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Vignette related to Race, Class, Ethnicity never realized how class-centric my parents were until later in life. All my friends were from similar backgrounds, so I assumed that there was nothing unusual about my family. Interestingly, race, religion, and ethnicity were not as important as class when I was in middle and high school because our community was already very diverse. Heterogeneity eliminated a lot of prejudices and racial barriers. School classes were comprised of students from a wide variety of family backgrounds. In my school, cliques were formed not necessarily on race, but on class lines. These class lines, furthermore, were not only income-based. This is one of the reasons why the issue of class seemed irrelevant when I was growing up. I was always taught that people from all income brackets are the same, and while it might be cool that Sandy's dad drives a BMW, it really…
The former addresses the fact that Rock and Roll largely depended on race divisions and the latter relates to how reform and young people in general are two of the main concepts that influenced the subculture.
The Conflict Perspective makes it possible for people to gain a better understanding of Rock and Roll in the 1950s. This culture did not just regard music, as it addressed a series of controversial factors that society had dealt with until the time. Considering that this type of music was dominated by white people, it is only safe to assume that it originated from social class conflicts, with African-Americans being generally associated with different music genres. While other music styles like Jazz and rhythm and blues focused on assisting black people in experiencing emancipation, Rock and Roll did not relate to their problems and practically encouraged the masses in ignoring them, eventually serving the…
He got nowhere. "Talking to Barnett was like talking to a wall." Neither Tharp nor Barnett recalls Dave Hnida saying anything about sexual harassment. "If I'd have heard that, I'd have jumped down somebody's throat," Barnett says. "Not one time did I ever see or hear about anybody treating her wrong. I don't believe she was sexually harassed. I don't believe our players would do that. They'd be in too much trouble with me." Barnett says he gave one player a "tongue-lashing" for making a vulgar comment to Katie.
Katie, as a sophomore dropped out of school, despite her historical commitment to her education and her desire to play football. After doing so it is reported by her and her father that she endured several years of deep depression which affected her in every way, and yet she eventually found the courage to move forward, went back to a junior…
Get This Guy out of Here." The Washington Times, 20 February 2004, C01.
King, Larry, "Interview with Denise Brown; Interview with Katie Hnida." November 28, 2006 CNN Larry King Live: Transcript [online] http://transcripts.cnn.com/TRANSCRIPTS/0611/28/lkl.01.html
Mcrorie, Jessica. "High Schools Face Scrutiny, Lawsuits over Gender Equality in Sports Teams." Curriculum Review.
"hen the democratic bourgeoisie of the United States were execrating Czardom for the Jewish pogroms they were meting out to your people a treatment more savage and barbarous than the Jews ever experienced in the old Russia," says one Russian in sympathy during McCay's visit (246). Claude McCay was also impressed by the "this spirit of sympathetic appreciation and response prevailing in all circles in Moscow and Petrograd. I never guessed what was awaiting me in Russia," he marveled stating that he felt more at home in Russia than he did in America (246).
Given the pervasiveness of Jim Crow in America, it should perhaps come as little surprise that African-Americans found empowerment in the advocacy of a new, liberating ideology that proclaimed the equality of all workers, regardless of their race or economic status. "I found this party, the part of the working class, gave me rights equal with…
Marable, Manning & Leith Mullings. Let Nobody Turn Us Around: Voices of Resistance.
Reform, and Renewal: an African-American Anthology. New York: Rowman & Littlefield, 2003.
Alexis de Tocqueville makes a moral assessment of America, pointing out that the "goodness" inherent in American values like freedom and liberty is what makes the nation "great." The term "great" refers to the nation's power, status, and enduring prestige. However, social critics throughout American history have endeavored to point out the gross shortcomings in the country's policies and its hypocritical practices. In The Souls of Black Folks, W.E.B. DuBois discusses the ongoing problem of racism in America to show that the values of freedom and liberty have not been fulfilled. Charlotte Perkins Gillman's novel Herland offers a scathing critique of the patriarchal and sexist values and norms that persist in American society in spite of the faAade of offering "liberty and justice for all." Both DuBois and Gillman provide road maps to a better America, one that recognizes the essential equality of all human beings.
In The Souls of…
John Winthrop, Governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony, "had charged the English settlers in New England with a special and unique Providential mission," (Scott, n.d., p. 1). The belief that Anglo-Saxon settlers were blessed by God and entitled to political and economic sovereignty over the American continent would become known as Manifest Destiny. Manifest Destiny refers mainly to the philosophy motivating territorial expansion, but also coincided with religious ideology prevalent in the United States during the Great Awakening and the Second Great Awakening. Moreover, Manifest Destiny is related to other American values including those of "rugged individualism" and "domination over the wilderness," (Tveskov & Cohen, 2015, p. 191). Manifest Destiny was also a racist philosophy, as it is characterized specifically by the perception of Anglo-Saxons as "separate, innately superior people who were destined to bring good government, commercial prosperity, and Christianity to the American continents and the world," (Horsman, 1981,…
Horsman, R. (1981). Race and Manifest Destiny. Harvard College.
"Manifest Destiny," (n.d.). Retrieved online: http://www.pbs.org/kera/usmexicanwar/prelude/md_introduction.html
"Manifest Destiny - The Philosophy That Created A Nation," (n.d.). American History. Retrieved online: http://www.let.rug.nl/usa/essays/1801-1900/manifest-destiny/manifest-destiny-the-philosophy-that-created-a-nation.php
Pratt, J.W. (1927). The origin of "Manifest Destiny." The American Historical Review 32(4), 795-798.
Foucault called prisons "complete and austere" institutions because of the way they function in society. A prison is complete because it completely strips from the inmate basic rights and liberties, freedoms, and also humanity. One of the central features of a prison is surveillance, to monitor the activities of the individuals at all time. As such, the prison functions as a complete and total observer and controller. The prison is also austere because of the inherent restrictions on the lives of the inmates. Especially when the prison aims to reform the "criminal," the activities imposed as summarily austere. A prison reflects the punitive nature of the criminal justice system.
A complete and austere institution is also systematically exploitative. For instance, the prisoner may be found performing labor to serve the state (or the private entity in charge of the institution). Moreover, a complete and austere institution is one that uses…
Foucault, M. (1975). Complete and austere institutions. Retrieved online: http://www.faculty.umb.edu/heike.schotten/readings/Foucault,%20Complete%20and%20Austere%20Institutions.pdf
LaVigne, N.G. Mamalian, C.A. Travis, J & Visher, C. (2003). A portrait of prisoner reentry in Illinois. Retrieved online: http://www.urban.org/sites/default/files/alfresco/publication-pdfs/410662-A-Portrait-of-Prisoner-Reentry-in-Illinois.PDF
Pishko, J. (2015). A history of women's prisons. JSTOR Daily. 4 March, 2015. Retrieved online: http://daily.jstor.org/history-of-womens-prisons/
Race, Class, Gender Journal
Word Count (excluding title and works cited page): 1048
Race, Class, and Gender is an anthology of articles that express various interpretation and insights of the relationship between race, class, and gender and how these things shape the lives of people and society. he topics and points-of-view offered in the anthology are vast and interesting. hey offer a strong historical and sociological perspective on such issues as prison populations, the working poor, or the life of Muslims in the United States. his journal is my personal reflection after reading this book. How did the reading make me feel? Did any of the readings make me feel uncomfortable? Was there any part of the book that rang true with me? Were any of the articles disturbing, shocking, surprising, or impressive? Finally, an original poem will be included in response to the experience of reading Race, Class, and…
L., M, & Hill, P. (2007). Race, Class, and Gender: An Anthology. Wadsworth Publishing Company, KY
Race, Class, And Gender in the United States
The purpose of the book Race, Class, and Gender in the United States by Paula Rothenberg is to explore sociological implications of these three topics. The book discusses how each of these ideas, which some believe to be innate, are actually mere labels that people have given to describe certain generalizations. Each of these sociological terms is coupled with the actual term. Rothenberg asks readers to critically think about the words we use to describe different groups and if the meaning we intend to apply is different than the term defines it as. There is the delineation between race and ethnicity, between class and social standing, and the difference between gender and sex.
