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Community Health Nursing
One of the most important aspects of healthcare today is prevention. Some of the many preventable diseases within the American population today include diabetes and kidney disease. Often, a key to such prevention is medical screening and education. One major challenge medical professionals today are facing is the growing incidence of kidney disease, not only in the general population, but especially among Hispanics. This population is one of the fastest-growing racial groups in the country (Banabe and ios, 2004). This group is also twice as likely to develop kidney failure as those who are non-Hispanic and white. For a community nurse, this is of particular concern, especially in terms of strategies to help this population prevent the prevalence of kidney failure and its causes.
The disease is among this population is of particular interest, since the researcher has worked with this population for some time. Several questions…
Benabe, J.E. And Rios, E.V. (2004, Jun.). Kidney disease in the Hispanic Population: facing the growing challenge. Journal of the National Medical Association, 96(6). Retrieved from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2568348/
DaVita Healthcare (2014). Risks for CKD in Hispanic-Americans. Retrieved from: http://www.davita.com/education/article.cfm?educationMainFolder=causes-of-kidney-disease&category=assessing-your-risk&articleTitle=risks-for-ckd-in -- hispanic-americans&articleID=5009
Health Program Bronx
Racial Disparities in the Healthcare System
America's healthcare system is one of the most visible indicators of the broad array of social, economic and racial inequalities that still impact American life. For racial minorities such as African-Americans and Latinos, health outcomes are disproportionately worse than they are for white patients. This denotes a core inequality that goes to the root of our society. Outreach, education and advocacy programs such as the one described here in relation to minority populations living in the Bronx helps to provide a valuable case demonstration of this public health issue.
The pressing racial issues that are evidenced in our imbalanced healthcare system serve as the impetus for the agenda and actions taken up by the REACH Bronx organization. This action-group is actually described as a coalition of groups and demonstrates the considerable push from a wide variance of parties to…
Calman, N. (2005). Making Health Equality a Reality: The Bronx Takes Action. Health Affairs, 24(2).
Institute for Family Health (2011). Bronx Health REACH -- Making Health Equity a www.institute2000.org/bhr/.
National Cancer Institute (2009). How to Evaluate Health Information on the Internet: Questions and Answers. Cancer.gov.
U.S. Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. (2011). Health Literacy Online: A Guide to Writing and Designing Easy-to-Use Health Web Sites. www.health.gov/
This type of conviction also conveniently disenfranchises the poor of whatever minority from voting if they are convicted felons, and conveniently prohibiting the right to bear arms, or harsher sentencing if they do.
These effects of the initial cause, wage payers using the courts to provide themselves cheap labor, push down on eligible voter rates and election to office as well, which makes sense if election takes expensive campaign expenditure and time off working in order to win. Those with the wealth to take time off work to campaign, and to generate the publicity that translates into higher campaign contributions dominate the highest elected office and participation rates compared to ethnicities with lower median incomes (Barak, Leighton and Flavin 108). The result is that minorities lack the power to change public policy and thus the institutions that represent higher incidence of blacks and Latinos in prisons; lower earnings for everyone…
Barak, G., Leighton, P. And Flavin, J. Class, Race Gender and Crime, 3rd ed. Lanham, Maryland:
Rowman and Littlefield Publishers, Inc., 2010.
incarceration in the United States exhibits extreme racial disparity. There are significantly more African-Americans in the prison system than there are in the general population in fact, almost 50% of those incarcerated at any given time are black men and yet the U.S. population is comprised of only 12% African-Americans. (Clear & Cole 2002, Chapter 19) Cole and Clear give three main explanations for this disparity, differential criminality among minorities, racist criminal justice system and lastly a racist general population. (Clear & Cole 2002, Chapter 19) Within all three of these arguments there is some limited validity, yet it is also clear that there is still problem in need of serious address. acial disparity within prison and corrections in general is the most serious issue facing the corrections industry today.
