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Race and U.S. Imperialism
When analyzing European imperialism (particularly that which occurred within the United States) it is crucial to note the role that race played in it. There is evidence that indicates that at one point, race itself became more of a factor in the justification of imperialism and the institutions which facilitated it and engendered its success than even religion did. Race was principally used to account for a difference in the peoples that Europeans encountered during their imperialist forays into the so-called 'New World'. The crucial aspect about race, as was the case with religion, is that it was used to place a value judgment on those that Europeans encountered. Not only were the Africans (used as slaves) and the indigenous Native Americans encountered throughout North and South America lacking in technologically savvy, socially distinct in dress and tradition, and decidedly pagan when compared to the virtuous…
Adas, Michael. 1998. "Imperialism and Colonialism in Comparative Perspective." The International History Review, Vol. 20, No. 2 (Jun., 1998), pp. 371-388.
Blackhawk, Ned. 2006. Violence over the land: Indians and empires in the early American West. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press.
Rifkin, Mark. 2009. Manifesting America: the imperial construction of U.S. national space. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Silver, Peter Rhoads. 2008. Our savage neighbors: how Indian war transformed early America. New York: W.W. Norton.
Race and poverty are closely connected in the U.S. And this is primarily owed to the fact that racism is still strong in the civilized world. Racism in this country goes back during the late eighteenth century when the 1790 Naturalization Act provided any European immigrant with the right to become a U.S. citizen while other nations were prevented from becoming citizens and ended up having to work in low paid positions with no papers. In addition to this, these people came to be discriminated by the masses and to be regarded as the lower class.
Affirmative action for whites continued throughout history and is present in most areas in the U.S. today. "In recent history, affirmative action for whites motivated racially-restrictive housing policies that helped 15 million white families procure homes with FHA loans from the 1930s to the 1960s, while people of color were mostly excluded from the…
Arrighi, Barbara A. Maume, David J. "Child Poverty in America Today: Families and children ," (Greenwood Publishing Group, 2007)
Boger, John Charles, "Race, Poverty, and American Cities," (Univ of North Carolina Press, 09.09.1996)
Chih Lin, Ann, Harris David R. "The Colors of Poverty: Why Racial and Ethnic Disparities Exist," (Russell Sage Foundation, 2008 )
Hartman, Chester W., "Poverty & Race in America: The Emerging Agendas," (Lexington Books, 2006)
According to Yosso, "Vincent Tinto's Stages of Passage" model argues that students engage in three processes early on in college: separation, transition and incorporation. However, in the Esmeralda section of Yosso's book, where Esmeralda narrates the story, one discovers that this is really just a specific formulation of stages geared to focus on the experiences of white students and doesn't at all encapsulate the very unique and very distinct experience of minority students. Esmeralda's first stage refers to the imminent culture shock that Chicana/o students are met with when they experience life on a college campus (Yosso, 125). The culture, lifestyle, and expectations turn out to be drastically, different from what they are used to. The second stage devised refers to the act of building up a sense of community among the Chicana/o and other ethnic minority students to help them combat the sense of racism they experience on…
Calfeti, Jessica. Arizona Bans Ethnic Studies. 12 May 2010. Website. 16 May 2012.
FBI.gov. Hate Crimes. 2012. Website. 16 May 2012.
Haney-Lopez, Ian. Racism on Trial: The Chicano Fight for Justice. Boston: Harvard University Press, 2003. Print.
Yosso, Tara. Critical race counterstories along the Chicana/Chicano educational pipeline. New York: Routledge Publishers, 2006. Print.
Race and Media
Larson, Stephanie Greco. (2006). Media & Minorities: The Politics of Race in News and Entertainment. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc. Print.
The First Amendment of the Constitution of the United States guarantees, among other rights, that Americans will have the right to free speech. It is based on the premise of this right that there is also a free press in the U.S., and solidifies the fact that they are able to report without any fear of repercussion from an oppressive government. Unfortunately, this does not guarantee that everything that the media does will be unbiased. Many cases can be put forward that demonstrate this, but in the book Media & Minorities: The Politics of Race in News and Entertainment Stephanie Greco Larson looks at how the free media has treated racial diversity in the United States.
The basic premise of the book is that…
Larson, Stephanie Greco. (2006). Media & Minorities: The Politics of Race in News and Entertainment. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc. Print.
ace and ecreation Memo
FOM: Kristopher G. Arason, Principal of ed iver High School
ed iver High students who chose to wear Ku Klux Klan (KKK) uniforms to the school hockey team's State tournament Semifinal game, it is my responsibility to personally address this unfortunate situation. While it goes without saying that the actions of these three students is a disappointment to all of us, as the history of racial discrimination epitomized by the KKK is in no way representative of our school's values, simply condemning this insensitive act is not an adequate response. The three freshmen students responsible for making such an irresponsible
decision have been identified, and they will be disciplined accordingly, but as the Principal of ed iver High School it is my goal to determine exactly why any of our student's believed it would be acceptable to support our athletic achievements by donning the uniform of…
Associated Press. (2013, February 22). Hockey fans dressed like klan members identified, 'action is being taken,' grand forks school official says. The Forum of Fargo-Moorhead. Retrieved from http://www.inforum.com/event/article/id/391007/
Loumena, D. (2013, February 24). Hockey fans shown wearing kkk-style hoods to state semifinal. The Los Angeles Times. Retrieved from http://www.latimes.com/sports/sportsnow/la-sp-sn-hockey-fans-kkk-hoods-20130224,0,4758841.story
The determining factor seems to be the religion of the person or group in question as those who claimed to be Christian were granted the classification of "white." This ignorant and racially-based determination continues to plague the American psyche and Americans still seem to classify anyone who is Muslim as "non-white." The fact that the two responsible for the Boston Marathon bombings were immediately classified as non-white simply because they were Muslims is an example of this type of mentality. And the fact that they were from the region where the term "Caucasian" originates only makes those who claim that the Tsarnaevs were not white appear even more foolish.
The textbook claims that, according to symbolic interactionalists, labels can have an influence on the way people or groups are perceived. hen a label is widely used, it can cause what is know as selective perception, or it can "lead us…
Beinart, Peter. "Are the Tsarnaevs White?" The Daily Beast 24 Apr 2013.
Web. 25 Apr. 2013. http://www.thedailybeast.com/articles/2013/04/24/are-the-tsarnaevs-white.html
Henslin, James. (2011). Sociology: A Down to Earth Approach. Boston: Allyn
and Bacon. Print.
Whites generally were associated with roles including plantation overseers and supervisors or small proprietors; free non-whites generally suffered from circumscribed social and political abilities prior to the revolution (Knight, 2005). While their wealth and education may place them about smaller merchants and proprietors in the white class, they were still not held to the highest castes or ranks. Slaves were often distinguished as property and subject to coercion and much control (Knight, 2005).
The presence of a slave society resulted in an extremely turbulent and volatile environment where tensions among whites and members of other races were constantly raised (Knight, 2005). Lacking among all races and groups was solidarity among classes with respect to humanity and civil rights or political rights (Knight, 2005). In each of these instances race served as the impetus for revolts and revolution. With lack of solidarity and a general in acceptance of legal and social…
Dominguez, Virginia R. White by Definition, Rutgers University Press, New Brunswick:
Knight, F.W. "Haitian Revolution." Today in Black History. (2005). Available:
Oliver-Velez. "Color, Caste and class in the Americas." AfriGeneas World Research
ace exists, suggests the social view, even in the biological categorizations of science, out of cultural customs and habits not reality. ace is a powerful illusion in culture, even amongst certain pockets of the culture of the scientific community, but it is just that -- an illusion and a delusion.
Who has benefited from the belief that we can sort people according to race and that there are natural or biologically-based differences between racial groups?
