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With the Northern Territories National Emergency esponse Act of July 2007, the Liberal government of John Howard suspended the acial Discrimination Act of 1975, in violation of international law, and sent in the military to enforce new draconian decrees on Aboriginal Communities. In part, this was a reflection of old fashioned racism and paternalism, which was still commonplace in Australia despite a thin veneer of shallow tolerance and multiculturalism. acism had always existed against native peoples since colonial times, and not only in Australia but in Canada, New Zealand and, worst of all, the United States. Forced assimilation, segregation, and ghettoization had always been part of the pattern, as had the drive to eliminate Indigenous languages and cultures. Of course, physical genocide and outright theft of native lands and resources had also occurred in all these settler states, and only in recent times were Aboriginal peoples acknowledged to…
Jennett, C. 2011. "Internal Colonialism in Australia" in (Eds) Minnerup, G. And P. Solberg, First World, First Nations: Internal Colonialism and Indigenous Self-Determination in Northern Europe and Australia. Billbong, pp. 108-31.
Toohey, P. 2008. "Last Drinks: The Impact of the Northern Territory Intervention." Quarterly Essay, No. 30, pp. 1-97.
Walter, M. 2010. "The Globalization Era and Citizenship Rights for Indigenous Australian Women" in (Eds) Abraham, M. et al., Contours of Citizenship: Women, Diversity and Practices of Citizenship. Ashgate, pp. 95-110.
Racial Discrimination in the orkplace
Until fairly recent times, blacks and other minority groups were denied almost all economic and educational opportunities, including government programs that distributed homestead lands, oil, gas and mineral rights, television and radio licenses, federally-guaranteed mortgages and business loans and airline routes (Feagin 3). Before the 1960s, most blacks and Hispanics held only menial, low-paying jobs and were denied ownership of land and business or access to white colleges and universities (Feagin and McKinney 24). Even today, on the United Nations Human Development Index of education, income and life expectancy, while U.S. whites ranked first in the world, U.S. blacks were 31st (Feagin and McKinney 28). Up to 76% of racial and ethnic minorities in the United States report at least one act of racial discrimination in the workplace over a 12-24-month period. Title VII of the 1964 Civil Rights Act established the Equal Employment Opportunity…
Bruce, Tamara A., "Racial and Ethnic Harassment in the Workplace" in Foegen-Karsten, Margaret (Ed). Gender, Race, and Ethnicity in the Workplace: Issues and Challenges for Today's Organizations. Praeger Publishers, 2006: 22-50.
Craig, Ronald L. Systematic Discrimination in Employment and the Promotion of Ethnic Equality. Brill NV, Leiden, 2007.
Delahunty-Goodman, Jane and William E. Foote. Evaluation for Workplace Discrimination and Harassment. Oxford University Press, 2011.
Feagin, Joe R. Systemic Racism: A Theory of Oppression. Routledge, 2006.
Racial Discrimination: How it Affects the People of South Africa and Its Impact on the Field of Social Work
Racial discrimination has for long been a part of the South African history. It is the country of Apartheid. Apartheid was the official policy of racial segregation implemented legally in South Africa by the ruling National Party governments from 1948 till 1994. Under the apartheid legislation, the rights of the non-white inhabitants were curtailed politically, economically, legally and socially. The white supremacy and African minority rule was in place. This meant that white people were considered superior to people of all other racial backgrounds. And that white people would get superiority having priority housing, jobs, education, and political power. Whites and nonwhites held different jobs, lived in different regions, and were subject to different levels of pay, education, and health care. The non-white population was forced out of their homes and…
Allanson, P., Atkins, J.P., & Hinks, T. (2002). No End to the Racial Wage Hierarchy in South Africa. Review of Development Economics, 442-459.
Burns, J., & Van der Merwe, W.G. (2008). WHAT'S IN A NAME? RACIAL IDENTITY AND ALTRUISM IN POST-APARTHEID SOUTH AFRICA. South African Journal of Econimics, 266-275.
Johnstone, F. (1976). Class, Race, and Gold: A Study of Class Relations and Racial Discrimination in South Africa. University Press of America.
Keswell, M. (n.d.). Education and Racial Inequality in Post Apartheid South Africa. National Planning Commission .
Racial Discrimination in the Context Of the Death Penalty
There is much controversy with regard to topics like racial discrimination and the death penalty in the contemporary society. hen these two come together the matter is even more controversial, taking into account that opponents to both concepts can come together with the purpose of expressing their issues with the idea of racial discrimination cases in relationship with individuals sentenced to death. hen considering that several studies have shown how non-white individuals are more likely to be provided with the death penalty, it appears that the authorities are to a certain degree unable to abandon prejudice when considering race and persons who commit serious crimes.
One of the first cases in the U.S. To raise public awareness concerning the dangers associated with individuals being sentenced to death on account of their skin color is the case of illiam L. Maxwell, a…
Baldus, D.C. (1990). Equal Justice and the Death Penalty: A Legal and Empirical Analysis. UPNE.
Dow, D.R. "Death Penalty, Still Racist and Arbitrary." Retrieved November 9, 2013, from http://www.nytimes.com /2011/07/09/opinion/09dow.html
Flowers, R.B. (1990). Minorities and Criminality. Greenwood Publishing Group.
Gross, S.R. "David Baldus and the Legacy of McCleskey v. Kemp." Retrieved November 9, 2013, from http://www.uiowa.edu/~ilr/issues/ILR_97-6_Gross.pdf
Racial Discrimination and the Death Penalty
The United States Department of Justice Bureau of Justice Statistics reported that at the end of the year 2000 that there was 1,381,892 total number of prisoners under the jurisdiction of federal or state adult correctional authorities (State pp). During 2000, the prison population rose at the lowest rate since 1972 and had the smallest absolute increase since 1980 (State pp). Relative to the number of U.S. residents the rate of incarceration in prisons was 478 sentenced inmates per 100,000 residents, up from 292 in 1990, or one in every 109 men and one in every 1,695 women (State pp). In 1999, there were 3,527 individuals under the sentence of death and 84 executions (State pp).
Donna Coker reports in the June 22, 2003 issue of Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology that for the past several years the official incarceration data has revealed…
Baker, David V. (1993 March 22). Racial prejudice and the death penalty: a research note. Social Justice. Retrieved October 08, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site.
Bienen, Leigh B. (1999 January 01). The Death Penalty in America: Current Controversies.
Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology. Retrieved October 08, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site.
Coker, Donna. (2203 June 22). Foreword: addressing the real world of racial injustice in the criminal justice system. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology. Retrieved October 08, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site.
Modern myth or discrimination
A number of cases can be evidenced where people of color, working class women, white women as well as men of all races who were facing exclusion (segregated) from educational opportunities or jobs, or were barred from accessing further opportunities after they were admitted, have managed to overturn this and got the access through affirmative action. This became a reality after these policies got executive and judicial support that opened the way that otherwise could have never been achieved. Because of these gains, real changes can now be seen.
The ongoing debate on affirmative action tends to be more than legal issues. Finding ways of ending racism will always be a responsibility and a challenge to every individual within a society, not leaving out the organizations and institutions which have got greater impact to our lives. Nevertheless, there still exists vocal minority that is…
Claude M. Steele (1992) "Race and the Schooling of Black Americans "The Atlantic Monthly.
Retrieved September 23, 2012 from http://www.theatlantic.com/past/docs/unbound/flashbks/blacked/steele.htm
Kristin Jenkins (2007) "The Story of Race and the Classification of People: Generative or Not?"
Serendip Studio. Retrieved September 23, 2012 from http://serendip.brynmawr.edu/exchange/node/283
Racial discrimination and prejudice has been a widely used theme in American literature, especially in the twentieth century. Few writers, however, have been able to provoke the reader into experiencing the trauma and distress that racial prejudice causes. The few who have managed to do so have succeeded largely by virtue of their ability to put to good use the techniques of good writing. One such technique is the use of illustrations that help readers visualize clearly the emotions and feelings of sufferers from racial prejudice. Indeed, Staples in his Black Men and Public Space uses exactly this technique to make his point about how racial prejudice can lead to the condemning of innocent African-American citizens.
Interestingly, Staples does not, at any point, try to enter into a discussion about social injustices. Instead, he concentrates on describing his personal experiences of being feared and avoided merely because he was a…
Staples, B. "Black Men and Public Space." The Rinehart Reader. Wyrick, J. ed. Third
Edition. P. 352-355.