The effects of racial disparity in incarceration reach much farther than the effects inside the social and economic structure of…
Clear, T. & Cole, G. (2002) American Corrections: Sixth Edition, New York, NY:
Coker, D. (2003). Foreword: Addressing the Real World of Racial Injustice in the Criminal Justice System. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 93(4), 827+. Retrieved November 14, 2004, from Questia database, http://www.questia.com .
Knepper, P. (2000). Chapter 2 the Alchemy of Race and Crime Research. In The System in Black and White: Exploring the Connections between Race, Crime, and Justice, Markowitz, M.W. & Jones-Brown, D.D. (Eds.) (pp. 15-27). Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers.
Disparity and Discrimination in the Criminal Justice System
Discrimination in the justice system is the dissimilarity based on the difference in treatment given to people regardless of their qualifications or behavior. The criminal justice system has different forms of discrimination including pure justice, contextual discrimination, institutionalized discrimination, and systematic discrimination. Every stage of the criminal justice system experiences systematic discrimination. Further, this form of discrimination occurs without variation in all corners of the world. This implies that systematic discrimination happens when a certain gender, ethnic, age or race group encounters discrimination in different parts of the world. Critics are of the opinion systematic discrimination does not exist while other believes that it exists when groups of people encounter consistent discrimination in the criminal justice system (obinson & Williams, 2009).
Institutionalized discrimination is associated with disparities in the results and not in the policies. Institutionalized discrimination is based on the aspect…
Mustard, B. (2009). Racial, ethnic, and gender disparities in sentencing: Evidence from the U.S.
Federal Courts. New York: Springer.
Robinson, M. & Williams, M. (2009). The myth of a fair criminal justice system. South Carolina:
Edward Elgar Publishing.
Disparity and Discrimination
The history of criminal justice and race.
The racial makeup of the criminal justice system.
The misunderstanding between discrimination and disparity.
How disparity and discrimination are addressed in the criminal justice system.
The difference between discrimination and disparity.
scholarly articles - each addressing an aspect of criminal justice.
How race and disparity are seen in the criminal justice system.
How race and discrimination are seen in the criminal justice system.
The treatment of criminals regardless of race.
An examination of the information collected from the articles.
Information regarding what the information means to the criminal justice system.
How to help the criminal justice system deal with race appropriately.
How discrimination can be avoided in favor of naturally-occurring disparity.
The future of discrimination and disparity in the criminal justice system.
What can be done to improve race relations when it comes to criminal justice.
Binswanger, I.A., Redmond, N., Steiner, J.F., & Hicks, L.S. 2011. Health disparities and the criminal justice system: An agenda for further research and action. Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine, 1-10.
Crutchfield, R.D., Skinner, M.L., Haggerty, K.P., McGlynn, A., & Catalano, R.F. 2009. Racial disparities in early criminal justice involvement. Race and Social Problems, 1(4): 218-230.
Davis, A.J. 2008. Racial fairness in the criminal justice system: The role of the prosecutor. 39 Columbia Journal of Human Rights Law Review 202: 202-230.
Garland, B.E., Spohn, C., & Wodahl, E.J. 2008. Racial disproportionality in the American prison population: Using the Blumstein Method to address the critical race and justice issues of the 21st century. Justice Policy Journal, 5(2). 1-42. Retrieved from http://www.cjcj.org/files/racial_disproportionality.pdf
Disparities on the Sentencing of Convicted Children:
The recent sentencing of convicted children and the high-contrast prosecution of the cases by the states is a demonstration of how broken the United States juvenile justice system has become in the recent past. Even though the state-to-state variations of the juvenile justice system have been in existence since the system was developed in 1899, the current disparities are so wide to an extent that they have raised concerns regarding fairness. These concerns have particularly been raised because of the various examples of discrepancies on the sentencing of convicted children across the states. For instance, a juvenile convicted for stabbing a boy to death in Massachusetts could be sentenced to seven years in juvenile jail while a juvenile convicted of causing the death of a girl in Florida can be sentenced to life without parole in an adult prison. These two cases of…
Axtman, K. (2001, February 8). Kid on Trial: 'Justice by Geography.' Retrieved November
3, 2012, from http://www.csmonitor.com/2001/0208/p1s3.html
"Sentencing Disparity and Discrimination." (n.d.). Chapter Four. Retrieved November 3, 2012,
This suggests that where racial characteristics are invoked during the process of administering criminal justice, it has been done in order to intentionally subject the minority race to some form of unequal treatment based on his or her race.