A potent argument in favor of not reading human persons as existing within inherent racial categories is the fact that it is usually the majority, rather than the minority, who benefits from seeing persons as races, and victims of racial prejudice suffer. Examples are that of the 3/5ths compromise when the Constitution was framed, codifying racial differences into the American system of law, Jim Crow in the post-econstruction American South, Apartheid in South Africa,…
Race: The Power of an Illusion." Episode One. Produced by California Newsreel. 2006.
ace and Genetics
egardless of the way we look at it, race is indeed a subject that has much influence on the social, political as well as economic relations of people. Historically, supposed differences existing between individuals on the basis of race have been developed and sustained for various reasons. This has in some instances turned race into a highly emotive and divisive issue. However, it is important to note that studies have in the past clearly indicated that from a genetic perspective, human beings are largely identical. Thus the existing racial differences are socially constructed.
Why Arguments Citing Genetic Differences between the aces are Flawed
In the opinion of Delgado and Stefancic (2000), there is no single gene or even gene cluster that can be said to play a role in the determination of the race of an individual. For instance, the author notes that a look at the…
Delgado, R. & Stefancic, J. (2000). Critical Race Theory: The Cutting Edge (2nd ed.). Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
Haviland, W.A., Prins, H.E.L., McBride, B. & Walrath, D. (2010). Cultural Anthropology: The Human Challenge. Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning.
Zastrow, C. (2009). Introduction to Social Work and Social Welfare: Empowering People (10th ed.). Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning.
Personally, I define race as the different tribes of the earth. In my definition, race has a strong affiliation with color. In terms of color, there are a couple of different races such as Blacks, Whites, Asians (who are more or less yellow), Native Americans (red), and the various hybrids associated with the intermingling of these races. Race was defined in the movie "Race the Power of an Illusion" somewhat differentky. In the film it was defined as explicit distinctions between groups of people (such as those that were previously mentioned) that are not so immutable. It acknowledges the fact that there are differences between such people, but alludes to the fact that there are basic similarities between all people that render them essentially human.
A biological view of race contends that there are certain innate biological differences that accounts for race. There is also an inherent prejudice associated…
Invisible Man and The Hate U Give
Ellison’s Invisible Man and Thomas’s The Hate U Give are two very different books on race. Ellison’s novel is mainly pessimistic and negative (though realistically so) while Thomas’s young adult novel is more optimistic and positive. Both portray the African American experience, violence, bloodshed, hatred and racism—but each takes a different path to and from the subject to arrive at a distinct position at the end. Ellison’s narrator goes underground and embraces his “invisibility” after finding no place for himself among either the white or the black population in the city. Thomas’s Starr becomes an activist, successfully defends her father’s shop from the local gang leader, and helps to bring the truth to light about the killing of a friend by the police. While being black means similar things for both of the main characters in these two novels, each is coming at…
Ellison, R. (1992). Invisible Man. NY: Vintage.
Thomas, A. (2017). The hate u give. NY: HarperCollins.
Blinded By Sight: Seeing Race Through the Eyes of the Blind
In Western culture as a whole, sight or visual eyewitness proof or testimony is taken to be the ultimate proof of veracity, including of the construct of race. But what if sight were actually an impediment to true racial understanding? This is underlined in Osagie Obasogie’s book Blinded by Sight: Seeing Race Through the Eyes of the Blind which challenges the notion that racial identity exists outside of social constructs and that race can be identified visually. The book encourages a reevaluation of the concept of colorblindness just as much as race, and instead suggest a new way of understanding freedom of oppression, namely a focus upon equal outcomes and addressing historical injustices, rather than upon attempting to not see race. “It is precisely blind people’s lack of vision that can enable the rest of society to see the…
From Jefferson to Ross to Baldwin, one sees a theme of struggle emanating from the issue of race. Jefferson (1781) acknowledged the problems that slavery placed on the nation: he acknowledged that “God is just” and that Americans were asking for His judgment by continuing to enslave their fellow man. And yet he hoped that the masters of slaves (of which he was one) would be so good as to free their slaves of their own accord, so that the order of the nation and of society could proceed in a stable and positive manner rather than an extirpative manner. Then came Ross (2005)—the slavery apologist, who declared that slavery was of God, that slavery was “for the good of the slave, the good of the master, the good of the whole American family.” This sentiment showed that Americans were not in agreement with Jefferson, that God would surely…
Eberhardt, J. L. (n.d.). Enduring racial associations. Digital file.
Rosa, J. (n.d.). Community as a Campus: From “Problems” to Possibilities in Latinx Communities. Digital file.
Rosa, J. & Bonilla, Y. (2017). Deprovincializing Trump, decolonizing diversity, and unsettling anthropology. American Ethnologist, 44(2), 201-207.
Eberhardt, J. L. (n.d.). Enduring racial associations. Digital file.
Jimenez. (2017). Preface, Intro. Digital File.
Saperstein, A. & Penner, A. (n.d.). The dynamics of racial fluidity and inequality.Digital file.
Baldwin, J. (n.d.). Notes on a native son. Digital file.
Jefferson, T. (1781). Notes on the State of Virginia, Query XVIII: Manners. Digital File.
This literature review examines the problem of racism and bigotry that continues to exist, not just in the U.S. but all over the world. As nationalism is surging in places like the U.S., the UK, Hungary, Italy, Russia and China, the problem of race and immigration has reared its head on a global stage. Some groups have tried to rise above instances of racism—and one group in particular is the Muslim population in the West: it experienced persecution in the wake of 9/11 (Sheridan, 2006). However, many in the Muslim population tried to extend a helping hand to the West by assisting the fight against terrorism (Mantri, 2011). By looking at how a marginalized and oppressed people set aside race and dedicated themselves to the aims of the nation that accepted them a new perspective on race and a greater appreciation of how racism can be transcended may…
Abdelkarim, R. Z. (2002). American Muslims and 9/11: A community looks back... and to the future. The Washington Report on Middle East Affairs, 21(7), 82.
Austin, A. (2004). From Concentration Camp to Campus. Chicago, IL: University of Illinois Press.
Burridge, A. (2010). Youth on the line and the No Borders movement. Children\\\\'s Geographies, 8(4), 401-411.
Haddad, Y. (2001). Muslims in U.S. politics: Recognized and integrated, or seduced and abandoned? SAIS Review, 21(2), 91-102.
Hafetz, J. (2012). Immigration and national security law: Converging approaches to state power, individual rights, and judicial review. ILSA Journal of International and Comparative Law, 18(3):628.
Inglehart, R., & Norris, P. (2003). The true clash of civilizations. Foreign Policy, 135, 63-70.
Mantri, G. (2011). Homegrown Terrorism. Harvard International Review, 33(1), 88-104.
Robertson, A. (2015). Media and politics in a globalizing world. John Wiley & Sons.
Representational Intersectionality Beyond Race:
Persons of Mixed Races and Categories of “Otherness” in Feminist Studies
Intersectionality is not simply a popular term in academia or a hot buzzword in the popular discourse. It is something that feminism must come to terms with to make a difference in people’s lives and to change the ways in which women are represented and their ability to access social justice. The term intersectionality was coined by scholar Kimberlé Crenshaw in 1989, referring to how identity is based upon an interconnected web of social categorizations such as “race, class, and gender” rather than something that could solely be reduced to a singular category, such as gender (“What Is Intersectionality,” 2017, par. 5). The category of gender, Crenshaw notes, also includes sexuality, given the extent to which non-heterosexual women were likewise excluded from many of the concerns of 20th century feminism at the time she coined…
Adewunmi, B. (2014). Kimberlé Crenshaw on intersectionality. The New Statesman. Retrieved from: https://www.newstatesman.com/lifestyle/2014/04/kimberl-crenshaw- intersectionality-i-wanted-come-everyday-metaphor-anyone-could
Friedan, B. (2013). The feminine mystique: 50th anniversary edition. New York, NY: W.W. Norton & Co.
hooks, bell. (1992). Eating the other.” In Black looks: Race and representation. Boston: South End Press, 1992. Retrieved from: https://genius.com/Bell-hooks-eating-the-other-desire- and-resistance-annotated
What is intersectionality, and what does it have to do with me? (2017). YW Boston. Retrieved from: https://www.ywboston.org/2017/03/what-is-intersectionality-and-what-does-it- have-to-do-with-me/
The Problem of White Normativity
In a multi-racial world, defining anyone as “black” or “white” makes as much sense as believing that all issues are “black” and “white” and that there are no shades of gray to anything. Almost everyone will certainly agree that from politics to economics to religion to any subject under the sun, there is a great deal of leeway to be given because to rigidly peg something or label it in a starkly definitive manner is to be too constrictive and narrow in one’s view. As a multi-racial woman, I myself feel that to think in terms of “black” or “white” goes against the grain. In South America, these dichotomies were virtually unknown in the past: the people accepted that their identities were more distinctively based on family lines, heritage and culture—not the color of their skin (Baran, 2007; Burdick, 1998). In the U.S., American society…
Bamberg, M., De Fina, A., & Sciffrin, D. (2011). Discourse and Identity Construction. In S. Schwartz, K. Luyckx & V. Vignoles. (Eds.), Handbook of Identity Theory and Research (pp. 177-199). New York:: Springer.