The first portion of Rothenberg's book deals with the understanding of the terminology applied to race, glass, and gender and how the words people use with regard to these…
Rothenberg, Paula S. (2010). Race, Class, and Gender in the United States. 8th. New York:
In the Struggle for Democracy (Greenberg, 483-84) the author explains that gradually, little by little, the Supreme Court of the United States responded to the need to rule segregation unconstitutional. And in the process the Court ruled that any law passed using the criteria of race was also unconstitutional. The Brown v. Board of Education vote in 1954 meant that segregation in schools was not constitutional and it was the agency of black activists and advocates that got it done by bringing litigation forward. Meantime Jones mentions that Eisenhower had a "hands-off" policy regarding enforcing the Brown v. Board of Education; and while that "emboldened" segregationists and racists to resist the Supreme Court ruling, it activated ordinary African-Americans to joined in the Civil Rights Movement of the 1960s. Thanks to the marching feet of tens of thousands of Black Americans - and the boycotts led by people like Rosa Parks…
Greenberg, Edward S. The Struggle for Democracy.
Jones, Jacqueline. Created Equal: A Social and Political history of the United States.
Racial Profiling Data Collection Resource Center. 2008. Northeastern University. Retrieved April 14, 2008, at http://www.racialprofilinganalysis.neu.edu
Race, Class, Gender
The question regarding Barbara Neely's first novel, Blanche on the Lam, isn't whether or not the novel has anything interesting to say on the subjects of race, class and gender, but rather, how can a novel so packed full of commentary on race, class and gender remain a compelling story, and an entertaining one as well?
Neely makes it clear from the very first page that this book will be about those three issues, although the race and class issues seem to get slightly more attention than gender, at least in a direct, in-your-face way. On the very first page, Neely sets Blanche up as a worthy and experienced commentator on the issues of race and class. Blanche is in a courtroom, and the judge admonishes her to learn to earn her money before she spends it, "like the rest of us." (p. 1) But Blanche has…
Neely, Barbara. Blanche on the lam. New York: Penguin USA, 1993.
For example, one of the interesting points that grabbed my attention was Dill's discussion of gender relations among African slaves. Slave men and women had a more egalitarian relationship than free white men and women. That is because slave men did not possess the power and authority of free men. So, power is inherently corrupting? At least, this is what Dill's description of gender relations in antebellum America suggest.
I wish, as a professor of sociology, Dill could have made more direct relations with the present (describing history just for the sake of history is the job of historians). I also wish, she could have allotted as much space to the story of Chinese-Americans that she does to White, African-American, and Chicano families. But I still admired this essay because it powerfully tells how society often subjects women to double or triple burdens. In colonial and antebellum America, the society…
Andersen, M.L, & Collins, P.H. (2010) Race, Class & Gender: An Anthology, 7th Edition. Wadsworth Publishing.
The different "isms" such as sexism, heterosexism, and racism are creating very real schisms -- in our minds, and between people. The chasms of communication that are created by hatred and misunderstanding are socially constructed. They can be socially deconstructed too. Such rifts occur between groups of people and between whole cultures. In some pockets of the United States, social conservatism threatens to erase the social progress made since the Civil ights movements of the 1960s. There are still people in the United States that believe that homosexuality is unnatural, even immoral. The idea that heterosexual marriage is in some way superior to homosexual marriage is rooted in outmoded religious doctrine and not in positive social progress. Within these "isms" are the chasms of misunderstanding that create social strife and inequality. Income disparity, for example, is closely linked with race as well as gender. Women still get paid less than…
Brennan, D. Selling sex for visas.
Collins, P.C. "Prisons for Our Bodies; Closets for Our Minds." In Black Sexual Politics. New York: Routledge.
Katz, J.N. The Invention of Heterosexuality. University of Chicago.
Lareau, a. Unequal Childhoods: Class, race, and family life. University of California Press.
Cultural identity formation theories reveal the intersections between race, class, gender, sexuality, status, self-concept, and power. Applying critical race theory and racial identity development models to social work can prove tremendously helpful and promotes the overall goals of the profession. It is not just about becoming more culturally competent and aware of structural racism and other factors that might be affecting clients; the work of increasing cultural competence means becoming more self-aware. Learning about my own cultural identity formation helps me to recognize any biases that I have picked up from environmental cues. Moreover, increasing cultural competence depends on honesty and insight. It is one thing to intellectually understand that racism is psychologically and socially traumatic for people, but quite another to recognize the ways racism has affected my own perceptions and cognitions.
My plan to increase cultural competence includes daily journaling about my inner thoughts as well as my…
Abrams, L.S. & Moio, J.A. (2009). Critical race theory and the cultural competence dilemma in social work education. Journal of Social Work Education 45(2).
Hud-Aleem, R. & Countryman, J. (2008). Biracial identity development and recommendations in therapy. Psychiatry (Edgemont) 5(11): 37-44.
National Association of Social Workers (2001). NASW standards for cultural competence. Retrieved online: https://www.socialworkers.org/practice/standards/naswculturalstandards.pdf
Sue, D.W., Jackson, K.F., Rasheed, M.N. & Rasheed, J.M. (2016). Multicultural Social Work Practice. John Wiley.
Bright Lights, Bobby Benedicto describes the urban gay subculture in Manila within the context of the "global scene." The points Benedicto makes in Under Bright Lights can be applied to variety of issues related to race, class, gender, and social power. Benedicto provides a sociological analysis of gay Manila primarily through a Marxist lens. The author endeavors to show how the "gay scene" has built itself unconsciously upon a pedestal of ironic privilege. With access to wealth and relative power, the urban gay comprise an "elite" that is contrary to the "laborer" lifestyle lived by most of their compatriots. When gay Philippino men travel abroad, they often do so on the trans-national network of "gay globality," the major urban centers with thriving gay subcultures. Benedicto claims that the gay subculture is reinforcing a class-based divide, an observation that may not be immediately apparent but which has a strong impact on…
Lucal, B. (1999). What it means to be gendered me. Gender and Society 13(6): 781-797.
Pecola Breedlove's experiences in Toni Morrison's The Bluest Eye symbolize the internalization of sexism and racism. On the contrary, Anita Hill's willingness to stand up and speak out against a powerful male official represents the externalization of sexism and racism. Anita Hill lacks the self-hatred embodied by the character of Pecola, but in spite of her confidence and poise, lacks the power or wherewithal to undermine institutionalized sexism. Although Hill had an opportunity to make the personal political, her failure to convince members of the Senate about Clarence Thomas's misconduct highlights the ongoing struggles for all women and especially women of color to reclaim power. When The Bluest Eye was written, the prospects for women of color were even poorer than they were when Anita Hill testified. Yet the outcome of Hill's testimony proves that patriarchy remains entrenched in American society.
A core similarity between Anita Hill's experience and that…
Martin, N. (2014). Women key in shaping Black Panther Party. The Clayman Institute. Retrieved online: http://gender.stanford.edu/news/2014/women-key-shaping-black-panther-party
Mock, F. (2013). Anita. [Documentary Film].
