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Advertisers and television networks are no longer protested or boycotted for displaying black images with their products and on household TV screens. In less than half a century black men have gone from being killed simply for whistling at a white woman to an increase of five hundred and four percent in mixed marriages over the last twenty five years (Woodgate, 2010).
Unfortunately all social change is slow. Old habits tend to die hard and a lot of suffering has to occur all along the path of progress. ace will perhaps forever be a factor in American civilization but the line will grow to be blurred as time pushes back in opposition to nearly three hundred years of human mistreatment. acial hate is a strong feeling that needs very little to surface with some but to endure it must have social significance to inspire others to comparable levels of hate.…
Anderson, Brian. (2010). Race Relations in America: Why the Left is Wrong. Retrieved December 10, 2010, from Web site: http://alineofsight.com/content/race-relations-america-why-left-wrong
Lester, Todd. (2010). Race Relations in America. Retrieved December 10, 2010, from Web site:
Woodgate, L.B. (2010). Are Race Relations Improving in America? Retrieved December
Improving Race Relations Through Education: Teaching Children Diversity
An article in the journal Childhood Today (Swiniarski, 2006) offers numerous helpful and resourceful ideas for teaching children about how to become "citizens of the world." This is not a strategy that specifically teaches about "racism" or "racial prejudice"; but according to the author, teaching children about the responsibilities of being "a world citizen" in fact embraces (in a hands-on environment) the issues of multiculturalism.
Swiniarski asserts that her program ("Global Education") - if implemented properly - affords children (and their families) an opportunity to "learn about their planet, its people, and habitats." Moreover, Global Education (GE) teaches children to "respect the beliefs of others," to "contribute ideas," and to "share a sense of belonging in a climate that is safe, accepting of one another, and inclusive of diverse cultures." The GE classroom respects all cultures and avoids stereotypes ("...not all children…
Bernasconi, Robert. Race and Racism in Continental Philosophy. Bloomington, Indiana:
Indiana University Press, 2003.
Feagin, Joe R., & Feagin, Clairece Booher. Racial and Ethnic Relations. Englewood Cliffs, NJ:
Prentice Hall, 1993.
All she does is avert herself: avert her lips, avert her eyes…as though she had decided to go slack, like a rabbit when the jaws of the fox close on its neck (Coetzee, 1999, p. 25).
This quotation indicates that the sexual encounter between Lurie and Melanie was forced by him and a grotesque violation of her will -- and body. Most disturbing of all about this quotation and this salacious act is Melanie's immediate subjugation and acquiescence to this vileness -- the likes of which can be attributed to her insubordinate status due to the aforementioned intersectionality as a woman of color who is a student of her attacker. By depicting such scenes as this that symbolizes Europe's conquest over Africa and her peoples, Coetzee is definitely representing conventional racists modes.
This point is also demonstrated in Lurie's relationship with Soraya, a female prostitute who is also a black…
Coetzee, J.M. (1999). Disgrace. New York: Penguin books.
Crenshaw, K.W. "Mapping the Margins: Intersectionality, Identity Politics, and Violence Against Women of Color."
Colonial ace elations
In the American colonial period, people believed that it was wrong for any racial mixing to take place, and there were also taboos associated with some ethnic mixes. The first case, racial mixing is termed "miscegenation," and the second is called "creolization." Miscegenation was a special problem as it concerned the mixing of whites and blacks, but there was some concern when those of Asian ancestry and Native Americans mixed with whites also (Gudmundson). White males coupling with Native American females was actually somewhat common among trappers and others who traveled to remote areas in the vast American forests, but among the more civilized people along the eastern seaboard, it was anathema. Creolization, in the other hand, was common among the many ethnicities that peopled Europe, but it was still considered a weakening from the purity which was the English stock (Brown). This essay discusses…
Besson, Jean. "Euro-Creole, Afro-Creole, Meso-Creole: Creolization and Ethnic Identity in West Central Jamaica." In A Pepper Pot of Cultures: Aspects of Creolization in the Caribbean, Gordon Collier & Ulrich Fleischmann, Eds. New York: Editions Rodopi, 2003. Web.
Brown, Kathleen M. Good Wives, Nasty Wenches and Anxious Patriarchs: Gender, Race and Power in Colonial Virginia. Raleigh, North Carolina: North Carolina University Press, 1996. Print.
Gudmundson, Lowell. "Slavery and Abolition." A Journal of Comparative Studies 5.1 (1984). Print.
race relations in "Disgrace"
Live Without Them
It is extremely natural for scholars of literature to compare The Wife of Bath, who was a character in Chaucer's The Canterbury Tales, and Monna Giovanna, one of the leading characters in Giovanni Boccacio's short story "Federigo's Falcon," to one another. Both characters are examples of women during the medieval period, and as such, represent females during that period quite well. However, a number of key distinctions can be found between these two characters, particularly in their attitudes towards the institution of marriage, love, and their opinions about men. These differences are perhaps most eminent due to the fact that these women hail from relatively the same class, that of nobility or gentry.
In fact, other than them both being medieval women in literature written during this historical epoch, the one of the principle similarities between both of these characters is that they…
Boccaccio, F. (1353). "Federigo's Falcon." Nexus Learning. Retrieved from http://www.nexuslearning.net/books/Elements_of_lit_Course6/Middle_Ages/Federigos%20Falcon.htm
Chaucer, G. (1400). The Canterbury Tales. Librarius. Retreived from http://www.librarius.com/cantales.htm
Their friendship means more to either of them than the definition of the word slave. Huck demonstrates his loyalty when he befriends Jim. This becomes evident when he realizes that he cannot tell the others of Jim's whereabouts. Huck struggles over telling the truth of telling a lie. He cannot reach an acceptable answer at the time and thus determines to do "whichever come handiest at the time" (Twain 307). Huck does eventually lies for his friend later in the novel - an indication that he is more human than the adults that attempted to raise him. He rationalizes lying by saying:
Then I thought a minute and says to myself, hold on, --s'pose you'd done a right and give Jim up; would you feel better than what you do now? No, says I, I'd feel bad -- I'd feel just the same way I do now. ell, then, says…
Twain, Mark. Adventures of Huckleberry Finn. The Heath Anthology of American Literature. Lauter, Paul, ed. Massachusetts D.C. Heath and Company. 1990.
Stowe, Harriet. Uncle Tom's Cabin. New York: Bantam Books. 1989.
Similarly, modern educational materials seem to make an effort to allow minorities to identify with the material presented, compared to earlier eras, when all major media figures and educational materials represented middle class white people almost exclusively (CPEC, 1997).
Ultimately, I believe that passive racism is more detrimental to positive race relations in society as well as in my particular community. Overt racists are, in effect, likely to be "lost causes" in terms of their ability to change their attitudes. Their views are unapologetic and usually are a function of belief as opposed to experience.
Passive racism seems to be more a function of learned expectation or, in a sense, rebuttable presumption in the minds of those who are still capable of reevaluating their expectations depending on the circumstances. I would conclude that passive racism among minorities relates more to past experience and that passive racism in white people…
California Postsecondary Education Commission (1997) Toward a Greater Understanding of the State's Educational Equity Policies, Programs, and Practices (UP/97-5). Accessed September 18, 2007, at http://www.cpec.ca.gov/HigherEdUpdates/Update1997/UP97-05.pdf
Perreault, S. Bourhis R. (1999) Ethnocentrism, Social Identification, and Discrimination. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
Vol. 25, No.1, pp. 92-103.
Ridley, J. (9/18/07) Isiah Thomas: Worse if Whites Use 'B' Word;
Louisiana: ace elations During econstruction
econstruction and ace elations
Louisiana: A Case Study in ace elations during econstruction
Louisiana: A Case Study in ace elations during econstruction
Southern Louisiana during the Civil War was quickly occupied by Union troops and the slaves began to flee plantations to Union-controlled cities like New Orleans and Natchez (Steedman, 2009). The influx created problems for the Army since they were both wartime refugees and de facto free, despite parts of southern Louisiana being excluded from the Emancipation Proclamation. As the war drew to a close in 1864 President Lincoln used Union-occupied Louisiana as a showcase for econstruction. Elections were held, governor and representatives selected, but Congress refused to recognize Louisiana's representatives. In 1865, the Thirteenth Amendment was enacted making any form of slavery illegal in the United States (Goluboff, 2001).
When elections were held again in 1865, control of Louisiana shifted to Southern Democrats…
Goldstein, Joseph. (2013, Aug. 12). Judge rejects New York's Stop-and-Frisk Policy. New York Times, A1.
Goluboff, Risa L. (2001). The Thirteenth Amendment and the lost origins of civil rights. Duke Law Journal, 50(6), 1609-1685.