Baran, M. (2007). Girl, You are Not Morena. We are Negras! Questioning the Concept of ‘Race’ in Southern Bahia, Brazil. ETHOS, 35(3), 383-409.
Bhandaru, D. (2013). Is white normativity racist? Michel Foucault and post-civil rights racism. Polity, 45(2), 223-244.
Burdick, J. (1998). The Lost Constituency of Brazil’s Black Movements. Latin American Perspectives, 25(1), 136-155.
Cole, D. (2014). The Khoisan Once Were Kings Of The Planet. What Happened? Retrieved from https://www.npr.org/sections/goatsandsoda/2014/12/22/371672272/the-khoisan-once-were-kings-of-the-planet-what-happened
DiAngelo, R. (2011). White fragility. International Journal of Critical Pedogagy, 3(3), 54-70.
Hitchcock, J., & Flint, C. (1997). Decentering Whiteness, The Whiteness Papers, No. 1, New Jersey: Center for the Study of White American Culture, Inc.
Hooks, B. (1999). Black looks: Race and representation. South End Press.
Major City Assessment
In the city of Cincinnati, the racial demographics have changed considerably since the 1980s. In 1980, 33% of the population was black, 65% was white, and 2% were other (Hispanic, Asian-American). In 1990, the population was 60% white, 38% black and 2% other. In 2000, the population was 53% white, 43% black and 4% other. The inner city had been the primary residence of the majority of the black population in 1980 but by 2000, half that population had migrated to the surrounding suburbs (uptown, the western plateau, Northside and the east side) of the city due to gentrification of the inner city. Throughout that time, the total population decline from 385,500 in 1980 to 331,300 in 2000. The 2010 census reveal a further decline to 296,950. There are five districts in Cincinnati. District One consists of Downtown, Mt. Adams, Over-the-Rhine, Pendleton, Queensgate, and West End. District…
Census.gov. Quick Facts, 2018. https://www.census.gov/quickfacts/fact/table/cincinnaticityohio/PST045217
City of Cincinnati. SNA Boundary Changes Citywide. City of Cincinnati, 2012. https://www.cincinnati-oh.gov/planning/linkservid/B4323A96-0FDE-C8F2-D90A5A899AD316BF/showMeta/0/
Maloney, Michael and Christopher Auffrey. Patterns for five census decades, fifth ed.,2013. http://socialareasofcincinnati.org/files/FifthEdition/SASBook.pdf
Statistical Atlas. The Cincinnati Area. Statistical Atlas, 2018. https://statisticalatlas.com/metro-area/Ohio/Cincinnati/Race-and-Ethnicity
When white explorers first encountered the Great Zimbabwe, they were convinced that the massive stone structures were built by a vanished race of white people since Africans were widely regarded as being incapable of creating these impressive buildings. More recent scholarship, however, has dispelled these misperceptions but the harsh reality remains that the African American community is still widely regarded by many people of other races as somehow inferior, and these misperceptions have sustained and even exacerbated longstanding racially based animosities. The recent motion picture, “Black Panther,” though, challenges these stereotypes and recasts the black protagonist as a legitimate superhero on the same caliber as other notable comic figures such as Batman and the Green Arrow, two other major characters that did not have superpowers but rather relied upon their own natural abilities. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the manner in which an exclusively black kingdom that…
Aiyesimoju, A. B. (2018, August) Black Panther as Afro-complementary cinematic intervention: Lessons for Africa south of the Sahara movie industries. Journal of Pan African Studies, 11(9), 96-101.
Loewen, J. W. (1995). Lies my teacher told me. New York: The New Press.
Markus, H. R. Who am I? Race, ethnicity and identity (ch. 13).
Morris, L. (2018, August). To the ancestral plane: African spiritism in Ryan Coogler\\'s Black Panther (Marvel Studios, 2018) and the desensitization to spiritualism in Hollywood. Journal of Pan African Studies, 11(9), 73-76.
Schneider, B. & Judy, J. (2012, September). Boosting STEM interest in high school: A project at Michigan State University shows how public high schools can influence the number of students headed toward STEM careers. Phi Delta Kappan. 94(1), 62-65.
Shea, J. (2018). Refuting a myth about human origins. American Scientist. Retrieved from https://www.americanscientist.org/article/is-race-real.
Race in a Polarized USAOne of the big political sticking points of the 2016 US presidential campaign was immigration. Many on the Left viewed Trumps campaign promise to build a wall to keep out illegal immigrants coming across the Mexico-US border as discriminatory, xenophobic, hateful, and bigoted. Those on the Right viewed it as a common sense approach to addressing a legitimate issue of concern. Race and ethnicity colored the topic exceedingly, even though for those on the Right the issue was framed as one of security; those on the Left viewed it through the lens of race and inequality. With the rise of political correctness in the US, since the 1990s, race, ethnicity and inequality have been totems that have seemingly sacred significance for some and that repulse others. This has led to a polarized US, with those on the Right rejecting (in its latest expression) topics like Critical…
Bostock, Bill. “People are Destroying Their Nike Shoes and Socks to Protest Nike's ColinKaepernick Ad Campaign.” Business Insider, 2018. Retrieved from https://www.businessinsider.com/nike-advert-with-colin-kaepernick-has-people-burning-products-2018-9Del Rio, Mairem. “Coca-Cola Asks Its Workers to Be 'Less White' to Fight Racism.”Entrepreneur, 2021. Retrieved from https://www.entrepreneur.com/article/366132Popkin, Ben and Claire Atkinson. “Nike Takes Heat for New Kaepernick Ad — But isSocial Activism Just the New Ad Hook?” NBCNews, 2018. Retrieved from https://www.nbcnews.com/business/consumer/nike-takes-heat-new-kaepernick-ad-n906311
In our modern world, people develop false perceptions of others that are sometimes based on learned behaviors, or things that they have witnessed in life. These false perceptions continue to dominate the contemporary world at a time when societies are becoming more diverse. Modern societies across the globe comprise of people from different nationalities, races, and ethnic backgrounds. The diversity has had positive impacts since it contributes to increased interconnectedness of people from different parts of the world including the remote parts. However, diversity is also associated with some negative impacts that translate to its discontents, particularly in relation to the development of false perceptions of others. As globalization continues to dominate today’s world, its important to examine these false perceptions and develop measures to address them in order to promote unity in modern societies. This paper discusses a false perception people have in life and how those beliefs…
Madrid, A. (1990, Nov-Dec). Diversity and Its Discontents. Academe, 76(6), 15-19.
Haggis, P. (Director) (2005). Crash [Motion Picture]. United States: Bob Yari Productions.
Furthermore, while acknowledging that there was a consciousness of whiteness and white superiority in other lands, such as England, Roediger points out that part of the Americanization process for European immigrants was to become white, and that this process involved internalizing feelings of racism and hatred towards blacks.