Morrison, T. (1970). The Bluest Eye. New York: Vintage.
Harlem enaissance was a true flourishing of African-American arts, music, and literature, thereby contributing tremendously to the cultural landscape of the nation. Much Harlem enaissance literature reflects the experience of the "great migration" of blacks from the rural south to the urban north. Those experiences included reflections on the intersections between race, class, gender, and power. Many of the Harlem enaissance writers penned memoirs that offer insight into the direct experience of racism, such as ichard Wright's "The Ethics of Living Jim Crow." Poets worked with classic literary devices like symbolism and imagery to convey the intense emotions linked to experiences of prejudice and violence. Emerging in conjunction with social and political justice movements such as women's rights and labor rights, the movement to empower black communities through the arts also spilled beyond the borders of the African-American community. For example, F. Scott Fitzgerald's novels and short stories addressed class…
Brown, S. Bitter fruit of the tree. Retrieved online: http://www.ronnowpoetry.com/contents/brown/BitterFruit.html
Wright, R. The ethics of living Jim Crow. Retrieved online: http://xroads.virginia.edu/~ma01/white/anthology/wright.html
The contents of this memoir, however, are much more far reaching than a single person's story. Through her experience and analysis, Clare brings out two themes -- the inappropriateness of gender identities and the connection between bodies and powers. Clare's first theme is encompassed in her constant feelings of isolation, and her inability to define herself. As a child, all Clare knew were the differences between men and women. As someone who had never been feminine, she wondered what kind of women she was. The fact that she was raped by her father made things even more difficult. Using this experience, Clare transitions to her second point. She argues that her father's violent act with her body, and other parents' violent acts with their children's bodies, was a lesson teaching the children that they are not powerful. Furthermore, Clare discusses physical disability, including her own, suggesting that disability is equated…
' Culture, in Buck's point-of-view, and the construction of race, thus had a greater importance upon the creation of modern Kentucky than a logical evaluation of individual's real interests. This is why both whites and blacks have been worked to the bone.
Discrimination against poor whites still abounds in present-day Kentucky in the form of stereotypes. Poor whites are often characterized as supposed 'rednecks' who deserve their economic fate because their days are devoted to "drinking, incest," and "family violence," and living lives of "general backwardness, bare-footedness, improvidence, and red-necked cussedness (7). "The actions of coal mine owners, of corporate tobacco buyers, or of manufacturing executives are irrelevant in explaining Kentucky's bony fingers if they can be explained by the problems in Kentucky's culture instead," not by bad corporate behavior (7).
In defending her thesis, Buck begins with evidence from her own life, as she opens with her struggles opening…
acial division/separation on campus in environment
Students in the focus group described the campus environment at Landgrant University as being welcoming overall, but difficult to find meaningful connections with other students. Segregation is too harsh of a term to use in this case, but it is clear some of the students at the university feel that people stick with their own racial groups when making friends. This has created a trend in campus life that is hard to overcome. Therefore, there remains a racial division/separation on campus.
Stereotypes are mentioned as one of the most common causes of racial division on campus. One participant in the focus group claimed that white students claimed they thought she was "ghetto" and stereotyped her as a "loud" African-American female until they got to know her. This experience shows that stereotypes continue to color first impressions of people, preventing meaningful friendships from forming…
Fischer, M.J. (2007). Settling into campus life: differences by race/ethnicity in college involvement and outcomes. Journal of Higher Education, 78(2), 125-161.
Flower, L.A. (2004), Effects of living on campus on African-American students' educational gains in college, NASPA Journal, 41(2).
Specifically reported by Coy is that the "recent launch of a black Disney princess may be an indicator of greater cultural diversity, but in terms of the 'girl power' values it carries the view that it is 'a great step . . . [and] could help black children see themselves more positively' (Adesioye, 2009) fails to address how it will reinforce messages of sexualization for black girls." (2009) to excel in the music industry, it is expected and even required that women become sexualized because this is a primary point of the success realized in the music industry as the music industry is highly sexualized overall. A study reported in the work of Stankiewitz and osselli (2008) states that the study examined the way that women were depicted in 1,988 advertisements "from popular U.S. magazines." The advertisements were coded in relation to whether women were presented as sex objects of…
American Psychological Association, Task Force on the Sexualization of Girls. (2010). Report of the APA Task Force on the Sexualization of Girls. Retrieved from: http://www.apa.org/pi/women/programs/girls/report-full.pdf
Coy, M. (2009) Milkshakes, Lady Lumps, and Growing Up to Want Boobies: How the Finlay, a. (2013) Hyper-sexualizing Women Leads to Self-Objectification -- More Destructive and Prevalent than Society Admits
Liang, E. (2011) the Media's Sexualization of Female Athletes: A Bad Call for the modern Game. Vol. 3 No. 10. Retrieved from: http://www.studentpulse.com/articles/587/the-medias-sexualization-of-female-athletes-a-bad-call-for-the-modern-game
Naubert, R. (2011) Media's Growing Sexualization of Women. Psych Central. Retrieved from: http://psychcentral.com/news/2011/08/11/medias-growing-sexualization-of-women/28539.html
In other case the motive was rooted first in ideological assumption -- and that assumption was that ASP superiority was a given.
The issue of race and class finally came to a head as America continued its expansion westward. But the issue was political as well: hat right did the Federal Government have over State Government to say whether slavery should be abolished? ho was really in power in America -- the States and local government -- or federal national government? The Civil ar, of course, answered the question brutally and bloodily in 1865. But racism and classism did not end. In fact, the problems of race and class would continue even after the war for as long as American policy was determined by ASP elitism. That policy has not changed to this day.
In conclusion, issues of race and class were ingrained into the American fabric from the very…
Horsman, Reginald. Race and Manifest Destiny: the Origins of American Racial Anglo-
Saxonism. Harvard University Press, 1981. Print.
If students are misbehaving, they are not engaged in their lessons. Behavior management is, unfortunately, a priority focus at Springfield Gardens, to the detriment of instruction. This is the point that the three interviewees continued to stress. None of them blamed the teachers for failing to engage students; the fault, as they see it, lies squarely with the students whose families apparently do not place a high value on education. The students, as Gordon, Benton and Johnson see it, are products of the culture in which their parents live.
The three frequently compared and contrasted the students of today with students of generations past. Students in "the good old days" did not misbehave the way students do "these days." That point was made clear, particularly in interviews with Benton and Gordon. Benton recalled a childhood outside the United States where school, he implied, was much more rigorous. It would appear…
Bali, V.A., & Alvarez, R.M. (2003). Schools and educational outcomes: What causes the "race gap" in student test scores? Social Science Quarterly 84 (3)
Biddle, R. (March 7, 2011). The condemnation of black children to dropout factories must end. Dropout Nation. Retrieved from http://dropoutnation.net/2011/03/07/condemnation-black-children/
Lewis, a.E. (2001). There is no race in the schoolyard: Color-blind ideology in an (almost)
all-white school. American Educational Research Journal 38 (4), 781-811.
Visual Representations of Class Consciousness
This paper discusses visual representations of class consciousness, and what these representations mean in a larger cultural and social sense. The paper also discusses my picture of myself, and my class, and what this picture tells me about who I am, and what I am supposed to be. The paper discusses how this combination defines me, and how it puts me in a specific box, or allows me more freedom.
Firstly, how do I see myself? I am female, black, Hispanic. I have been living in the U.S. For four years, and am in college in Florida. My Dad has a good job, so my Mum does not need to work. I want for nothing, as we are affluent, and so based on these markers (or visual representations), I would call myself middle class.