A judge's discretion can mean the difference between a young African-American person going to jail and having his or her life irreparably damaged or being placed in a program that might have a chance to save a human being.
While judges cannot be caseworkers, they can look at the circumstances of a young offender's life to make rational and reasoned evaluations of someone's risk to society. This can be demonstrated though the example of a crack addicted mother who passes her habit to her infant. Instead of a mandatory sentence, this individual needs assistance to first overcome her addiction and educational and employment opportunities, so that she can support her child. In addition, mandatory minimum sentencing laws do not offer assistance in situations such as this. They unfairly punish African-American and Hispanic defendants as compared to whites who commit similar crimes. Nowhere is this more evident than in the examination…
Altschuler, D., Armstrong, T. & MacKenzie, D. (1999). Reintegration, Supervised
Release, and Intensive Aftercare. Juvenile Justice Bulletin, Washington, D.C.
Drug Policy Alliance. (2007). Mandatory Minimum Sentences. Retrieved July 23, 2007, at http://www.drugpolicy.org/drugwar/mandatorymin/ .
Dunford, F., Osgood, D. & Weichselbaum, H. (1982) National evaluation of diversion projects: Executive Summary. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office.
Loving v. Virginia - Racial Discrimination
Racial Discrimination: Loving v. Virginia
The issue presented in Loving v. Virginia (1967) was rather national basis was the proper standard of review to use in order to evaluate constitutionality. There were statutes in Virginia that may not have been constitutional under the Equal Protection Clause. Additionally, the Equal Protection Clause should not/does not allow a restriction on the freedom to marry solely based on the race of the individuals who plan to get married. There was laws enacted in Virginia that made it a felony for black and white people to intermarry, and when that took place many took issue with the constitutionality of that law
. The Supreme Court of Appeals of Virginia upheld the law, because it stated that "racial integrity" was important and should be preserved for the citizens of the state. It was also argued that both black and…
Loving v. Virginia. 388 U.S. 1, 87 S. Ct. 1817, 18 L. Ed. 2d 1010, 1967 U.S. 1082. Findlaw. Retrieved from http://caselaw.lp.findlaw.com/scripts/getcase.pl?court=us&vol=388&invol=1 .
Loving v. Virginia 388 U.S. 1, 87 S. Ct. 1817, 18 L. Ed. 2d 1010, 1967 U.S. 1082
CORPORATE RACIAL DISCRIMINATION
This memo is in response to your concern regarding racial discrimination in the corporate world. I have studied the two cases, namely that of Texaco and Denny's. This study has revealed the meaning of corporate racial discrimination, its consequences, the response of the firms that are allegedly practicing it and the methods of fostering corporate diversity.
Understanding Corporate Racial Discrimination
Racial discrimination is referred to any set of actions that discriminate on the basis of race, color, cast or creed. Discrimination usually can takes place against ethnic minorities such as African-Americans, Asian-Americans etc. In the corporate world, racial discrimination can take the form of categorizing employees, customers and suppliers on the basis of their race, cast, color or creed by treating them in a relatively negative way as compared to other races. In dealing with employees, racial discrimination takes the form of receiving low priority…
The Denny's Case Study
Segal, David. "Denny's Serves Up A Sensitive Image. Washington Post: 4/7/99.
Rice, Faye. Denny's Changes Its Spots. Fortune: 1996.
The Texaco Case Study
Does racial discrimination affect us psychologically?
Studies concerning the effects of racial discrimination have become prevalent over the years, with researchers seeking whether there really is a significant relationship between racial discrimination and psychological effects on the individual. This research looks into existing literature about the topic, and posits that indeed, racial discrimination, particularly among African-Americans in the United States, experience not only psychological, but also physical distress due to racial discrimination in the society.
Social and psychological researches on this topic showed that an individual's perceived discrimination by others in terms of race differences results to psychological distress. According to Robert Sellers and Nicole Shelton (2003) in their study, The Role of Racial Identity in Perceived Racial Discrimination, there is a "complex role racial identity plays in the lives of African-Americans." Perhaps the most significant result of the authors' study is the tendency for African-Americans to perceive themselves…
Brown, T. (2001, July). Measuring Self-Perceived Racial and Ethnic Discrimination in Social Surveys. Sociological Spectrum [Online Serial]. Available: EBSCO Item No. 4974783.
Pilkington, A. (1999, September). Racism in schools and ethnic differentials in educational achievement: A brief comment on recent debate. British Journal of Sociology of Education [Online Serial]. Available: EBSCO Item No. 2976973.
Sellers, R. And N. Shelton. (2003, May). The role of racial identity in perceived racial discrimination. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology [Online Serial]. Available: EBSCO Item No. 9837175.
Utsey, S. And J. Ponterotto. (2000). Racial discrimination, coping, life satisfaction, and self-esteem among African-Americans. Journal of Counseling and Development [Online Serial]. Available: EBSCO Item No. 2701511.
Sheriff Jones caused an internal investigation to b conducted.
The investigation found that Smith has not violated any law or policies of the department and further did not violate any rule regarding the use of fire arms. After all these findings disciplinary charges were made against Smith and were awarded with 30 days suspension. After a due process hearing the board which went into the issue concluded that Smith was at fault in the incident and created dangerous situations for himself the public and the victim. The 30 day suspension was upheld by the board. Against all these actions Smith went to Court alleging racial discrimination as the cause of withholding active duty from him.
Prima facie on seeing the facts there are incidences that make us believe that there could have been racial discrimination. The primary fact was that Smith had vision impairment. If so, it was…
Dipboye, Robert L; Colella, Adrienne. (2005) "Discrimination at Work: The Psychological and Organizational Bases" Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Mahwah, NJ.
N.A. (2006) "Burlington Northern and Santa Railway Co. v. White: Certiorari to the United States Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit" Retrieved 26 March, 2009 at http://www.scribd.com/doc/1053019/U.S.-Supreme-Court-05259
N.A. (2009) "Chevron U.S.A. INC. v. Echazabal certiorari to the United States court of appeals for the ninth circuit No. 00-1406. Argued February 27, 2002 -- Decided June 10, 2002" Retrieved 26 March, 2009 at http://caselaw.lp.findlaw.com/cgi-bin/getcase.pl?court=U.S.&navby=case&vol=000&invol=00-1406
N.A. (2009) "Murphy v. United Parcel Service, Inc. certiorari to the United States court of appeals for the tenth circuit No. 97-1992. Argued April 27, 1999 -- Decided June 22, 1999" Retrieved 26 March, 2009 at http://caselaw.lp.findlaw.com/scripts/getcase.pl?court=U.S.&vol=527&invol=516
It seems that the Blacks are not so good on this part, especially when compared to the Whites. Persistence, patience and the will to take action play a major role in finding the right job at the right time. If you do not have this kind of attitude, then employers would really not go after you.
Another big factor affecting unemployment rate is education. Again, comparing the Whites and the Blacks, below are the trends in their educational attainment (Byars, 2002):
85% of Whites, 25 years old or higher, have graduated high school, while there are only 79% from the Blacks
18% of Whites in the same age group are in the "some college, no degree" category while 19.7% of Blacks are in this category
9% of Whites have achieved an associate's degree, as compared to 8% of Blacks
37% of Whites have received any type of college degree, as…
Injustices based on racial discrimination and gender bias in a democratic country sounds weird and hard-to-believe. However, what history has witnessed proves what nobody wants to hear or believe. This analytical research paper addresses grave issues concerning racial discrimination and gender bias pertaining to black vs. white and the related causes for the orld ar II as well as the prejudices that led to the Civil Rights Movement. Thus, the paper revolves around the popular poem "Mending all" by Robert Frost, addressing the issue of the racial conflict between blacks and whites in America. Poems by Langston Hughes will also be incorporated in the paper to better explain the black experiences before the II and Civil Rights Movement. The orks Cited appends seven sources in MLA format.
Among many renowned literary figures that understood the cost that the world is paying for racial prejudices and the rebellious nature…
Robert Frost (1874-1963). Available at http://www.americanpoems.com/poets/robertfrost/ (October 31, 2002)
Frost, "Poetry Of Robert Frost: Five Poems From North Of Boston," Monarch Notes, 01-01-1963
Frost, "Poetry Of Robert Frost: Essay Questions, Criticism," Monarch Notes, 01-01-1963.