Affirmative Action and the Politics of Race by Manning Marable
Manning Marable is a pro-affirmative action author, and he begins his essay by decrying the fact that the political right wing has largely defined the context of discussions about affirmative action. In addition, he stresses concern that those who have benefitted from affirmative action have been reluctant to defend it. He suggests that part of the problem is due to how affirmative action has traditionally been framed and its lack of a definition. Historically, he says, affirmative action was "designed to promote some degree of compensatory justice to the victims of slavery,…
Goldberg, David Theo. "Modernity, Race, and Morality." Race Critical Theories: Text and Context. Eds. Philomena Essed and David Theo Goldberg. Malden: Blackwell Publishing, 2002. 283-306.
Marable, Manning. "Affirmative Action and the Politics of Race." Race Critical Theories: Text and Context. Eds. Philomena Essed and David Theo Goldberg. Malden: Blackwell Publishing, 2002. 344-354.
Roediger, David. "Whiteness and Ethnicity in the History of 'White Ethnics' in the United
States." Race Critical Theories: Text and Context. Eds. Philomena Essed and David Theo Goldberg. Malden: Blackwell Publishing, 2002. 325-343.
This explains why he continually refers to the perception of racism. This is a way of showing how racism is damaging to African-Americans and to the functioning of the legal and criminal system, but without actually making accusations of racism. Kennedy then goes on to argue that officials have to be forced to respect the rules prohibiting racial misconduct and that police and prosecutors engaged in illegitimate racial practices have to be deterred from doing so. Again, Kennedy makes the argument in such a way that he is not insulting his audience of white readers. Rather than state that the system is racist, he argues that some people act in racist ways that ruin the system. The truth might be that the entire system is racist simply because it does not strongly deter racist behaviors from occurring. Kennedy chooses not to approach the problem this way. Instead, he frames the…
Kennedy, R. Race, Crime, and the Law. New York: Vintage, 1998.
Race, Class, Gender Journal
Word Count (excluding title and works cited page): 1048
Race, Class, and Gender is an anthology of articles that express various interpretation and insights of the relationship between race, class, and gender and how these things shape the lives of people and society. he topics and points-of-view offered in the anthology are vast and interesting. hey offer a strong historical and sociological perspective on such issues as prison populations, the working poor, or the life of Muslims in the United States. his journal is my personal reflection after reading this book. How did the reading make me feel? Did any of the readings make me feel uncomfortable? Was there any part of the book that rang true with me? Were any of the articles disturbing, shocking, surprising, or impressive? Finally, an original poem will be included in response to the experience of reading Race, Class, and…
L., M, & Hill, P. (2007). Race, Class, and Gender: An Anthology. Wadsworth Publishing Company, KY
Obama famously referred to his white grandmother during the campaign who tragically passed away the night before he was elected, as a woman of tolerance, yet who still was subject to the prejudices of society enough to feel uncomfortable when she saw an African-American walking across the street. Although this remark was criticized, Obama's point was that in America, race was inescapable, and prejudice must be dealt with through voicing concerns, rather than pretending racial divides did not exist. At times, America's unspoken discourse about race seemed to harm Obama, as in his difficulty wresting the nomination from Clinton in states like Pennsylvania, states with large, older, white working-class populations. But the desire for change and the ability to cross barriers and humanize himself seemed to counteract this: The Obama generation "has been knocked for putting all of their personal stuff on full display...But there is an upside, too, which…
Aistrup, Joseph a. The Southern Strategy Revisited. Louisville: University Press of Kentucky,
Cave, Damien. "Generation O Gets its Hopes Up." The New York Times Magazine. November 7, 2008. December 3, 2008. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/11/09/fashion/09boomers.html?scp=10&sq=presidential%20election&st=cse
Harwood, John. "The Fault Line that Haunts Democrats." The New York Times. May 4, 2008. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/05/04/weekinreview/04harwood.html?scp=5&sq=race%20election&st=cse
Kendall, Diana. Sociology in Our Times. 6th edition. New York: Wadsworth, 2007.
Essed notes the profound perceived threat to power experienced by those in the majority feel when even small encroachments are made by other groups into the dominant fabric of society, and how tacit racism against minorities is often allowed even by those who might not consider themselves prejudiced on an interactional and personal level (184). In short, the institutional racism of society inevitably affects interpersonal relations, even amongst people who do not harbor what we might think of as hatred in their hearts. Racism for Essed is an ideological social construct, a powerful social and philosophical method of enforcement that affects how 'people' see the world, and also the mechanisms of the justice system (185). Racist images and practices become an invisible and accepted part of daily life, and are unquestioned, thus it is not enough to simply change one's individual mind (190). Her essay, though it seems overly focused…
Race Critical Theories: Text and Context. Philomena Essed & David Theo Goldberg, Ed.
Race: The Power of an Illusion
The constructed notion of race, as reinforced through good science, is also reinforced throughout the first episode of this PBS documentary. In the past, poor and racist science has attempted to classify human individuals according to racial categories and failed miserably. However, good science shows that the very notion of racial separations between individuals of different geographies and cultures is in fact specious, and genetically, under the skin, the human race shares more similarities than it does substantial differences, regardless of the culturally constructed notion of race and cultural attempts to use science to keep the notion of race a crucial part of scientific parlance and interest.
The series also notes that although the different nature of the races may appear different to the eye, and race is something one may assume one is an expert at, simply because one can see and because…
After all, it was only a few generations ago that the FHA was discriminating against black applicants. Schools are still highly segregated. Race in many ways determines access to social and cultural capital, as well as financial capital. Throughout successive generations, it has been difficult if not downright impossible for the sons and daughters of non-white individuals to achieve social and economic parity with whites. The government could do things like infuse large amounts of money into predominantly poor, black communities. The residents of these communities need to have the opportunity to start their own businesses rather than work for a distant (white-owned) corporation that does not give back to the community. When black communities become more self-sustaining economically, it will be easier for them to improve infrastructure. The results will take time but would be totally feasible and no one would be affected adversely.
In light of the consequences…
But the limited growth policies that have remained popular with the Council (and a majority of the citizens, it would seem) have also kept the price of real estate high. Davis maintains the necessary amount of low-income housing, but many of the occupants are entry level workers at the town's biggest employer -- the University. These people tend to have college degrees and are -- you guessed it -- predominantly white with a large proportion of Asians as well. There simply is not enough space to fill the demand in Davis, and this has caused quite a premium in the cost of owning or even renting real estate in the city.
There is another gesture of economic favoritism that speaks even more tellingly about the unconscious racialization of Davis. The housing development that has occurred in the past twenty years saw the creation of two enormous semi-gated communities with generally…
City of Davis. "Who's who on the City Council." Accessed 13 April 2009. http://cityofdavis.org/cmo/whoswho.cfm
FactFinder. "U.S. Census Bureau Statistics." Accessed 13 April 2009. http://factfinder.census.gov/home/saff/main.html?_lang=en
U.S. Census Data. "City of Davis, California, 2000." Accessed 13 April 2009. http://davis.areaconnect.com/statistics.htm
Moreover, many people in my neighborhood are able to have people come into their homes and provide services, such as housecleaning and lawn maintenance. Overwhelmingly, the providers of these resources are Hispanic, and the majority of them are illegal immigrants to the United States. Therefore, the hypocrisy of people is alarming; many people in my community are content to live a more comfortable lifestyle using the labor of illegal immigrants, but do not want to face any financial consequences for having done so, or to help provide any of the social services that these people need if they have come to the United States to work.
As far as I am aware, no manuals for any workplace in my community mention any race, specifically. To do so would invite charges of overt discrimination, even though doing so might actually help prevent certain types of discrimination. For example, an Indian friend…
Sooner than expected, the place became populated with variation of races - natives and whites.
The place, now called as the New Brooklyn has the following characteristics (Hampson, 2003 pp 14):
Big area which can accommodate more or less 100,000 residents
The population is fast growing, with a 110% growth rate
The populace are racially and ethnically diverse
These characteristics of the area provided positive and negative impact to the people living in it. First, the hugeness of the face offers more housing and business spaces for the people. This would of course ensure that every family will have a place to own. In the same manner, this will also ensure that a number of employment opportunities will be opened to the public. However the hugeness of the place could also mean that there are more issues that people could fight about. The populace can fight about land ownership. Unhealthy…
Dakst, D. "New Americans Fresh off the Presses," the NY Times Washington Street Journal, Pp 3-11, Spring 2003.