It is this orientation that produces the sociological condition called disparity, particularly legislated policy acts unwittingly on underlying biases. So is this noted by illiams (2009), who points to the disparities created inadvertently but owing to core racial prejudices. illiams reports that "a common example of a disparity in the criminal justice system is found in sentencing guidelines. In the 1990s the Sentencing Guidelines and Policy Statements of the Sentencing Reform Act of 1984 that applies to all federal offenses committed after November 1, 1987 created many disparities (Mustard, 2001)" (illiams, p. 2) illiams points out that the sentencing guidelines, for instance, called for harsher penalties for those guilty of crack/cocaine…
Banks, C. (2004). Criminal Justice Ethics: Theory And Practice. Sage Publications.
Williams, C. (2009). Disparity Vs. Discrimination in the Criminal Justice System. Associated Content.
esearchers have recently conducted a study of the racial disparity in the military justice system which seems to mirror the results discovered about the criminal justice system. Since the Supreme Court re-instituted the death penalty in 1976, the U.S. military has executed 16 personnel, 10 of whom were minorities. The researchers found that while the system was not inherently discriminatory, individuals within the system were acting in a discriminatory way. Because of this discrimination, there has been a disparity in the numbers of minorities sentenced to death for crimes. According to ichard Dieter, executive director of the Death Penalty Information Center, "Sadly judgments are never made on pure formulas, but are always influenced by the biases, upbringing and cultural histories of the judges and jurors." (D'Almeida, 2011)
Disparity and discrimination are not the same thing, but they are terms that are related to each other. While disparity does occur within…
Banks, Cyndi, (2009). "Criminal Justice Ethics: Theory and Practice." California: Sage
Publications. Retrieved from http://books.google.com/books?id=BFjId1iBmVAC&printsec=frontcover&dq=ethics+and+the+criminal+justice+system+banks&hl=en&ei=ZrBnTrHjOsTn0QHEoKiEDA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCoQ6AEwAA%20//%20v=onepage&q=discrimination&f=false
D'Almeida, Kanya. (1 Sept. 2011). "Study Reveals Racially Biased Death Sentencing in U.S. Military." IPS News. Retrieved from http://ipsnews.net/news.asp?idnews=104962
Judiciary Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism, and Homeland Security." (2009)
Disparities and Diabetes among Latinos
The whole world is experiencing diabetes-related health disparities, co-morbidities and its complications. There is a wide range of literature available showing that ethnic and race minorities are at a greater risk of developing diabetes compared to the majority groups. The disparities are a result of a combination of factors; they are both clinical and biological. They are also strongly associated with the system of health and factors related to social dynamics. The term ethnicity is a complex one. It reflects a convergence of multi-dimensional factors ranging from biological ones to geographically-influenced contributors. Other strong influencers include political, economic cultural, legal and social factors, including racism. Thus, it is important to understand the idea of racism and ethnicity if one is to figure out the full stretch and effect of disparities in healthcare and health, generally (Spanakis & Golden, 2013).
The USA has a large Latino…
Forensic Social Work: Discussion 9
Discuss whether or not the Juvenile Justice System is a racial justice issue.
It is important to note, from the onset, that according to Robles-Ramamurthy and Watson (2019), there are various research studies that have been conducted in the past in an attempt to assess the extent of racial disparities in the juvenile justice system. As the authors further point out, there are many who have also “raised concerns about the differential treatment and selection of youth based on race” (117). There is no doubt whatsoever that when racial representation in the juvenile justice system is disproportionate, concerns about equality of treatment as well as fundamental fairness are bound to be raised. At present, the juvenile justice system has major disparities in as far as minority youth involvement versus white youth involvement is concerned.