America After Slavery: From Lynchings to White Riots." Available at http://www.geocities.com/CollegePark/Classroom/9912/lynchingera.html (October
acial and Ethnic Differences National Contexts
A sociologist analyze racial ethnic differences national contexts. For, U.S., tend race a . In order develop skill, select analyze a society demonstrating ethnic stratification conflict, including evidence prejudice discrimination.
In sociology, the predominant line of thought has favored new prejudice interpretations, arguing for the continuing relevance of prejudice and discrimination in forming political opinions and in generating discrimination. New prejudice theories have argued that modern prejudice is multidimensional, combining racial and ostensibly nonracial beliefs. Little known to most sociologists, recent psychological research provides a new approach to understanding the sources of racial discrimination that compliments ideas from the new prejudice literature (Livingston, 2002).
esearch has demonstrated that implicit racial attitudes exist even for individuals who score low on measures of explicit racial prejudice and that these implicit beliefs influence judgments and perceptions. This literature provides one way to reconcile differences between continuing high…
Brockner, J., & Wiesenfeld, B. (2000). An integrative framework for explaining reactions to decisions: Interactive effects of outcomes and procedures. Psychological Bulletin, 120(1), 189-208.
Census Bureau U.S. (2001). (2001). The Hispanic population: 1990-2000 growth and change., . Washington DC:: Guzmin.
Feather, N.T. (2002). Values and value dilemmas in relation to judgments concerning outcomes of an industrial conflict. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin,, 28(2), 446-459.
Issacharoff, S., Karlan, P.S., & Pildes, R.H. (2002). The law of democracy: Legal structure of the political process (Rev. 2nd ed.). . New York: Foundation Press.
Another form of discrimination that is most evident in this scenario is age discrimination. Age discrimination has had a long history of being under litigated precisely because it is hard to monitor and to positively identify. However, it is a significant problem within the arena of business ethics because age plays a large role in the image of a resort. Managers believe that having young employees instills a sense of modernity to their establishment and therefore recruitment usually occurs for the young rather than the old. This discrimination could be occurring within the baderman island resorts precisely because it is pictured as a destination of relaxation and modernity. Golfing ranges and spas can ill afford to give the image of traditional and old-aged. However, ensuring that age is not a factor within the resort is one of the primary manager ethical concerns. In this case the quota system may not…
.. And place these students disproportionately in low track, remedial programs."
This does not end here; those that belong to a race that makes up a small minority of the total strength of an education are easy targets for open mockery and detraction. Even though, this is a rare happening but when it does happen, it leaves a lifelong effect on the mind of the individual.
However, the educational system is not ignorant of these happenings, and many institutions, or certain teachers in an institution are trying to little by little wipe away a few differences through the wings of similar educational potentials and abilities. I have thrived myself because of this particular adopted environment.
When teachers or educational committees tend to point out the similarities between students of two different races on levels of intellect, ability or intuition, it is then that the barriers of racial discrimination are lifted…
Jeannie Oakes, Amy Stuart Wells, Susan Yonezawa and Karen Ray. Change Agentry and the Quest for equity: Lessons from detracking schools
Racial dynamics and change in educational organization
Discrimination and Prejudice Affects Families
Discrimination is basically defined as the unfair or prejudicial treatment of various kinds of people or things, particularly on the basis of age, race, sex or ethnicity. In contrast, prejudice can be described as a preconceived opinion about a person or a group of people that is not based on experience or research. Discrimination and prejudice occur in various societies as various groups of people are wrong preconceived opinions and unfair treatment that is fueled by various factors. Some of the most common factors that generate discrimination and prejudice include cultural differences, religious differences, socio-economic differences, racial differences, differences in sexual orientation and preferences, and differences in nationality. As a result of its spread, discrimination and prejudice continues to have considerable impacts on families and child rearing practices, which necessitate the development of measures to address it.
How Discrimination Affects Families
Generally, the effect of…
Ambrosino, R., Heffernan, J., Shuttlesworth, G. & Ambrosino, R. (2011). Brooks/Cole
empowerment series: social work and social welfare: an introduction (7th ed.). Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning.
Davies, M. (2008, November). Eradicating Child Poverty: The Role of Key Policy Areas.
Retrieved November 22, 2014, from http://www.jrf.org.uk/sites/files/jrf/2271-poverty-exclusion-discrimination.pdf
discrimination in business. Specifically it will compare and contrast my opinion of the definition of reverse discrimination, and how equal employment laws relate to the equal employment opportunity. everse discrimination is the practice of denying employment to certain races or genders in order to meet hiring quotas or hire to meet racial quotas. It attempts to hire more minorities to help them prosper and grow in business, but many people feel those hiring choices are discriminatory toward others who are not members of that particular race.
All employers confront the challenge of hiring an equal number of women and people of color, as well as white employees, from a pool of qualified applicants. One author notes this is a challenging and complex task. He notes, "Confronting the challenge of equal employment opportunity is a continuing and complex responsibility for all employers" (Gullett, 2000, p. 107). Equal employment opportunity laws were…
Gullett, C.R. (2000). Reverse discrimination and remedial affirmative action in employment: Dealing with the paradox of nondiscrimination. Public Personnel Management, 29(1), 107.
Sander, R.H. (2004). A systemic analysis of affirmative action in American law schools. Stanford Law Review, 57(2), 367+.
This case involved a white woman and a black man who had an encounter in a parking lot and there was controversy if discriminatory action ensued. The two, Hope and Dillon, gave two different versions of the encounter.
At its very core, the conflict in the case is about racial discrimination. Legal advocates and scholars have given various definitions to racism and have focused on disparate impact and differential treatment. Their definitions can be crystallized into differential treatment occurring when individuals are accorded unequal treatment because of their race and disparate impact occurring when individuals are subject to the same treatment based on specific predefined procedures and rules, but where the procedures and rules are structured in favor of one group (Devah Pager & Hana Shepherd, 2008).
Issues to Resolve
Where there is a history of discriminative practices, an exchange like the one between Dillon and Hope is…
acial Identity Development
Which stage best represents your current racial/cultural identity development, using one of the models discussed in class.
Under the acial and Cultural Identity Model, there is focus on five different stages (i.e. conformity, dissonance, resistance / emersion, introspection and integrative awareness). This is also called the Hispanic-American Identity Development Model. The one which best represents my identity is resistance and emersion. This is because it questions standard beliefs and often contributes to challenging these ideas using a number of techniques. The most notable include: questioning why someone should be ashamed for who they are, sociological / psychological forces associated with discrimination, extreme anger at cultural oppression, the rejection of the main ideas from contemporary society and members of the dominant group are viewed with a sense of suspicion.
In this case, I feel that the system will often seek to oppress someone who is challenging standard beliefs.…
Racial / Cultural Identity. (n.d.)
Cripin, C. (2014). Social and Cultural Identity.
acial Profiing Discussion
The events from 2001 marked a crucial point in the history of the United States from the perspective of the casualties and human loss they produce but at the same time from the perspective of the changes these events marked in the American society. Nowadays, the security measures are increased to such an extend that there have been wide debates on the potential abuses that may take place in terms of human rights, privacy issues, as well as personal security.
One of the security measures enforced since September 2001 is the extended control measures and techniques used to prevent any terrorist attacks from taking place on American soil. At the same time though, despite the fact that increased security measures are justified, they also allow controversies over potential abuses. One of the arguments protesting against increased security measures as they are enforced today points out the role…
Cloud, John. "What's Race Got To Do With It?" Time Magazine. 2001. Online edition. Available at http://www.time.com/time/covers/1101010730/cover.html
Taylor, Leslie. "Police condemned for profiling of letter carrier." The StarI 2009. Available at http://www.thestar.com/News/GTA/article/670484
Dept. Of Justice. Fact Sheet: Racial profiling. June 17, 2003. Available online at http://www.justice.gov/opa/pr/2003/June/racial_profiling_fact_sheet.pdf
acial and Ethnic Approaches to Community Health (EACH 2010 Program)
The health objectives for the United States for the 21st century have been described in The Federal Initiative to Eliminate acial and Ethnic Health Disparities and Healthy People 2010. The national interest in the areas of racial and ethnic disparities has been renewed with the public health initiatives with the leadership for the discussion being taken by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention. The overall health of the nation has improved a lot, but the members of the minority groups in the ethnic and racial areas have not been benefited. This includes the African-Americans, Alaska Natives, American Indians, Asian-Americans, Hispanic-Americans and Pacific Islanders.