What visual representations of class do I portray to the outside…
Race, Class & Crime
The confluence of race, class and crime is a hot topic nowadays. This is especially true when discussing events or topics of various types. Very or fairly specific examples of this would include the recent shooting of Mike Brown in Ferguson, MO and the subsequent non-indictment of the officer who shot him despite the fact that Brown was not armed and the ongoing discussion about how paying a "wage" should be a moral imperative of all employers and how people in poverty are much more apt to commit crimes. Throw in the fact that people that exist in racial minorities are much more likely to be in poverty, it seems to make sense to some that minorities are also more commonly incarcerated and committing crimes in general. However, this is not entirely true as white people commit plenty of crimes themselves. However, blacks and Hispanics are…
Race, class, gender, ethnicity, and religion are all variables that impact a person’s identity, worldview, communication style, and behaviors. Applying the sociological imagination to the workplace environment enables a greater understanding of how these factors impact daily interactions and events, with the goals of promoting harmony and resolving conflict. Being aware of race, gender, and religion has helped me function better in teams. The times that I neglected to recognize race, religion, and gender taught me valuable lessons and helped me to become more emotionally and socially intelligent. Race, gender, and religion are all socially constructed variables rather than being absolute categories; therefore it is always important to remember the fluidity of these constructs and to relate to each person individually as opposed to making sweeping generalizations based on stereotypes and assumptions.
Moreover, categories and definitions of race, gender, and religion are not monolithic. What it means to be white,…
Obama famously referred to his white grandmother during the campaign who tragically passed away the night before he was elected, as a woman of tolerance, yet who still was subject to the prejudices of society enough to feel uncomfortable when she saw an African-American walking across the street. Although this remark was criticized, Obama's point was that in America, race was inescapable, and prejudice must be dealt with through voicing concerns, rather than pretending racial divides did not exist. At times, America's unspoken discourse about race seemed to harm Obama, as in his difficulty wresting the nomination from Clinton in states like Pennsylvania, states with large, older, white working-class populations. But the desire for change and the ability to cross barriers and humanize himself seemed to counteract this: The Obama generation "has been knocked for putting all of their personal stuff on full display...But there is an upside, too, which…
Aistrup, Joseph a. The Southern Strategy Revisited. Louisville: University Press of Kentucky,
Cave, Damien. "Generation O Gets its Hopes Up." The New York Times Magazine. November 7, 2008. December 3, 2008. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/11/09/fashion/09boomers.html?scp=10&sq=presidential%20election&st=cse
Harwood, John. "The Fault Line that Haunts Democrats." The New York Times. May 4, 2008. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/05/04/weekinreview/04harwood.html?scp=5&sq=race%20election&st=cse
Kendall, Diana. Sociology in Our Times. 6th edition. New York: Wadsworth, 2007.
Therefore I reasoned until now and still do, that were discrimination as restricted by question 1 between students, faculty, staff and administrators a problem, it would come up, because other topics of racial inequality do freely come up in discussion.
Are people of your race and ethnicity proportionately represented...
Getting back to sample size, if I know say ten candidates for differential treatment based on race, and they are only a few of say several hundred at Springfield, then the fact that race has not come up in casual discussion with these few students of color, does not represent a random or large enough sample to represent the population. What I can see is that Springfield outside the college windows is disproportionately black, while the population in the classroom is overwhelmingly white, as are students and faculty in all the pictures on the splash pages that loaded when I opened…
But the limited growth policies that have remained popular with the Council (and a majority of the citizens, it would seem) have also kept the price of real estate high. Davis maintains the necessary amount of low-income housing, but many of the occupants are entry level workers at the town's biggest employer -- the University. These people tend to have college degrees and are -- you guessed it -- predominantly white with a large proportion of Asians as well. There simply is not enough space to fill the demand in Davis, and this has caused quite a premium in the cost of owning or even renting real estate in the city.
There is another gesture of economic favoritism that speaks even more tellingly about the unconscious racialization of Davis. The housing development that has occurred in the past twenty years saw the creation of two enormous semi-gated communities with generally…
City of Davis. "Who's who on the City Council." Accessed 13 April 2009. http://cityofdavis.org/cmo/whoswho.cfm
FactFinder. "U.S. Census Bureau Statistics." Accessed 13 April 2009. http://factfinder.census.gov/home/saff/main.html?_lang=en
U.S. Census Data. "City of Davis, California, 2000." Accessed 13 April 2009. http://davis.areaconnect.com/statistics.htm
Moreover, many people in my neighborhood are able to have people come into their homes and provide services, such as housecleaning and lawn maintenance. Overwhelmingly, the providers of these resources are Hispanic, and the majority of them are illegal immigrants to the United States. Therefore, the hypocrisy of people is alarming; many people in my community are content to live a more comfortable lifestyle using the labor of illegal immigrants, but do not want to face any financial consequences for having done so, or to help provide any of the social services that these people need if they have come to the United States to work.
As far as I am aware, no manuals for any workplace in my community mention any race, specifically. To do so would invite charges of overt discrimination, even though doing so might actually help prevent certain types of discrimination. For example, an Indian friend…
The committee should investigate new curricular models that empower students and which especially promote inclusion. Transforming our public schools is an essential first step toward eliminating many of the social problems extant in Joliet and in the country as a whole.
Second I would help create more small business development opportunities in Joliet. An organization or collection of organizations that can help minorities and the poor receive funding would be a tremendous help for the community and individual residents. Not only would small business development create jobs, it would enrich and uplift Joliet by enhancing prosperity. Instead of attracting outside investors like big box corporate entities who offer nothing more than insecure low income jobs, small business development creates creative, self-sustaining, and empowering opportunities for local growth. I therefore believe that small business development is a key to easing race relations and eliminating social injustice. Small business ownership is empowering…
ace and eunion
Briefly describe each of the three visions
Vision one: The reconciliationist vision -- this vision had its roots in the "process of dealing with the dead from so many battlefields, prisons, and hospitals," the author writes on page 2; and it also developed in ways prior to the process of econstruction; people were weary of war, and many Americans longed for a time of forgiving, in the Christian sense; vision two: The white supremacist vision -- this vision was manifest through terror, violence, and its legacy promotes a memory of the Civil War aftermath as one of segregation on southern terms; those of white supremacist / racist leanings would never consider giving in to a Constitutional mandate to allow all blacks freedom, the vote, and other equal rights; vision three: The emancipationist vision -- this includes much of what African-Americans remember about gaining their freedom, it also…
Blight, David W. Race and Reunion: The Civil War in American Memory. Cambridge,
Massachusetts: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2001.
Wilson, Clyde. "War, reconstruction, and the end of the old republic." Society 33.6
Furthermore, while acknowledging that there was a consciousness of whiteness and white superiority in other lands, such as England, Roediger points out that part of the Americanization process for European immigrants was to become white, and that this process involved internalizing feelings of racism and hatred towards blacks.
Affirmative Action and the Politics of Race by Manning Marable
Manning Marable is a pro-affirmative action author, and he begins his essay by decrying the fact that the political right wing has largely defined the context of discussions about affirmative action. In addition, he stresses concern that those who have benefitted from affirmative action have been reluctant to defend it. He suggests that part of the problem is due to how affirmative action has traditionally been framed and its lack of a definition. Historically, he says, affirmative action was "designed to promote some degree of compensatory justice to the victims of slavery,…
Goldberg, David Theo. "Modernity, Race, and Morality." Race Critical Theories: Text and Context. Eds. Philomena Essed and David Theo Goldberg. Malden: Blackwell Publishing, 2002. 283-306.
