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Race Critical Theories Book Response
Words: 1043 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 37279862
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' Culture, in Buck's point-of-view, and the construction of race, thus had a greater importance upon the creation of modern Kentucky than a logical evaluation of individual's real interests. This is why both whites and blacks have been worked to the bone.

Discrimination against poor whites still abounds in present-day Kentucky in the form of stereotypes. Poor whites are often characterized as supposed 'rednecks' who deserve their economic fate because their days are devoted to "drinking, incest," and "family violence," and living lives of "general backwardness, bare-footedness, improvidence, and red-necked cussedness (7). "The actions of coal mine owners, of corporate tobacco buyers, or of manufacturing executives are irrelevant in explaining Kentucky's bony fingers if they can be explained by the problems in Kentucky's culture instead," not by bad corporate behavior (7).

In defending her thesis, Buck begins with evidence from her own life, as she opens with her struggles opening…

Race Racial Division Separation on Campus in Environment
Words: 408 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86074092
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acial division/separation on campus in environment

Students in the focus group described the campus environment at Landgrant University as being welcoming overall, but difficult to find meaningful connections with other students. Segregation is too harsh of a term to use in this case, but it is clear some of the students at the university feel that people stick with their own racial groups when making friends. This has created a trend in campus life that is hard to overcome. Therefore, there remains a racial division/separation on campus.

Stereotypes are mentioned as one of the most common causes of racial division on campus. One participant in the focus group claimed that white students claimed they thought she was "ghetto" and stereotyped her as a "loud" African-American female until they got to know her. This experience shows that stereotypes continue to color first impressions of people, preventing meaningful friendships from forming…


Fischer, M.J. (2007). Settling into campus life: differences by race/ethnicity in college involvement and outcomes. Journal of Higher Education, 78(2), 125-161.

Flower, L.A. (2004), Effects of living on campus on African-American students' educational gains in college, NASPA Journal, 41(2).

Race Gender and Class the
Words: 2170 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15664707
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Specifically reported by Coy is that the "recent launch of a black Disney princess may be an indicator of greater cultural diversity, but in terms of the 'girl power' values it carries the view that it is 'a great step . . . [and] could help black children see themselves more positively' (Adesioye, 2009) fails to address how it will reinforce messages of sexualization for black girls." (2009) to excel in the music industry, it is expected and even required that women become sexualized because this is a primary point of the success realized in the music industry as the music industry is highly sexualized overall. A study reported in the work of Stankiewitz and osselli (2008) states that the study examined the way that women were depicted in 1,988 advertisements "from popular U.S. magazines." The advertisements were coded in relation to whether women were presented as sex objects of…


American Psychological Association, Task Force on the Sexualization of Girls. (2010). Report of the APA Task Force on the Sexualization of Girls. Retrieved from: 

Coy, M. (2009) Milkshakes, Lady Lumps, and Growing Up to Want Boobies: How the Finlay, a. (2013) Hyper-sexualizing Women Leads to Self-Objectification -- More Destructive and Prevalent than Society Admits

Liang, E. (2011) the Media's Sexualization of Female Athletes: A Bad Call for the modern Game. Vol. 3 No. 10. Retrieved from: 

Naubert, R. (2011) Media's Growing Sexualization of Women. Psych Central. Retrieved from:

Race and Class in U S
Words: 1572 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56422366
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In other case the motive was rooted first in ideological assumption -- and that assumption was that ASP superiority was a given.

The issue of race and class finally came to a head as America continued its expansion westward. But the issue was political as well: hat right did the Federal Government have over State Government to say whether slavery should be abolished? ho was really in power in America -- the States and local government -- or federal national government? The Civil ar, of course, answered the question brutally and bloodily in 1865. But racism and classism did not end. In fact, the problems of race and class would continue even after the war for as long as American policy was determined by ASP elitism. That policy has not changed to this day.

In conclusion, issues of race and class were ingrained into the American fabric from the very…

Works Cited

Horsman, Reginald. Race and Manifest Destiny: the Origins of American Racial Anglo-

Saxonism. Harvard University Press, 1981. Print.

Race Schools Queens New York Is
Words: 2539 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 68375028
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If students are misbehaving, they are not engaged in their lessons. Behavior management is, unfortunately, a priority focus at Springfield Gardens, to the detriment of instruction. This is the point that the three interviewees continued to stress. None of them blamed the teachers for failing to engage students; the fault, as they see it, lies squarely with the students whose families apparently do not place a high value on education. The students, as Gordon, Benton and Johnson see it, are products of the culture in which their parents live.

The three frequently compared and contrasted the students of today with students of generations past. Students in "the good old days" did not misbehave the way students do "these days." That point was made clear, particularly in interviews with Benton and Gordon. Benton recalled a childhood outside the United States where school, he implied, was much more rigorous. It would appear…


Bali, V.A., & Alvarez, R.M. (2003). Schools and educational outcomes: What causes the "race gap" in student test scores? Social Science Quarterly 84 (3)

Biddle, R. (March 7, 2011). The condemnation of black children to dropout factories must end. Dropout Nation. Retrieved from 

Lewis, a.E. (2001). There is no race in the schoolyard: Color-blind ideology in an (almost)

all-white school. American Educational Research Journal 38 (4), 781-811.

Race Gender Class
Words: 551 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 1837637
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Visual Representations of Class Consciousness

This paper discusses visual representations of class consciousness, and what these representations mean in a larger cultural and social sense. The paper also discusses my picture of myself, and my class, and what this picture tells me about who I am, and what I am supposed to be. The paper discusses how this combination defines me, and how it puts me in a specific box, or allows me more freedom.