Johnson, Kimberley S. (2011). Racial orders, Congress, and the agricultural welfare state, 1865-1940. Studies in American Political Development, 25, 143-161.
Steedman, Marek D. (2009). Resistance, rebirth, and redemption: The rhetoric of White Supremacy in post-Civil War Louisiana. Historical Reflections, 35(1), 97-113.
But tat doesn't really cange te istory or te reality of any event. Emancipation sould ave been our first concern but fortunately it was not even one of te main concerns let alone te first one. Lincoln along wit oter political eavyweigts were more interested in appeasing te Sout and various efforts were made to please te Soutern elite since secession was an imminent possibility.
So for various political and economic interests, te ugly practice of slavery was allowed to continue in te country tat claimed to be te campion of democracy. Te blacks and Americans will forever remember Abraam Lincoln as te man wo emancipated te slaves and abolised tis abominable practice once and for all, but te trut is tat Lincoln did tis only for political reasons. As researc indicates: "Despite te common perception to te contrary, te Civil War was not fougt primarily on te slavery issue.…
Abraham Lincoln: Inaugural address:
Election of Obama and the Problems of the Social Dynamic
There has not been any positive change in social dynamics as a result of the election of the first African-American president. If anything, race relations have worsened under the Obama Administration: the Black Lives Matter movement has come into being as a result of police violence on black citizens; there is a definite push back against the Politically Correct crowd in Washington and its depiction of certain words and expressions as being taboo in modern society (while leaders like Trump poll exceptionally well among the electorate, indicating that there is a deep and wide divide between those who embrace Political Correctness and those who challenge it). The social dynamic between whites and blacks is tense and continues to be tense on a nationwide level (with the Trayvon Martin incident igniting protests across the nation), and gender issues are just as…
Equality often has an intangible element to it as it relates to causes and influences on others. Both chapter 5 and chapter 6 shed light on these intangible influences and their overall manifestation in society. Chapter 5 focuses heavily on the definitions of both power and oppression and how they can influence society. Oppression for example creates a set of policies, traditions and norms that look to benefit one social group at the expense of another. Even more alarming is typically, the group that benefits tends to own, control and influence all the factors of economic prosperity in society. As a result, it is difficult for the oppressed to elicit change without the help of those doing the oppressing. This dynamic creates a very powerful push and pull effect on society as parties look to recreate and establish equality. Chapter 5 using the example of the women’s suffrage…
The committee should investigate new curricular models that empower students and which especially promote inclusion. Transforming our public schools is an essential first step toward eliminating many of the social problems extant in Joliet and in the country as a whole.
Second I would help create more small business development opportunities in Joliet. An organization or collection of organizations that can help minorities and the poor receive funding would be a tremendous help for the community and individual residents. Not only would small business development create jobs, it would enrich and uplift Joliet by enhancing prosperity. Instead of attracting outside investors like big box corporate entities who offer nothing more than insecure low income jobs, small business development creates creative, self-sustaining, and empowering opportunities for local growth. I therefore believe that small business development is a key to easing race relations and eliminating social injustice. Small business ownership is empowering…
This explains why he continually refers to the perception of racism. This is a way of showing how racism is damaging to African-Americans and to the functioning of the legal and criminal system, but without actually making accusations of racism. Kennedy then goes on to argue that officials have to be forced to respect the rules prohibiting racial misconduct and that police and prosecutors engaged in illegitimate racial practices have to be deterred from doing so. Again, Kennedy makes the argument in such a way that he is not insulting his audience of white readers. Rather than state that the system is racist, he argues that some people act in racist ways that ruin the system. The truth might be that the entire system is racist simply because it does not strongly deter racist behaviors from occurring. Kennedy chooses not to approach the problem this way. Instead, he frames the…
Kennedy, R. Race, Crime, and the Law. New York: Vintage, 1998.
However, individuals who exhibit a "high level of aggression and antisocial behavior" are more likely to commit hate crimes, especially when fueled by drugs or alcohol," (Brehm 2007).
Research plainly shows that race matters, and that racism is still an important topic for psychologists and sociologists. Psychologists can help initiate race-related discussions in group counseling settings to help participants share their views, as well as in one-on-one counseling settings. Similarly, psychologists can work with schools to encourage open communications among students.
Brehm, S.S. (2007). OpEd: Understanding and preventing hate crimes. American Psychological Association. Retrieved April 15, 2009 from http://www.apa.org/releases/opedhatecrimes.html
DeAngelis, T. (2009). Changing the way we see one another. onitor on Psychology 40(3). Retrieved April 15, 2009 from http://www.apa.org/monitor/2009/03/diverse.html
"Hate Crimes Today: An Age-Old Foe in odern Dress" Position Paper of the American Psychological Association. Retrieved April 15, 2009 from http://www.apa.org/releases/hate.html
ills, K.I. (2009). Race relations in a new…
Mills, K.I. (2009). Race relations in a new age. Monitor on Psychology 40(4). Retrieved April 15, 2009 from http://www.apa.org/monitor/2009/04/race-relations.html
"Psychological Research Reveals Fallacies in a Color-Blind Response to Racism." (2009). APA Public Policy Office. Retrieved April 15, 2009 from http://www.apa.org/ppo/issues/pcolorblind.html
"Seeing Race and Seeming Racist? Whites Go Out of Their Way to Avoid Talking About Race." Press Release from the American Psychological Association. Oct 6, 2008. Retrieved April 15, 2009 from http://www.apa.org/releases/colorblind1008.html
This does not mean that rich people are free; on the contrary, many are not. However, money is required to live a free and easy life that defines success. Success as the achievement of personal and professional goals depends on having sufficient resources. Both Mr. Hernandez and Mr. Clay are successful. Both race and class played important roles in the article, showing that the two issues are inseparable. The article shows how the two issues are linked and how sociologists must view race and class together. Even if non-white minorities do not conform to the ideologies and practices of the dominant culture, or the "general population," equality is still ensured by law.
Race, not class, has impacted the ways many minorities are treated in the United States and in Western Europe. For example, in France and other parts of Europe the large influx of immigrants from northern Africa and Turkey…
ace in Sociology
The sociology of racism, according to Clair and Denis (2015) is the study concerning racial inequality, racial discrimination, and racism and the associated features. acism basically is the domination of another race based on the percept and preconception that the dominating race is superior culturally or biologically. This thinking of superiority is used to justify the ill treatment of people from other races. acialization has led to people being divided into various groups based on physical appearances such as color of the skin, shape of the eye or hair and languages spoken, among others. These groups are then called races. acial discrimination involves unequal treatment meted to these groups and manifests itself prominently in such areas as education, income, and health.
ace is a construct of the society. It has no biological bearing, as there are no behavioral differences in humans that can be attributed to differences…
Clair, M., & Denis, J. S. (2015). Sociology of Racism. Retrieved September 8, 2016, from Scholars at Harvard: https://scholar.harvard.edu/files/matthewclair/files/sociology_of_racism_clairandenis_2015.pdf
Crossman, A. (2016). Sociology Of Race And Ethnicity. Retrieved September 8, 2016, from About Education: http://sociology.about.com/od/Disciplines/a/Sociology-Of-Race-Ethnicity.htm
Delinder, J. V. (2004, January). Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka: A Landmark Case Unresolved Fifty Years Later. Prologue Magazine, Vol 36. Retrieved from The U.S. National Archives and Records Administration: http://www.archives.gov/publications/prologue/2004/spring/brown-v-board-1.html
Library of Virginia. (2003). What Was Brown v. Board of Education? Retrieved September 8, 2016, from Library of Virginia: http://www.lva.virginia.gov/exhibits/brown/whatwas.htm
ace Discrimination Justice
ACE DISCIMINATION CIMINAL JUSTICE
ace and Discrimination in the Criminal Justice System
acial inequality has long been an issue in the American society. Despite making substantial progress in creating a more racially equal society, there are still many issues involving race and discrimination that can be found today. The criminal justice system was designed to treat all individuals equally under the law. However, covert racism and discrimination still plague the system and many minorities are adversely impacted and are not treated equally under the law. While most judges and public officials profess a strong dedication to remaining racially impartial, the evidence suggests otherwise. This literature review will focus on various points that indicate that there is a substantial amount of inequality to found within the criminal justice system in our modern society.
acial differences in the criminal justice system have been important topics since the…
Crutchfield, R., Fernandes, A., & Martinez, J. (2010). Racil and Ethnic Disparity and Criminal Justice: How Much is Too Much? The Journal of Criminal Law & Criminology, 903-932.
Green, E. (1991). Judicial Attitudes in Sentencing - A Study of the Factors Underlying the Sentencing Practice of the Criminal Court of Philidelphia. National Criminal Justice Reference Service, 157.
Gross, S. (1997). Crime, Politics, and Race. Harvard Journal of Law & Public Policy, 405-416.