This segment of our population is more likely to have poor health and premature deaths than the white Americans. During 1992 to 1998, the deaths from breast cancer have come down noticeably, but there are more…
Author Unknown) (n.d) Chronic Diseases, Risk Factors, and Preventive Services, Alabama. Retrieved at http://www.4woman.gov/owh/reg/4/overview.htm. Accessed on 15/10/2003
Author Unknown) (n.d) Health Disparities and Non-insulin Type 2 Diabetes. Retrieved at http://www.medicalnewsservice.com . Accessed on 15/10/2003
Author Unknown) (n.d) HHS Awards more than 65 Million to eliminate health disparities. Retrieved at http://apps.nccd.cdc.gov/BurdenBook/DeathCause.asp?state=alAccessed on 15/10/2003
Author Unknown) (n.d) Overview of Region lV. Retrieved at http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/exemplary/racial.htm . Accessed on 15/10/2003
The novel opens seven years after Gabo's mother, Ximena, was murdered by coyotes -- or paid traffickers -- during an attempt to cross the border. Her mutilated body was found, her organs gone -- sold most likely. Because of the fear surrounding this border town and the lure of the other side, all of the characters become consumed with finding afa. These people are neglected and abused. Like other fiction works on this topic (such as Cisneros's The House on Mango Street), The Guardians (2008) is rich in symbolism and flavored with Mexican aphorisms. The novel also shows the reader how complex and perilous border life is when you're living in between the United States and Mexico.
The book is important when attempting to understand the challenge of the border town life and it is, at the same time, a testament to faith, family bonds, cultural pride, and the human…
Giroux, Henry A. (2001). Theory and resistance in education (Critical studies in education and culture series). Praeger; Rev Exp edition.
San Juan (2002) states that the racism of sex in the U.S. is another element of the unequal political and economic relations that exist between the races in the American democracy. Women of color may even be conceived as constituting "a different kind of racial formation" (2002), although the violence inflicted against them as well as with familial servitude and social inferiority, testifies more sharply to the sedimented structures of class and national oppression embedded in both state and civil society (2002).
San Juan (2002) goes on to explore the articulations between sexuality and nationalism. "What demands scrutiny is more precisely how the categories of patriarchy and ethnonationalism contour the parameters of discourse about citizen identities" (2002). How the idea of nation is sexualized and how sex is nationalized, according to San Juan (2002), are topics that may give clues as to how racial conflicts are circumscribed within the force field of national self-identification.
Sexuality, San Juan (2002) suggests, unlike racial judgment is not a pure self-evident category. He states that it manifests its semantic and ethical potency in the field of racial and gendered politics. In the layering and sedimentation of beliefs about sexual liberty and national belonging in the United States, one will see ambiguities and disjunctions analogous to those between sexuality and freedom as well as the persistence of racist ideology.
Discrimination and Affirmative Action
"Firefighting is a skilled job where all of the skills learned are on the job… It's a really good job, and it's been racially exclusive in most of our major cities…" (John Payton, NAACP) (Liptak, 2009, The New York Times)
orkplace issues that revolve around racial fairness and racial justice typically are highly charged with passion and contentiousness. The now notorious case of the Caucasian firefighters in New Haven, Connecticut -- who sued when they believed they were discriminated against -- is a classic case in point. This paper examines and critiques the many issues surrounding the case the firefighters brought to the U.S. Supreme Court.
The basic background of the case
The city of New Haven, Connecticut made a management decision to base future promotions of its firefighting units on a written test. This was 2003. According to Emily Bazelon (writing in Slate) the city…
American Civil Liberties Union. (2009). Supreme Court Rules Connecticut Firefighters Unfairly
Denied Promotions Because Of Race. Retrieved May 10, 2011, from: http://www.aclu.org .
Bazelon, Emily. (2009). The Sotomayor Mystery: Why didn't she explain herself in this year's big race case? Slate. Retrieved May 10, 2011, from http://www.slate.com .
Liptak, Adam. (2009). Justices to Hear White Firefighters' Bias Claims. The New York Times.
acial and Ethnic elations
Japanese-Americans and European-Americans.
Economical: Initial eaction of Dominant Group.
The Europeans would not allow the Japanese to obtain jobs in their offices, corporations, and hospitals. The Japanese had to open their own businesses in order to survive because they could not find work in the European community. They were allowed to become middle Middlemen Minorities in order to service the European-Americans through smaller businesses. Their communities were well established and thriving. The middlemen theory is described as a group that is polarized within the economic structure of a society by filling a niche market or need within that society (Feagin & Feagin, 2011). The are able to pool resources and skills to supply a product or service in demand by a upper class societal market and a lower income/class market.
B. Political and Economical: Effect over time.
However, after the first wave of Japanese Immigrants, they…
Feagin, J.R. & Feagin, C.B. (2011). Racial and ethnic relations. 9th edition. Pearson.
Many white people were indentured servants. However, as slavery and blackness became increasingly common categories of negative description, the notion of slavery as a black and racial state of being became accepted, and black national identity of country origin was erased. The idea of white as racially non-black is also a relatively recent innovation. Once upon a time, Jews, Irish people, and Chinese people were considered alien, other, and non-white by European society. In the United States, however, although such groups were discriminated against, because of the early history of slavery, whiteness and blackness, free and slave, became the dominant categories within the American framework of thought about race.
Race can thus be transformed by societal change, self-definition, and political struggle, but it cannot be ignored or subsumed under ideas that class, gender, or national origins is what 'really' matters Omni and inant analyze race's intersection with society on macro…
Omi, Michael & Howard Winant. Racial Formation in the United States: From the 1960s to the 1980s. New York: Routledge, 1986/1994.
Discrimination and Affirmative Action
The current study investigates gender discrimination and the relationship between organizational commitment and job satisfaction. Women report through survey questions on how they view gender discrimination against women today, their level of commitment to an organization, and their level of agreement on how satisfied they are in their jobs. The purpose of this study is discussing certain issues that pertain particularly to women, because majority of women's find barriers when moving towards the top.
According to the Federal Glass Ceiling Commission, the definition of glass ceiling refers to "the artificial barriers present in the workplace to the advancement of women and minorities." egardless of achievements, the glass ceiling is an "unseen" barrier that keeps minorities and women from rising to the top of the corporate ladder. The glass ceiling still persists in today's society even though the equity gap between men and women in managerial…
Connerley M.L. & P.B. Pedersen (2005), Leadership in a diverse and multicultural environment: developing awareness, knowledge, and skills, Thousand Oaks, Ca: Sage. Pp. 101-115
Edgar F. & Geare A. (2004), "Employee demographics in human resource management research," Research and practice in human research management, 12(1), 61-91.
Faderman, Lillian, 2005, Surpassing the Love of Men: Romantic Friendship and Love Between Women from the Renaissance to the Present. London: The Women's Press, pp. 167-168
Finnis, John, (2004), "Law, Morality, and 'Sexual Orientation'" Notre Dame Law Review 69: 1049-1076.
Discrimination and Affirmative Action
Title I of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) enforced by the U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) prohibits private and state and local government employers with 15 or more employees from discriminating against individuals on the basis of disability. Title I of the ADA also generally requires covered employers to make reasonable accommodations -- changes in the workplace or in the way things are usually done that provide individuals with disabilities equal employment opportunities." (U.S. Equal Opportunity Commission, 2008) In order to meet the ADA's definition of disability the individual must have a "physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more major life activities; (2) has a record of such an impairment; or (3) is regarded as having such an impairment. This definition of disability may differ from the definition used in other laws. For example, the term "disabled veteran" means an individual…
Chapter 4-1, Equal Employment Opportunity Program (Sept. 12, 2003) U.S. Department of Justice. retrieved from: http://www.justice.gov/jmd/ps/chpt4-1.html
Dunn, CP (1997) The Normative Defense for Affirmative Action. Journal of Management Inquiry. Retrieved from: http://www-rohan.sdsu.edu/faculty/dunnweb/pubs.aa.html
ETERANS WITH SERVICE-CONNECTED DISABILITIES AND THE AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA): A GUIDE FOR EMPLOYERS (2008) U.S. Equal Opportunity Commission. Retrieved from: http://archive.eeoc.gov/facts/veterans-disabilities-employers.ht
NSPECTOR GENERAL INSTRUCTION 1440.1 (2005) SUBJECT: Equal Employment Opportunity Program. Department of Defense. Retrieved from: http://www.dodig.mil/fo/Foia/ERR/IGDINST%201440.1%20IG%20Signed%2011-09-05.pdf
This type of conviction also conveniently disenfranchises the poor of whatever minority from voting if they are convicted felons, and conveniently prohibiting the right to bear arms, or harsher sentencing if they do.
