characteristics identified in the checklist must be present.
ead the Kottke and Pelletier article in the topic materials.
ead the articles in detail.
Complete the Empirical esearch Checklist for each article by giving the page number where the characteristic is found or marking an "X" in the…
References used in the study are presented.
Validity, in essence, has got to do with the extent to which a given research study measures the accuracy of a specific concept – effectively meaning that a study can be said to have passed the validity test if it accurately mirrors that which the researchers set about to investigate. In quantitative research, as Polit and Beck (2012) point out, “researchers strive to design studies that are strong with respect to all four types of study validity” (p. 303). As the authors further point out, while an attempt to enhance one kind of validity may benefit another form of validity, efforts to ensure one kind of validity sometimes end up interfering with the achievement of other validity types. The four kinds of validity to be taken into consideration in the review of a research design are identified as external validity, internal validity, construct validity, and statistical conclusion validity (Balnaves and…
Autism is a problem with significant negative impacts on affected children and their parents/families who require wide-ranging support services for their children. For family members, the condition generates distress when raising the affected child due to the psychological and social problems it creates. Therefore, the consideration of parental mental health is an important aspect for social workers and mental healthcare providers when attending to these special needs' kids and creating interventions for children diagnosed with autism. In this regard, the research problem to be examined in this study is the link between hopefulness, quality of life (QOF) and internalized stigma for parents with autistic children.
Plan for Identifying Research Question and Sub-questions
The plan for identifying the research question and relevant sub-questions in this study involves utilizing the PICO format. First, the researcher identified the population or problem of interest i.e. parents with children suffering from autism. This was followed…
Stress in the Workplace
The research topic under discussion is Stress at Workplace. Stress comes with different definitions, one of which is that stress is a 'physical, chemical or emotional factor that causes bodily or mental tension.' Emotional stress relates to job burnout, tension and strain and many scholars have called it a psychological process and linked it with the individual and the situation that he is in (American Psychological Association, 2009). The global economy has become very competitive and demands a lot of work from the employees which puts a lot of pressure on them. These increased expansions and demands of the traditional workplace have put a lot more pressure on the workers (Lokk & Arnetz, 1997; Soylu and Campbell, 2012).
The International Labor Organization and World Health Organization have recognized many different effects of stress that are harmful to the person. These effects include physical problems, psychological problems,…
Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. (2008, April).Mental health woes remain one ofthe top reasons for doctor visits. Retrieved from: http://www.ahrq.gov/research/apr08/0408RA33.htm
American Psychological Association Practice Organization (2009).APA Poll Find EconomicStress Taking a Toll on Men. Retrieved from: http://www.apapracticecentral.org/news/2009/stress-men.aspx
American Psychological Association Practice Organization. (2010). Psychologically Healthy Workplace Program Fact Sheet: By the Numbers. Retrieved from: http://www.apa.org/practice/programs/workplace/phwp-fact-sheet.pdf
American Psychological Association. (2009).Stress in America 2009. Retrieved fromhttp://www.apa.org/news/press/releases/stress-exec-summary.pdf
infer an answer to a particular section, then you must so state and JUSTIFY your statement.
DO NOT LEAVE ANY SECTION BLANK.
Do not provide a "Yes" or "no" answer without an EXPLANATION. YOU MUST JUSTIFY ALL YOUR RESPONSES
ALL responses must be written in YOUR OWN WORDS. Do NOT use quotes.
Full and Complete Reference for the Article: Hagan, Teresa L, BSN, RN., B.A., & Donovan, Heidi M, Phd., R.N. (2013). Ovarian cancer survivor's experiences of self-advocacy: A focus group study. Oncology Nursing Forum, 40(2), 140-7. Retrieved from http://searchproquest.com/docview/1325739253?accountid-35812
You must submit the full article in PDF form. Critiques submitted without the PDF will not be accepted.