Staples, R. (2009). White Power, Black Crime, and Racial Politics. The Black Scholar, 31-41.
In fact, the American evolution may have served to assert the natural rights of some people, but those people were limited to a class of white males.
It is important to keep in mind that one of the ideological underpinnings of the evolution was a challenge to imperialist ideals, and race-based oppression and slavery had long been major parts of the imperial system. Despite that, it is unfair to characterize Britain as pro-slavery, as the British began to embrace abolitionist sentiments prior to the evolution. In fact, British Imperialists struggled with the concept of slavery, because of the fact that denying the right to own slaves was viewed as economic oppression by many white colonists, because, without slavery, the cash crops that made colonies profitable were difficult, if not impossible, to harvest (Brown, 1999). They began by attempting to limit the import of slaves into the colonies, something that they…
Appleby, J. (1976). Liberalism and the American Revolution, New England Quarterly, 49(1), 3-
Brown, C.L. (1999). Empire without slaves: British concepts of Emancipation in the age of the American Revolution, the William and Mary Quarterly, 56(2), 273-306.
Freehling, W.W. (1972). The founding fathers and slavery, the American Historical Review,
36). Civil ights era marks the beginning of powerful resistance against oppression. Blacks from all over the country awoke to the reality and ugliness of the situation and their effort bore fruit when Civil ights Act of 1964 was promulgated. esistance has had some impact on social system. Discriminatory practices are not as obvious as they once were. People and organizations understand the repercussions of discriminating on the basis of race and color. However African-Americans still have a long way to go before they can consider themselves free and equal in true sense of the term.
Biko, S. (1978). Steve Biko: Black Consciousness in South Africa. M. Arnold (Ed.). New York: andom House
Blauner, . (1972). acial oppression in America. San Francisco: Harper & ow.
Folger, . & Skarlicki, D. (1999). Unfairness and resistance to change: hardship as mistreatment, Journal of Organizational Change Management, 35-50.
Franklin, .S. (1991). Shadows…
Biko, S. (1978). Steve Biko: Black Consciousness in South Africa. M. Arnold (Ed.). New York: Random House
Blauner, R. (1972). Racial oppression in America. San Francisco: Harper & Row.
Folger, R. & Skarlicki, D. (1999). Unfairness and resistance to change: hardship as mistreatment, Journal of Organizational Change Management, 35-50.
Franklin, R.S. (1991). Shadows of race and class. Ann Arbor, Michigan: University of Michigan Press.
The fact that he is black in no way detracts from Faulkner's message about racism and social control. For example, Faulkner hints that Nancy may have been raped by a white man; her skin color renders her subhuman in the eyes of many white southerners. To Jubah, his masculinity is called into question on two accounts: he must assert himself not only as a man, but as a black man whose wife had been violated by whites. Jubah's violent and aggressive persona corresponds with Dave's. Dave, like Jubah, are powerhouses of male potency, pushed to the boiling point out of a sense of powerlessness and anger. right directly alludes to the potential of male aggression because the mule Dave shoots is named Jenny. hen Jenny bleeds from the gunshot wound, right describes the "hole" and the "blood" using overtly female symbols. Dave never alludes to having sex with women, however.…
Faulkner, William. "That Evening Sun Go Down." Retrieved Aug 1, 2006 at http://xroads.virginia.edu/~MA01/White/anthology/faulkner.html
Wright, Richard. "The Man Who Was Almost A Man." Retrieved Aug 1, 2006 at http://xroads.virginia.edu/~DRBR2/wright.htm
" All African-Americans straddle the line represented by their double consciousness, often walking back and forth between multiple identities. The double consciousness may be especially apparent for African-Americans from Caribbean descent who also address the issues related to the immigrant experience.
African-Americans have a unique history among Americans. The slavery experience has defined the black identity, and has created a legacy of racism that persists even with an African-American president proving that most social barriers have been broken down. hile the election of Barack Obama can be viewed as a major breakthrough in race relations, the al-Mart incident also shows that the country has a long way to go before identifying, acknowledging, and healing its own double-consciousness. After all, Americans believe they are the heralds of freedom, justice, and equality. The al-Mart incidence proves otherwise.
American Experience. "Marcus Garvey: Special Features." Retrieved May 4, 2010 from http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/garvey/sfeature/sf_words_text.html
American Experience. "Marcus Garvey: Special Features." Retrieved May 4, 2010 from http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/garvey/sfeature/sf_words_text.html
Hildebrand, Jennifer. "The Sound of Double Consciousness: A Case Study of the Life of Roland Hayes" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Association for the Study of African-American Life and History, Hyatt Regency, Buffalo, New York USA, <
ot Available>. 2009-05-25
Marcus Garvey Web site. Retrieved May 4, 2010 from http://www.marcusgarvey.com/
Some people - both black and white - would probably like it very much, and would probably think that Rowan is very realistic in what he has to say. However, it seems to me that he is only spewing hateful and ugly words most of the time, instead of really looking at the problems, whether they are actually real, and how they can best be solved. If he were expressing his upset in a more realistic manner more people would take his book seriously and be more likely to do something that the problems that may be out there. It is no secret that race relations are still not where they should be in this country, and there is still a lot of prejudice out there in American today.
The days of slavery are long past, but granting a race equal rights under the law does not mean that race…
Rowan, Carl T. (1996). The Coming Race War in America: A Wake Up Call. New York: Little, Brown, and Co.
Sooner than expected, the place became populated with variation of races - natives and whites.
The place, now called as the New Brooklyn has the following characteristics (Hampson, 2003 pp 14):
Big area which can accommodate more or less 100,000 residents
The population is fast growing, with a 110% growth rate
The populace are racially and ethnically diverse
These characteristics of the area provided positive and negative impact to the people living in it. First, the hugeness of the face offers more housing and business spaces for the people. This would of course ensure that every family will have a place to own. In the same manner, this will also ensure that a number of employment opportunities will be opened to the public. However the hugeness of the place could also mean that there are more issues that people could fight about. The populace can fight about land ownership. Unhealthy…
Dakst, D. "New Americans Fresh off the Presses," the NY Times Washington Street Journal, Pp 3-11, Spring 2003.
Gonzales, D. "At 40-year Bronx Beach Party, Who Needs Sand?" NY Times, pp 17-19
Hampson, R. "New Brooklyn's Replace White Suburbs," USA Today, pp 14-16, 19 May 2003.
Kinzie S. "Conflicting Images of Amish Life," the Washington Post, pp 9-10, 28 July 2004.
Essed notes the profound perceived threat to power experienced by those in the majority feel when even small encroachments are made by other groups into the dominant fabric of society, and how tacit racism against minorities is often allowed even by those who might not consider themselves prejudiced on an interactional and personal level (184). In short, the institutional racism of society inevitably affects interpersonal relations, even amongst people who do not harbor what we might think of as hatred in their hearts. Racism for Essed is an ideological social construct, a powerful social and philosophical method of enforcement that affects how 'people' see the world, and also the mechanisms of the justice system (185). Racist images and practices become an invisible and accepted part of daily life, and are unquestioned, thus it is not enough to simply change one's individual mind (190). Her essay, though it seems overly focused…
Race Critical Theories: Text and Context. Philomena Essed & David Theo Goldberg, Ed.
But the limited growth policies that have remained popular with the Council (and a majority of the citizens, it would seem) have also kept the price of real estate high. Davis maintains the necessary amount of low-income housing, but many of the occupants are entry level workers at the town's biggest employer -- the University. These people tend to have college degrees and are -- you guessed it -- predominantly white with a large proportion of Asians as well. There simply is not enough space to fill the demand in Davis, and this has caused quite a premium in the cost of owning or even renting real estate in the city.
There is another gesture of economic favoritism that speaks even more tellingly about the unconscious racialization of Davis. The housing development that has occurred in the past twenty years saw the creation of two enormous semi-gated communities with generally…
City of Davis. "Who's who on the City Council." Accessed 13 April 2009. http://cityofdavis.org/cmo/whoswho.cfm
FactFinder. "U.S. Census Bureau Statistics." Accessed 13 April 2009. http://factfinder.census.gov/home/saff/main.html?_lang=en
U.S. Census Data. "City of Davis, California, 2000." Accessed 13 April 2009. http://davis.areaconnect.com/statistics.htm
Moreover, many people in my neighborhood are able to have people come into their homes and provide services, such as housecleaning and lawn maintenance. Overwhelmingly, the providers of these resources are Hispanic, and the majority of them are illegal immigrants to the United States. Therefore, the hypocrisy of people is alarming; many people in my community are content to live a more comfortable lifestyle using the labor of illegal immigrants, but do not want to face any financial consequences for having done so, or to help provide any of the social services that these people need if they have come to the United States to work.