These effects of the initial cause, wage payers using the courts to provide themselves cheap labor, push down on eligible voter rates and election to office as well, which makes sense if election takes expensive campaign expenditure and time off working in order to win. Those with the wealth to take time off work to campaign, and to generate the publicity that translates into higher campaign contributions dominate the highest elected office and participation rates compared to ethnicities with lower median incomes (Barak, Leighton and Flavin 108). The result is that minorities lack the power to change public policy and thus the institutions that represent higher incidence of blacks and Latinos in prisons; lower earnings for everyone…
Barak, G., Leighton, P. And Flavin, J. Class, Race Gender and Crime, 3rd ed. Lanham, Maryland:
Rowman and Littlefield Publishers, Inc., 2010.
It would appear that whites are willing to accept such a commitment only in the cases in which the white woman is coming from an inferior class. (Turner, 1990)
Most people today agree that the act of marriage should only depend on the two individuals that perform it, not considering their race, nationality or any other factor which can falsely influence a decision.
Jane Dabel, "A Superior Colored Man. And a Scotch Woman": Interracial Marriages in New York City, 1850-1870," International Social Science eview 80.3-4 (2005), Questia, 3 Dec. 2008 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5012453403.
Patricia Grimshaw, "Interracial Marriages and Colonial egimes in Victoria and Aotearoa/New Zealand," Frontiers - a Journal of Women's Studies 23.3 (2002), Questia, 3 Dec. 2008 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002526583.
enee D. Turner, "Interracial Couples in the South; Attitudes Are Changing on Once-Illegal Marriages of Blacks to Whites," Ebony June 1990, Questia, 3 Dec. 2008 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000122240.
obert P. McNamara, Maria Tempenis, and Beth…
Robert P. McNamara, Maria Tempenis, and Beth Walton, Crossing the Line Interracial Couples in the South (Westport, CT: Praeger, 1999) 1, Questia, 3 Dec. 2008 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=15354562 .
Ursula M. Brown, the Interracial Experience: Growing Up Black/White Racially Mixed in the United States (Westport, CT: Praeger, 2001) 1, Questia, 3 Dec. 2008 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=101026457 .
Interracial Couples." About.com. 3 December, 2008. http://racerelations.about.com/od/racerelationships/a/interracialcoup.htm
Nearly all of the existing models for financial redistribution available in American politics isolate potential applications on lines of income, while others divide along racial, ethnic, and religious lines to help insure the same standard of living for all of those in need -- adults and families included.
The current situation in America highlights the need to isolate welfare recipients further, by more than just income and instead to also take into account the idea of regional differences that foster not only varied opportunities of employment, but also a wide array of external sources of lifetime substance. Because America is still trying to balance the difference of tax revenues, budget allotments, and other sources of welfare subsidy, it is most important that both social scientists and legislators illuminate the regional discriminations that exist between the urban and rural poor.
Deavers, Kenneth L. "Social Science Contributions to Rural Development Policy in…
ace Discrimination Justice
ACE DISCIMINATION CIMINAL JUSTICE
ace and Discrimination in the Criminal Justice System
acial inequality has long been an issue in the American society. Despite making substantial progress in creating a more racially equal society, there are still many issues involving race and discrimination that can be found today. The criminal justice system was designed to treat all individuals equally under the law. However, covert racism and discrimination still plague the system and many minorities are adversely impacted and are not treated equally under the law. While most judges and public officials profess a strong dedication to remaining racially impartial, the evidence suggests otherwise. This literature review will focus on various points that indicate that there is a substantial amount of inequality to found within the criminal justice system in our modern society.
acial differences in the criminal justice system have been important topics since the…
Crutchfield, R., Fernandes, A., & Martinez, J. (2010). Racil and Ethnic Disparity and Criminal Justice: How Much is Too Much? The Journal of Criminal Law & Criminology, 903-932.
Green, E. (1991). Judicial Attitudes in Sentencing - A Study of the Factors Underlying the Sentencing Practice of the Criminal Court of Philidelphia. National Criminal Justice Reference Service, 157.
Gross, S. (1997). Crime, Politics, and Race. Harvard Journal of Law & Public Policy, 405-416.
Staples, R. (2009). White Power, Black Crime, and Racial Politics. The Black Scholar, 31-41.
History Of Discrimination From Legislation to the Present Day
There are various form of discrimination that have been in existence over the decades, racism is just one of the oldest and most prevailing kind of discrimination. acism is the belief that a race of people is inferior to another. Various practices in the U.S. are seen to be motivated by racism and these include the slave trade where humans are treated as property that is disposable, without any rights and privileges. It was mainly practiced in southern U.S. until the civil war when it was outlawed by the 13th amendment. Job discrimination is also widespread and involves exclusion of people from jobs due to their race which was outlawed on a national level in 1964.segregaton in public places, schools, sports and other places was also in existence but was outlawed in 1964. Denial of voting rights like literacy tests, poll…
NSW Business Chamber.(2012). Vicarious Liability. Retrieved February 12, 2014 from http://www.workplaceinfo.com.au/resources/employment-topics-a-z/vicarious-liability
Naomi, A, L.(2009).Motivational strategies and their impact on productivity. Retrieved February 12,2014 from http://dspace.knust.edu.gh:8080/jspui/bitstream/123456789/4257/1/Aryeetey%20Loretta%20Naomi.pdf
Fair work Ombudsman.(2012).Types of Discrimination. Retrieved February 12, 2014 from http://www.fairwork.gov.au/employment/discrimination/pages/types-of-discrimination.aspx
This suggests that where racial characteristics are invoked during the process of administering criminal justice, it has been done in order to intentionally subject the minority race to some form of unequal treatment based on his or her race.
It is this orientation that produces the sociological condition called disparity, particularly legislated policy acts unwittingly on underlying biases. So is this noted by illiams (2009), who points to the disparities created inadvertently but owing to core racial prejudices. illiams reports that "a common example of a disparity in the criminal justice system is found in sentencing guidelines. In the 1990s the Sentencing Guidelines and Policy Statements of the Sentencing Reform Act of 1984 that applies to all federal offenses committed after November 1, 1987 created many disparities (Mustard, 2001)" (illiams, p. 2) illiams points out that the sentencing guidelines, for instance, called for harsher penalties for those guilty of crack/cocaine…
Banks, C. (2004). Criminal Justice Ethics: Theory And Practice. Sage Publications.
Williams, C. (2009). Disparity Vs. Discrimination in the Criminal Justice System. Associated Content.
esearchers have recently conducted a study of the racial disparity in the military justice system which seems to mirror the results discovered about the criminal justice system. Since the Supreme Court re-instituted the death penalty in 1976, the U.S. military has executed 16 personnel, 10 of whom were minorities. The researchers found that while the system was not inherently discriminatory, individuals within the system were acting in a discriminatory way. Because of this discrimination, there has been a disparity in the numbers of minorities sentenced to death for crimes. According to ichard Dieter, executive director of the Death Penalty Information Center, "Sadly judgments are never made on pure formulas, but are always influenced by the biases, upbringing and cultural histories of the judges and jurors." (D'Almeida, 2011)
Disparity and discrimination are not the same thing, but they are terms that are related to each other. While disparity does occur within…
Banks, Cyndi, (2009). "Criminal Justice Ethics: Theory and Practice." California: Sage
Publications. Retrieved from http://books.google.com/books?id=BFjId1iBmVAC&printsec=frontcover&dq=ethics+and+the+criminal+justice+system+banks&hl=en&ei=ZrBnTrHjOsTn0QHEoKiEDA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCoQ6AEwAA%20//%20v=onepage&q=discrimination&f=false
D'Almeida, Kanya. (1 Sept. 2011). "Study Reveals Racially Biased Death Sentencing in U.S. Military." IPS News. Retrieved from http://ipsnews.net/news.asp?idnews=104962
Judiciary Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism, and Homeland Security." (2009)
Workplace discrimination can be understood as an inappropriate, unjustifiable treatment towards a person or a set of people at the workplace. Such undesirable treatment is based more often on people's race, ethnicity, age, marital status, sex or other describing characteristics (Australian Human Rights Commission, n.d). Workplace discrimination can give the impression of a repudiation of particular civil liberties, neglectful treatment, deliberate undervaluing of an employee's character or work outcomes and attainments. Workplace discrimination is not only done by the employee but by the fellow employees or peers and other superiors as well. Workplace discrimination, although often not as blatant as in previous periods, continues to proliferate across organizations and on a global level. Fittingly regarded as modern discrimination, discriminatory behavior in the present day is time and again categorized by elusive and clandestine behaviors that can edge below regulations and organizational guidelines (Marchiondo et al., 2015).