Gonzales, D. "At 40-year Bronx Beach Party, Who Needs Sand?" NY Times, pp 17-19
Hampson, R. "New Brooklyn's Replace White Suburbs," USA Today, pp 14-16, 19 May 2003.
Kinzie S. "Conflicting Images of Amish Life," the Washington Post, pp 9-10, 28 July 2004.
Race and Advertising
Virginia Slims and Virgin Boef
Easy to Swallow Social Poison and a Mad Cow Solution)
Popular media today is driven by the advertisements that fund it, and our society is significantly influenced by the images that are found within those advertisements. It is said that the popular consumer is both the producer and the product of social inequality and this can be seen as strongly in the portrayal and interpretation of gender and race stereotypes as in any other example. Advertisements have been shown to exaggerate cultural differences between genders and races. (Coltrane, Messineo) hile the unfair caricatures of certain groups may not be as blatantly cartoonish and obvious as those of decades past, there still remains a very definite stereotypical set of boundaries into which different groups, especially minorities, must fall in order to be featured in the majority of popular media. These kinds of portrayals,…
Coltrane, Scott and Messineo, Melinda. "The Perpetuation of Subtle Prejudice: Race and Gender Imagery in 1990s Television Advertising." Sex Roles: A Journal of Research. March 2000. http://www.findarticles.com/cf_0/m2294/2000_March/63993940/p1/article.jhtml
Nephwrack. "Virgin Boef. http://www.bookofcruxshadows.com/orc/art/brightercover.jpg
Virginia Slims. "Find Your Voice." http://www.media-awareness.ca english/resources/educational/handouts/tobacco_advertising/images/62775041.jpg
' Culture, in Buck's point-of-view, and the construction of race, thus had a greater importance upon the creation of modern Kentucky than a logical evaluation of individual's real interests. This is why both whites and blacks have been worked to the bone.
Discrimination against poor whites still abounds in present-day Kentucky in the form of stereotypes. Poor whites are often characterized as supposed 'rednecks' who deserve their economic fate because their days are devoted to "drinking, incest," and "family violence," and living lives of "general backwardness, bare-footedness, improvidence, and red-necked cussedness (7). "The actions of coal mine owners, of corporate tobacco buyers, or of manufacturing executives are irrelevant in explaining Kentucky's bony fingers if they can be explained by the problems in Kentucky's culture instead," not by bad corporate behavior (7).
In defending her thesis, Buck begins with evidence from her own life, as she opens with her struggles opening…
Race, Class, And Gender in the United States
The purpose of the book Race, Class, and Gender in the United States by Paula Rothenberg is to explore sociological implications of these three topics. The book discusses how each of these ideas, which some believe to be innate, are actually mere labels that people have given to describe certain generalizations. Each of these sociological terms is coupled with the actual term. Rothenberg asks readers to critically think about the words we use to describe different groups and if the meaning we intend to apply is different than the term defines it as. There is the delineation between race and ethnicity, between class and social standing, and the difference between gender and sex.
The first portion of Rothenberg's book deals with the understanding of the terminology applied to race, glass, and gender and how the words people use with regard to these…
Rothenberg, Paula S. (2010). Race, Class, and Gender in the United States. 8th. New York:
According to the October 5, 2005 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association, although data on the correspondence of race, ancestry, and health-related "traits are still limited, particularly in minority populations, geographic ancestry and explicit genetic information are alternatives to race that appear to be more accurate predictors of genetic risk factors that influence health" (Bamshad pp).
Bamshad, M. Genetic Influences on Health: Does Race Matter. Journal of American
Medical Association. October 5, 2005. Retrieved October 24, 2005 at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=16118384&dopt=Citation
Beckles, G. "Race/ethnicity, socioeconomic position, and quality of care for persons with diabetes in managed care: the TRIAD study." Diabetes. June 01, 2003. Retrieved October 24, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library eb site.
illiams, David R. "The concept of race in Health Services Research: 1966 to 1990."
Health Services Research. August 01, 1994. Retrieved October 24, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library eb…
Bamshad, M. Genetic Influences on Health: Does Race Matter. Journal of American
Medical Association. October 5, 2005. Retrieved October 24, 2005 at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=16118384&dopt=Citation
Beckles, G. "Race/ethnicity, socioeconomic position, and quality of care for persons with diabetes in managed care: the TRIAD study." Diabetes. June 01, 2003. Retrieved October 24, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site.
Williams, David R. "The concept of race in Health Services Research: 1966 to 1990."
, 2001; Smedley, Stith, & Nelson, 2003). (Copeland, 2005, p. 265)
Populations hardest hit are African-American, Hispanic and Native American populations and as with many other health care access issues the concentration of individuals with limited or no access to healthcare is often associated with low SES urban areas and rural communities with access issues of their own. (Buckley & Van Giezen, 2004, p. 43) (Beverly, Mcatee, Costello, Chernoff & Casteel, 2005, p. 197) the access to health care issue, for many is a cumulative issue that is partnered with a general lack of access to other opportunities, such as adequate housing and employment. (Lopez, 2007, p. 985) it must also be said that job benefits tend to skip over certain employment situations, frequently the lower paying the job the less likely an individual is to have access to job related health benefits, and this statistic is increasing as more…
Beverly, C.J., Mcatee, R., Costello, J., Chernoff, R., & Casteel, J. (2005). Needs Assessment of Rural Communities: A Focus on Older Adults. Journal of Community Health, 30(3), 197.
Buckley, J.E., & Van Giezen, R.W. (2004). Federal Statistics on Healthcare Benefits and Cost Trends: An Overview Federal Government Statistical Agencies Provide a Variety of Healthcare Information on Diverse Aspects of the Nation's Healthcare Picture. Monthly Labor Review, 127(11), 43.
Copeland, V.C. (2005). African-Americans: Disparities in Health Care Access and Utilization. Health and Social Work, 30(3), 265.
Lopez, I.F. (2007). "A Nation of Minorities": Race, Ethnicity, and Reactionary Colorblindness. Stanford Law Review, 59(4), 985.
In the Struggle for Democracy (Greenberg, 483-84) the author explains that gradually, little by little, the Supreme Court of the United States responded to the need to rule segregation unconstitutional. And in the process the Court ruled that any law passed using the criteria of race was also unconstitutional. The Brown v. Board of Education vote in 1954 meant that segregation in schools was not constitutional and it was the agency of black activists and advocates that got it done by bringing litigation forward. Meantime Jones mentions that Eisenhower had a "hands-off" policy regarding enforcing the Brown v. Board of Education; and while that "emboldened" segregationists and racists to resist the Supreme Court ruling, it activated ordinary African-Americans to joined in the Civil Rights Movement of the 1960s. Thanks to the marching feet of tens of thousands of Black Americans - and the boycotts led by people like Rosa Parks…
Greenberg, Edward S. The Struggle for Democracy.
Jones, Jacqueline. Created Equal: A Social and Political history of the United States.
Racial Profiling Data Collection Resource Center. 2008. Northeastern University. Retrieved April 14, 2008, at http://www.racialprofilinganalysis.neu.edu
The committee should investigate new curricular models that empower students and which especially promote inclusion. Transforming our public schools is an essential first step toward eliminating many of the social problems extant in Joliet and in the country as a whole.