As far as I am aware, no manuals for any workplace in my community mention any race, specifically. To do so would invite charges of overt discrimination, even though doing so might actually help prevent certain types of discrimination. For example, an Indian friend…
And there are always a few racists in any town. But I believe we have a great, open, accepting community. e entertain tourists from all over the planet, and many of them are from ethnic cultures different from ours. They say they feel welcomed here.
Q: hat use does the community foundation make of the local AM station KMHS-AM?
M: I'm glad you asked. e have learning programs for parents and students. And students make up their own little reports and broadcasts. Topics range from the environment, world news, California news and Coos Bay news.
Q: Typically what news items from Coos Bay do you use on KMHS?
M: e interview people who are doing interesting things in town and with businesses. Biologists from the college and local fishermen. The news in this town isn't really very earth shaking. Look at the list of news items on the orld's ebsite…
City of Coos Bay, Oregon. (2010). Welcome to Coos Bay. Retrieved February 3, 2011, from http://www.coosbay.org/ .
City-Data.com. (2010). Coos Bay, Oregon. Retrieved February 3, 2011, from http://www.city-data.com/city/Coos-Bay-Oregon.html .
Coos Bay School District. (2010). Middle School -- Grade 8 -- Reading / Language. Retrieved February 2, 2011, from http://cbd9.net.
Coos Bay School District. (2010). Welcome to Coos Bay School District. Retrieved February 2,
I also become more aware of the beauty that I have within myself. The story is further inspiring to me, because I identify with Ms. Chavez as a result of her Mexican origin. Obviously she has come to America in pursuit of a dream. he has fulfilled her American dream many times over. I can only hope to do the same with my life.
Another encouraging and gratifying factor in this story is the validation of my own views regarding Lawton. It is a city of truly equal opportunities for whomever chooses to take them. It seems like literally anyone can achieve anything. Furthermore, I find it very encouraging that both the media and government institutions support and openly report the success of efforts such as those by Ms. Chavez. As a White-Mexican female, this makes me aware that, while all cultures are beautiful and should be promoted in their…
City of Lawton, Oklahoma. (2007). "History." http://www.cityof.lawton.ok.us/history.htm
City Policy." http://www.cityof.lawton.ok.us/CityCode/Lawton_City_Code/Chapter_13/1/101.html
City Profile" http://www.cityof.lawton.ok.us/About_Lawton.htm
Lee, Ann Dee. (2006, Nov. 1). "News Release: Isidra Chavez to receive Governor's Arts Award." Oklahoma Arts Council News. http://www.ok.gov/~arts/news/2006/1101GAAChavez.html
Race and Ethnic Relations
Dimensions of Ethnic Assimilation: Reaction Essay
In their article, "Dimensions of Ethnic Assimilation," Williams and Ortega (1990) attempt to empirically examine Gordon's typology of ethnic assimilation. They attempt to test the "validity of his typology" as well as investigate if "assimilation is, indeed, multidimensional" (698). They felt that in previous research and literature, the seven dimensions of assimilation where taken for granted correct (while, most often, only one was utilized in any one study).
In order to verify the veracity of the seven dimensions, they had to measure both ethnicity and assimilation. They measured ethnicity by asking their respondents to identify where (which country or part of the world) their ancestors came from (and asking which they made felt the closest to if more than one region was mentioned). Measuring assimilation along its various dimensions was more complex, but survey questions were the most common method…
Race/Racism: Who are you?
Vietnamese Americans are Americans who have a Vietnamese heritage. Vietnamese people living in the United States make up close to have of the Vietnamese people leaving overseas. The Vietnamese Americans are one of the largest Asian American ethnicities. Other Asian ethnicities include the Indians, Filipinos, and the Chinese. The Asian Americans have a distinct characteristic from other Americans. I define myself as an Asian American. The media sources like the movies and television give little positives about the Asian Americans and neither are there many recognized role models of Asian American heritage (Mok). According to Mok the media fails to do justice to diversity of the American people and does not appreciate the culture of Asian Americans. The paucity of a conspicuous Asian image in the American society is responsible for affecting perceptions of the Asian Americans themselves, their race, and the broader society.
Although there are potential social costs associated with linking race or ethnic background with genetics, we believe that these potential costs are outweighed by the benefits in terms of diagnosis and research. Ignoring racial and ethnic differences in medicine and biomedical research will not make them disappear. ather than ignoring these differences, scientists should continue to use them as starting points for further research. Only by focusing attention on these issues can we hope to understand better the variations among racial and ethnic groups in the prevalence and severity of diseases and in responses to treatment (1174)
The second is that race is often used as a proxy for class.
And, the third category is what Kawachi, Daniels and obinson argue is the most defensible, that race and class are two separate issues, and should be treated as such.
However, as Daniels and Schulz bring to light, research documentation examining…
Cooper, R., Kauffman, J., & Ward, R. "Race and Genomics" New England Journal of Medicine vol (issue) 30 Mar 2003: 1166-1175.
Daniels, J. & Shulz, a. "Constructing Whiteness in Health Disparities Research." In Title of Book. Eds. Place of Publication: Publisher, Date.
Kawachi, I. & Daniels, N., Robinson, D. "Race Disparities by Race and Class: Why Both Matter." Health Affairs vol (issue) Mar/Apr 2003: 342-351.
Louis presented an exhibition of different races as artifacts or curiosities, to demonstrate where civilization had 'come from' in the past, versus the images of civilized 'future.' he designers of the exhibit saw the supposed progress of science and civilization as a series of examples of how whites had successfully born 'the white man's burden.' he exhibit showed the benefits of slavery in educating the African races as well as the eradication of Native Americans as a necessary part of American history. he exhibit also implicitly justified American colonial and imperial ventures in 20th century as examples of the natural progress of superior races, educating and presumably eventually reforming or eradicating inferior races.
he impact of scientific publications on U.S. legal and social policy was largely regressive rather than progressive in terms of eradicating racial tension. Rather than generating enlightenment, science was often to confirm racial prejudices. Scientists classified…
The 1904 Worlds Fair in St. Louis presented an exhibition of different races as artifacts or curiosities, to demonstrate where civilization had 'come from' in the past, versus the images of civilized 'future.' The designers of the exhibit saw the supposed progress of science and civilization as a series of examples of how whites had successfully born 'the white man's burden.' The exhibit showed the benefits of slavery in educating the African races as well as the eradication of Native Americans as a necessary part of American history. The exhibit also implicitly justified American colonial and imperial ventures in 20th century as examples of the natural progress of superior races, educating and presumably eventually reforming or eradicating inferior races.
The impact of scientific publications on U.S. legal and social policy was largely regressive rather than progressive in terms of eradicating racial tension. Rather than generating enlightenment, science was often to confirm racial prejudices. Scientists classified races as possessing certain intrinsic natures or characteristics that were intrinsic to their inborn or genetically inherited temperaments. Darwinism was used to justify racism, as some populations were classified as more primitive than others, based upon arbitrary measures of their skulls, or their skin tone -- certain races were said to be less 'evolved' than other races in terms of their practices and physical development. Defeat at the hands of whites was seen as justified because it exemplified a particular race's inferiority, like the Mexican 'race' at the hands of white Americans. Temperaments were assigned to certain races as well, much like some species of animals supposedly have certain innate temperaments. The overall result was to animalize certain races, and to create divides between entire classes of people.
ace to the Bottom
Social clause refers to standards which contractors observe in order to cater for public contracts. They usually must be respected to avoid downward pressure on income and working standards. This is usually viewed to bring division between the rich (also referred to as the global north) and the poor (referred to as the global south). The difference between the north and the south has led to a competition that seems to be bringing the north down to the same level with the global south also called the 'race to the bottom'. I believe that the 'race to the bottom' is happening and modern trends such as globalization and liberalization continue to catalyze the process. This paper will look at the 'race to the bottom' theory and how it is gradually unfolding in present times.
Actually, in the real world the competition does exist. This can be…
Grandy, S. (1998). "New Jersey Corporate Chartermongering, 1875-1929." The Journal of Economic History 49 (3): 677-692.
Rudra, N. (2008). Globalization and the Race to the Bottom in Developing Countries: Who Really Gets Hurt. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Tonelson, A. (2002). The Race to the Bottom: Why A Worldwide Worker Surplus and Uncontrolled Free Trade Are Sinking America Living Standards. New York: Basic Books.