Marable, Manning. "Affirmative Action and the Politics of Race." Race Critical Theories: Text and Context. Eds. Philomena Essed and David Theo Goldberg. Malden: Blackwell Publishing, 2002. 344-354.
Roediger, David. "Whiteness and Ethnicity in the History of 'White Ethnics' in the United
States." Race Critical Theories: Text and Context. Eds. Philomena Essed and David Theo Goldberg. Malden: Blackwell Publishing, 2002. 325-343.
The system creates and engenders inequity by denying women of color entry.
Even though I have lived in many different states and communities, race and sex continue to be visible barriers to success. My most recent setback proves that women of color are viewed as threats and may be silenced when they speak out and appear strong. I recently found work as a bookkeeper. Although not my dream job, I worked hard and gave it my all. In my spare time I cultivated a strong desire to become an entrepreneur and help people like me achieve success in a supportive environment. My performance on the job remained stellar, but when my employers discovered my budding business they let me go. Lacking the means to pursue a lawsuit, I poured my efforts into my home-based business and now I help other Latinos within the local community to prepare their tax documents…
In fact, the Toy is considered to be one of the most racist films of all time due to these issues (Sastry).
Blazing Saddles and the Toy approach comedy from distinct perspectives, and although they may have common elements, the differences in their approach to humor, comedy, and race allow the audience to understand why Blazing Saddles is successful in its commentary on society and why the Toy fails miserably at changing people's perspectives about society in a positive way. Brooks's approach to race and social status helps to redefine how blacks were viewed in cinema, and also helps to demonstrate that previous cinematic depictions have been skewed due the control exercised by Hollywood executives. On the other hand, Donner's approach to race and social status ends up being degrading, racist, and further reinforces negative stereotypes of race and social status. It is through these various depictions and approaches that…
Blazing Saddles. Directed by Mel Brooks. United States: Warner Bros., 1974. DVD.
Dirks, Tim. "Comedy Films." AMC Filmsite. Web. 13 April 2013.
Rice, Kathryn. "Race Consciousness and Class Invisibility in American Comedy." Dissident
Voice: A radical newsletter in the struggle for peace and social justice. 4 Sept 2010. Web. 12 April 2013.
I also become more aware of the beauty that I have within myself. The story is further inspiring to me, because I identify with Ms. Chavez as a result of her Mexican origin. Obviously she has come to America in pursuit of a dream. he has fulfilled her American dream many times over. I can only hope to do the same with my life.
Another encouraging and gratifying factor in this story is the validation of my own views regarding Lawton. It is a city of truly equal opportunities for whomever chooses to take them. It seems like literally anyone can achieve anything. Furthermore, I find it very encouraging that both the media and government institutions support and openly report the success of efforts such as those by Ms. Chavez. As a White-Mexican female, this makes me aware that, while all cultures are beautiful and should be promoted in their…
City of Lawton, Oklahoma. (2007). "History." http://www.cityof.lawton.ok.us/history.htm
City Policy." http://www.cityof.lawton.ok.us/CityCode/Lawton_City_Code/Chapter_13/1/101.html
City Profile" http://www.cityof.lawton.ok.us/About_Lawton.htm
Lee, Ann Dee. (2006, Nov. 1). "News Release: Isidra Chavez to receive Governor's Arts Award." Oklahoma Arts Council News. http://www.ok.gov/~arts/news/2006/1101GAAChavez.html
This does not mean that rich people are free; on the contrary, many are not. However, money is required to live a free and easy life that defines success. Success as the achievement of personal and professional goals depends on having sufficient resources. Both Mr. Hernandez and Mr. Clay are successful. Both race and class played important roles in the article, showing that the two issues are inseparable. The article shows how the two issues are linked and how sociologists must view race and class together. Even if non-white minorities do not conform to the ideologies and practices of the dominant culture, or the "general population," equality is still ensured by law.
Race, not class, has impacted the ways many minorities are treated in the United States and in Western Europe. For example, in France and other parts of Europe the large influx of immigrants from northern Africa and Turkey…
ace: Personal Educational Experiences and eflection
ace was seldom discussed explicitly during my early, grammar school education. When the topic of race was broached, it was usually in the context of a lesson on the Civil War or Civil ights movement. Although such discussions were valuable, they gave the impression that race was something located in America's past, rather than worthy of discussion in the present. However, this did not mean that I was not cognizant of race as a child. I was, but the topic was often unspoken of in school, except on the rare occasions when teachers brought it to the forefront of the attention of the class -- usually in a manner that suggested that the struggle for freedom had been won.
I was fortunate to have parents who always stressed that all people were equal, regardless of how they looked. While they did not give me…
Kozol, Jonathan. (2005). The shame of the nation: the restoration of apartheid schooling in America. New York: Crown.
Tatum, Beverly Daniel. (2003). Why are all the black kids sitting together in the cafeteria?
New York: Basic Books.
Lewis, Amanda E. (2003). Race in the schoolyard: Negotiating the color line in classrooms and communities. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press.
Race and Ethnic Inclusion and Exclusion
In Ira erlin's (1998) Many Thousands Gone: The First Two Centuries of Slavery in North America, the author shows how groups in the U.S. struggled to exclude other groups. White people made a serious effort to exclude black people from anything other than the most menial jobs for a very long time (Davidson, 2005; Gasorek, 1998). The desire to exclude was based on skin color and race, but there was also an element of inclusion in that black people were included in one group based on their skin color, and were not seen as individuals who were unique people based on their own merits (Sherif, 1967; Tajfel & Turner, 1979).
lack people struggled to gain access to institutions and status as they developed their own identities in an area with which they were unfamiliar (erlin, 1998). They became soldiers and worked as artisans, along…
Berlin, Ira. 1998. Many thousands gone: The first two centuries of slavery in North America. Cambridge, Mass: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.
Davison, K.N. (2005). The mixed race experiment: Treatment of racially categorized individuals under title VII. Law journal library, 12: 161-164.
Gasorek, Dory. 1998. Inclusion at Dun & Bradstreet: Building a high-performing company. The Diversity Factor 8(4).
Hyter, Michael C. & Turnock, Judith L. 2006. The power of inclusion: Unlock the potential and productivity of your workforce. NY: John Wiley & Sons.
The predominating media sentiment according to Ransby was that of 'blaming the victim,' or blaming the impoverished residents for being insufficiently prepared for the disaster. Ransby suggests that the fortitude shown by residents, even in the absence of aid, was often considerable, considering their meager resources. Residents were blamed for their poverty, rather than sympathized with.
Ransby's essay made me think critically about the coverage of the event I witnessed: while it was true that many people were praised for going to the afflicted area and helping the victims, I remember far fewer stories praising the resilience of residents. While the 'blame the victim' mentality may have been less in evidence in the coverage I saw than that which was cited by Ransby, I do think that there was a kind of objectification of the victims as a general, faceless representation of extreme poverty that many Americans denied existed within…
Race/Racism: Who are you?
Vietnamese Americans are Americans who have a Vietnamese heritage. Vietnamese people living in the United States make up close to have of the Vietnamese people leaving overseas. The Vietnamese Americans are one of the largest Asian American ethnicities. Other Asian ethnicities include the Indians, Filipinos, and the Chinese. The Asian Americans have a distinct characteristic from other Americans. I define myself as an Asian American. The media sources like the movies and television give little positives about the Asian Americans and neither are there many recognized role models of Asian American heritage (Mok). According to Mok the media fails to do justice to diversity of the American people and does not appreciate the culture of Asian Americans. The paucity of a conspicuous Asian image in the American society is responsible for affecting perceptions of the Asian Americans themselves, their race, and the broader society.