What is the problem the study was conducted to address? (1)
Response: The problem this study was conducted to address was self-advocacy in clinical research as well as practice. Despite self-advocacy being cited as a trait desirable among…
mixed research approach would work best. It could be argued that such an approach is usually the best methodology to use, because the mixed research approach allows for speculation and analyzing using more than just the numbers. One recent study determined that the "the combining or mixing of qualitative and quantitative methodologies is not a new or unique phenomenon" (Frels, Onwuegbuzie, 2012, p. 184). The same study found that researchers "routinely collect and analyze qualitative and quantitative data as a necessary part of their profession" (p. 184).
The mixed research methodology is often used in other areas of study in a most effective manner. For example, a recent study states "addition to an adequate sample size for statistical analysis of outcomes, the validation of prognostic factors using a mixed methods approach also obviously requires a longitudinal design to reach the relevant endpoints, such as completion of treatment, hospital discharge, or…
Fendley, A.; (2010) Forensic scientist, New Scientist, Vol. 206, Issue 2761, pp. 9-10
Frels, R.K. & Onwuegbuzie, A.J.; (2013) Administering quantitative instruments with qualitative interviews: A mixed research approach, Journal of Counseling & Development, Vol. 91, Issue 2, pp. 184 -- 194
Macdonald, R.; Back, W.E.; Johnson, P.W.; (2011) Retrospective analysis to identify trends in forensic research, Journal of Performance of Constructed Facilities, Vol. 26, Issue 5, pp. 550 -- 557
Zickmund, S.L.; Yang, S.; Mulvey, E.P.; Bost, J.E.; Shinkaus, L.A.; LaBrecque, D.R.; (2013) Predicting cancer mortality: Developing a new cancer care variable using mixed methods and quasi-statistical approach, Health Services Research, Vol. 48, Issue 6, pp. 2208 -- 2223
Participants and Instruments
The anticipated participants in the study I would like to conduct (the effect of teaching diagramming on students learning the basics of English grammar) are 6th grade students of predominantly white students in the outlying DC area of Winchester, VA. This is a suburban community about an hour outside of Washington, DC. The approximate number of students involved in this study will be about 200 students from seven different middle schools in Winchester. The demographics of the community are predominantly white, which is why the ethnicity of the sample is predominantly white. This will also reduce the number of variables that could inadvertently impact the DV. Proportional stratified sampling will be used so that the percentage of the population's boys and girls are reflected in the sample used in the study, unless identifying subgroups within the population appears to be beyond the scope of this study, in…
Chapter Five: Selecting a Sample. (n.d.). Power Point Presentation.
Cheat Sheet Topic: Sampling. (n.d.). Week 3.
Cresswell, J. (2007). Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design: Choosing among Five
Approaches. CA: Sage.
High crime rates are a societal problem that has changed the manner in which society functions. ecognizing the adverse effects that crime has on communities the state of California has implemented a three strikes law designed to deter crime particularly as it pertains to repeat offenders. The propose research will examine the effectiveness of California's three strike law as it pertains to deterring recidivism. Statistical data concerning crime rates and rates of recidivism following the enactment of the law will be analyzed and compared to the same statistic prior to the passage of the law. The results will examine the extent to which the deterrence effect has been effective as it pertains to the three strikes law.
Crime is a major social problem throughout the country. More specifically criminals who are repeat offenders make up a substantial number of the individuals that commit crime. With this understood…
Chen, Elsa Y (2008) .Impacts of "Three Strikes and You're Out" on Crime Trends in California and Throughout the United States. Journal of contemporary criminal justice. 24(4), 345
Goodno, N.H. (2007) Career Criminals Targeted: The Verdict is in, California's Three Strikes Law Proves Effective. Golden Gate University law review. 37(2), 461
Refine or alter search
Helland E., Tabarrok, A. (2007) Does Three Strikes Deter? A Non-Parametric Estimation. Journal of Human Resources, 42 (2) p309-330
Developing and Supporting a esearch Question on Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
Various occupations expose practitioners to traumatized communities or victimized individuals. The exposure increases the risk of these groups to significant levels of stress that affect their health and health outcomes negatively. Empirical evidence shows that people such as clinicians working with those in pain, fear, and suffering have a high risk of developing cognitive, emotional, and physical consequences. Whether exposure to a traumatic event is a disaster or occupational hazards, the consequences of such exposure might present with symptoms of sleeplessness, nightmares, hopelessness, and other forms of stress traumatic disorders (Engel, Schutt, & Engel, 2010). However, exposure to extreme levels of such stress predisposes the individuals to post-traumatic stress the presents over time, unless a corrective action is taken. Therefore, it is at this level that the role of the social worker becomes apparent. The social workers provide services…
Corby, B. (2006). Applying research in social work practice. Maidenhead: Open University Press.