Race and Ethnic Inclusion and Exclusion
In Ira erlin's (1998) Many Thousands Gone: The First Two Centuries of Slavery in North America, the author shows how groups in the U.S. struggled to exclude other groups. White people made a serious effort to exclude black people from anything other than the most menial jobs for a very long time (Davidson, 2005; Gasorek, 1998). The desire to exclude was based on skin color and race, but there was also an element of inclusion in that black people were included in one group based on their skin color, and were not seen as individuals who were unique people based on their own merits (Sherif, 1967; Tajfel & Turner, 1979).
lack people struggled to gain access to institutions and status as they developed their own identities in an area with which they were unfamiliar (erlin, 1998). They became soldiers and worked as artisans, along…
Berlin, Ira. 1998. Many thousands gone: The first two centuries of slavery in North America. Cambridge, Mass: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.
Davison, K.N. (2005). The mixed race experiment: Treatment of racially categorized individuals under title VII. Law journal library, 12: 161-164.
Gasorek, Dory. 1998. Inclusion at Dun & Bradstreet: Building a high-performing company. The Diversity Factor 8(4).
Hyter, Michael C. & Turnock, Judith L. 2006. The power of inclusion: Unlock the potential and productivity of your workforce. NY: John Wiley & Sons.
Specifically reported by Coy is that the "recent launch of a black Disney princess may be an indicator of greater cultural diversity, but in terms of the 'girl power' values it carries the view that it is 'a great step . . . [and] could help black children see themselves more positively' (Adesioye, 2009) fails to address how it will reinforce messages of sexualization for black girls." (2009) to excel in the music industry, it is expected and even required that women become sexualized because this is a primary point of the success realized in the music industry as the music industry is highly sexualized overall. A study reported in the work of Stankiewitz and osselli (2008) states that the study examined the way that women were depicted in 1,988 advertisements "from popular U.S. magazines." The advertisements were coded in relation to whether women were presented as sex objects of…
American Psychological Association, Task Force on the Sexualization of Girls. (2010). Report of the APA Task Force on the Sexualization of Girls. Retrieved from: http://www.apa.org/pi/women/programs/girls/report-full.pdf
Coy, M. (2009) Milkshakes, Lady Lumps, and Growing Up to Want Boobies: How the Finlay, a. (2013) Hyper-sexualizing Women Leads to Self-Objectification -- More Destructive and Prevalent than Society Admits
Liang, E. (2011) the Media's Sexualization of Female Athletes: A Bad Call for the modern Game. Vol. 3 No. 10. Retrieved from: http://www.studentpulse.com/articles/587/the-medias-sexualization-of-female-athletes-a-bad-call-for-the-modern-game
Naubert, R. (2011) Media's Growing Sexualization of Women. Psych Central. Retrieved from: http://psychcentral.com/news/2011/08/11/medias-growing-sexualization-of-women/28539.html
For example, one of the interesting points that grabbed my attention was Dill's discussion of gender relations among African slaves. Slave men and women had a more egalitarian relationship than free white men and women. That is because slave men did not possess the power and authority of free men. So, power is inherently corrupting? At least, this is what Dill's description of gender relations in antebellum America suggest.
I wish, as a professor of sociology, Dill could have made more direct relations with the present (describing history just for the sake of history is the job of historians). I also wish, she could have allotted as much space to the story of Chinese-Americans that she does to White, African-American, and Chicano families. But I still admired this essay because it powerfully tells how society often subjects women to double or triple burdens. In colonial and antebellum America, the society…
Andersen, M.L, & Collins, P.H. (2010) Race, Class & Gender: An Anthology, 7th Edition. Wadsworth Publishing.
In Kingston's more feminine rendering of identity, although she resists the ideals of silence and sexual repression, she accepts the idea that women have more permeable boundaries of selfhood and stronger ties to their family in the telling of her text.
Both works point to the inexorability of the past, especially for individuals of ethnic or racial minorities who consider themselves 'other.' Obama is 'other' because of his multiethnic heritage that alienates him from parents as well as friends, and because of the Americanness that separates him from his father. Kingston sees herself as Chinese, but female in a culture as well as a nation that mistrusts this aspect of a woman's self. Both make claims to how their lives speak for other lives -- Obama explicitly with his overly political narration, and his determination to use his struggle as fuel for success as an advocate of community enfranchisement, Kingston…
Kingston, Hong Maxine. The Woman Warrior. Vintage, 1989
Obama, Barak. Dreams from my Father: A Story of Race and Inheritance.
Three Rivers Press, 2004.
The company needs to frame the heart complication as one that is rare. Instead of apologizing, the company needs to stand by its products and assert its commitment to safety. When the company issues its warning, the commitment to safety will be evident. Moreover, the company will need to develop a new arsenal of pain killers that will take the place of the current one. This will allow the consumer public to see that the company offers options for their health care, all of which live up to high standards of safety. Finally, the company will need to show how the pain killer has been approved by government administrations like the FDA.
All types of communication media will be used during this aggressive public relations campaign. When possible the company will send agents and representatives to meet one-on-one with health care professionals and government agents. The public media will…
ace and Community
The community in which I have lived for the past several years of my life is Sioux Falls, South Dakota, a relatively agricultural community that combines some major metropolitan features with a distinctive suburban flair. Traditionally, this community has not been noted for its racial diversity, as the vast majority of its residents are Caucasian. According to the United States Census Bureau's information as of 2009, 87.9% of all Sioux Falls residents were Caucasian, while the next highest population group, the population of American Indian and Alaskan Native persons, merely constitutes 8.5% of the city's residents (State and County, 2009). The percentages of populations are comparatively non-existent following the aforementioned group, as 2.9% of the city's inhabitants are Hispanic or Latino in origin, 1.2% of people reported their ethnicity as being Black, .9% of residents are Asian and .1% of the city's inhabitants are native…
State and County Quick Facts. (n.d.). Retrieved May 15, 2011) from U.S. Census Bureau website, http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/states/46/4659020.html.
Diversity Data.org. (2010). Retrieved May 15, 2011 from Harvard, School of Public Health website, diversitydata.sph.harvard.edu/Data/Profiles/Show.aspx?loc=1296
Lift SD Families and Children Out of Poverty. (2009). Retrieved from http://www.sdvoicesforchildren.org/images/pdf/NewsletterFall09.pdf
Leonardson, G.R. & Loudenburg, R. (2005, June 24). Assessment of Disproportionate Minority Contact in South Dakota. Retrieved from http://doc.sd.gov/about/grants/documents/FullDMCReportFinal.pdf
The increased collaboration and mutual awareness of both mainstream and minority projects -- and the vanishing of the differentiation between the two spheres -- could only lead to better and more relevant arts projects (Moscou 2010). I hope to be able to facilitate increased integration of the performing arts community to this end.
Some major concepts that relate to the issue of race include identity, self-confidence and self-image, and a host of sociological and economic factors. The economic disparity between the various racially segregated neighborhoods in the greater Seattle area is readily apparent on a drive through such neighborhoods -- the "non-white" neighborhoods have older buildings in greater states of disrepair, a larger number of boarded-up and defunct storefronts, and higher crime rates than the more affluent white neighborhoods of the city itself and in outlying areas (Cornwall 2004; SJI 2010). Greater integration would likely also result in greater economic…
Cornwall, W. (2004). "Racial issues raised over Democratic mailing." Seattle times. Accessed 3 August 2010. http://seattletimes.nwsource.com/html/localnews/2002070838_48thrace23e.html
Moscou, J. (2010). Personal interview. Conducted 1 August 2010.
Race & social justice initiative. (2010). City of Seattle Official Website. Accessed 3 August 2010.
Family, Community, and acial Trends in U.S. Juvenile Criminal Justice
The subject of race and ethnicity as they relate and correlate to criminality and prison populations in the United States has been the subject of a great deal of study and commentary for many decades. It is unquestionably true that a disproportionate number of people of color are convicted of crimes than are Caucasians both on a national level and at the community level in the majority of the country; this fact is easily supported by a cursory review of criminal justice statistics and is not a matter of debate despite the contentiousness of the issue. What is debated are the reasons behind this skewed prison population/criminal element, and in an effort to address this debate the following paper will study the problem as it appears not amongst adults, but amongst the still-developing youth of the country.