Second I would help create more small business development opportunities in Joliet. An organization or collection of organizations that can help minorities and the poor receive funding would be a tremendous help for the community and individual residents. Not only would small business development create jobs, it would enrich and uplift Joliet by enhancing prosperity. Instead of attracting outside investors like big box corporate entities who offer nothing more than insecure low income jobs, small business development creates creative, self-sustaining, and empowering opportunities for local growth. I therefore believe that small business development is a key to easing race relations and eliminating social injustice. Small business ownership is empowering…
ace and eunion
Briefly describe each of the three visions
Vision one: The reconciliationist vision -- this vision had its roots in the "process of dealing with the dead from so many battlefields, prisons, and hospitals," the author writes on page 2; and it also developed in ways prior to the process of econstruction; people were weary of war, and many Americans longed for a time of forgiving, in the Christian sense; vision two: The white supremacist vision -- this vision was manifest through terror, violence, and its legacy promotes a memory of the Civil War aftermath as one of segregation on southern terms; those of white supremacist / racist leanings would never consider giving in to a Constitutional mandate to allow all blacks freedom, the vote, and other equal rights; vision three: The emancipationist vision -- this includes much of what African-Americans remember about gaining their freedom, it also…
Blight, David W. Race and Reunion: The Civil War in American Memory. Cambridge,
Massachusetts: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2001.
Wilson, Clyde. "War, reconstruction, and the end of the old republic." Society 33.6
The first three sources reviewed were retrieved from the Ethics Updates website. The fourth source was obtained from a newspaper.
Sullivan, ndrew. "What's So Bad bout Hate?" New York Times. 26 September 1999. http://www.nytimes.com/library/magazine/home/19990926mag-hate-essay.html
ndrew Sullivan's article is about how hate is not easy to define, and that it comes in many forms that are complicated and often abstract. Sullivan begins his article by recounting the details of a story that was in the news in 1997, of a group of three white supremacists in Texas that tied a black man to the back of their truck and dragged him to his death. He also mentions the ryan Nations member who shot a Filipino-merican mailman at pointblank range, and the beating of the young gay Matthew Shepard, and the writer ponders about the moment that hate begins in someone. In recent years, "hate" has become a buzz word in…
Applebome's article is about the decision by a California school board to recognize Ebonics, or a distinct language spoken by American blacks, as the native language of many of the district's students. This was the first school board to make this decision. The school board hoped that students would receive better instruction in standard English and other subjects if the teachers understood they were teaching students who spoke a separate language. Critics accused the school district of making this move in order to get funding only available to bilingual schools, and some say that recognizing Ebonics will simply reinforce poor grammar. Linguists argue, however, that it is in fact a distinct dialect, and that many of the elements of Ebonics are reflections of African language structure.
Times Wire Reports. "Activists March, Seek Leads in 1946 Lynching." Los Angeles Times. 3 April 2005.
In recent news, people in Georgia remembered four black people who were victims of hate crimes in the 1940s. In 1946, a white hate mob attacked two men and two women in their car, then dragged them into the woods and shot them. This activist group that marched is trying to both raise awareness of hate crimes today, as well as encouraging anyone with information about this lynching many decades ago to come forward so that the killers can be prosecuted.
And there are always a few racists in any town. But I believe we have a great, open, accepting community. e entertain tourists from all over the planet, and many of them are from ethnic cultures different from ours. They say they feel welcomed here.
Q: hat use does the community foundation make of the local AM station KMHS-AM?
M: I'm glad you asked. e have learning programs for parents and students. And students make up their own little reports and broadcasts. Topics range from the environment, world news, California news and Coos Bay news.
Q: Typically what news items from Coos Bay do you use on KMHS?
M: e interview people who are doing interesting things in town and with businesses. Biologists from the college and local fishermen. The news in this town isn't really very earth shaking. Look at the list of news items on the orld's ebsite…
City of Coos Bay, Oregon. (2010). Welcome to Coos Bay. Retrieved February 3, 2011, from http://www.coosbay.org/ .
City-Data.com. (2010). Coos Bay, Oregon. Retrieved February 3, 2011, from http://www.city-data.com/city/Coos-Bay-Oregon.html .
Coos Bay School District. (2010). Middle School -- Grade 8 -- Reading / Language. Retrieved February 2, 2011, from http://cbd9.net.
Coos Bay School District. (2010). Welcome to Coos Bay School District. Retrieved February 2,
I also become more aware of the beauty that I have within myself. The story is further inspiring to me, because I identify with Ms. Chavez as a result of her Mexican origin. Obviously she has come to America in pursuit of a dream. he has fulfilled her American dream many times over. I can only hope to do the same with my life.
Another encouraging and gratifying factor in this story is the validation of my own views regarding Lawton. It is a city of truly equal opportunities for whomever chooses to take them. It seems like literally anyone can achieve anything. Furthermore, I find it very encouraging that both the media and government institutions support and openly report the success of efforts such as those by Ms. Chavez. As a White-Mexican female, this makes me aware that, while all cultures are beautiful and should be promoted in their…
City of Lawton, Oklahoma. (2007). "History." http://www.cityof.lawton.ok.us/history.htm
City Policy." http://www.cityof.lawton.ok.us/CityCode/Lawton_City_Code/Chapter_13/1/101.html
City Profile" http://www.cityof.lawton.ok.us/About_Lawton.htm
Lee, Ann Dee. (2006, Nov. 1). "News Release: Isidra Chavez to receive Governor's Arts Award." Oklahoma Arts Council News. http://www.ok.gov/~arts/news/2006/1101GAAChavez.html
ace: Personal Educational Experiences and eflection
ace was seldom discussed explicitly during my early, grammar school education. When the topic of race was broached, it was usually in the context of a lesson on the Civil War or Civil ights movement. Although such discussions were valuable, they gave the impression that race was something located in America's past, rather than worthy of discussion in the present. However, this did not mean that I was not cognizant of race as a child. I was, but the topic was often unspoken of in school, except on the rare occasions when teachers brought it to the forefront of the attention of the class -- usually in a manner that suggested that the struggle for freedom had been won.
I was fortunate to have parents who always stressed that all people were equal, regardless of how they looked. While they did not give me…
Kozol, Jonathan. (2005). The shame of the nation: the restoration of apartheid schooling in America. New York: Crown.
Tatum, Beverly Daniel. (2003). Why are all the black kids sitting together in the cafeteria?
New York: Basic Books.
Lewis, Amanda E. (2003). Race in the schoolyard: Negotiating the color line in classrooms and communities. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press.
The student's observations about race in discussion 1 prompted me to think about the way our society uses affirmative action to deal with racial inequalities in the workplace. The student states early in the discussion that he had never been personally affected by race or racism -- and yet, after some reflection, he realizes that he had been. He tells the story of going for an interview at Target and being asked if he was Mexican because his name was Hernandez. He informed the interviewer that he was not Mexican and the interviewer immediately lost interest in him as a person. It seems the interviewer was only interested in hiring a particular race -- a Latino -- most likely to fill some sort of affirmative action quota.
This recollection by the student made me irritated because I began to consider how hypocritical our own society is about race. On…
However, individuals who exhibit a "high level of aggression and antisocial behavior" are more likely to commit hate crimes, especially when fueled by drugs or alcohol," (Brehm 2007).
Research plainly shows that race matters, and that racism is still an important topic for psychologists and sociologists. Psychologists can help initiate race-related discussions in group counseling settings to help participants share their views, as well as in one-on-one counseling settings. Similarly, psychologists can work with schools to encourage open communications among students.
Brehm, S.S. (2007). OpEd: Understanding and preventing hate crimes. American Psychological Association. Retrieved April 15, 2009 from http://www.apa.org/releases/opedhatecrimes.html
DeAngelis, T. (2009). Changing the way we see one another. onitor on Psychology 40(3). Retrieved April 15, 2009 from http://www.apa.org/monitor/2009/03/diverse.html
"Hate Crimes Today: An Age-Old Foe in odern Dress" Position Paper of the American Psychological Association. Retrieved April 15, 2009 from http://www.apa.org/releases/hate.html
ills, K.I. (2009). Race relations in a new…
Mills, K.I. (2009). Race relations in a new age. Monitor on Psychology 40(4). Retrieved April 15, 2009 from http://www.apa.org/monitor/2009/04/race-relations.html
"Psychological Research Reveals Fallacies in a Color-Blind Response to Racism." (2009). APA Public Policy Office. Retrieved April 15, 2009 from http://www.apa.org/ppo/issues/pcolorblind.html
"Seeing Race and Seeming Racist? Whites Go Out of Their Way to Avoid Talking About Race." Press Release from the American Psychological Association. Oct 6, 2008. Retrieved April 15, 2009 from http://www.apa.org/releases/colorblind1008.html
This does not mean that rich people are free; on the contrary, many are not. However, money is required to live a free and easy life that defines success. Success as the achievement of personal and professional goals depends on having sufficient resources. Both Mr. Hernandez and Mr. Clay are successful. Both race and class played important roles in the article, showing that the two issues are inseparable. The article shows how the two issues are linked and how sociologists must view race and class together. Even if non-white minorities do not conform to the ideologies and practices of the dominant culture, or the "general population," equality is still ensured by law.