Engel, R.J., Schutt, R.K., & Engel, R.J. (2010). Fundamentals of social work research. Los n Angeles: SAGE.
Engel, R.J., & Schutt, R.K. (2011). The practice of research in social work. Los Angeles: SAGE.
Epstein, I. (2010). Clinical data-mining: Integrating practice and research. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
The experimental method is usually taken to be the most scientific of all methods, the 'method of choice'. The main problem with all the Psychodynamic Method is lack of control over the situation. The experimental method is a means of trying to overcome this problem. The experiment is sometimes described as the cornerstone of psychology: This is partly due to the central role Experimental method play in many of the physical sciences and also to psychology's historical view of itself as a science. A considerable amount of psychological research uses the experimental method. An experiment is a study of cause and effect. It differs from Psychodynamic Method; in that it involves the deliberate manipulation of one variable, while trying to keep all other variables constant.
Psychodynamic psychology, although still practiced clinically, is not one of the current major approaches to personality psychology. During the 1950's and 1960's, numerous attempts…
Margaret Wetherell (Editor) (1996), Identities, Groups and Social Issues, Sage Publications Ltd.
Roger Sapsford (Editor), Arthur Still (Editor), Dorothy Miell (Editor), Richard Stevens (Editor), Margaret Wetherell (Editor) 1998, Theory and Social Psychology (Social Psychology), Sage Publications Ltd.
Bion, W.R. (1961). Experiences in groups. London: Tavistock Publications.
Bion, W.R. (1970). Attention and interpretation. London: Tavistock Publications.
When it comes to the risks and benefits in a study, a researcher has to use the proper methods to balance these issues. There are algorithms that can be used in order to determine whether something will provide enough of a benefit to be worth doing, or whether there is too much of a risk (Burns & Grove, 2012). Most of the risk issues that appear in studies are based upon the use of human subjects in research (Burns & Grove, 2012). It can put the personal and medical information of participants at risk when they agree to be part of a study, and it is very important the participants understand these risks. Additionally, the researcher has to be aware of the types of risks involved and mitigate them as much as possible for the safety of the participants and their information (Burns & Grove, 2012). When considering whether…
References (Burns & Grove, 2012)
Burns, N. And Grove, S. (2012). The practice of nursing research: Appraisal, synthesis, and generation of evidence. (7th ed). St. Louis: Saunders (Elsevier).
Toole, K.P. (2013). Helping children gain asthma control: Bundled school-based interventions. Pediatric Nursing, 39(3): 115-124.
Master of Science in Business Analytics program / Master of Science in Business Analytics program: The Course to Grow in today's World
Significance of Master of Science in Business Analytics program
The modern constantly changing internet Information technology environment produces large amounts of statistics referred to as "Big Data," which result from social connections and commercial transactions. The quantity of data is rapidly rising courtesy of the increase in cloud computing innovations, mobile applications and the uptake of other digital solutions or technologies. Thus, there is always a rising need for professional analysis of data to guarantee efficiency and create value out of the statistics.
In fact, this need is growing rapidly in businesses that make use of such data. The Master in Business Analytics program is one that is designed in such a way to equip the learner with the skills and tools to be able to identify trends…
Elliott, T (As cited in DeAngelis). (2013). Predictions for the Coming Year: Big Data Analytics. Enterra Insights Blog. Retrieved from http://www.enterrasolutions.com/2013/12/predictions-coming-year-big-data-analytics.html on 6th November, 2015.