Firstly, how do I see myself? I am female, black, Hispanic. I have been living in the U.S. For four years, and am in college in Florida. My Dad has a good job, so my Mum does not need to work. I want for nothing, as we are affluent, and so based on these markers (or visual representations), I would call myself middle class.

What visual representations of class do I portray to the outside…

Crime in America - The Racial and Class Implications
Words: 4614 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 31983701
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Race, Class & Crime

The confluence of race, class and crime is a hot topic nowadays. This is especially true when discussing events or topics of various types. Very or fairly specific examples of this would include the recent shooting of Mike Brown in Ferguson, MO and the subsequent non-indictment of the officer who shot him despite the fact that Brown was not armed and the ongoing discussion about how paying a "wage" should be a moral imperative of all employers and how people in poverty are much more apt to commit crimes. Throw in the fact that people that exist in racial minorities are much more likely to be in poverty, it seems to make sense to some that minorities are also more commonly incarcerated and committing crimes in general. However, this is not entirely true as white people commit plenty of crimes themselves. However, blacks and Hispanics are…

workplace culture race religion gender
Words: 606 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64670214
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Race, class, gender, ethnicity, and religion are all variables that impact a person’s identity, worldview, communication style, and behaviors. Applying the sociological imagination to the workplace environment enables a greater understanding of how these factors impact daily interactions and events, with the goals of promoting harmony and resolving conflict. Being aware of race, gender, and religion has helped me function better in teams. The times that I neglected to recognize race, religion, and gender taught me valuable lessons and helped me to become more emotionally and socially intelligent. Race, gender, and religion are all socially constructed variables rather than being absolute categories; therefore it is always important to remember the fluidity of these constructs and to relate to each person individually as opposed to making sweeping generalizations based on stereotypes and assumptions.
Moreover, categories and definitions of race, gender, and religion are not monolithic. What it means to be white,…

Race and Politics in 2008
Words: 1186 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 15947659
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Obama famously referred to his white grandmother during the campaign who tragically passed away the night before he was elected, as a woman of tolerance, yet who still was subject to the prejudices of society enough to feel uncomfortable when she saw an African-American walking across the street. Although this remark was criticized, Obama's point was that in America, race was inescapable, and prejudice must be dealt with through voicing concerns, rather than pretending racial divides did not exist. At times, America's unspoken discourse about race seemed to harm Obama, as in his difficulty wresting the nomination from Clinton in states like Pennsylvania, states with large, older, white working-class populations. But the desire for change and the ability to cross barriers and humanize himself seemed to counteract this: The Obama generation "has been knocked for putting all of their personal stuff on full display...But there is an upside, too, which…

Works Cited

Aistrup, Joseph a. The Southern Strategy Revisited. Louisville: University Press of Kentucky,

Cave, Damien. "Generation O Gets its Hopes Up." The New York Times Magazine. November 7, 2008. December 3, 2008. 

Harwood, John. "The Fault Line that Haunts Democrats." The New York Times. May 4, 2008. 

Kendall, Diana. Sociology in Our Times. 6th edition. New York: Wadsworth, 2007.

Race at Springfield How Are
Words: 1003 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36011405
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Therefore I reasoned until now and still do, that were discrimination as restricted by question 1 between students, faculty, staff and administrators a problem, it would come up, because other topics of racial inequality do freely come up in discussion.

Are people of your race and ethnicity proportionately represented...

Getting back to sample size, if I know say ten candidates for differential treatment based on race, and they are only a few of say several hundred at Springfield, then the fact that race has not come up in casual discussion with these few students of color, does not represent a random or large enough sample to represent the population. What I can see is that Springfield outside the college windows is disproportionately black, while the population in the classroom is overwhelmingly white, as are students and faculty in all the pictures on the splash pages that loaded when I opened…

Race in My Community of
Words: 1631 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 60141517
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But the limited growth policies that have remained popular with the Council (and a majority of the citizens, it would seem) have also kept the price of real estate high. Davis maintains the necessary amount of low-income housing, but many of the occupants are entry level workers at the town's biggest employer -- the University. These people tend to have college degrees and are -- you guessed it -- predominantly white with a large proportion of Asians as well. There simply is not enough space to fill the demand in Davis, and this has caused quite a premium in the cost of owning or even renting real estate in the city.

There is another gesture of economic favoritism that speaks even more tellingly about the unconscious racialization of Davis. The housing development that has occurred in the past twenty years saw the creation of two enormous semi-gated communities with generally…


City of Davis. "Who's who on the City Council." Accessed 13 April 2009.

FactFinder. "U.S. Census Bureau Statistics." Accessed 13 April 2009. 

U.S. Census Data. "City of Davis, California, 2000." Accessed 13 April 2009.

Race & Community Race and
Words: 1272 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 8123322
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Moreover, many people in my neighborhood are able to have people come into their homes and provide services, such as housecleaning and lawn maintenance. Overwhelmingly, the providers of these resources are Hispanic, and the majority of them are illegal immigrants to the United States. Therefore, the hypocrisy of people is alarming; many people in my community are content to live a more comfortable lifestyle using the labor of illegal immigrants, but do not want to face any financial consequences for having done so, or to help provide any of the social services that these people need if they have come to the United States to work.

As far as I am aware, no manuals for any workplace in my community mention any race, specifically. To do so would invite charges of overt discrimination, even though doing so might actually help prevent certain types of discrimination. For example, an Indian friend…

Race and the Community Suburb
Words: 1727 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 22021158
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The committee should investigate new curricular models that empower students and which especially promote inclusion. Transforming our public schools is an essential first step toward eliminating many of the social problems extant in Joliet and in the country as a whole.