Dixon, T.L., & Azocar, C.L. (2006). The representation of Juvenile Offenders by Race on Los Angeles Area Television News. The Howard Journal of Communication, 17,
Jordan, K.L., & Freiburger, T.L. (2011). Examining the Impact of Race and Ethnicity on the Sentencing of Juveniles in the Adult Court. Criminal Justice Research Review,
Piquero, A.R. (2008). Disproportionate Minority Contact., 18( 2),
Rodriguez, M. (2007). Juvenile Court Context and Detention Decisions: Reconsidering the Role of Race, Ethnicity, and Community Characteristics in Juvenile Court Process. Justice Quarterly, 24( 4),
An increased rate of incarceration is considered one of the key factors behind this drop, although a number of notable criminologists disagree. Incarceration is one of the major consequences for youth and young adults arrested for committing violent crimes such as murder, rape, robbery, and aggravated assault.(Delgado, 2001, p. 3) This decrease however has not appeased society nor has it abated one's fears of crime and its circumstances. Researchers continue to report that crimes are however densely populated in urban communities; and usually consist of black on black crimes. On the other hand, it is imperative that one accept that urban areas are not the only locations where crimes are committed. In fact, there are various types of crimes that continue to occur. The types of crimes in question are those considered white-collar crimes. (Markowitz & Jones-Brown, 2000, p. 3) White-collar criminals have been described as middle-aged men of high…
Crime has continued to capture the attention of Americans although there has been a decrease in the number of crimes over the past decade. Much attention has been paid to the propitious drop in the nation's crime rates, and more specifically, the murder rate. An increased rate of incarceration is considered one of the key factors behind this drop, although a number of notable criminologists disagree. Incarceration is one of the major consequences for youth and young adults arrested for committing violent crimes such as murder, rape, robbery, and aggravated assault.(Delgado, 2001, p. 3) This decrease however has not appeased society nor has it abated one's fears of crime and its circumstances. Researchers continue to report that crimes are however densely populated in urban communities; and usually consist of black on black crimes. On the other hand, it is imperative that one accept that urban areas are not the only locations where crimes are committed. In fact, there are various types of crimes that continue to occur. The types of crimes in question are those considered white-collar crimes. (Markowitz & Jones-Brown, 2000, p. 3) White-collar criminals have been described as middle-aged men of high social status, they often live in wealthy neighborhoods, and are respected by the community. The researcher further states that those that are interested in studying white-collar crime seldom do not study these individuals nor were policy makers and other officials interested. The writing also reports on a researcher that believed that the definitions behind crime are incorrect and misleading; Weisburd also states that the criminal behaviors of those in the lower classes have been negated in previous research. (Weisburd, Waring & Chayet, 2001) in the United States, little controversy exists regarding race-based crime statistics reports Knepper (2000).
However, there is information on each category of race, gender, and white-collar crime; on the other hand, there is a minute amount that offers insight into what individuals feel about various races and genders regarding white-collar crime. There is information that displays whom is most likely to commit a white-collar crime, and where most crimes are committed, however very little insight is given into how people (men and women regardless of race) feel about white-collar crimes. This is important in order to express another aspect of white-collar crime and its effect on the individual and possibly the individual's surroundings. Then variations will be clearer and more defined, until then things remain obscure.
The types of offenses committed by gender are notable for their similarities and their differences. Both are more heavily involved in minor property offenses than in serious crimes like robbery or murder. However, "Women offend at much lesser rates than men for all crime categories except prostitution. This gender gap in crime is greatest for serious crime and least for mild forms of
ace and Gender
Sociological Principles/Perspectives of ace
ace is the physical difference that various cultures and groups think are socially different. Principles of sociology seek to establish how ethnicity and race are constructed socially; including how each individual identifies with them. Sociology principles explain that interaction at the social level forms the cornerstone for societal interaction. The way of interaction with others demonstrates people's beliefs and what they hold as valuable as members of a group. Behavior patterns show social relationships that are unequal. These are the elements that trigger ethnicity and racial issues. The issues overlap with elements of yet another principle. For instance, social relationships that are unequal are connected to what people see as true about each other as both individuals and as members of social groups. People frequently generate beliefs about others around them; which often comprise of discrimination and prejudice.
USA constitutes people from various…
Brague, J. A. (2011, October 21). Elderly stereotypes. Retrieved September 26, 2016, from Applied Social Psychology: http://www.personal.psu.edu/bfr3/blogs/applied_social_psychology/2011/10/elderly-stereotypes.html
Hegewisch, A., & Dumonthier, A. (2016). Pay Equity & Discrimination. Retrieved September 26, 2016, from Institute for Women's Policy Research: http://www.iwpr.org/initiatives/pay-equity-and-discrimination/#about
Randall, V. R. (2010, October 3). Why Race Matters? Retrieved October 3, 2016, from University of Dayton: https://academic.udayton.edu/health/03access/data.htm
Perez, A. D., & Hirschmann, C. (2009). The Changing Racial and Ethnic Composition of the U.S. Population: Emerging American Identities: Vol 35, Issue 1, 1-51. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov : http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2882688/
Race in Today's Mass Media
Channel surfing during primetime these days, will often times create a personal dilemma on what show to watch and usually, it is one we will stick with from season to season - if the 'powers that be' allow it a renewed contract. These days, we have a variety of broadcast channels to choose from and our ethnic background, sadly, often determines whether we choose the W over NC. The reality is, that "mass media actually work to reinforce assumptions that black folks should always be cast in supporting roles in relation to white characters" (Hook, 1995).
Let's take for example, some currently popular shows: Friends, Frasier and, yes, even The Simpsons portray minorities either in 'guest' roles, as supporting roles in stereotypical fashion, or not at all. In the case of The Simpsons, it could be justifiably argued that the show portrays views of race…
Hooks, B. Teaching Resistance: The Racial Politics of Mass Media
New York: Holt 1995
And Li, (2006). These researchers took previous findings regarding the efficacy of ACE inhibitors (Fosinopril, in particular) and applied them to children of different racial populations. Moreover, Menon et al. (2006) investigated whether the evidenced differences in effectiveness of ACE inhibitors among adults of different racial groups transferred to children of different racial groups. The results of the study indicated that Fosinopril was effective in treating hypertension in all racial groups, but Black children in the study required a higher dosage of the anti-hypertensive medication in order to experience the beneficial results. Furthermore, the differences in ACE inhibitor efficacy observed among adults of different races exist also in children of various races (Menon et al., 2006).
The demonstrated fact that African-Americans with hypertension are not as responsive to certain anti-hypertensive medications than non-African-Americans has opened the door for further research. Papademetriou, Narayan, and Kokkinos (2004) studied the effectiveness of ACE…
Brewster, L.M., van Montfrans, G.A., Kleijnen, J. (2004). Systematic Review: antihypertensive drug therapy in black patients. Annals of Internal Medicine, 141(8), 614-27.
Ferdinand, K.C., Saunders, E. (2006). Hypertension-related morbidity and mortality in African-Americans - why we need to do better. Journal of Clinical Hypertension, 8 (Suppl. 1), 21-30.
Flack, J.M., and Hamaty, M. (1999). Difficult to treat hypertensive populations: focus on African- Americans and people with type 2 diabetes. Journal of Hypertension. Supplement, 17(1), S19-24.
McDowell, S.E., Coleman, J.J., Ferner, R.E. (2006). Systematic review and meta-analysis of ethnic differences in risks of adverse reactions to drugs used in cardiovascular medicine. British Medical Journal, 332, 1177-81.
Race and Ethnic Relations:
Giddens suggests that the central problem in this piece is climate change that is brought by the emission of greenhouse gases in the Earth's atmosphere. One of the major factors that have contributed to the problem is that the three dominant energy sources across the globe i.e. gas, oil, and coal produce huge amounts of greenhouse gases. The pollution of the atmosphere through industrialization processes, which are major characteristics of today's society, has also contributed to the problem of climate change. Industrial revolution was primarily fueled by the scientific and technological advances that turned coal into a vibrant source of energy. These advancements resulted in the change from burning wood as a basic source of fuel to increased dependence on coal. The change into use of coal as a major energy source resulted in an entirely new way of life that is based on machine production.…
Giddens, Anthony. "Climate Change: Running Out, Running Down." Social Problems Related to Population and the Environment. 549-55. Print.
Secondly, this different approach also led the American society to experience a distinct social evolution. The fact that the ritish colonists were less reluctant to encourage social mobility offered the new settlers the change to become an important member of the society despite his eventual modest origin. Consequently, the highest level of the social scale was that of the colonial aristocrats, represented by wealthy planters and merchants, the middle class was represented by the land owning farmers, while the hired help made up the lower class. Indeed, there were racial frictions as well, which forced African-Americans to be considered the least important in the society. Nonetheless, despite this hierarchy, the geographical conditions enabled every man to go in search of wealth and thus improve his social conditions.
The Spanish and Portuguese colonial empires, although they offered a different social structure for their colonies, they left little mobility between classes. The…
Lewis, Laura. "Spanish ideology and the practice of inequality in the New World." Racism and anti-racism in world perspective. Ed. Benjamin Bowser. London: Sage Publications, 2002.
Loury, Glenn C., Tariq Modood, and Steven Michael Teles. Ethnicity, social mobility, and public policy:comparing the U.S. And UK. London: Cambridge UP, 2005, 22-25.
The apparent point here is that land traditionally belonging to native tribes will be used to mine in the interest of the developed world. It makes me feel both sad and powerless. I do not have all the information, but stories like this always make me feel that those with the greatest physical, technological, or financial power, or all three, tend to have more power than even those with the right to a certain piece of land or way of living.