Race, not class, has impacted the ways many minorities are treated in the United States and in Western Europe. For example, in France and other parts of Europe the large influx of immigrants from northern Africa and Turkey…
Therefore I reasoned until now and still do, that were discrimination as restricted by question 1 between students, faculty, staff and administrators a problem, it would come up, because other topics of racial inequality do freely come up in discussion.
Are people of your race and ethnicity proportionately represented...
Getting back to sample size, if I know say ten candidates for differential treatment based on race, and they are only a few of say several hundred at Springfield, then the fact that race has not come up in casual discussion with these few students of color, does not represent a random or large enough sample to represent the population. What I can see is that Springfield outside the college windows is disproportionately black, while the population in the classroom is overwhelmingly white, as are students and faculty in all the pictures on the splash pages that loaded when I opened…
White males continue to occupy a disproportionate number of positions of power in the United States. Whether CEOs of major corporations or state senators, people in positions of power have the ability to change public policy, alter consumer habits, and influence lifestyle, worldview, and cultural ideology. Politically correct language has done little to correct the imbalance at the upper echelons of society. As a result, minorities are poorer and less well-educated than their white counterparts. Race continues to be a major social, political, and economic issue in the United States, because there are too many obstacles standing in the way of true racial equality. In order for the playing field to be even for people of all races, affirmative action policies are still necessary, whether in universities or in Washington, D.C.
Affirmative action policies help to eliminate the subtle forms of prejudice and bias that guide hiring and acceptance…
acial division/separation on campus in environment
Students in the focus group described the campus environment at Landgrant University as being welcoming overall, but difficult to find meaningful connections with other students. Segregation is too harsh of a term to use in this case, but it is clear some of the students at the university feel that people stick with their own racial groups when making friends. This has created a trend in campus life that is hard to overcome. Therefore, there remains a racial division/separation on campus.
Stereotypes are mentioned as one of the most common causes of racial division on campus. One participant in the focus group claimed that white students claimed they thought she was "ghetto" and stereotyped her as a "loud" African-American female until they got to know her. This experience shows that stereotypes continue to color first impressions of people, preventing meaningful friendships from forming…
Fischer, M.J. (2007). Settling into campus life: differences by race/ethnicity in college involvement and outcomes. Journal of Higher Education, 78(2), 125-161.
Flower, L.A. (2004), Effects of living on campus on African-American students' educational gains in college, NASPA Journal, 41(2).
The system creates and engenders inequity by denying women of color entry.
Even though I have lived in many different states and communities, race and sex continue to be visible barriers to success. My most recent setback proves that women of color are viewed as threats and may be silenced when they speak out and appear strong. I recently found work as a bookkeeper. Although not my dream job, I worked hard and gave it my all. In my spare time I cultivated a strong desire to become an entrepreneur and help people like me achieve success in a supportive environment. My performance on the job remained stellar, but when my employers discovered my budding business they let me go. Lacking the means to pursue a lawsuit, I poured my efforts into my home-based business and now I help other Latinos within the local community to prepare their tax documents…
The predominating media sentiment according to Ransby was that of 'blaming the victim,' or blaming the impoverished residents for being insufficiently prepared for the disaster. Ransby suggests that the fortitude shown by residents, even in the absence of aid, was often considerable, considering their meager resources. Residents were blamed for their poverty, rather than sympathized with.
Ransby's essay made me think critically about the coverage of the event I witnessed: while it was true that many people were praised for going to the afflicted area and helping the victims, I remember far fewer stories praising the resilience of residents. While the 'blame the victim' mentality may have been less in evidence in the coverage I saw than that which was cited by Ransby, I do think that there was a kind of objectification of the victims as a general, faceless representation of extreme poverty that many Americans denied existed within…
Race and Ethnic Relations
Dimensions of Ethnic Assimilation: Reaction Essay
In their article, "Dimensions of Ethnic Assimilation," Williams and Ortega (1990) attempt to empirically examine Gordon's typology of ethnic assimilation. They attempt to test the "validity of his typology" as well as investigate if "assimilation is, indeed, multidimensional" (698). They felt that in previous research and literature, the seven dimensions of assimilation where taken for granted correct (while, most often, only one was utilized in any one study).
In order to verify the veracity of the seven dimensions, they had to measure both ethnicity and assimilation. They measured ethnicity by asking their respondents to identify where (which country or part of the world) their ancestors came from (and asking which they made felt the closest to if more than one region was mentioned). Measuring assimilation along its various dimensions was more complex, but survey questions were the most common method…
Race/Racism: Who are you?
Vietnamese Americans are Americans who have a Vietnamese heritage. Vietnamese people living in the United States make up close to have of the Vietnamese people leaving overseas. The Vietnamese Americans are one of the largest Asian American ethnicities. Other Asian ethnicities include the Indians, Filipinos, and the Chinese. The Asian Americans have a distinct characteristic from other Americans. I define myself as an Asian American. The media sources like the movies and television give little positives about the Asian Americans and neither are there many recognized role models of Asian American heritage (Mok). According to Mok the media fails to do justice to diversity of the American people and does not appreciate the culture of Asian Americans. The paucity of a conspicuous Asian image in the American society is responsible for affecting perceptions of the Asian Americans themselves, their race, and the broader society.
In fact, the Toy is considered to be one of the most racist films of all time due to these issues (Sastry).
Blazing Saddles and the Toy approach comedy from distinct perspectives, and although they may have common elements, the differences in their approach to humor, comedy, and race allow the audience to understand why Blazing Saddles is successful in its commentary on society and why the Toy fails miserably at changing people's perspectives about society in a positive way. Brooks's approach to race and social status helps to redefine how blacks were viewed in cinema, and also helps to demonstrate that previous cinematic depictions have been skewed due the control exercised by Hollywood executives. On the other hand, Donner's approach to race and social status ends up being degrading, racist, and further reinforces negative stereotypes of race and social status. It is through these various depictions and approaches that…
Blazing Saddles. Directed by Mel Brooks. United States: Warner Bros., 1974. DVD.
Dirks, Tim. "Comedy Films." AMC Filmsite. Web. 13 April 2013.
Rice, Kathryn. "Race Consciousness and Class Invisibility in American Comedy." Dissident
Voice: A radical newsletter in the struggle for peace and social justice. 4 Sept 2010. Web. 12 April 2013.
Although there are potential social costs associated with linking race or ethnic background with genetics, we believe that these potential costs are outweighed by the benefits in terms of diagnosis and research. Ignoring racial and ethnic differences in medicine and biomedical research will not make them disappear. ather than ignoring these differences, scientists should continue to use them as starting points for further research. Only by focusing attention on these issues can we hope to understand better the variations among racial and ethnic groups in the prevalence and severity of diseases and in responses to treatment (1174)
The second is that race is often used as a proxy for class.
And, the third category is what Kawachi, Daniels and obinson argue is the most defensible, that race and class are two separate issues, and should be treated as such.
However, as Daniels and Schulz bring to light, research documentation examining…
Cooper, R., Kauffman, J., & Ward, R. "Race and Genomics" New England Journal of Medicine vol (issue) 30 Mar 2003: 1166-1175.
Daniels, J. & Shulz, a. "Constructing Whiteness in Health Disparities Research." In Title of Book. Eds. Place of Publication: Publisher, Date.