Second I would help create more small business development opportunities in Joliet. An organization or collection of organizations that can help minorities and the poor receive funding would be a tremendous help for the community and individual residents. Not only would small business development create jobs, it would enrich and uplift Joliet by enhancing prosperity. Instead of attracting outside investors like big box corporate entities who offer nothing more than insecure low income jobs, small business development creates creative, self-sustaining, and empowering opportunities for local growth. I therefore believe that small business development is a key to easing race relations and eliminating social injustice. Small business ownership is empowering…

Race and Reunion
Words: 1833 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 73001280
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ace and eunion

Briefly describe each of the three visions

Vision one: The reconciliationist vision -- this vision had its roots in the "process of dealing with the dead from so many battlefields, prisons, and hospitals," the author writes on page 2; and it also developed in ways prior to the process of econstruction; people were weary of war, and many Americans longed for a time of forgiving, in the Christian sense; vision two: The white supremacist vision -- this vision was manifest through terror, violence, and its legacy promotes a memory of the Civil War aftermath as one of segregation on southern terms; those of white supremacist / racist leanings would never consider giving in to a Constitutional mandate to allow all blacks freedom, the vote, and other equal rights; vision three: The emancipationist vision -- this includes much of what African-Americans remember about gaining their freedom, it also…


Blight, David W. Race and Reunion: The Civil War in American Memory. Cambridge,

Massachusetts: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2001.

Wilson, Clyde. "War, reconstruction, and the end of the old republic." Society 33.6

(1996): 68-75.

Race Critical Theories Modernity Race
Words: 1048 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 65658695
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Furthermore, while acknowledging that there was a consciousness of whiteness and white superiority in other lands, such as England, Roediger points out that part of the Americanization process for European immigrants was to become white, and that this process involved internalizing feelings of racism and hatred towards blacks.

Affirmative Action and the Politics of Race by Manning Marable

Manning Marable is a pro-affirmative action author, and he begins his essay by decrying the fact that the political right wing has largely defined the context of discussions about affirmative action. In addition, he stresses concern that those who have benefitted from affirmative action have been reluctant to defend it. He suggests that part of the problem is due to how affirmative action has traditionally been framed and its lack of a definition. Historically, he says, affirmative action was "designed to promote some degree of compensatory justice to the victims of slavery,…

Works Cited

Goldberg, David Theo. "Modernity, Race, and Morality." Race Critical Theories: Text and Context. Eds. Philomena Essed and David Theo Goldberg. Malden: Blackwell Publishing, 2002. 283-306.

Marable, Manning. "Affirmative Action and the Politics of Race." Race Critical Theories: Text and Context. Eds. Philomena Essed and David Theo Goldberg. Malden: Blackwell Publishing, 2002. 344-354.

Roediger, David. "Whiteness and Ethnicity in the History of 'White Ethnics' in the United

States." Race Critical Theories: Text and Context. Eds. Philomena Essed and David Theo Goldberg. Malden: Blackwell Publishing, 2002. 325-343.

Race Gender Since My Birth in
Words: 378 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 76175241
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The system creates and engenders inequity by denying women of color entry.

Even though I have lived in many different states and communities, race and sex continue to be visible barriers to success. My most recent setback proves that women of color are viewed as threats and may be silenced when they speak out and appear strong. I recently found work as a bookkeeper. Although not my dream job, I worked hard and gave it my all. In my spare time I cultivated a strong desire to become an entrepreneur and help people like me achieve success in a supportive environment. My performance on the job remained stellar, but when my employers discovered my budding business they let me go. Lacking the means to pursue a lawsuit, I poured my efforts into my home-based business and now I help other Latinos within the local community to prepare their tax documents…

Race and Social Class in
Words: 1772 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 93329578
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In fact, the Toy is considered to be one of the most racist films of all time due to these issues (Sastry).

Blazing Saddles and the Toy approach comedy from distinct perspectives, and although they may have common elements, the differences in their approach to humor, comedy, and race allow the audience to understand why Blazing Saddles is successful in its commentary on society and why the Toy fails miserably at changing people's perspectives about society in a positive way. Brooks's approach to race and social status helps to redefine how blacks were viewed in cinema, and also helps to demonstrate that previous cinematic depictions have been skewed due the control exercised by Hollywood executives. On the other hand, Donner's approach to race and social status ends up being degrading, racist, and further reinforces negative stereotypes of race and social status. It is through these various depictions and approaches that…

Works Cited

Blazing Saddles. Directed by Mel Brooks. United States: Warner Bros., 1974. DVD.

Dirks, Tim. "Comedy Films." AMC Filmsite. Web. 13 April 2013.

Rice, Kathryn. "Race Consciousness and Class Invisibility in American Comedy." Dissident

Voice: A radical newsletter in the struggle for peace and social justice. 4 Sept 2010. Web. 12 April 2013.

Race in Lawton Oklahoma the
Words: 1692 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 26336674
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I also become more aware of the beauty that I have within myself. The story is further inspiring to me, because I identify with Ms. Chavez as a result of her Mexican origin. Obviously she has come to America in pursuit of a dream. he has fulfilled her American dream many times over. I can only hope to do the same with my life.

Another encouraging and gratifying factor in this story is the validation of my own views regarding Lawton. It is a city of truly equal opportunities for whomever chooses to take them. It seems like literally anyone can achieve anything. Furthermore, I find it very encouraging that both the media and government institutions support and openly report the success of efforts such as those by Ms. Chavez. As a White-Mexican female, this makes me aware that, while all cultures are beautiful and should be promoted in their…


City of Lawton, Oklahoma. (2007). "History."

City Policy."