Types of Discrimination in…
Wards Cove Packing Company vs. Atonio, I do not feel the company hiring practices are discriminatory. When looking at the larger picture, one must realize there is more to running a company than mere canning and preparing salmon, the companies must function year round regardless of being salmon season or not.
It is unfortunate for the cannery workers to only be employed during summer months. However the employees are aware they are hired on a temporary basis. By being only temporary employees the company could indeed pay it's cannery employees more because they are only temporary.
It is very difficult being a Fishing and Gaming business because it is only seasonal. If salmon were in season year round the non-cannery employees would have full time, permanent employment.
If the cannery employees wish to "move up" within the company they must obtain qualifications. The companies themselves could offer to pay for…
March 1st 2003
Affirmative Action Fact sheet
End Racial Pefeences?
Affimative action was an impefect solution to the poblems which iddled an impefect society. Centuies of slavey, subjugation, misogyny and othe issues contibuted to a society whee the playing field in Ameica has been fa less than equal fo an enomous amount of time. This means that women and minoities often have to stuggle and wok twice as had to get ahead and often don't. Affimative action was designed as a means of attempting to level out the playing field, so that these goups could have moe of a fai shot at getting into bette schools and secuing moe desiable jobs. Obama has been quoted as still being a suppote of affimative action as a positive and effective means of discouaging decades of histoic and cuent discimination; howeve, as Obama advises, affimative action has to be moe than a simple quote system and take into consideation the…
Rodriguez, G. (2010, August). Affirmative action's time is up. Retrieved from lastimes.com: http://articles.latimes.com/print/2010/aug/02/opinion/la-oe-rodriguez-whiteanxiety-20100802
Social Discrimination: One of the Major Global Issues of the 21st Century
Over the years, humanity has made a significant stride towards equality for all. This is best understood from a background of the slave trade era where race was the primary determinant of an individual's place and role in the society. After racial discrimination was overcome through activism, primarily in the US, the next global issue, as concerns discrimination, was gender. Women were discriminated in the society as their role was considered to be limited to the home, household chores, and wife responsibilities. However, and through education and technology, gender is no longer the primary global issues in the subject of discrimination, but rather, social discrimination. In the 21st century social standing is the major bass for discrimination against individuals.
Social discrimination would be described as a form of discrimination that is founded on an individual's standing in the…
Under the provisions of Title VII, all employers involved in interstate commerce with more than 15 employees are prohibited from discriminating against their employees on the basis of race, color, religion, sex or national origin. Title VII makes it illegal for employers and labor unions to discriminate in relation to hiring, discharging, compensating, or in providing the terms, the conditions, and privileges of employment.
Actions pursued under Title VII are involved a different course of action from those filed under §1981. §1981 actions can be filed directly in the trial court while Title VII actions must first be filed with the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC). This is an informal process, initially, and requires that the aggrieved party meet with an EEOC counselor. The counselor will advise the party of his or her alternatives which include traditional counseling or alternative dispute resolution. The injured party will make a determination as…
1964 Civil Rights Act. Pub.L. No. 88-352 (1964).
Civil Rights Act of 1886. U.S. Statutes at Large, Vol. 14:27 (1866).
Friedman, J. (2010). Employment Discrimination: Examples & Explanations. Frederick, MD: Aspen Publishers.
U.S. Const. amend. V.
How Racism and Discrimination Affects ‘Civil Rights’ and Student Rights
Racism is the belief that one race is superior to another. It can result in prejudice and discrimination towards people based on their ethnicity and color. Discrimination is the treatment of people in an unfair manner based on their characteristics such as sexual orientation, age, race and gender. Racism is a type of prejudice that most countries fight, do not tolerate and hotly discuss. Countries such as Brazil had once categorized themselves as racial democracies. They allowed people who were racially indifferent to live side-by-side. Such countries are now experiencing the harsh reality of historic and entrenched racism. Some people argue that class and not race is the main cause of social distinction. This is because racism has become illegal officially from forms of overt racism such as abuse on social media and killing of unarmed blacks by police, especially…
Understanding a form of prejudice and discrimination in a black community
Explain how prejudice and discrimination manifests in this community
Research on health and race often invoke discrimination, prejudice, and racism as probable causes for increased levels of mortality and morbidity in the black community. Discrimination and prejudice can impact people's social resources, opportunities, motivation, self-worth, and involvement with the wider society. Besides, the different views on inequality and equality serve as drivers for further prejudice. Therefore, the establishment, promotion, and sustenance of human rights and equality are dependent on understanding how individuals comprehend and apply these ideas in their daily lives (Abrams, 2010).
Early sociological accounts regarding black's higher offending rates focused not on the physical constraints created by racial prejudice but instead on the supposed unique facets of their culture that disrupts conventional behavior while encouraging violence and crime. A few recent structural perceptions openly incorporate racial, physical…
Abrams, D. (2010). Process of Prejudice: Theory, evidence, and intervention. Equality and Human Rights Commission Research Report.
Burt, C. H., Simons, R., & Gibbons, F. (2012). Racial Discrimination, Ethnic-Racial Socialization, and Crime: A Micro-sociological Model of Risk and Resilience. Am Sociol Rev., 648–677.
College Board Advocacy and Policy Center. (2010). The Education Crisis Facing Young Men of Color (Vol. 1, pp. 1-42, Rep.). College Board
Fleming C, Lamont M, and Welburn J. (2012). \\\\"African Americans Respond to Stigmatization: The Meanings and Salience of Confronting, Deflecting Conflict, Educating the Ignorant and \\\\'Managing the Self.\\\\'\\\\" Ethnic and Racial Studies 35(3):400–17.
Gaylord-Harden, N. K. (2009). The Impact of Racial Discrimination and Coping Strategies on Internalizing Symptoms in African American Youth. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 532-43.
Griffin, E., & Armstead, C. (2020). Black\\\\'s Coping Responses to Racial Stress. Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities, 609–618.
Lawson, C. (2016). Racism and Coping Mechanisms within the African American Community. UFDC.
NPR, R. H. (2017). Discrimination in America: Experiencing and views of African Americans.
aker reviewed three landmark Supreme Court decisions on capital punishment and concluded that the death penalty is capriciously imposed on lack defendants and thus serves the extra-legal function of preserving majority group interests. He viewed discrimination in capital sentencing as deliberate and identified the primary reasons why lack defendants with white victims have been denied fairness in capital sentencing. These are prosecutorial discretion in the selective prosecution of capital cases, prosecutorial misuse of peremptory challenges to systematically exclude lacks from juries, judicial overrides by trial judges, prosecutorial misconduct and the ineffective assistance by defense counsel (Emmelman).
Helen Taylor Greene used a colonial model to explore the effectiveness and limitations placed on the police in the past and in the present (Emmelman, 2005). This colonial model showed that the police, regardless of color, were an oppressive force in many communities. Lately, lack political empowerment and ascendancy in many law enforcement departments…
American Law Library (2009). Racial profiling: should police practice racial profiling?