Masters in data science. (2015). Business Analytics Master's Degrees. Masters in Data Science Blog. Retrieved from http://www.mastersindatascience.org/specialties/business-analytics / on 6th November, 2015.
Sap. (2015). Explore analytics solutions from SAP. SAP Global. Retrieved fro. http://go.sap.com/solution/analytics.html on 6th November, 2015.
Handwriting Skills on Compositional Quality
What is the background and context of your project? Is there a 'problem' you want to find out more about or a potential solution that you want to explore? Is there a gap in the literature or earlier research that you want to build on or extend? What is your aim? Why do you want to investigate this topic? What is the justification for researching this issue? Include a small number of in-text references in this section as well as a corresponding list of complete references in Section 8 using a consistent format (e.g. following the SHU referencing guidelines).
I teach English in class 2 and 3 which comprises of a comprehensive book, a workbook and a writing practice book. While teaching I observed that most of the kids in class 3 had quite bad handwriting, although they had been practising from class 1 onwards.…
This essayconsists of two parts. Part A is an analysis of quantitative data and Part B is an analysis of qualitative data. We will give you the data in both cases. Each part should consist of data analysis, commentary and interpretation. You should write well-structured report of between 750 and 1000 words for each part plus any diagrams and charts you produce and a list of references.
The report carries out the data analysis of employee data to answer some human resources related questions using the SPSS software. The screenshots of the entire data are presented in the Appendix 1 and Appendix 2. The report provides the findings for the HR (human resources) issues after carrying out the data analysis of employees data. The outcome of the analysis reveals that workers between 25 and 55 years of age form the largest percentage of employees in the…
Therapist differences in a randomised trial of the outcome of cognitive behaviour therapy for health anxiety in medical patients." It was authored by Tyrer et al. and appeared in the International Journal of Nursing Studies in 2015.
Did the trial address a clearly focused issue?
After thoroughly anatomizing this article it is clear that the trial described within it certainly did address a clearly focused issue. Specifically, the authors were looking to determine which group of healthcare practitioners was best suited to assist patients with health anxiety through the usage of cognitive behavior therapy. In particular, the authors were looking to discern whether or not nurses nurses could demonstrate a greater efficacy for this task than other groups of medical practitioners. Therefore, the authors utilized original research in the form of a randomized clinical trial to see if nurses could prove they had such effectiveness with this particular issue: that…
Tyrer, H., Tyrer, P. Lisseman-Stones, Y., Mcallister, S., Cooper, S., Salkovskis, P., Crawford, M., Dupont, S., Green, J., Murphy, D., Wang, D., 2015. Therapist Differences in a Randomised Trial of the Outcome of Cognitive Behaviour Therapy for Health Anxiety in Medical Patients. International Journal of Nursing Studies, volume 52: pp.688-694.