City Profile"

Lee, Ann Dee. (2006, Nov. 1). "News Release: Isidra Chavez to receive Governor's Arts Award." Oklahoma Arts Council News.

Race and Class Are Inextricably
Words: 617 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 96872522
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This does not mean that rich people are free; on the contrary, many are not. However, money is required to live a free and easy life that defines success. Success as the achievement of personal and professional goals depends on having sufficient resources. Both Mr. Hernandez and Mr. Clay are successful. Both race and class played important roles in the article, showing that the two issues are inseparable. The article shows how the two issues are linked and how sociologists must view race and class together. Even if non-white minorities do not conform to the ideologies and practices of the dominant culture, or the "general population," equality is still ensured by law.

Race, not class, has impacted the ways many minorities are treated in the United States and in Western Europe. For example, in France and other parts of Europe the large influx of immigrants from northern Africa and Turkey…

Race Personal Educational Experiences and Reflection Race
Words: 1770 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Dissertation or Thesis complete Paper #: 22986816
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ace: Personal Educational Experiences and eflection

ace was seldom discussed explicitly during my early, grammar school education. When the topic of race was broached, it was usually in the context of a lesson on the Civil War or Civil ights movement. Although such discussions were valuable, they gave the impression that race was something located in America's past, rather than worthy of discussion in the present. However, this did not mean that I was not cognizant of race as a child. I was, but the topic was often unspoken of in school, except on the rare occasions when teachers brought it to the forefront of the attention of the class -- usually in a manner that suggested that the struggle for freedom had been won.

I was fortunate to have parents who always stressed that all people were equal, regardless of how they looked. While they did not give me…


Kozol, Jonathan. (2005). The shame of the nation: the restoration of apartheid schooling in America. New York: Crown.

Tatum, Beverly Daniel. (2003). Why are all the black kids sitting together in the cafeteria?

New York: Basic Books.

Lewis, Amanda E. (2003). Race in the schoolyard: Negotiating the color line in classrooms and communities. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press.

Race and Ethnic Inclusion and Exclusion
Words: 2122 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 68686670
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Race and Ethnic Inclusion and Exclusion

In Ira erlin's (1998) Many Thousands Gone: The First Two Centuries of Slavery in North America, the author shows how groups in the U.S. struggled to exclude other groups. White people made a serious effort to exclude black people from anything other than the most menial jobs for a very long time (Davidson, 2005; Gasorek, 1998). The desire to exclude was based on skin color and race, but there was also an element of inclusion in that black people were included in one group based on their skin color, and were not seen as individuals who were unique people based on their own merits (Sherif, 1967; Tajfel & Turner, 1979).

lack people struggled to gain access to institutions and status as they developed their own identities in an area with which they were unfamiliar (erlin, 1998). They became soldiers and worked as artisans, along…


Berlin, Ira. 1998. Many thousands gone: The first two centuries of slavery in North America. Cambridge, Mass: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.

Davison, K.N. (2005). The mixed race experiment: Treatment of racially categorized individuals under title VII. Law journal library, 12: 161-164.

Gasorek, Dory. 1998. Inclusion at Dun & Bradstreet: Building a high-performing company. The Diversity Factor 8(4).

Hyter, Michael C. & Turnock, Judith L. 2006. The power of inclusion: Unlock the potential and productivity of your workforce. NY: John Wiley & Sons.

Race Ethnicity Class Gender Reading
Words: 686 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Journal Paper #: 51266110
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The predominating media sentiment according to Ransby was that of 'blaming the victim,' or blaming the impoverished residents for being insufficiently prepared for the disaster. Ransby suggests that the fortitude shown by residents, even in the absence of aid, was often considerable, considering their meager resources. Residents were blamed for their poverty, rather than sympathized with.

Ransby's essay made me think critically about the coverage of the event I witnessed: while it was true that many people were praised for going to the afflicted area and helping the victims, I remember far fewer stories praising the resilience of residents. While the 'blame the victim' mentality may have been less in evidence in the coverage I saw than that which was cited by Ransby, I do think that there was a kind of objectification of the victims as a general, faceless representation of extreme poverty that many Americans denied existed within…

Race and Racism Who Are You
Words: 1500 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67832955
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Race/Racism: Who are you?
Vietnamese Americans are Americans who have a Vietnamese heritage. Vietnamese people living in the United States make up close to have of the Vietnamese people leaving overseas. The Vietnamese Americans are one of the largest Asian American ethnicities. Other Asian ethnicities include the Indians, Filipinos, and the Chinese. The Asian Americans have a distinct characteristic from other Americans. I define myself as an Asian American. The media sources like the movies and television give little positives about the Asian Americans and neither are there many recognized role models of Asian American heritage (Mok). According to Mok the media fails to do justice to diversity of the American people and does not appreciate the culture of Asian Americans. The paucity of a conspicuous Asian image in the American society is responsible for affecting perceptions of the Asian Americans themselves, their race, and the broader society. 
Mok examined…

Race and Class as the
Words: 598 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 60479406
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Although there are potential social costs associated with linking race or ethnic background with genetics, we believe that these potential costs are outweighed by the benefits in terms of diagnosis and research. Ignoring racial and ethnic differences in medicine and biomedical research will not make them disappear. ather than ignoring these differences, scientists should continue to use them as starting points for further research. Only by focusing attention on these issues can we hope to understand better the variations among racial and ethnic groups in the prevalence and severity of diseases and in responses to treatment (1174)

The second is that race is often used as a proxy for class.

And, the third category is what Kawachi, Daniels and obinson argue is the most defensible, that race and class are two separate issues, and should be treated as such.