Although there are potential social costs associated with linking race or ethnic background with genetics, we believe that these potential costs are outweighed by the benefits in terms of diagnosis and research. Ignoring racial and ethnic differences in medicine and biomedical research will not make them disappear. ather than ignoring these differences, scientists should continue to use them as starting points for further research. Only by focusing attention on these issues can we hope to understand better the variations among racial and ethnic groups in the prevalence and severity of diseases and in responses to treatment (1174)
The second is that race is often used as a proxy for class.
And, the third category is what Kawachi, Daniels and obinson argue is the most defensible, that race and class are two separate issues, and should be treated as such.
However, as Daniels and Schulz bring to light, research documentation examining…
Cooper, R., Kauffman, J., & Ward, R. "Race and Genomics" New England Journal of Medicine vol (issue) 30 Mar 2003: 1166-1175.
Daniels, J. & Shulz, a. "Constructing Whiteness in Health Disparities Research." In Title of Book. Eds. Place of Publication: Publisher, Date.
Kawachi, I. & Daniels, N., Robinson, D. "Race Disparities by Race and Class: Why Both Matter." Health Affairs vol (issue) Mar/Apr 2003: 342-351.
ace in Sociology
The sociology of racism, according to Clair and Denis (2015) is the study concerning racial inequality, racial discrimination, and racism and the associated features. acism basically is the domination of another race based on the percept and preconception that the dominating race is superior culturally or biologically. This thinking of superiority is used to justify the ill treatment of people from other races. acialization has led to people being divided into various groups based on physical appearances such as color of the skin, shape of the eye or hair and languages spoken, among others. These groups are then called races. acial discrimination involves unequal treatment meted to these groups and manifests itself prominently in such areas as education, income, and health.
ace is a construct of the society. It has no biological bearing, as there are no behavioral differences in humans that can be attributed to differences…
Clair, M., & Denis, J. S. (2015). Sociology of Racism. Retrieved September 8, 2016, from Scholars at Harvard: https://scholar.harvard.edu/files/matthewclair/files/sociology_of_racism_clairandenis_2015.pdf
Crossman, A. (2016). Sociology Of Race And Ethnicity. Retrieved September 8, 2016, from About Education: http://sociology.about.com/od/Disciplines/a/Sociology-Of-Race-Ethnicity.htm
Delinder, J. V. (2004, January). Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka: A Landmark Case Unresolved Fifty Years Later. Prologue Magazine, Vol 36. Retrieved from The U.S. National Archives and Records Administration: http://www.archives.gov/publications/prologue/2004/spring/brown-v-board-1.html
Library of Virginia. (2003). What Was Brown v. Board of Education? Retrieved September 8, 2016, from Library of Virginia: http://www.lva.virginia.gov/exhibits/brown/whatwas.htm
Louis presented an exhibition of different races as artifacts or curiosities, to demonstrate where civilization had 'come from' in the past, versus the images of civilized 'future.' he designers of the exhibit saw the supposed progress of science and civilization as a series of examples of how whites had successfully born 'the white man's burden.' he exhibit showed the benefits of slavery in educating the African races as well as the eradication of Native Americans as a necessary part of American history. he exhibit also implicitly justified American colonial and imperial ventures in 20th century as examples of the natural progress of superior races, educating and presumably eventually reforming or eradicating inferior races.
he impact of scientific publications on U.S. legal and social policy was largely regressive rather than progressive in terms of eradicating racial tension. Rather than generating enlightenment, science was often to confirm racial prejudices. Scientists classified…
The 1904 Worlds Fair in St. Louis presented an exhibition of different races as artifacts or curiosities, to demonstrate where civilization had 'come from' in the past, versus the images of civilized 'future.' The designers of the exhibit saw the supposed progress of science and civilization as a series of examples of how whites had successfully born 'the white man's burden.' The exhibit showed the benefits of slavery in educating the African races as well as the eradication of Native Americans as a necessary part of American history. The exhibit also implicitly justified American colonial and imperial ventures in 20th century as examples of the natural progress of superior races, educating and presumably eventually reforming or eradicating inferior races.
The impact of scientific publications on U.S. legal and social policy was largely regressive rather than progressive in terms of eradicating racial tension. Rather than generating enlightenment, science was often to confirm racial prejudices. Scientists classified races as possessing certain intrinsic natures or characteristics that were intrinsic to their inborn or genetically inherited temperaments. Darwinism was used to justify racism, as some populations were classified as more primitive than others, based upon arbitrary measures of their skulls, or their skin tone -- certain races were said to be less 'evolved' than other races in terms of their practices and physical development. Defeat at the hands of whites was seen as justified because it exemplified a particular race's inferiority, like the Mexican 'race' at the hands of white Americans. Temperaments were assigned to certain races as well, much like some species of animals supposedly have certain innate temperaments. The overall result was to animalize certain races, and to create divides between entire classes of people.
The Problems of ace & the Myths of Urban Poverty
ace is a social construct. There is exists very little genetic difference among the various "races" of humans on Earth. This construct is central to many, and perhaps even most people on our planet. ace is a physical difference that draws clearly defined boundaries between people. ace can be the inspiration for war. ace is hardly an inspiration for peace, unfortunately. This paper will briefly examine situations when race has been used to hurt and subordinate others. This paper will reference examples of groups of people that are systematically via the social realms and institutions who suffer due to their race, an aspect over which they had no choice or say. Drawing from the series, The Wire, and a few readings, the paper will propose what the myths of urban poverty are, who are the authors of such myths,…
Dreier, P. And J. Atlas. 2009. The Wire - Bush-Era Fable About America's Urban Poor. City & Community, 8: 329-340.
Edin, K. And K. Harris. 1998. Getting Off and Staying Off: Racial Differences in the Work Route off Welfare. Pages 270-301: Latinas and African-American Women at Work: Race, Gender, and Economic Inequality, New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation.
Newman, K. 2001. Hard Times on 125th Street: Harlem's Poor Confront Welfare Reform. American Anthropologist, 103(3): 762-778.
In fact, the American evolution may have served to assert the natural rights of some people, but those people were limited to a class of white males.
It is important to keep in mind that one of the ideological underpinnings of the evolution was a challenge to imperialist ideals, and race-based oppression and slavery had long been major parts of the imperial system. Despite that, it is unfair to characterize Britain as pro-slavery, as the British began to embrace abolitionist sentiments prior to the evolution. In fact, British Imperialists struggled with the concept of slavery, because of the fact that denying the right to own slaves was viewed as economic oppression by many white colonists, because, without slavery, the cash crops that made colonies profitable were difficult, if not impossible, to harvest (Brown, 1999). They began by attempting to limit the import of slaves into the colonies, something that they…
Appleby, J. (1976). Liberalism and the American Revolution, New England Quarterly, 49(1), 3-
Brown, C.L. (1999). Empire without slaves: British concepts of Emancipation in the age of the American Revolution, the William and Mary Quarterly, 56(2), 273-306.
Freehling, W.W. (1972). The founding fathers and slavery, the American Historical Review,
36). Civil ights era marks the beginning of powerful resistance against oppression. Blacks from all over the country awoke to the reality and ugliness of the situation and their effort bore fruit when Civil ights Act of 1964 was promulgated. esistance has had some impact on social system. Discriminatory practices are not as obvious as they once were. People and organizations understand the repercussions of discriminating on the basis of race and color. However African-Americans still have a long way to go before they can consider themselves free and equal in true sense of the term.
Biko, S. (1978). Steve Biko: Black Consciousness in South Africa. M. Arnold (Ed.). New York: andom House
Blauner, . (1972). acial oppression in America. San Francisco: Harper & ow.