Student Satisfaction and Diversity
The study is devised to grasp the relationship between student satisfaction in the diverse cultural and faculty patterns. The ultimate goal of all the contemporary societies of the world is to maintain and promote gender equality. Human race has always suffered dramatically whenever it has tried to stigmatize either of the two genders. But yet many under developed and third world countries are still not able to understand the importance of gender equality and the synergy this process yields. Cultivating, raising, and promoting gender equality is a global agenda, and gender mainstreaming is one out of many techniques that have been devised to promote gender equality at all levels. Education as a matter of subtle reality is the core competency that defines the knowledge, skill and abilities of an individual are therefore reported to have a lifelong impact on the life of an individual. Therefore satisfaction…
Arbaugh, J.B. (2001). How Instructor Immediacy Behaviors Affect Student Satisfaction and Learning in Web-Based Courses. Business Communication Quarterly, 64(4), 42+. Retrieved October 23, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000931438
Carr, D.L., Davies, T.L., & Lavin, A.M. (2010). The Impact of Instructor Attire on College Student Satisfaction. College Student Journal, 44(1), 101+. Retrieved October 23, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5041956776
Feng Liu, E.Z., Lin, C.H., & Chang, C.S. (2010). Student Satisfaction and Self-efficacy in a Cooperative Robotics Course. Social Behavior and Personality, 38(8), 1135+. Retrieved October 23, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5044973758
Fountain, R.A., & Alfred, D. (2009). Student Satisfaction with High-fidelity Simulation: Does It Correlate with Learning Styles?. Nursing Education Perspectives, 30(2), 96+. Retrieved October 23, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5037651289
Quantitative vs. Qualitative Research
According to Lopez-Alvarado (2017) and Muijs (n.d.), research design decisions are linked to ontology and epistemology. Ontology refers to the researcher’s beliefs about whether reality is absolute or contextual, universal or relative. Whether the researcher is a realist or a relativist determines research questions and designs, with an increased tendency for relativists to focus on phenomenological and qualitative methods and a realist to use quantitative methods. Muijs (n.d.) describes quantitative research as using numerical data and mathematical methods, showing how a realist will use these types of methods to seek for an objective truth. Likewise, epistemology refers to how the researcher acquires knowledge, or what sources of knowledge are deemed valid. A researcher who believes in absolutism and realism will veer towards quantitative methods, which yield absolute and generalizable results. On the other hand, a researcher who values subjectivity would take a phenomenological and qualitative approach.…
UK Social Trends
Quantitative and Qualitative Discussion on Residency
Table I provides a basic breakdown of the types of residences in which Britons live and how these are distributed based on region. This denotes that specific selected regions are predisposed toward certain residential options. In a chart which accounts for roughly 22% of all residents in England, the table notes that detached homes are most common in the regions of the East Midlands and the South est, suggesting greater open spaces and a more suburban distribution of homes, whereas terraced homes are most common in Yorkshire, Humber and London, implying a denser cluster of urban dwellers.
Among the Tables relating information about residential and demographic distribution in the U.K., perhaps the most compelling of these is Table 2, which offers some examination of the ownership and rental distribution of Britons according to ethnicity. Here, we can see that there are…
Byford, J. (?). Chapter 6: Living Together, Living Apart: The Social Life of the Neighborhood. .
Statistics.gov.uk. (2011). Social Trends No. 39. TMA 03.
Taylor, S. (?). Introduction: Connected Lives. .
Taylor, S. (?). Chapter 4: Who Do We Think We Are: Identities in Everyday Life. .
Fast food case study: Jollibee Foods Corporation
Define the problem
The Philippine-based hamburger chain Jollibee Foods Corporation is currently contemplating international expansion. The first question it must answer is where: should it expand into America, Hong Kong, or the developing world market of Papua New Guinea? If it decides to expand into America it faces another choice: should it focus on mainstream America consumers or recent immigrants and Philippine expatriates? (Bartlett & O'Connell 2001: 34)
Outside concepts that can be applied: The challenges of globalization
egionalization was vital in Jollibee's original success: it offered larger spicy hamburger patties more attuned to local diners' palates vs. McDonald's more generic offerings. Political instability in the region resulted in reluctance for foreign companies to make incursions into the fast food landscape and enabled Jollibee to establish a secure foothold in its home nation. However, poor initial selection of partners abroad, poor quality…
Bartlett, C & O'Connell. (2001). Jollibee Foods Corporation. Harvard Business School
Fernholtz, T. (2013). The Big Mac mirage. QZ. Retrieved:
Both projects -- and aspects of the study (qualitative and quantitative) had their advantages and disadvantages. In the first, researchers could hit for objective method and, via use of Likert scale, guidelines in creating the survey, guidelines in facilitators and in how the facilitators should approach the respondents, and other details that included statistical tools, could structure the survey in as objective a manner possible. On the other hand, we are dealing with a human population that may have misunderstood various questions, may retract some of their responses later, and may, amongst many other variables that creep into surveys, have found a one-line question, however open-ended it may be, insufficient in dealing with their particular situation. The qualitative aspect, therefore, provides the opportunity for both scenarios -- a scientific treatment and a more empathetic, flexible approach (that provides a 'richer' analysis) (Creswell, 2003). It was for this reason that the…
Creswell, J. (2003). Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications.