However, as Daniels and Schulz bring to light, research documentation examining…


Cooper, R., Kauffman, J., & Ward, R. "Race and Genomics" New England Journal of Medicine vol (issue) 30 Mar 2003: 1166-1175.

Daniels, J. & Shulz, a. "Constructing Whiteness in Health Disparities Research." In Title of Book. Eds. Place of Publication: Publisher, Date.

Kawachi, I. & Daniels, N., Robinson, D. "Race Disparities by Race and Class: Why Both Matter." Health Affairs vol (issue) Mar/Apr 2003: 342-351.

Race in Sociology
Words: 1526 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Data Analysis Chapter Paper #: 71211713
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ace in Sociology

The sociology of racism, according to Clair and Denis (2015) is the study concerning racial inequality, racial discrimination, and racism and the associated features. acism basically is the domination of another race based on the percept and preconception that the dominating race is superior culturally or biologically. This thinking of superiority is used to justify the ill treatment of people from other races. acialization has led to people being divided into various groups based on physical appearances such as color of the skin, shape of the eye or hair and languages spoken, among others. These groups are then called races. acial discrimination involves unequal treatment meted to these groups and manifests itself prominently in such areas as education, income, and health.

ace is a construct of the society. It has no biological bearing, as there are no behavioral differences in humans that can be attributed to differences…


Clair, M., & Denis, J. S. (2015). Sociology of Racism. Retrieved September 8, 2016, from Scholars at Harvard: 

Crossman, A. (2016). Sociology Of Race And Ethnicity. Retrieved September 8, 2016, from About Education: 

Delinder, J. V. (2004, January). Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka: A Landmark Case Unresolved Fifty Years Later. Prologue Magazine, Vol 36. Retrieved from The U.S. National Archives and Records Administration: 

Library of Virginia. (2003). What Was Brown v. Board of Education? Retrieved September 8, 2016, from Library of Virginia:

Race The Power of an
Words: 570 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 80446652
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Louis presented an exhibition of different races as artifacts or curiosities, to demonstrate where civilization had 'come from' in the past, versus the images of civilized 'future.' he designers of the exhibit saw the supposed progress of science and civilization as a series of examples of how whites had successfully born 'the white man's burden.' he exhibit showed the benefits of slavery in educating the African races as well as the eradication of Native Americans as a necessary part of American history. he exhibit also implicitly justified American colonial and imperial ventures in 20th century as examples of the natural progress of superior races, educating and presumably eventually reforming or eradicating inferior races.


he impact of scientific publications on U.S. legal and social policy was largely regressive rather than progressive in terms of eradicating racial tension. Rather than generating enlightenment, science was often to confirm racial prejudices. Scientists classified…

The 1904 Worlds Fair in St. Louis presented an exhibition of different races as artifacts or curiosities, to demonstrate where civilization had 'come from' in the past, versus the images of civilized 'future.' The designers of the exhibit saw the supposed progress of science and civilization as a series of examples of how whites had successfully born 'the white man's burden.' The exhibit showed the benefits of slavery in educating the African races as well as the eradication of Native Americans as a necessary part of American history. The exhibit also implicitly justified American colonial and imperial ventures in 20th century as examples of the natural progress of superior races, educating and presumably eventually reforming or eradicating inferior races.


The impact of scientific publications on U.S. legal and social policy was largely regressive rather than progressive in terms of eradicating racial tension. Rather than generating enlightenment, science was often to confirm racial prejudices. Scientists classified races as possessing certain intrinsic natures or characteristics that were intrinsic to their inborn or genetically inherited temperaments. Darwinism was used to justify racism, as some populations were classified as more primitive than others, based upon arbitrary measures of their skulls, or their skin tone -- certain races were said to be less 'evolved' than other races in terms of their practices and physical development. Defeat at the hands of whites was seen as justified because it exemplified a particular race's inferiority, like the Mexican 'race' at the hands of white Americans. Temperaments were assigned to certain races as well, much like some species of animals supposedly have certain innate temperaments. The overall result was to animalize certain races, and to create divides between entire classes of people.

Race the Problems of Race & the
Words: 908 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67570269
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The Problems of ace & the Myths of Urban Poverty

ace is a social construct. There is exists very little genetic difference among the various "races" of humans on Earth. This construct is central to many, and perhaps even most people on our planet. ace is a physical difference that draws clearly defined boundaries between people. ace can be the inspiration for war. ace is hardly an inspiration for peace, unfortunately. This paper will briefly examine situations when race has been used to hurt and subordinate others. This paper will reference examples of groups of people that are systematically via the social realms and institutions who suffer due to their race, an aspect over which they had no choice or say. Drawing from the series, The Wire, and a few readings, the paper will propose what the myths of urban poverty are, who are the authors of such myths,…


Dreier, P. And J. Atlas. 2009. The Wire - Bush-Era Fable About America's Urban Poor. City & Community, 8: 329-340.

Edin, K. And K. Harris. 1998. Getting Off and Staying Off: Racial Differences in the Work Route off Welfare. Pages 270-301: Latinas and African-American Women at Work: Race, Gender, and Economic Inequality, New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation.

Newman, K. 2001. Hard Times on 125th Street: Harlem's Poor Confront Welfare Reform. American Anthropologist, 103(3): 762-778.

Race and Revolution by Gary
Words: 2320 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Book Review Paper #: 55091482
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In fact, the American evolution may have served to assert the natural rights of some people, but those people were limited to a class of white males.