Vol.8, American Encyclopedia: Net Industries. Retrieved on March 29, 2013
Banks, C (2004), Racial Discrimination in the Criminal Justice System. Chapter 3. Sage
Race, Class, and the Immigrant Experience
Jose Angel N.’s “Illegal: Reflections of an Undocumented Immigrant” is a tale of an undocumented migrant whose circumstances typify the influence of the migration policy issue in shaping illegal migrants’ lives. Though the author earns upward economic and social mobility by doggedly pursuing education, his life is characterized by a shaky personal and legal limbo which serves to eclipse his occupational and academic successes. This stance definitely doesn’t convince all audiences of the need for a more empathetic immigration policy. In the end, the book might best function as a fine accompaniment to other undocumented migrant-related researches and literature for scholarly audiences (Emily 470). American migrant experiences are closely associated with individual migrants’ nationalities, socioeconomic standing and race. The writer bravely tackles a few stereotypes specific to Mexican migrants, in a candid and personal manner. Migrant stereotypes have remained a grave issue, whether…
Global Awareness and Cultural and Racial Diversity
The need to successfully promote global awareness and cultural and racial diversity took on a completely new meaning recently. "There are over six billion people on this planet we call Earth. Diversity is more than just a notion. The term diversity has been defined by Merriam-ebster online as meaning 'differing from one another or unlike. Composed of distinct or unlike elements or qualities', this word is also used to simply mean different." (Burns) By Barak Obama becoming the nation's first black president, we have forever changed the nation's future; but in a sense, this momentous election will also alter how we will forever look at our nations past history. For more than two hundred years, the United States of America was traditionally managed by older white guys and by them being in charge, the world's thinking was shaped. The expectations of every…
Works Cited, continued
Schniedewind, Nancy. "There Ain't No White People Here!": The Transforming Impact of Teachers' Racial Consciousness on Students and Schools. Equity & Excellence in Education. 2005, 38: 280 -- 289.
sexual discrimination in the work place based on a case study and then suggest solutions for such a scenario. The case on which the whole report will be based is a suit filed by the U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission on behalf of Marla Sexson, a former admissions dean of Newman University. The charge against the college administration is that the university did not promote her when her female supervisor resigned because the Newman president, Aidan Dunleavy, wanted to change her with a man. When Sexson lodged complain against the unfair treatment meted out to her, University retaliated with bad behavior by changing her duties and job title. This demotion from her earlier position totally disheartened Sexson and finally she had to resign. According to the news reports there have been attempts to resolve the issue without a lawsuit but such efforts did not come to fruition. A lawsuit is…
Cohn, S. (2000). Race and Gender Discrimination at Work. Westview Press
Colella, A., Dipboye, R. (2005). Discrimination at Work: The Psychological and Organizational Bases. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates
Dwyer, K. (2005). Taking Action Against Discrimination. New York Times October 02.. Retrieved on October 5, 2005 from:
In 1968 the Federal Government enacted the Fair Housing Act which, among other things, made it illegal to discriminate in regards to the sale or rental of property, against any persons because of race, religion, sex, national origin, or family status. ("Fair Housing Act") In subsequent years this law has been amended to clarify exactly who falls into protected classes when it comes to discrimination. ("Laws Against Housing Discrimination") In a scenario where Sally Gant, an African-American single mother, claimed she was discriminated against by Mark Armstrong, owner of a rental property, because of her race, it seems that the Fair Housing Act of 1968 may have been violated. However, a closer look at the facts reveals that her claim of racial discrimination may be difficult, but not impossible, to prove.
When the Fair Housing Act was enacted many attempted to claim that this law only applied to…
Arlington heights v MHDC., 429 U.S. 252 (1977). Retrieved from http://caselaw.lp.findlaw.com/scripts/getcase.pl?court=U.S.&vol=429&invol=252
Barkley, Daniel. "Affordable Housing and Community Development Law."
American Bar Association. Retrieved from http://www.americanbar.org/newsletter/publications/gp_solo_magazine
S. further supporting exclusion of targeted populations.
During this time frame many states passed laws that prohibited certain nationalities from owning land in that state or any other real property as well.
The 14th amendment which provides equal protection under the law was used to begin chipping away at the exclusionary policies, not only for Asians but for African-Americans.
The relationship between Chinese exclusion and the revolutionary improvements for African-Americans during econstruction often goes ignored, even though pre-Civil War state laws regulating the migration of slaves served as precursors to the Chinese exclusion laws. It was no coincidence that greater legal freedoms for African-Americans were tied to Chinese misfortunes. As one historian observed, "with Negro slavery a dead issue after 1865, greater attention was focused on immigration from China." Political forces quickly reacted to fill the racial void in the political arena (Johnson, 1998 pp 1112-1148)."
As racial exclusionary laws…
Chinese Exclusion Act (Accessed 5-20-07)
Davis, Ronald Ph.D. Creating Jim Crow: In-Depth Essay (Accessed 5-20-07)
Namely, the institutions of
slavery and Jim Crow that were used to constrain the growth and advancement
of African Americans are today disregarded as being directly relevant to
the fortunes and opportunities of blacks in America. This is both
unrealistic and unethical, with the denial of its lasting impact casting
American racism in an historical light rather than one which is still
present and problematic. It is thus that the social contract today serves
the interests of dominance even as it feigns to have disavowed these
aspects of itself.
A true resolution to the failures of the social contract may only
really occur when the discourse on America's racialist past and the lasting
effects of this on the current fortunes of African Americans is resolved.
In that regard, Mills regards it as largely a fiction that racial
discrimination ended in any meaningful way after the Emancipation
Proclamation; rather, racial prejudice…
Mills, C.W. (2000). Race and the Social Contract Tradition. Social
Freire's discussion of the oppressive activities that discriminate students is similar to the racial discrimination experienced by the black Americans. Thus, even though Freire, Malcolm X, and King talked about various strategies, they ultimately aim to deter the effects and eliminate completely the occurrence of oppression in the society.
Reflecting on the significant contributions of each individual to the progress of the civil rights movement and educational reform in the history of American society, it is evident that there cannot be one superior or best strategy that must be adopted to eliminate or deter oppression. What these readings and analyses of the works of Malcolm X, King, and Freire say about social change is that history provides us with various ways or perspectives to find a solution to a problem; each insight is helpful to the improvement of social changes in society. Freire's critical analysis of the educational system is…
Freire, P. (1990). "The Banking Concept of Education." In Ways of Reading. Boston: St. Martin's Press, Inc.
King, M.L. (1964). "Martin Luther King -- Acceptance Speech." Available at http://nobelprize.org/peace/laureates/1964/king-acceptance.html .
Malcolm X (1964). "The Ballot or the Bullet." Available at http://www.indiana.edu/~rterrill/Text-BorB.html .
Managing Conflict in the Workplace
In every organization, a conflict exists, which indicates that the organization has a healthy exchange of ideas and creativity. Nevertheless, conflicts that are counter-productive result in employee dissatisfaction, poor service to clients, increased employee turnover, reduced productivity, absenteeism, increased work-related stress or litigation based on harassment claims or a hostile work environment. For instance, Coca-Cola was sued for racial discrimination, which was under the U.S. Civil ights Act in April 1999 by four former and current African-American workers in the U.S. The claims of the appellants were that they suffered discrimination in promotions, pay, and performance evaluations, and they were able to provide statistics to support their claim. It also showed their average salary, which was one-third less than what their counterparts, the whites, in the company received. The advancement of African-Americans to senior levels in the company showed the great heights of discrimination the…
Aritzeta, A., Ayestaran, S. & Swailes, S. (2005). Team Role Preference and Conflict Management Styles. The International Journal of Conflict Management, 16 (2):157-182
Desivilya, H. & Eizen, D. (2005). Conflict Management in Work Teams: The Role of Social Self-Efficacy and Group Identification. The International Journal of Conflict Management, 16(2): 183-208.
Holsendolph, E. (1999). Once Again, Carl Were Takes On An Assignment, A Big One. The Atlanta Journal And Constitution.
Huan, L. & Yazdanifard, R. (2012). The Difference of Conflict Management Styles and Conflict Resolution in Workplace. Business & Entrepreneurship Journal, 1(1): 141-155.
Differences in opinions between various study groups are expected to become apparent. These differences will help to determine the amount of bias present in opinions regarding housing discrimination among non-Irish nationals. Interpretation of these hypotheses will depend on the consistencies in opinion found between various groups.
The hypotheses will help to determine if the opinions of various groups in Dublin are biased. However, in order to gain a deeper understanding of the concepts being examined, the following research questions will also be explored, in addition to the hypotheses. These research questions will be addressed through specific sets of survey questions.
1. Are there differences in opinion regarding the quality of housing between Irish and non-Irish nationals living in Dublin?