It should be noted that as the National Research Council and…
National Research Council and Institute of Medicine (2001). Juvenile Crime, Juvenile Justice. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.
National Conference of State Legislatures – NCSL (2020). Racial and Ethnic Disparities in the Juvenile Justice System. Retrieved from https://www.ncsl.org/research/civil-and-criminal-justice/racial-and-ethnic-disparities-in-the-juvenile-justice-system.aspx
National Juvenile Justice Network (2020). Reducing Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Juvenile Justice Systems: Promising Practices. Retrieved from http://www.njjn.org/our-work/reducing-racial-and-ethnic-disparities-in-juvenile-justice-systems-promising-practice s
Robles-Ramamurthy, B. & Watson, C. (2019). Examining Racial Disparities in Juvenile Justice. The Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law, 48(3), 115-125.
Justice Blackmun was largely correct in his statement that "To get beyond racism we must first take account of race. There is no other way." In fact, such a statement has particular relevance in an election year (which is what 2016 is). Unfortunately, in the United States, race still has long-term effects on a person's life, which is why race must be accounted for before racism is ended.
One of the primary ways that race has long-term effects on someone's life in America pertains to issues of health and certain socio-economic realities. A good example of this fact is found in Fuentes' article (2012) when the author writes that "the infant mortality rate of blacks doubles that of whites in the U.S.A.." This statement alludes to some of the harsher salutary ramifications of race in this country. Because African-Americans are frequently disenfranchised and live in poor socio-economic conditions, it…
Fuentes, Augustin. "Race is Real, but not in the way Many People Think." Psychology Today. 2012. Web. ***
acial and Ethnic Approaches to Community Health (EACH 2010 Program)
The health objectives for the United States for the 21st century have been described in The Federal Initiative to Eliminate acial and Ethnic Health Disparities and Healthy People 2010. The national interest in the areas of racial and ethnic disparities has been renewed with the public health initiatives with the leadership for the discussion being taken by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention. The overall health of the nation has improved a lot, but the members of the minority groups in the ethnic and racial areas have not been benefited. This includes the African-Americans, Alaska Natives, American Indians, Asian-Americans, Hispanic-Americans and Pacific Islanders.
This segment of our population is more likely to have poor health and premature deaths than the white Americans. During 1992 to 1998, the deaths from breast cancer have come down noticeably, but there are more…
Author Unknown) (n.d) Chronic Diseases, Risk Factors, and Preventive Services, Alabama. Retrieved at http://www.4woman.gov/owh/reg/4/overview.htm. Accessed on 15/10/2003
Author Unknown) (n.d) Health Disparities and Non-insulin Type 2 Diabetes. Retrieved at http://www.medicalnewsservice.com . Accessed on 15/10/2003
Author Unknown) (n.d) HHS Awards more than 65 Million to eliminate health disparities. Retrieved at http://apps.nccd.cdc.gov/BurdenBook/DeathCause.asp?state=alAccessed on 15/10/2003
Author Unknown) (n.d) Overview of Region lV. Retrieved at http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/exemplary/racial.htm . Accessed on 15/10/2003
It is a matter of opinion as to whether this is actually accurate, but it does appear to be logical (Payne, 1997).
This is an important analogy because of the fact that many individuals who are targeted for a particular reason will often attempt to find a disparity issue that they can use to insist that they have been treated unfairly. In drug use or sale issues, these people are targeted because of the offense that they have committed, but when sentencing is handed down, those who feel that they received too harsh of a sentence will work to find reasons that they believe their sentencing to be unfair.
Race is only one reason that these individuals use. Others include gender, age, and whether the amount of drug that they had is a felony or should be a misdemeanor instead. Some of the speculation into why some individuals feel that…
Banks, C. (2004). Criminal Justice Ethics: Theory and Practice. Thousand Oaks: Sage.
Blumstein, a. et. al. (1983). Research on sentencing: The Search for Reform.