The second point confirms the previous observation, that the consistent support of those in power has resulted in the approval of the project without any regard for the rights of those who have possessed the land for far longer. Again, this gives me a sense of powerlessness when faced with decisions by politicians who have only their own interest at heart.
This is far longer than the mere…
If students are misbehaving, they are not engaged in their lessons. Behavior management is, unfortunately, a priority focus at Springfield Gardens, to the detriment of instruction. This is the point that the three interviewees continued to stress. None of them blamed the teachers for failing to engage students; the fault, as they see it, lies squarely with the students whose families apparently do not place a high value on education. The students, as Gordon, Benton and Johnson see it, are products of the culture in which their parents live.
The three frequently compared and contrasted the students of today with students of generations past. Students in "the good old days" did not misbehave the way students do "these days." That point was made clear, particularly in interviews with Benton and Gordon. Benton recalled a childhood outside the United States where school, he implied, was much more rigorous. It would appear…
Bali, V.A., & Alvarez, R.M. (2003). Schools and educational outcomes: What causes the "race gap" in student test scores? Social Science Quarterly 84 (3)
Biddle, R. (March 7, 2011). The condemnation of black children to dropout factories must end. Dropout Nation. Retrieved from http://dropoutnation.net/2011/03/07/condemnation-black-children/
Lewis, a.E. (2001). There is no race in the schoolyard: Color-blind ideology in an (almost)
all-white school. American Educational Research Journal 38 (4), 781-811.
Governing Race: Politics, Process and the Politics of Race by Nina M. Moore. Specifically, it will contain a detailed book report on the book. "Governing Race" is an important and viable book for any Black Studies student, especially if they are interested in why race relations came to a head in the 1960s. "Governing Race" gives a unique viewpoint on the "politics of race," and is valuable reading for this alone. However, there is much more for the reader to discover as they move through the pages of this book.
The author's thesis is quite clear from the very beginning of this book. She asserts, "race presents a challenge too difficult for American governing institutions to meet" (Moore xiv) in the ntroduction of the book, and further asserts, "true socioeconomic and political race reform will remain a laudable, but elusive, goal of government policymakers" (Moore xv). Therefore, her book concentrates…
In conclusion, Moore's book is a compelling and sometimes distressing look at politics and race in America today. While the successes in race relations are certainly to be celebrated, it is clear from reading this book that Americans still have a long way to go in truly understanding and reforming the relationship between the races. Some of this book is difficult reading, because it seems more should have been done to equalize things politically and fundamentally. Reading this book gives a greater understanding of why things are the way they are, whether Americans agree or not.
Moore, Nina M. Governing Race: Policy, Process, and the Politics of Race. Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 2000.
Racialization is where two, racial groups have become so disgusted with one another that they will begin to take negative views of each other .Where, WASP's would often see blacks as the lowest ethic groups in society, while they would view other ethnics groups in more positive light (but only to a certain extent). A good example of this can be seen with the way many individuals will not acknowledge someone as an American (such as: Christy Yamuguchi's Olympic performance against Midori Ito of Japan). Despite being a fourth generation Japanese-American, the media commentators kept implying that she was Japanese (even though she was from America). This is significant, because it shows how the radicalization of WASP's has created racial triangulation. Where, they cannot acknowledge the accomplishment of minorities, (despite the fact that they are Americans). In this case, the media was using racial triangulation to keep Yamuguchi down to…
Kim, Jean. "Racial Triangulation of Asian-Americans." n.d. 105 -- 138. Print.
Takaki, George. "The Tempest in the Wilderness." The Journal of American History. 79.3 (1992): 892 -- 912. Print.
Cornel West's Race Matters
In the mid-1990s, Cornel West published a series of essays in a collection titled Race Matters. he title is a play on words, as West points out in his Preface. On the one hand, the word matters serves as a synonym for issues. West notes there have always been issues about race in the United States, throughout its history. On the other hand, matters is used as a verb. Race matters -- it means something to be white and quite another to be black. West's point is that it matters how one is perceived and treated in our society, depending upon the color of one's skin.
West begins his Preface with a 1963 quote from the writer James Baldwin. Race relations were in turmoil at the time of Baldwin's writing. he civil rights movement was gaining momentum and caused tremendous strife throughout the nation, particularly in…
Thirty years later, the nightmare still existed. West describes his futile attempt to flag a taxi on a September afternoon in New York City. Nine drivers passed him by; the tenth stopped, but only to offer his services to a white woman. The scenario is shocking for several reasons. The first is because of what we know about West from his description of the day's activities to that point. He had traveled to New York City from affluent Princeton. He is obviously a learned man, and one whose expertise in his field is recognized, because he references his university lectures. Ironically, he taught courses in both Afro-American Cultural Studies and European Cultural Studies. West parked his "rather elegant" car in a good neighborhood so that he could take a taxi to Harlem, where presumably his car would not be safe. He was on his way to be photographed for the cover of his book. It is clear that this is not an average man. He is highly intelligent, highly educated and highly accomplished. One assumes, because he was coming from a university lecture, because he was prepared to have his photo taken, and because he was planning an evening out with his wife, that he was well groomed and well-dressed. None of that mattered as he sought a taxi on a New York afternoon -- the cab driver only saw the color of his skin.
The anecdote is shocking not just because of who West is, but where the event occurred. He was not a black man trying to get a taxi in Birmingham or Biloxi in 1963; this was New York City in the 1990s, a sophisticated, racially and culturally diverse metropolis where one might be surprised that such racial prejudice existed. Yet, West experienced it.
In that afternoon, West was reminded of other injustices he and his son had suffered, "ugly racial memories" of things that had occurred in the city of Princeton and en route from New York to the Berkshires, places where one would expect that enlightenment and tolerance would be manifest. The event of the afternoon made West reflect on greater racial injustices, including the beating of Rodney King and the victims of the FBI's COINTELPRO efforts a generation before. West's treatment that afternoon renewed his resolve to "meet the formidable challenges posed by Plato and DuBois." The challenges, as he saw them, were to speak out, educate people and improve their lives, and eradicate white supremacy. As he points out, "it is an everyday matter of life and death." Race matters as long as there is prejudice. Race matters as long as people are dealt with harshly or unfairly because of the color of their skin.
However, the doctrine of "states' rights," also stemming from the Constitution, encouraged the southern states to believe that they could deal with their Negro residents as they chose, as only slavery had been specifically banned. They began imposing more and more restrictive rules on their lack residents. The Ku Klux Klan formed after the federally managed "Reconstruction" ended. The KKK terrorized lacks who violated the views of the local Whites regarding how lacks should behave and conduct themselves.
At the end of the 19th century, in the ruling Plessy vs. Ferguson (p. 133), the Supreme Court ruled that a court ruling could not force equality if one race were inferior to the other, and refused to reverse segregation rules. This ruling justified all sorts of horrific practices, including segregated schools, which were separate but often not equal. Typically these schools did not have libraries, and typically the textbooks were outdated…
PBS, no date. "Dredd Scott case: The Supreme Court Decision, in Judgment Day. Accessed via the Internet 12/1/04. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part4/4h2933.html
Russell, Thomas D.. 2003. "Slavery Under the Constitution," in American Legal History -- Russell. University of Denver College of Law. Accessed via the Internet 12/1/04. http://www.law.du.edu/russell/lh/alh/docs/slaverycon.html
This is just one example of how a group of Americans, based on patterns in their culture, relate to perceptions of race, class and gender in America.
The connection among race, class, and gender in America is not a new subject of research. This subject has been studied for several decades, often coinciding with significant changes or events in American culture. Even with all the research, there is a lack of clarity and consensus as to the precise connection these factors play in perceptions in America and of America.
In their analyses, researchers often present an uncomplicated picture of how individuals perceive social opportunity and mobility. They have not adequately accounted for the fact that individuals simultaneously assume multiple positions in the stratification system and how these positions, sometimes referred to as social identities, may influence their perceptions. Consequently, sociologists have limited understanding of the extent to which individuals' multiple…
Gallagher, Charles a. "Color-Blind Privilege: The Social and Political Functions of Erasing the Color Line in Post Race America." Race, Class, & Gender, Vol. 10, No. 4, 1 -- 17, 2003.
Muntaner, Carles, & Lynch, John. "Income Inequality, Social Cohesion, and Class Relations: A Critique of Wilkinson's Neo-Durkheimian Research Program." International Journal of Health Services, Vol. 29, No. 1, 59 -- 81, 1999.
O'Connor, Carla. "Race, Class, and Gender in America: Narratives of Opportunity Among Low-Income African-American Youths." Sociology of Education, Vol. 72, No. 3, 137 -- 158, 1999.