Kawachi, I. & Daniels, N., Robinson, D. "Race Disparities by Race and Class: Why Both Matter." Health Affairs vol (issue) Mar/Apr 2003: 342-351.
ace in Sociology
The sociology of racism, according to Clair and Denis (2015) is the study concerning racial inequality, racial discrimination, and racism and the associated features. acism basically is the domination of another race based on the percept and preconception that the dominating race is superior culturally or biologically. This thinking of superiority is used to justify the ill treatment of people from other races. acialization has led to people being divided into various groups based on physical appearances such as color of the skin, shape of the eye or hair and languages spoken, among others. These groups are then called races. acial discrimination involves unequal treatment meted to these groups and manifests itself prominently in such areas as education, income, and health.
ace is a construct of the society. It has no biological bearing, as there are no behavioral differences in humans that can be attributed to differences…
Clair, M., & Denis, J. S. (2015). Sociology of Racism. Retrieved September 8, 2016, from Scholars at Harvard: https://scholar.harvard.edu/files/matthewclair/files/sociology_of_racism_clairandenis_2015.pdf
Crossman, A. (2016). Sociology Of Race And Ethnicity. Retrieved September 8, 2016, from About Education: http://sociology.about.com/od/Disciplines/a/Sociology-Of-Race-Ethnicity.htm
Delinder, J. V. (2004, January). Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka: A Landmark Case Unresolved Fifty Years Later. Prologue Magazine, Vol 36. Retrieved from The U.S. National Archives and Records Administration: http://www.archives.gov/publications/prologue/2004/spring/brown-v-board-1.html
Library of Virginia. (2003). What Was Brown v. Board of Education? Retrieved September 8, 2016, from Library of Virginia: http://www.lva.virginia.gov/exhibits/brown/whatwas.htm
Louis presented an exhibition of different races as artifacts or curiosities, to demonstrate where civilization had 'come from' in the past, versus the images of civilized 'future.' he designers of the exhibit saw the supposed progress of science and civilization as a series of examples of how whites had successfully born 'the white man's burden.' he exhibit showed the benefits of slavery in educating the African races as well as the eradication of Native Americans as a necessary part of American history. he exhibit also implicitly justified American colonial and imperial ventures in 20th century as examples of the natural progress of superior races, educating and presumably eventually reforming or eradicating inferior races.
he impact of scientific publications on U.S. legal and social policy was largely regressive rather than progressive in terms of eradicating racial tension. Rather than generating enlightenment, science was often to confirm racial prejudices. Scientists classified…
The 1904 Worlds Fair in St. Louis presented an exhibition of different races as artifacts or curiosities, to demonstrate where civilization had 'come from' in the past, versus the images of civilized 'future.' The designers of the exhibit saw the supposed progress of science and civilization as a series of examples of how whites had successfully born 'the white man's burden.' The exhibit showed the benefits of slavery in educating the African races as well as the eradication of Native Americans as a necessary part of American history. The exhibit also implicitly justified American colonial and imperial ventures in 20th century as examples of the natural progress of superior races, educating and presumably eventually reforming or eradicating inferior races.
The impact of scientific publications on U.S. legal and social policy was largely regressive rather than progressive in terms of eradicating racial tension. Rather than generating enlightenment, science was often to confirm racial prejudices. Scientists classified races as possessing certain intrinsic natures or characteristics that were intrinsic to their inborn or genetically inherited temperaments. Darwinism was used to justify racism, as some populations were classified as more primitive than others, based upon arbitrary measures of their skulls, or their skin tone -- certain races were said to be less 'evolved' than other races in terms of their practices and physical development. Defeat at the hands of whites was seen as justified because it exemplified a particular race's inferiority, like the Mexican 'race' at the hands of white Americans. Temperaments were assigned to certain races as well, much like some species of animals supposedly have certain innate temperaments. The overall result was to animalize certain races, and to create divides between entire classes of people.
All because of a racially fueled hatred that exaggerated the nature of the merciless war. This image of the cruelty and heartless Japanese is what eventually allowed the American people and government to justify the nuclear bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
The racist attitudes clearly clouded the United State's commitment to defending Democracy, both abroad and within its own borders. One of the worst examples of this merciless prejudice was the removal of the Japanese from cities along the West Coast in Executive Order. The internment of hundreds of thousands of Japanese-Americans clearly threatened the mage of democracy here at home, in the U.S. borders. The research suggests that "after the American entry into the war against Japan, the U.S. military imposed curfews and other restrictions on persons of Japanese descent living on the West Coast, including both naturalized native American citizens, and eventually 'excluded' mot Japanese-Americans from certain Western…
Daniels, Roger. "Executive Order No. 9066." Modern American Poetry. University of Illinois. Web. http://www.english.illinois.edu/maps/poets/g_l/haiku/9066.htm
Dower, John. War without Mercy: Pacific War. Random House Digital. 2012.
Lie, John. Multiethnic Japan. Harvard University Press. 2004.
Primus, Richard A. The American Language of Rights. Cambridge University Press. 1999.
The Problems of ace & the Myths of Urban Poverty
ace is a social construct. There is exists very little genetic difference among the various "races" of humans on Earth. This construct is central to many, and perhaps even most people on our planet. ace is a physical difference that draws clearly defined boundaries between people. ace can be the inspiration for war. ace is hardly an inspiration for peace, unfortunately. This paper will briefly examine situations when race has been used to hurt and subordinate others. This paper will reference examples of groups of people that are systematically via the social realms and institutions who suffer due to their race, an aspect over which they had no choice or say. Drawing from the series, The Wire, and a few readings, the paper will propose what the myths of urban poverty are, who are the authors of such myths,…
Dreier, P. And J. Atlas. 2009. The Wire - Bush-Era Fable About America's Urban Poor. City & Community, 8: 329-340.
Edin, K. And K. Harris. 1998. Getting Off and Staying Off: Racial Differences in the Work Route off Welfare. Pages 270-301: Latinas and African-American Women at Work: Race, Gender, and Economic Inequality, New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation.
Newman, K. 2001. Hard Times on 125th Street: Harlem's Poor Confront Welfare Reform. American Anthropologist, 103(3): 762-778.
ace to the Bottom
Social clause refers to standards which contractors observe in order to cater for public contracts. They usually must be respected to avoid downward pressure on income and working standards. This is usually viewed to bring division between the rich (also referred to as the global north) and the poor (referred to as the global south). The difference between the north and the south has led to a competition that seems to be bringing the north down to the same level with the global south also called the 'race to the bottom'. I believe that the 'race to the bottom' is happening and modern trends such as globalization and liberalization continue to catalyze the process. This paper will look at the 'race to the bottom' theory and how it is gradually unfolding in present times.
Actually, in the real world the competition does exist. This can be…
Grandy, S. (1998). "New Jersey Corporate Chartermongering, 1875-1929." The Journal of Economic History 49 (3): 677-692.
Rudra, N. (2008). Globalization and the Race to the Bottom in Developing Countries: Who Really Gets Hurt. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Tonelson, A. (2002). The Race to the Bottom: Why A Worldwide Worker Surplus and Uncontrolled Free Trade Are Sinking America Living Standards. New York: Basic Books.
Race and the eb: Jack and Jill Politics and Making Race Manifest
According to author Lisa Nakamura, during the original, heady days of the Internet, it was hoped that the anonymous nature of the virtual medium would allow for the creation of a post-racial identity. Theoretically, no one 'needed' to reveal their visual appearance online, and thus race would become less important (Nakamura 106). The disembodied nature of the medium would allow for a more fluid and expansive conception of the self. However, the Internet has instead allowed for a plethora of subcultures resurrecting old racist stereotypes. hites have been able to try on such false personas and thus perpetrate them more easily than members of historically discriminated-against groups have been able to temporarily 'set aside' their race online. Nakamura suggests that people who masquerade as members of other races and use their posturing to advance such outmoded notions are…
Jack and Jill Politics. [3 Dec 2012]
Manjoo, Farhad. "How black people use Twitter." Slate. 10 Aug 2012. [3 Dec 2012]