Drug Use Trends. (1997, September-October). Slow development in "crack babies" may be caused by conditions of urban poverty, says new study. Retrieved at http://www.ndsn.org/sepoct97/poverty.html
Education Reforms and Students at Risk: A review of the current state of the art. (1994, January). Chapter 2: Student Background. Retrieved at http://www.ed.gov/pubs/edreformstudies/edreforms/chap2a.html
Possible Explanations in Structural Issues within the Educational Experience
The similarity in aptitude early on and the increasing academic achievement gap between black and white students thereafter would seem to suggest that the causes are most likely to be social and institutional. Among the possible factors, black children are less likely to have the benefit of a two-parent home; they are more likely to live in poorer communities with lower quality educational institutions; and they are 30% less likely to change school by their parents' choice. Unfortunately, the types of educational initiatives designed to reduce the education gap have not proven successful and to the extent their data suggest otherwise, it may be by virtue of over-reliance on the issue of "passing" instead of high achievement.
For example, the NCLB approach emphasized reducing the educational achievement gap among races by focusing on achieving proficiency in academic skills considered to be…
HP2020 ('Healthy People 2020') initiative is reducing health gaps in America. Much controversy exists with regard to what the term 'health disparities' actually refers to. Disparities are largely witnessed on the basis of socioeconomic status (SES), and racial/ethnic identity. A number of health indicator-related differences exist among different racial and ethnic groups in America. This paper will endeavor to explain what health disparities implies, the health indicator-related differences among different racial/ethnic populations, causes for such differences, and potential ways to bring about health improvements for underserved populations.
"Health Disparities" Defined
There is considerable debate regarding the precise meaning of "health disparities." One key facet of a majority of accepted meanings is that every health status difference between different population groups is not a disparity; disparities are only differences that systematically and adversely affect socially and economically less-advantaged people. On the American scene, disparities-related discourse has chiefly concentrated on ethnic/racial disparities.…
S. healthcare structure do not include the unobserved disparities. This may sound very rudimentary, even silly to point out, but in by understanding that the numbers are actually worse than they appear, and that the rising costs of healthcare services re associated with both what we see and can't see, it is easier to understand how costs rise so quickly.
It is also a sobering fact that what we cannot observe is still out there, existing beyond the scope of the government and social programs designed to help people overcome obstacles to access to healthcare and health insurance. The ethnic group that is most unobserved within the bounds of many of the studies and statistics related to the disparities in the U.S. healthcare industry is non-Mexican Latinos (Bustamante, et. al., 2009). This group represents a major portion of the U.S. population that currently lacks access to healthcare. In understanding this…
Bodenheimer, T., Chen, E., and Bennett, H.D. (2009). "Reorganizing Care:
Confronting The Growing Burden Of Chronic Disease: Can The U.S. Health Care Workforce Do The Job?" Health Affairs. Vol. 28, No. 1. Pp. 164-174.
Braveman, P.A., Cubbin, C., Egerter, S., Williams, D.R., and Pamuk, E. (2010).
"Socioeconomic Disparities in Health in the United States: What the Patterns Tell Us." American Journal of Public Health. Vol. 100, No. 1. Pp. 186-196.
esearch has shown that good communication amid patients and health care providers is directly connected to a person's happiness, treatment adherence and affirmative health results (Cultural Competency for Health Care Providers, 2007).