Weitzer, Ronald & Tuch, Steven, a. "Perceptions of Racial Profiling: Race, Class, and Personal Experience." Criminology, Vol. 40, No. 2, 435 -- 457, 2002.
In ode to get beyond such shallow viewpoints, they need to meely use such diffeences as the stating point fo thei conception of people fom othe ethnicities, and actually get beyond that bing about an impovement in inteacial elations.
As such, it is extemely inteesting to note how sociological concepts of standpoint theoy and systems of pivilege typify many of the esponses that Chistenson had to opinions and statements voiced by othe men in the video. Fo the most pat, Chistenson's esponses eithe contained an element of ignoance o outight disbelief to many of the social baies and misconceptions that the men of colo spoke about. These poclivities of Chistenson can widely be ationalized via standpoint theoy, which poses the notion that people's system of beliefs is geatly affected by the social goup they ae a pat of. Moeove, this theoem places a fai amount of emphasis on hegemony, a…
references within this article, he explains how people tend to follow those who are in authority, and also display the tendency to not desire to deviate from the norm. Doing so within the social context of interracial relations, for instance, would require regarding people with less power and privilege in a manner in which there is social equality -- which is a character trait that is not generally part of human nature, which tends to follow an established tradition. Meyer's article implies that nice people would rather go along and do what everybody else is doing, adhering to any authority figures along the way, that deviate and actually think for themselves and treat people differently as a result. This article denotes all the more reason why it is important to merely use the differences in various ethnic groups as a starting point for the nature of interracial relations.
In summary, there is a plentiful amount of evidence that denotes that there are pronounced differences afforded to people of different social standings. Privilege theory and standpoint theory indicate that these differences can account for the bulk of the way that people view and, ultimately, treat other people. Johnson's first two chapters in his manuscript confirm the degree of privilege afforded to those of historical majority groups in the U.S. Meyers' indicates that people will tend to conform to such unfair treatment of others -- unless they make a conscious decision to only use ethnic differences as a starting point, not ending point, for the basis of treatment between races.
But despite these strides, the negative as well as the positive legacy of sports in American culture cannot be ignored.
About Title IX. (2010). University of Iowa. etrieved September 20, 2010 at http://bailiwick.lib.uiowa.edu/ge/aboutE.html
Douglas, Scott. (2005). unning through Kenya. Slate.com. etrieved September 20, 2010 at http://www.slate.com/id/2117122/entry/2117123/
Gettleman, Elizabeth. (2006, July). eview of William C. hoden's Forty Million Dollar Slaves.
Mother Jones. etrieved September 20, 2010 at http://motherjones.com/media/2006/07/forty-million-dollar-slaves
Johnson, Jenna. (2010). NCAA graduation rates. The Washington Post. etrieved September 20,
2010 at http://voices.washingtonpost.com/campus-overload/2010/03/another_ncaa_bracket_player_gr.html
Lehrer, Jonah. (2010, August 24). How to raise a superstar. Wired Science. etrieved September 20, 2010 at http://www.wired.com/wiredscience/2010/08/how-to-raise-a-superstar/#ixzz107NwUSGh
Lovett, C. (1997). The fight to establish the women's Olympic marathon race. Olympic Marathon, Greenwood Publishing Group, Inc., Westport, CT. etrieved September 21,
2010 at http://www.marathonguide.com/history/olympicmarathons/chapter25.cfm
Williams, Kam. (2006). eview of William C. hoden's Forty Million Dollar Slaves. AALBC.
etrieved September 20, 2010 at http://aalbc.com/reviews/forty_million_dollar_slaves.htm
Witt, Jon. (2006). The…
About Title IX. (2010). University of Iowa. Retrieved September 20, 2010 at http://bailiwick.lib.uiowa.edu/ge/aboutRE.html
Douglas, Scott. (2005). Running through Kenya. Slate.com. Retrieved September 20, 2010 at http://www.slate.com/id/2117122/entry/2117123/
Gettleman, Elizabeth. (2006, July). Review of William C. Rhoden's Forty Million Dollar Slaves.
Mother Jones. Retrieved September 20, 2010 at http://motherjones.com/media/2006/07/forty-million-dollar-slaves
The theme of gende and sexuality is elated to social powe. In Repoducing Empie: Race, Sex, Science, and U.S. Impeialism in Pueto Rico, Biggs shows how ace, class, gende, and powe ae inteelated and inteconnected. Pueto Rican cultue has been sexualized, and the sexualization of Pueto Rico has been lagely o exclusively the pojection of white Anglo-Saxon Potestant values placed upon a dake-skinned, Catholic populace. The esult has been the conceptualization of an exotic otheness, coupled with a simultaneous fea. Pueto Ricans have been citicized as developing a cultue of povety in the United States, and Pueto Rican families ae blamed.
Regading the theme of gende and sexuality and how it is elated to citizenship and immigation, Biggs shows that white Ameicans have pojected the cultue of povety on Pueto Rico by blaming Pueto Ricans, athe than acknowledging the sociological oots of the poblem that can be taced to…
references to the Cold War. However, the main gist is related to the theme of global apartheid.
The strengths of this article in relation to the theme is that it is about global apartheid, linked thematically to other analyses thereof. Moreover, this article has a strong sense of time and place, which is important for a reliable and valid historiography. The weakness of the article is that it is not inclusive of gender issues.
Analyze strengths and weaknesses for essay themes, see above each book.
gender and sexuality how is related to citizenship (violence, abuse, immigration)
2. meaning of citizenship in the U.S. Empire (immigration laws change culture)
The main focus of this essay is going to concern the nurse-patient relationship idea, and why it is important. This was chosen because the researcher desired to achieve a better accepting of how a helpful nurse-patient relationship can be advanced and even from different theorists who have discovered this idea. In this essay, the researcher sets out to demonstrate what they have learnt regarding the nurse-patient relation concept and how this connection can utilized in the clinical practice setting. T The nurse patient connection, according to a study done by Press Gamey Associates Inc., creates the quality of the care experience and generates an influential influence on patient gratification. Nurses will a lot of their time with patients. Patients see nurses' relations with people among the care team and make their own conclusions about the hospital founded on what they are observing. Furthermore, nurses' approaches toward their vocation,…
Berdes, C. & . (2001). Race relations and caregiving relationships: A qualitative examination of perspectives from residents and nurses aides in three nursing homes. Research on Aging, 23(1), 109-126.
Biering, P. (2002). Caring for the involuntarily hospitalized adolescent: The issue of power in the nurse-patient relationship. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing, 16(2), 65-74.
Heijkenskjold, K.B. (2010). The patients dignity from the nurses perspective. Nursing Ethics, 6(3), 313-24.
LaSala, C.A.-B. (2007). The role of the clinical nurse specialist in promoting evidence-based practice and effecting positive patient outcomes. The Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing, 38(6), 262-70.
Not everyone is fond of Italian-Americans. Many believe that anyone with an Italian name must in some way be connected to the Mafia, and thus are leery of personal relationships, fearing some godfather figure lurks in the shadows somewhere. And I have seen Asians be the target of several types of discrimination, from hiring practices to business patronage. There has always been discrimination against African-Americans in some form or another. Today, it is the general belief of many that all African-American youth belong gangs, which is much like the idea that all Italian-Americans are Mafia.
Stereo-typing is common. In fact it could be considered normal, since everyone, no matter the color of their skin or ethnic background, is guilty of it. Each group sees the other as different, the same in many respects, but different nonetheless. My great-grandmother may indeed be rolling in her grave over the fact that my…
City Council: Yonkers, New York. Retrieve July 23, 2005 at http://www.cityofyonkers.com/government2/council.htm
Yonkers New York. Retrieved July 23, 2005 at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yonkers,_New_York
Yonkers1 New York. Retrieved July 23, 2005 at http://www.city-data.com/city/Yonkers-New-York.html
Polygenism, which posits that humans stem from a diversity of races and, therefore, have distinctions, is the converse of monogenism that posits that all of humanity is from one undifferentiated origin.
Whilst it is true that we each have our distinct cultural background and that these cultural backgrounds can be, occasionally, hugely different in values, practices, ways of thinking, opening, beliefs and so forth, monogenism, such as Christianity, nonetheless believes that we descend from one single set of parents i.e. Adam and Eve and have all been created by God. Banton sees 'race as descent' as the differences between races that could have likely occurred through moral (i.e. social / cultural) or physical (i.e. genetic or behavioral) causes. These differences exist. Monogenists believe that men came from the same source and had acquired these differences later due to environmental and correlated changes, whilst polygenists believe that men were different to…
Banton, M. The Idiom of Race in Black, Les & John Solomos, 2009. Theories of Race and Racism, 2nd ed. New York: Routledge.
Jackson, J., Race, Racism, and Science: Social Impact and Interaction, Rutgers University Press, 2005