Folger, . & Skarlicki, D. (1999). Unfairness and resistance to change: hardship as mistreatment, Journal of Organizational Change Management, 35-50.
Franklin, .S. (1991). Shadows…
Biko, S. (1978). Steve Biko: Black Consciousness in South Africa. M. Arnold (Ed.). New York: Random House
Blauner, R. (1972). Racial oppression in America. San Francisco: Harper & Row.
Folger, R. & Skarlicki, D. (1999). Unfairness and resistance to change: hardship as mistreatment, Journal of Organizational Change Management, 35-50.
Franklin, R.S. (1991). Shadows of race and class. Ann Arbor, Michigan: University of Michigan Press.
ace Discrimination Justice
ACE DISCIMINATION CIMINAL JUSTICE
ace and Discrimination in the Criminal Justice System
acial inequality has long been an issue in the American society. Despite making substantial progress in creating a more racially equal society, there are still many issues involving race and discrimination that can be found today. The criminal justice system was designed to treat all individuals equally under the law. However, covert racism and discrimination still plague the system and many minorities are adversely impacted and are not treated equally under the law. While most judges and public officials profess a strong dedication to remaining racially impartial, the evidence suggests otherwise. This literature review will focus on various points that indicate that there is a substantial amount of inequality to found within the criminal justice system in our modern society.
acial differences in the criminal justice system have been important topics since the…
Crutchfield, R., Fernandes, A., & Martinez, J. (2010). Racil and Ethnic Disparity and Criminal Justice: How Much is Too Much? The Journal of Criminal Law & Criminology, 903-932.
Green, E. (1991). Judicial Attitudes in Sentencing - A Study of the Factors Underlying the Sentencing Practice of the Criminal Court of Philidelphia. National Criminal Justice Reference Service, 157.
Gross, S. (1997). Crime, Politics, and Race. Harvard Journal of Law & Public Policy, 405-416.
Staples, R. (2009). White Power, Black Crime, and Racial Politics. The Black Scholar, 31-41.
2001 1. Then, they could sort taxonomically. In other words, one man's 'smart' is another man's 'dopey', concepts that have little to do with the "intelligence" IQ tests are designed to measure. This is certainly, as well, a clear indication of how completely IQ tests are based in a narrow range of cultural norms. Indeed, they could be viewed as impoverished measures for failing to account for the values, intellectual and otherwise, of any society except the well-defined, homogenized and 'unjuicy' western society that invented the tests. Sternberg et al. concluded that, regarding IQ tests, "scores from tests used in cultures or subcultures other than those for which the tests were specifically created are suspect, and probably of doubtful validity in many if not most cases (2001 1).
What about race?
The myths about race and IQ go back a long way, to a time before IQ tests. Philosophers Hume,…
Keita, L. (1999). Why Race Matters: Race Differences and What They Mean. The Western Journal of Black Studies, 23(1), 65. Retrieved April 21, 2005, from Questia database, http://www.questia.com .
Reeve, C.L. (2002). Race and Intelligence: Separating Science from Myth. Personnel Psychology, 55(3), 778+. Retrieved April 21, 2005, from Questia database,
ace: Power of an Illusion
This second episode of the PBS series, "The Story we Tell" discusses how race and racism developed in this country. Surprisingly, the series experts believe race has a history, and develops over time, and "that it is constructed by society to further certain political and economic goals" ("ace"). The episode begins with narration that leads into the controversial words of Thomas Jefferson, who wrote that he found blacks inferior to whites in "body and mind." The episode suggests that Thomas Jefferson was then the first American to theorize race in the country. The episode then goes on to discuss the juxtaposition of Jefferson's theory that "all men are created equal" with his own slaveholding and clear approval of slaveholding in the United States. Does this mean that the founding fathers felt those of color were "less than" men?
The episode then discusses early history in…
The Story we Tell." Race: The Power of an Illusion. Prd. Larry Adelman. California Newsreel, 2003.
Secondly, this different approach also led the American society to experience a distinct social evolution. The fact that the ritish colonists were less reluctant to encourage social mobility offered the new settlers the change to become an important member of the society despite his eventual modest origin. Consequently, the highest level of the social scale was that of the colonial aristocrats, represented by wealthy planters and merchants, the middle class was represented by the land owning farmers, while the hired help made up the lower class. Indeed, there were racial frictions as well, which forced African-Americans to be considered the least important in the society. Nonetheless, despite this hierarchy, the geographical conditions enabled every man to go in search of wealth and thus improve his social conditions.
The Spanish and Portuguese colonial empires, although they offered a different social structure for their colonies, they left little mobility between classes. The…
Lewis, Laura. "Spanish ideology and the practice of inequality in the New World." Racism and anti-racism in world perspective. Ed. Benjamin Bowser. London: Sage Publications, 2002.
Loury, Glenn C., Tariq Modood, and Steven Michael Teles. Ethnicity, social mobility, and public policy:comparing the U.S. And UK. London: Cambridge UP, 2005, 22-25.
Standardized tests are only able to measure correct multiple choice answers. They cannot measure a child's creativity, their ability to problem solve, or their ability to critically evaluate information.
The culture of achievement that has accompanied the push for higher test scores has had severe physical and psychological effects on students. Taylor (2010) claims that academic stress is the greatest source of stress faced by school-aged children. He notes that many high school and college students have turned to performance-enhancing drugs such as Adderall and italin to help them concentrate. Finally, he claims that teen suicide rates have risen drastically in recent years, particularly among girls. In summary, the ever-increasing push for higher test scores has created an academic culture where stressed out students and frustrated teachers are the norm, and where very little authentic learning actually takes place. ace to the Top's push for even higher test scores may…
Barkley, K. (2010, February 18). Officials wary of possible strings attached to race to the top initiative. Cumberland Times News. Retrieved February 19, 2010 from http://www.times-news.com/local/local_story_049230436.html
Dillon, Sam. (2009, April 14). Education Standards Likely to See Toughening. New York Times. Retrieved February 19, 2010 from http://www.nytimes.com/2009/04/15/education/15educ.html?_r=1
Fact Sheet: The Race to the Top. (2009, November 4). The White House: Office of the Press Secretary. Retrieved February 19, 2010 from http://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/fact-sheet-race-top
Hamilton, J. (2009, November 12). U.S. Department of Education Opens Race to the Top Competition. Press Release. Retrieved February 18, 2010 from http://www2.ed.gov/news/pressreleases/2009/11/11122009.html
In Kingston's more feminine rendering of identity, although she resists the ideals of silence and sexual repression, she accepts the idea that women have more permeable boundaries of selfhood and stronger ties to their family in the telling of her text.
Both works point to the inexorability of the past, especially for individuals of ethnic or racial minorities who consider themselves 'other.' Obama is 'other' because of his multiethnic heritage that alienates him from parents as well as friends, and because of the Americanness that separates him from his father. Kingston sees herself as Chinese, but female in a culture as well as a nation that mistrusts this aspect of a woman's self. Both make claims to how their lives speak for other lives -- Obama explicitly with his overly political narration, and his determination to use his struggle as fuel for success as an advocate of community enfranchisement, Kingston…
Kingston, Hong Maxine. The Woman Warrior. Vintage, 1989
Obama, Barak. Dreams from my Father: A Story of Race and Inheritance.
Three Rivers Press, 2004.
The French colonial government actively sought means to control land and land use in Algeria, notes Sartre. Control over land and natural resources equals ownership of the means of production. Economic oppression also creates class conflict: the subjugated peoples become a clear and identifiable underclass. Even within the underclass, class conflict prevents political cohesion. The French and the Americans would have been far less successful in their colonial campaigns had the Algerians and the Native Americans been able to organize en masse in rebellion. Poverty pits neighbor against neighbor in the competition for limited resources.