It is important to keep in mind that one of the ideological underpinnings of the evolution was a challenge to imperialist ideals, and race-based oppression and slavery had long been major parts of the imperial system. Despite that, it is unfair to characterize Britain as pro-slavery, as the British began to embrace abolitionist sentiments prior to the evolution. In fact, British Imperialists struggled with the concept of slavery, because of the fact that denying the right to own slaves was viewed as economic oppression by many white colonists, because, without slavery, the cash crops that made colonies profitable were difficult, if not impossible, to harvest (Brown, 1999). They began by attempting to limit the import of slaves into the colonies, something that they…


Appleby, J. (1976). Liberalism and the American Revolution, New England Quarterly, 49(1), 3-


Brown, C.L. (1999). Empire without slaves: British concepts of Emancipation in the age of the American Revolution, the William and Mary Quarterly, 56(2), 273-306.

Freehling, W.W. (1972). The founding fathers and slavery, the American Historical Review,

Race and Oppression African-Americans Have
Words: 1569 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 30099009
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36). Civil ights era marks the beginning of powerful resistance against oppression. Blacks from all over the country awoke to the reality and ugliness of the situation and their effort bore fruit when Civil ights Act of 1964 was promulgated. esistance has had some impact on social system. Discriminatory practices are not as obvious as they once were. People and organizations understand the repercussions of discriminating on the basis of race and color. However African-Americans still have a long way to go before they can consider themselves free and equal in true sense of the term.


Biko, S. (1978). Steve Biko: Black Consciousness in South Africa. M. Arnold (Ed.). New York: andom House

Blauner, . (1972). acial oppression in America. San Francisco: Harper & ow.

Folger, . & Skarlicki, D. (1999). Unfairness and resistance to change: hardship as mistreatment, Journal of Organizational Change Management, 35-50.

Franklin, .S. (1991). Shadows…


Biko, S. (1978). Steve Biko: Black Consciousness in South Africa. M. Arnold (Ed.). New York: Random House

Blauner, R. (1972). Racial oppression in America. San Francisco: Harper & Row.

Folger, R. & Skarlicki, D. (1999). Unfairness and resistance to change: hardship as mistreatment, Journal of Organizational Change Management, 35-50.

Franklin, R.S. (1991). Shadows of race and class. Ann Arbor, Michigan: University of Michigan Press.

Race Discrimination Justice Discrimination Race Discimination Criminal
Words: 1518 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91802995
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ace Discrimination Justice



ace and Discrimination in the Criminal Justice System

acial inequality has long been an issue in the American society. Despite making substantial progress in creating a more racially equal society, there are still many issues involving race and discrimination that can be found today. The criminal justice system was designed to treat all individuals equally under the law. However, covert racism and discrimination still plague the system and many minorities are adversely impacted and are not treated equally under the law. While most judges and public officials profess a strong dedication to remaining racially impartial, the evidence suggests otherwise. This literature review will focus on various points that indicate that there is a substantial amount of inequality to found within the criminal justice system in our modern society.


acial differences in the criminal justice system have been important topics since the…


Crutchfield, R., Fernandes, A., & Martinez, J. (2010). Racil and Ethnic Disparity and Criminal Justice: How Much is Too Much? The Journal of Criminal Law & Criminology, 903-932.

Green, E. (1991). Judicial Attitudes in Sentencing - A Study of the Factors Underlying the Sentencing Practice of the Criminal Court of Philidelphia. National Criminal Justice Reference Service, 157.

Gross, S. (1997). Crime, Politics, and Race. Harvard Journal of Law & Public Policy, 405-416.

Staples, R. (2009). White Power, Black Crime, and Racial Politics. The Black Scholar, 31-41.

Race IQ and Intelligence in
Words: 2609 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 83843279
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2001 1. Then, they could sort taxonomically. In other words, one man's 'smart' is another man's 'dopey', concepts that have little to do with the "intelligence" IQ tests are designed to measure. This is certainly, as well, a clear indication of how completely IQ tests are based in a narrow range of cultural norms. Indeed, they could be viewed as impoverished measures for failing to account for the values, intellectual and otherwise, of any society except the well-defined, homogenized and 'unjuicy' western society that invented the tests. Sternberg et al. concluded that, regarding IQ tests, "scores from tests used in cultures or subcultures other than those for which the tests were specifically created are suspect, and probably of doubtful validity in many if not most cases (2001 1).

What about race?

The myths about race and IQ go back a long way, to a time before IQ tests. Philosophers Hume,…


Keita, L. (1999). Why Race Matters: Race Differences and What They Mean. The Western Journal of Black Studies, 23(1), 65. Retrieved April 21, 2005, from Questia database, .

Reeve, C.L. (2002). Race and Intelligence: Separating Science from Myth. Personnel Psychology, 55(3), 778+. Retrieved April 21, 2005, from Questia database,

Race Power of an Illusion
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ace: Power of an Illusion

This second episode of the PBS series, "The Story we Tell" discusses how race and racism developed in this country. Surprisingly, the series experts believe race has a history, and develops over time, and "that it is constructed by society to further certain political and economic goals" ("ace"). The episode begins with narration that leads into the controversial words of Thomas Jefferson, who wrote that he found blacks inferior to whites in "body and mind." The episode suggests that Thomas Jefferson was then the first American to theorize race in the country. The episode then goes on to discuss the juxtaposition of Jefferson's theory that "all men are created equal" with his own slaveholding and clear approval of slaveholding in the United States. Does this mean that the founding fathers felt those of color were "less than" men?

The episode then discusses early history in…


The Story we Tell." Race: The Power of an Illusion. Prd. Larry Adelman. California Newsreel, 2003.