Devlin, M., & McIlfatrick, S. (2010). Providing palliative and end-of-life care in the community: The role of the home-care worker. International Journal of Palliative Nursing, 16(4), 195 -- 203. Retrieved from: http://ezp.waldenulibrary.org/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=49703873&site=ehost-live&scope=site
Tashakkori, A., & Teddlie, C. (1998). Mixed methodology: combining qualitative and quantitative approaches, Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage
EP Implementation Approach
The study collects data from 5 business units of the company. The data collection method is through both qualitative and quantitative data analysis, and the study collects data to enhance greater understanding of the EP implementation approach carried out by the company. As being discussed previously, the methodology used to collect data is through qualitative and quantitative approach, and the study collects data from the following business units:
Human esources Department
Purchasing and Supply Department
Manufacturing and Product Development Department
IT (Information Technology) Department.
The study selects these business units because they are the most important business departments that focus on the core business activities of the company. The selected company represents a cross section of the major companies engaging in the EP implementation. Typically, the information collected from the company is treated with high confidentiality, and the company chooses to implement EP system to…
Bogdan, R.C. & Biklen, S.K. (2003). Qualitative research for education: An introduction to theories and methods (4th ed.). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
Coffey, A. Holbrook, B. And Atkinson, P. (1996) Qualitative Data Analysis: Representations & Technologies, Sociological Research Online, vol. 1, no. 1.
Ettlie, J.(2000).The adoption of enterprise resource planning systems, in Responsive Production and the agile enterprise, Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Managing innovative Manufacturing, University of Aston.
Gibbs, GR (2002) Qualitative Data Analysis: Explorations with NVivo. Buckingham: Open University Press.
Although every research setting will be unique in some fashion, there are some generalities involved in content analysis that can be followed by novice researchers. For example, according to Riffe, Lacy and Fico (2005), "Usually, but not always, content analysis involves drawing representative samples of content. The data collected in a quantitative content analysis are then usually analyzed to describe what are typical patterns or characteristics, or to identify important relationships among the variables measured" (p. 2).
Narrative analysis. This research methodology considers the narrative stories provided by narrators as representing their authentic social reality (Etherington, 2004). According to Etherington, "Narrative analysis views life as constructed and experienced through the telling and re-telling of the story, and the analysis is the creation of a coherent and resonant story" (2004, p. 81). Narrative analyses is not intended to identify commonalties or conceptual themes among narrative accounts, but rather relies on the…
Correlational research. This type of research identifies and evaluates the natural relationship that exists between different variables. According to Groat and Wang, "This characteristic means that it is particularly appropriate in circumstances when variables either cannot be manipulated for practical reasons or should not be manipulated for ethical reasons" (2003, p. 244).
Developmental designs. This type of research is used to measure changes that occur over lengthy periods of time (Developmental research, 2012). For example, a developmental design would be suitable for analyzing the differences in academic and social development in low-income vs. high-income neighborhoods. This research design is most common when working with children as subjects and can be undertaken using several methods: longitudinal, cross sectional, and cross sequential (Developmental research, 2012).