Furthermore, race and social class become linked together and offered up as false proof that the oppressed groups are inherently inferior. Economic oppression also serves another key goal that helps perpetuate colonial rule: ignorance. Stripping the underclass of access to capital or to the means of production, the ruling class ensures lack of access to…
Churchill, Ward. A Little Matter of Genocide. City Lights Books, 1997.
Sartre, Jean-Paul. Colonialism and Neo-Colonialism. Translated by Azzedine Haddour, Steve Brewer. Routledge, 2001.
However when used in this way these terms can take on negative connotations because they treat everyone of a certain race as a monolithic group and this is not the case. Not all people who belong to a certain race hold all the same beliefs as other people who also belong to that race.
Discrimination causes tension between people of different races and ultimately can lead to race wars and the inability of people to interact with one another without apprehension. For instance, I have been in situations where it was assumed that I believed I was better than people because I am a white male. In some ways I understand people's feelings towards me because they have been historically discriminated against; however, I don't believe that I am better than anybody because of my race. The idea that others believe that I have a superiority complex is disheartening. At…
"race." Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. 2010. Merriam-Webster Online. 18 June 2010
This can impact an ethnic group's thoughts of themselves, and individuals' self-confidence. If the death penalty is racist, therefore, action must be taken immediately. Because those who hold this view suggest that jury selection and preliminary court actions are racist, the court should institute checks on the court system in order to prevent this issue. Independent advocates for defendants should advice each of their rights in conjunction with their race, religion, sexual orientation, gender, or ethnicity. These advocates should encourage defendants to make known any discriminatory behavior as soon as it occurs. Furthermore, if the death penalty is really racist, the Supreme Court should consider again its abolition. If those who believe the death penalty is not racist, however, are correct, than action must also be taken. Similar precautions should be put into place to make sure allegations cannot be levied. Thus, both those who believe race plays a major…
Amnesty International. (2008). Troy Davis -- Finality Over Fairness. Retrieved November 16, 2008, at http://www.amnestyusa.org/death-penalty/troy-davis-finality-over-fairness/page.do?id=1011343
American Civil Liberties Union. (2008, February 26). Race and the Death Penalty.
Retrieved November 16, 2008, at http://www.aclu.org/capital/unequal/10389pub20030226.html
Lowe, Wesley (2008, October 5). Pro-Death Penalty Web Page. Retrieved November 16, 2008 at http://www.wesleylowe.com/cp.html#race
The fact that he is black in no way detracts from Faulkner's message about racism and social control. For example, Faulkner hints that Nancy may have been raped by a white man; her skin color renders her subhuman in the eyes of many white southerners. To Jubah, his masculinity is called into question on two accounts: he must assert himself not only as a man, but as a black man whose wife had been violated by whites. Jubah's violent and aggressive persona corresponds with Dave's. Dave, like Jubah, are powerhouses of male potency, pushed to the boiling point out of a sense of powerlessness and anger. right directly alludes to the potential of male aggression because the mule Dave shoots is named Jenny. hen Jenny bleeds from the gunshot wound, right describes the "hole" and the "blood" using overtly female symbols. Dave never alludes to having sex with women, however.…
Faulkner, William. "That Evening Sun Go Down." Retrieved Aug 1, 2006 at http://xroads.virginia.edu/~MA01/White/anthology/faulkner.html
Wright, Richard. "The Man Who Was Almost A Man." Retrieved Aug 1, 2006 at http://xroads.virginia.edu/~DRBR2/wright.htm
An increased rate of incarceration is considered one of the key factors behind this drop, although a number of notable criminologists disagree. Incarceration is one of the major consequences for youth and young adults arrested for committing violent crimes such as murder, rape, robbery, and aggravated assault.(Delgado, 2001, p. 3) This decrease however has not appeased society nor has it abated one's fears of crime and its circumstances. Researchers continue to report that crimes are however densely populated in urban communities; and usually consist of black on black crimes. On the other hand, it is imperative that one accept that urban areas are not the only locations where crimes are committed. In fact, there are various types of crimes that continue to occur. The types of crimes in question are those considered white-collar crimes. (Markowitz & Jones-Brown, 2000, p. 3) White-collar criminals have been described as middle-aged men of high…
Crime has continued to capture the attention of Americans although there has been a decrease in the number of crimes over the past decade. Much attention has been paid to the propitious drop in the nation's crime rates, and more specifically, the murder rate. An increased rate of incarceration is considered one of the key factors behind this drop, although a number of notable criminologists disagree. Incarceration is one of the major consequences for youth and young adults arrested for committing violent crimes such as murder, rape, robbery, and aggravated assault.(Delgado, 2001, p. 3) This decrease however has not appeased society nor has it abated one's fears of crime and its circumstances. Researchers continue to report that crimes are however densely populated in urban communities; and usually consist of black on black crimes. On the other hand, it is imperative that one accept that urban areas are not the only locations where crimes are committed. In fact, there are various types of crimes that continue to occur. The types of crimes in question are those considered white-collar crimes. (Markowitz & Jones-Brown, 2000, p. 3) White-collar criminals have been described as middle-aged men of high social status, they often live in wealthy neighborhoods, and are respected by the community. The researcher further states that those that are interested in studying white-collar crime seldom do not study these individuals nor were policy makers and other officials interested. The writing also reports on a researcher that believed that the definitions behind crime are incorrect and misleading; Weisburd also states that the criminal behaviors of those in the lower classes have been negated in previous research. (Weisburd, Waring & Chayet, 2001) in the United States, little controversy exists regarding race-based crime statistics reports Knepper (2000).
However, there is information on each category of race, gender, and white-collar crime; on the other hand, there is a minute amount that offers insight into what individuals feel about various races and genders regarding white-collar crime. There is information that displays whom is most likely to commit a white-collar crime, and where most crimes are committed, however very little insight is given into how people (men and women regardless of race) feel about white-collar crimes. This is important in order to express another aspect of white-collar crime and its effect on the individual and possibly the individual's surroundings. Then variations will be clearer and more defined, until then things remain obscure.
The types of offenses committed by gender are notable for their similarities and their differences. Both are more heavily involved in minor property offenses than in serious crimes like robbery or murder. However, "Women offend at much lesser rates than men for all crime categories except prostitution. This gender gap in crime is greatest for serious crime and least for mild forms of
The apparent point here is that land traditionally belonging to native tribes will be used to mine in the interest of the developed world. It makes me feel both sad and powerless. I do not have all the information, but stories like this always make me feel that those with the greatest physical, technological, or financial power, or all three, tend to have more power than even those with the right to a certain piece of land or way of living.
The second point confirms the previous observation, that the consistent support of those in power has resulted in the approval of the project without any regard for the rights of those who have possessed the land for far longer. Again, this gives me a sense of powerlessness when faced with decisions by politicians who have only their own interest at heart.
This is far longer than the mere…
One of the many ways I will act to end racism in my classroom, and in my life outside school, will be to make sure I demonstrate supportive encouragement in a vocal way for children of color or any notable characteristic that is capable of becoming stigmatized by peers, because when children see adults especially in institutional roles of power modelling behavior that destigmatizes vulnerable students, they are highly receptive and thus likely to consider that model before unquestioningly adopting behaviors their parents or peers may display.
Direct action against classism will also include the other isms because my thinking now is that I want to focus as early as I can on media literacy around advertising, to dismantle if I can, students' assumptions that the products they see displayed as social objectives. Understanding that the companies who make and market these products have a vested interest in seducing…