Race and Class the Social
Words: 784 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 26833162
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Secondly, this different approach also led the American society to experience a distinct social evolution. The fact that the ritish colonists were less reluctant to encourage social mobility offered the new settlers the change to become an important member of the society despite his eventual modest origin. Consequently, the highest level of the social scale was that of the colonial aristocrats, represented by wealthy planters and merchants, the middle class was represented by the land owning farmers, while the hired help made up the lower class. Indeed, there were racial frictions as well, which forced African-Americans to be considered the least important in the society. Nonetheless, despite this hierarchy, the geographical conditions enabled every man to go in search of wealth and thus improve his social conditions.

The Spanish and Portuguese colonial empires, although they offered a different social structure for their colonies, they left little mobility between classes. The…


Lewis, Laura. "Spanish ideology and the practice of inequality in the New World." Racism and anti-racism in world perspective. Ed. Benjamin Bowser. London: Sage Publications, 2002.

Loury, Glenn C., Tariq Modood, and Steven Michael Teles. Ethnicity, social mobility, and public policy:comparing the U.S. And UK. London: Cambridge UP, 2005, 22-25.

Race to the Top Is
Words: 1384 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27110459
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Standardized tests are only able to measure correct multiple choice answers. They cannot measure a child's creativity, their ability to problem solve, or their ability to critically evaluate information.

The culture of achievement that has accompanied the push for higher test scores has had severe physical and psychological effects on students. Taylor (2010) claims that academic stress is the greatest source of stress faced by school-aged children. He notes that many high school and college students have turned to performance-enhancing drugs such as Adderall and italin to help them concentrate. Finally, he claims that teen suicide rates have risen drastically in recent years, particularly among girls. In summary, the ever-increasing push for higher test scores has created an academic culture where stressed out students and frustrated teachers are the norm, and where very little authentic learning actually takes place. ace to the Top's push for even higher test scores may…


Barkley, K. (2010, February 18). Officials wary of possible strings attached to race to the top initiative. Cumberland Times News. Retrieved February 19, 2010 from

Dillon, Sam. (2009, April 14). Education Standards Likely to See Toughening. New York Times. Retrieved February 19, 2010 from 

Fact Sheet: The Race to the Top. (2009, November 4). The White House: Office of the Press Secretary. Retrieved February 19, 2010 from 

Hamilton, J. (2009, November 12). U.S. Department of Education Opens Race to the Top Competition. Press Release. Retrieved February 18, 2010 from

Race Ethnic Relations Book Comparison
Words: 1759 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 38850394
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In Kingston's more feminine rendering of identity, although she resists the ideals of silence and sexual repression, she accepts the idea that women have more permeable boundaries of selfhood and stronger ties to their family in the telling of her text.

Both works point to the inexorability of the past, especially for individuals of ethnic or racial minorities who consider themselves 'other.' Obama is 'other' because of his multiethnic heritage that alienates him from parents as well as friends, and because of the Americanness that separates him from his father. Kingston sees herself as Chinese, but female in a culture as well as a nation that mistrusts this aspect of a woman's self. Both make claims to how their lives speak for other lives -- Obama explicitly with his overly political narration, and his determination to use his struggle as fuel for success as an advocate of community enfranchisement, Kingston…

Works Cited

Kingston, Hong Maxine. The Woman Warrior. Vintage, 1989

Obama, Barak. Dreams from my Father: A Story of Race and Inheritance.

Three Rivers Press, 2004.

Race Both Ward Churchill and
Words: 1171 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71976082
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The French colonial government actively sought means to control land and land use in Algeria, notes Sartre. Control over land and natural resources equals ownership of the means of production. Economic oppression also creates class conflict: the subjugated peoples become a clear and identifiable underclass. Even within the underclass, class conflict prevents political cohesion. The French and the Americans would have been far less successful in their colonial campaigns had the Algerians and the Native Americans been able to organize en masse in rebellion. Poverty pits neighbor against neighbor in the competition for limited resources.

Furthermore, race and social class become linked together and offered up as false proof that the oppressed groups are inherently inferior. Economic oppression also serves another key goal that helps perpetuate colonial rule: ignorance. Stripping the underclass of access to capital or to the means of production, the ruling class ensures lack of access to…

Works Cited

Churchill, Ward. A Little Matter of Genocide. City Lights Books, 1997.

Sartre, Jean-Paul. Colonialism and Neo-Colonialism. Translated by Azzedine Haddour, Steve Brewer. Routledge, 2001.

Race Has Long Been Controversial
Words: 654 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51002678
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However when used in this way these terms can take on negative connotations because they treat everyone of a certain race as a monolithic group and this is not the case. Not all people who belong to a certain race hold all the same beliefs as other people who also belong to that race.

Discrimination causes tension between people of different races and ultimately can lead to race wars and the inability of people to interact with one another without apprehension. For instance, I have been in situations where it was assumed that I believed I was better than people because I am a white male. In some ways I understand people's feelings towards me because they have been historically discriminated against; however, I don't believe that I am better than anybody because of my race. The idea that others believe that I have a superiority complex is disheartening. At…


"race." Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. 2010. Merriam-Webster Online. 18 June 2010

Race and the Death Penalty
Words: 1687 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 93553773
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This can impact an ethnic group's thoughts of themselves, and individuals' self-confidence. If the death penalty is racist, therefore, action must be taken immediately. Because those who hold this view suggest that jury selection and preliminary court actions are racist, the court should institute checks on the court system in order to prevent this issue. Independent advocates for defendants should advice each of their rights in conjunction with their race, religion, sexual orientation, gender, or ethnicity. These advocates should encourage defendants to make known any discriminatory behavior as soon as it occurs. Furthermore, if the death penalty is really racist, the Supreme Court should consider again its abolition. If those who believe the death penalty is not racist, however, are correct, than action must also be taken. Similar precautions should be put into place to make sure allegations cannot be levied. Thus, both those who believe race plays a major…


Amnesty International. (2008). Troy Davis -- Finality Over Fairness. Retrieved November 16, 2008, at 

American Civil Liberties Union. (2008, February 26). Race and the Death Penalty.