Survey research. Survey research collects data from a large number of respondents in an attempt to gain a better understanding about this sample as a whole (Grinnel & Unrau, 2005). According to Grinnel and Unrau, "It is essential, therefore, that survey research procedures produce data that is accurate, reliable, and representative so that findings can be generalized from a sample to the larger population or to different research situations" (p. 272). One of the main strengths of survey research concerns its flexibility for data-gathering purposes. De Vaus (2002) notes that, "A survey is not just a particular technique of collecting information: questionnaires are widely used but other techniques, such as structured and in-depth interviews, observation, content analysis and so forth, can also be used in survey research. The distinguishing features of surveys are the form of the data and the method of analysis" (p. 3). This main strength, though, is offset somewhat by the constraints that are inherent in the approach, but these constraints are frequently related to
Similarly, researchers should be aware of the consequences of halo, prejudice to the leniency or seriousness of fundamental trend and position or propinquity of deviation from the pace that can artificially increase reliability of measure devoid of improving reaction correctness or validity. (Williams, and Poijula, 2002).
Limitations/Strength and Weaknesses
The following conditions might have affected the results of the present study:
1. The sample will not be random,
2. all demographic information will be self reported and not verified,
3. all the subjects for the study came from 3 local Kansas mental health facilities located in South Central Kansas,
4. all data for the BDI-II is self reported,
5. data is for individuals with specific DSM-IV diagnosis,
6. data is for individuals who are currently seeking treatment for the specified DSM-IV disorders (Schiraldi, 2000)
major strength is that respondents will be selected from ? number of different places for better…
Schiraldi, Glenn. (2000) Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Sourcebook. McGraw-Hill; 1 edition p. 446
Williams, Mary Beth and Poijula, Soili (2002) the PTSD Workbook: Simple, Effective Techniques for Overcoming Traumatic Stress Symptoms. New Harbinger Publications; 1 edition. p. 237
Foa, Edna B. Keane, Terence and Friedman, M. Matthew J. (2000) Effective Treatments for PTSD: Practice Guidelines from the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies. The Guilford Press; 1 edition. p. 388
Wilson, John P. And Keane, Terence M. (1996) Assessing Psychological Trauma and PTSD. The Guilford Press; 1st edition. p. 577
here are also the costs of having to re-issue training materials and content, and this also makes the Web-based learning system more efficient and far more economical. Lastly, the support of the strategic initiative on the part of MBUSA of having the highest quality service delivered via its SARMARK program is also essential to keep the Mercedes Benz brand solid and the reputation of the company for exceptional service intact. All of these factors need to be taken into account as the customers' day-to-day experiences with MBUSA will dictate its JD Power ratings which are mentioned in the study, and over the long-term, impact its brand as well. MBUSA must align its strategies to support line-of-business objectives if the company is to be successful. A critical area of this is the developing of agile, responsive it architectures that can align with the needs of MBUSA employees, and in this case,…
Total Cost of Ownership, multi-purpose Intel Server
Windows Server 2000 Operation System
Net Savings Web-Based Savings
Wolf's book, based on a number of scholarly articles she wrote during the last several years, looks at the manner in which women have been portrayed in the Broadway musical, and the references and relevance of those portraits to society's expectations of the time.
Communication Studies. (2012). etrieved from: http://www.communicationstudies.com/
Cary, S. (2003). A Beginner's Guide to the Scientific Method. New York: Wadsworth.
Cresswell, J. (2003). esearch Design. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Ferguson, M. (2010). Choice Feminism and the Fear of Politics. Perspectives on Politics.
8 (1): 247-63.
Gehrke, P. (2009). The Ethics and Politics of Speech: Communications and hetoric in the 20th Century. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press
Hesse-Biber, S., ed. (2011). Handbook of Feminist esearch: Theory and Praxis. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications
Leung, K., et.al. (2008). Global Trends in Communication Education and esearch. Boston, MA: Hampton Press.
Levinson, W., et.al. (2010). Developing Physician Communication Skills…
Communication Studies. (2012). Retrieved from: http://www.communicationstudies.com/
Cary, S. (2003). A Beginner's Guide to the Scientific Method. New York: Wadsworth.
Cresswell, J. (2003). Research Design. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Ferguson, M. (2010). Choice Feminism and the Fear of Politics. Perspectives on Politics.
As one may observe, most respondents in this study are in the 35-49 and in the 50-64 age groups. The least respondents are in the 18-24%.