2. Are non-Irish nationals well educated, at least as much as the Irish national population in Ireland?
3. Do non-Irish nationals deserve to become home owners, as much as…
Broman, C. (2002). Perceived discrimination and alcohol use among black and white college students. American Sociological Association. August 2002. Retrieved April 11, 2009
Central Statistics Office (CSO). (2008). Census 2006. Non-Irish National Living in Ireland. June 2008. Retrieved April 11, 2009 from http://www.cso.ie/census/..%5Ccensus%5Cdocuments%5CNON%20IRISH%20NATON
racial gender constituency a fact-finding committee major American party choice: My choice marked astrids. This paper introduction conclusion. •******Outside consultant hired party advise inclusive*****
To ensure there is equality in society, the party should ensure that encompasses women in its agenda. The role of women in society cannot be overlooked, and any American party should include them when discussing society matters. Women play an important role and addressing their issues together with other issues is vital for the party's success. Having women in the party's leadership will also ensure that the women agenda is addressed and women will feel represented. Considering the constituency has more women than men, it is vital that the party attracts them to its side. This will not only ensure victory to the party, but will ensure that the party is more inclusive and sensitive to women affairs. Encouraging women to participate within the party affairs…
Keremidchieva, Z. (2012). Legislative Reform, the Congressional Caucus for Women's Issues, and the Crisis of Women's Political Representation. [Article]. Women & Language, 35(1), 13-38.
Sedgh, G., Bankole, A., Singh, S., & Eilers, M. (2012). Legal Abortion Levels and Trends By Woman's Age at Termination. [Article]. International Perspectives on Sexual & Reproductive Health, 38(3), 143-153. doi: 10.1363/3814312
Women: Still Number Two But Trying Harder. (1975). [Article]. Time, 105(22), 48.
As healthcare legislation continues to be debated in the House and Senate, I would like to express my support for the continuation of one, significant policy that was instituted under the Affordable Care Act (ACA), namely the idea that young people under the age of 26 should be permitted to remain on their family's health insurance policies. The current generation of young people is graduating with more college debt than ever before and many new graduates are forced to take jobs that do not offer full benefits. The rise of freelance employment also means that many young persons may be forced to forgo jobs with health insurance.
Buying independent insurance is a significant cost, even though ensuring that young and healthy people are in the health insurance risk pool is necessary to keep overall healthcare costs low. Preventative early care can also reduce the need for more costly…
Fiction of ace
ace: The cultural power of the fiction of race
A recent PBS documentary was titled ace: The power of an illusion. This underlines what constitutes race -- race is a fiction, created by the faulty observational perceptions of human beings, and the history of human culture. ace is not a scientific reality. Because we can see color (and hair texture, facial shapes, and other characteristics) we perceive something we call race. But our scientific knowledge tells us that race does not exist. This is not to deny that race is a very powerful fiction that has influenced human history. The idea of racial categories proved to be deadly and destructive to the lives and the cultures of indigenous peoples. It was used to validate slavery, genocide, colonialism, and exploitation. But race is not 'real,' any more than the idea of 'carrying the white man's burden' was…
Duster, Troy. (2005). Race and reification in science. Science, 307 (5712). 1050-1051.
Garcia, Richard. (2003). The misuse of race in medical diagnosis. The Chronicle of Higher
Unintentional discrimination occurs when a company's policies uncritically reflect prejudicial stereotypes yet do not involve overt racial prejudices of its managers or executives. Does legislation to verify voter identification fall under the domain of unintentional or intentional discrimination? Explain your views.
The voter verification effects that are currently being proposed, predominately in Conservative lead states, are both unintentional and intentional discrimination. They are unintentional in their best case given that legislators have reasonable assumptions to make the passage of these verification requirements mandatory for all potential voters. Some analysts believe that voter fraud is a real threat to the political system. Although there have only been a handful of voter fraud cases ever prosecuted in the United States, there might be a seemingly legitimate argument to support voter identification initiatives. For example, J. Christian Adams, an election lawyer in Alexandria, Va., and advocate for voter-ID laws who…
Bialik, C. (2012, September 1). Counting Voter Fraud. Retrieved from The Wall Street Journal: http://blogs.wsj.com/numbersguy/counting-voter-fraud-1165/
Demby, G. (2012, August 16). Pennsylvania Voter ID Law: Mike Turzai Repeats Debunked Myth About Election Fraud. Retrieved from Huffington Post: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/08/16/pennsylvania-voter-id-law_n_1790844.html
Plunder, J. (2012, August 19). Ohio Republicans finally admit limited hours intended to suppress black voters. Retrieved from Plunderbund: http://www.plunderbund.com/2012/08/19/ohio-republicans-finally-admit-limited-hours-intended-to-suppress-black-voters/
Employment Discrimination esearch Project
Employment Discrimination in the United States
What I already knew/What I wanted to know
The Federal Employment Opportunity (EEO) laws were established, during the civil rights movement, to protect employees from discrimination. According to Title VII of the Civil ights Act, employment discrimination because of race, color, religion, gender, and national origin is illegal. The Equal Pay Act protects workers against sex bias and salary discrimination. In addition, there are laws which protect people with disabilities, and employees over 40 years old from discrimination; such as, The Age Discrimination in Employment Act, the ehabilitation Act, and the Americans with Disabilities Act. Discrimination against people on the basis of their genetic information is also illegal. The Civil ights Act of 1991 allows employees who are intentionally discriminated against to receive monetary damages (U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, 2009).
In my opinion, the government has made significant…
(Biskupic J. 2011330)Biskupic, J. (2011, 3/30) retrieved April 22, 2011, from http://www.usatoday.com/money/workplace/2011-03-29-supreme-court-wal-mart_N.htm
(Donohue P. Marzulli J. 2010929)Donohue, P., & Marzulli, J. (2010, September 29). Retrieved April 22, 2011, from http://www.nydailynews.com/ny_local/2010/09/29/2010-09-29_transit_workers_headgear_suit_gets_judges_nod.html
(Fieler A 20091103 Baltimore Jewish Times) Fieler, A. (2009, November 3). Baltimore Jewish Times. Retrieved April 22, 2011, from http://www.jewishtimes.com/index.php/jewishtimes/news/jt/local_news/brothers_allege_workplace_anti-semitism/15407
(Hardin M. 2010 EEOC sues Brown Palace Hotel) Hardin, M. (2010). EEOC sues Brown Palace Hotel. Retrieved April 25, 2011, from http://www.bizjournals.com/denver/stories/2010/07/19/daily39.html
Racial Profiling: An Overview of the Debate
According to the National Institute of Justice (NIJ), racial profiling is one of the most controversial issues in America today. The data is clear that there is a stronger perception within many historically discriminated-against minority groups that profiling goes on and this has had a negative impact on community-police relations. Although data suggests that often members of minority groups perceive themselves as singled out by the police the NIJ also reports that satisfaction with the police is often more strongly correlated with neighborhood crime rates than race ("Race, Trust and Police Legitimacy"). The evidence is ambiguous regarding the extent to which racial profiling actually takes place. Some police supporters contend that higher rates of searches of minority suspects are likely to be due to a confluence of factors, including crime rates within specific neighborhoods, while critics point out that even minorities who are…
Natarajan, Ranjana. "Racial profiling has destroyed public trust in police. Cops are exploiting our weak laws against it." The Washington Post. 15 Dec 2014. 4 Dec 2016. Web.
"Racial Profiling and Traffic Stops." NIJ. 10 Jan 2013. 4 Dec 2016. Web.
"Race, Trust and Police Legitimacy." NIJ. 17 Jul 2016. 4 Dec 2016. Web.
Restoring a National Consensus: The Need to End Racial Profiling in America. The Leadership
Disparity and Discrimination in the Criminal Justice System
Discrimination in the justice system is the dissimilarity based on the difference in treatment given to people regardless of their qualifications or behavior. The criminal justice system has different forms of discrimination including pure justice, contextual discrimination, institutionalized discrimination, and systematic discrimination. Every stage of the criminal justice system experiences systematic discrimination. Further, this form of discrimination occurs without variation in all corners of the world. This implies that systematic discrimination happens when a certain gender, ethnic, age or race group encounters discrimination in different parts of the world. Critics are of the opinion systematic discrimination does not exist while other believes that it exists when groups of people encounter consistent discrimination in the criminal justice system (obinson & Williams, 2009).
Institutionalized discrimination is associated with disparities in the results and not in the policies. Institutionalized discrimination is based on the aspect…
Mustard, B. (2009). Racial, ethnic, and gender disparities in sentencing: Evidence from the U.S.
Federal Courts. New York: Springer.
Robinson, M. & Williams, M. (2009). The myth of a fair criminal justice system. South Carolina:
Edward Elgar Publishing.