Retrieved November 16, 2008, at 

Lowe, Wesley (2008, October 5). Pro-Death Penalty Web Page. Retrieved November 16, 2008 at

Race in Faulkner & Wright
Words: 1065 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 91659987
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The fact that he is black in no way detracts from Faulkner's message about racism and social control. For example, Faulkner hints that Nancy may have been raped by a white man; her skin color renders her subhuman in the eyes of many white southerners. To Jubah, his masculinity is called into question on two accounts: he must assert himself not only as a man, but as a black man whose wife had been violated by whites. Jubah's violent and aggressive persona corresponds with Dave's. Dave, like Jubah, are powerhouses of male potency, pushed to the boiling point out of a sense of powerlessness and anger. right directly alludes to the potential of male aggression because the mule Dave shoots is named Jenny. hen Jenny bleeds from the gunshot wound, right describes the "hole" and the "blood" using overtly female symbols. Dave never alludes to having sex with women, however.…

Works Cited

Faulkner, William. "That Evening Sun Go Down." Retrieved Aug 1, 2006 at 

Wright, Richard. "The Man Who Was Almost A Man." Retrieved Aug 1, 2006 at

Race and Gender Perceptions of
Words: 870 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 9230058
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An increased rate of incarceration is considered one of the key factors behind this drop, although a number of notable criminologists disagree. Incarceration is one of the major consequences for youth and young adults arrested for committing violent crimes such as murder, rape, robbery, and aggravated assault.(Delgado, 2001, p. 3) This decrease however has not appeased society nor has it abated one's fears of crime and its circumstances. Researchers continue to report that crimes are however densely populated in urban communities; and usually consist of black on black crimes. On the other hand, it is imperative that one accept that urban areas are not the only locations where crimes are committed. In fact, there are various types of crimes that continue to occur. The types of crimes in question are those considered white-collar crimes. (Markowitz & Jones-Brown, 2000, p. 3) White-collar criminals have been described as middle-aged men of high…

Crime has continued to capture the attention of Americans although there has been a decrease in the number of crimes over the past decade. Much attention has been paid to the propitious drop in the nation's crime rates, and more specifically, the murder rate. An increased rate of incarceration is considered one of the key factors behind this drop, although a number of notable criminologists disagree. Incarceration is one of the major consequences for youth and young adults arrested for committing violent crimes such as murder, rape, robbery, and aggravated assault.(Delgado, 2001, p. 3) This decrease however has not appeased society nor has it abated one's fears of crime and its circumstances. Researchers continue to report that crimes are however densely populated in urban communities; and usually consist of black on black crimes. On the other hand, it is imperative that one accept that urban areas are not the only locations where crimes are committed. In fact, there are various types of crimes that continue to occur. The types of crimes in question are those considered white-collar crimes. (Markowitz & Jones-Brown, 2000, p. 3) White-collar criminals have been described as middle-aged men of high social status, they often live in wealthy neighborhoods, and are respected by the community. The researcher further states that those that are interested in studying white-collar crime seldom do not study these individuals nor were policy makers and other officials interested. The writing also reports on a researcher that believed that the definitions behind crime are incorrect and misleading; Weisburd also states that the criminal behaviors of those in the lower classes have been negated in previous research. (Weisburd, Waring & Chayet, 2001) in the United States, little controversy exists regarding race-based crime statistics reports Knepper (2000).

However, there is information on each category of race, gender, and white-collar crime; on the other hand, there is a minute amount that offers insight into what individuals feel about various races and genders regarding white-collar crime. There is information that displays whom is most likely to commit a white-collar crime, and where most crimes are committed, however very little insight is given into how people (men and women regardless of race) feel about white-collar crimes. This is important in order to express another aspect of white-collar crime and its effect on the individual and possibly the individual's surroundings. Then variations will be clearer and more defined, until then things remain obscure.

The types of offenses committed by gender are notable for their similarities and their differences. Both are more heavily involved in minor property offenses than in serious crimes like robbery or murder. However, "Women offend at much lesser rates than men for all crime categories except prostitution. This gender gap in crime is greatest for serious crime and least for mild forms of

Race and Poverty Journal Introduction
Words: 6115 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Journal Paper #: 15335842
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The apparent point here is that land traditionally belonging to native tribes will be used to mine in the interest of the developed world. It makes me feel both sad and powerless. I do not have all the information, but stories like this always make me feel that those with the greatest physical, technological, or financial power, or all three, tend to have more power than even those with the right to a certain piece of land or way of living.

The second point confirms the previous observation, that the consistent support of those in power has resulted in the approval of the project without any regard for the rights of those who have possessed the land for far longer. Again, this gives me a sense of powerlessness when faced with decisions by politicians who have only their own interest at heart.

This is far longer than the mere…

Institutionalized Privilege Refection on Race
Words: 1016 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77618168
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One of the many ways I will act to end racism in my classroom, and in my life outside school, will be to make sure I demonstrate supportive encouragement in a vocal way for children of color or any notable characteristic that is capable of becoming stigmatized by peers, because when children see adults especially in institutional roles of power modelling behavior that destigmatizes vulnerable students, they are highly receptive and thus likely to consider that model before unquestioningly adopting behaviors their parents or peers may display.

Direct action against classism will also include the other isms because my thinking now is that I want to focus as early as I can on media literacy around advertising, to dismantle if I can, students' assumptions that the products they see displayed as social objectives. Understanding that the companies who make and market these products have a vested interest in seducing…