Dept results show that the clothing department is preferred by 25% of respondents, followed by the electronics department with 18%. Payment results reveal that 35% of customers prefer to pay with their credit cards, while 52% prefer to pay with cash. egarding the prices in these stores, 26% have a somewhat negative opinion, 18% have a strongly negative opinion, while 42% have a neutral opinion.
Gender: 63% of customers are female, and 37% are male.
egular: 38% stated that they shop several times a week, and 35% said they shop once a week.
eason1: 26% of respondents said they prefer these stores because…
1. Jacobsen, M. (2010). Complementary Research Methods. University of Calgary. Retrieved January 29, 2011.
2. Trochim, W. (2006). The T-Test. Knowledge Base. Retrieved January 29, 2011 from http://www.socialresearchmethods.net/kb/stat_t.php .
3. Trochim, W. (2006). Descriptive Statistics. Knowledge Base. Retrieved January 29, 2011 from http://www.socialresearchmethods.net/kb/statdesc.php .
4. Trochim, W. (2006). Survey Research. Knowledge Base. Retrieved January 29, 2011 from http://www.socialresearchmethods.net/kb/survey.htm .
Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)
Analysis of variance is a term used in statistics which involves a collection of statistical models and procedures that are associated with them where the observed variance in a particular variable is partitioned into components that can be attributed to different sources of variations. It is therefore a statistical technique that is useful for evaluation whether there are differences between average values or mean across several population groups. This model also entails that the response variable is continuous in nature while the predictor variables can be categorized. For there to be a test for statistical significance between means then there has to be a comparison i.e. analyzing variances hence the name of the model. There are various concepts in variance analysis these are; the partitioning of sums of squares .at the core of variance analysis is the fact that variances can be divided or…
Shera, J (2006). Statistical Errors (Type I, Type II, Power).Retrieved August 4, 2013 from http://www.herkimershideaway.org/writings/type12.htm
The therapist will read the passage aloud to Jonathan, and ask him comprehension questions orally. This process will be repeated during Week 3. Week 3 will also feature a passage and comprehension questions. This time, however, Jonathan will be asked to read the passage aloud to the therapist and answer the subsequent comprehension questions. This week will include a writing exercise, with fairly simple instructions that relate to Jonathan's passion for athletics.
During Week 4, the complexity level of the reading will be increased to Level 2, with writing instruction still remaining fairly simple. Jonathan will also be asked to learn a number of similar word pairs for a brief spelling test. For Week 5, both reading and writing will be presented at a Level 2 complexity level. This will continue up to Week 8, when the sessions will finish. During the subsequent week, the post-tests will be administered to…
Procedures. All patients, regardless of whether they were participating in the study or not, received treatment as usual (TAU) for the first six months of the study. Measurement for this initial six-month period followed this sequence: A standard suite of measurements was administered at session one, session 6 and session 12; OS and SS assessments occurred at every treatment session for identified patients (IP) only. During this initial six-month period, counselors only received training in the use of the OS and SS as instruments to be added to the standard suite of outcome measures.
In the second six-month period, training in the client-directed outcome-informed approach to therapy was provided to all the counselors. The training components included the following: (1) 16 hours of formal introduction to theory of change according to the Duncan and Miller framework; (2) in-depth training on the use of OS and SS for obtaining client feedback…
Ardelt, M. And Eccles, J.S. (2001, November). Effects of mothers' parental efficacy beliefs and promotive parenting strategies on inner-city youth. Journal of Family Issues, 22(8), 944-972.
Boeree, C.G. (2006) Carl Rogers: 1902-1987. Retrieved from http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/rogers.html
Brann, P., Coleman, G., & Luk, E. (2001). Routine outcome in a child and adolescent mental health service: an evaluation of HoNOSCA. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 35, 370-376.
Cooper, M., Watson, J.C., & Hoeldampf, D. (2010). Person-centered and experiential therapies work: A review of the research on counseling, psychotherapy and related practices. Ross-on-Wye, UK: PCCS Books.