The goal of a lot of provider-oriented health it tools is to make relevant patient information flawlessly and unmistakably accessible to providers at the point of care. In so doing, these tools can decrease clinical indecision related to blurred or mistaken patient information that may be found in a handwritten medical record. In the nonexistence of desired information or in the presence of blurred or uncertain data, providers may undervalue patient precise information while at the same time overweighting their own medical viewpoints, suppositions, prejudices, or stereotypes about certain kinds of patients. If apparent and precise patient information is accessible to the clinician, the utilization of this information should augment, getting rid of the need for relying on…
Cultural Competency for Health Care Providers. (2007). Retrieved March 13, 2011, from Web
There are also arguments that can be made for the use of racial categories including situations where the use of these categories will assist in minimizing racial disparities. For example, in the educational field there have historically been racial inequalities. In this case racial categories can be utilized to ensure that equal opportunities are presented to all individuals regardless of racial category. acial categories can also be useful in research situations to find ways to identify the causes of racial disparities, as well as how race structures human interactions. Since many state programs target areas that have underprivileged
Educational professionals can unintentionally continue racial disparities in the school system by allowing their assumptions about racial groups to guide their expectations, as well as interactions with students of that racial designation. If the example of persons of Asian descent is utilized again, these expectations that a student will excel in science…
Fredrickson, G. (2003). The historical origins and development of racism. In Race: The power of illusion. Retrieved from http://www.pbs.org/race/001_WhatIsRace/001_00-home.htm
Wade, Peter. (1997) Race and Ethnicity in Latin America. Chicago: Pluto Press.
Health disparities refer to a certain kind of health-related difference closely tied to economic or social disadvantage. They negatively impact groups of individuals systematically subject to greater economic and social barriers to a hygienic environment and health, on the basis of their ethnic or racial group, age, gender, religion, mental health, socioeconomic standing, geographic location, gender identity or sexual orientation, physical, cognitive, or sensory disability, or any other characteristics that are associated historically with marginalization or discrimination (Department of Health & Human Services, 2011b).
Of all industrialized countries, the U.S. expends maximum resources on the area of healthcare; despite this, millions of U.S. citizens do not enjoy a chance to live a healthful life. Overall population health in the U.S. has witnessed improvements over time, but health disparities for underserved, racial minority and ethnic minority communities continue. Vulnerable population clusters such as ethnic and racial minorities, disabled individuals,…
Center for Disease and Control. (2013). Conclusion and future directions: CDC health disparities and inequalities report -- United States, 2013. CDC Health Disparities and Inequalities Report -- United States, 2013, 62(3), 184.
Cooper, M. (2016). Clark County fighting minority health disparities. Retrieved from http://www.springfieldnewssun.com/news/news/local/clark-county-fighting-minority-health-disparities/nq5wj/
Department of Health & Human Services. (2011a). HHS action plan to reduce racial and ethnic health disparities: A nation free of disparities in health and health care.
Health, U. D. o., & Services, H. (2011b). National partnership for action to end health disparities. Health Equality & Disparities.
Medical Home Model and Health Disparity
Nursing esearch Proposal
The Impact of the Medical Home Model on Health Disparities
The Impact of the Medical Home Model on Healthcare Disparity
Medical homes are primary care practices where a physician or NP establishes a long-term care relationship with patients and provide patient/family-centered, coordinated, and culturally-sensitive care (AANP, n.d.; Strickland, Jones, Ghandour, Kogan, & Newacheck, 2011). The benefits include improved healthcare access, quality, and safety. A number of states have enacted statutes supporting the medical home model after research findings revealed health disparities for racial and ethnic minorities were reduced (NCSL, 2013).
As a nurse practitioner I am interested in how effective a medical home model would be in reducing healthcare disparities, especially for racial and ethnic minority children residing in underserved communities. Nurse practitioners have traditionally practiced in underserved communities and will continue to do so; therefore, any strategy that could improve…
AANP (American Association of Nurse Practitioners). (n.d.). Medicare legislation: Fact sheet: The medical home -- What is it? How do nurse practitioners fit in? Retrieved from: http://www.aanp.org/legislation-regulation/federal-legislation/medicare/68-articles/349-the-medical-home .
Abrams, M., Nuzum, R., Mika, S., & Lawlor, G. (2011). Realizing health reform's potential: How the Affordable Care Act will strengthen primary care and benefit patients, providers, and payers. The Commonwealth Fund. Retrieved from: http://www.commonwealthfund.org/~/media/Files/Publications/Issue%20Brief/2011/Jan/1466_Abrams_how_ACA_will_strengthen_primary_care_reform_brief_v3.pdf .
NCSL. (2013). Health disparities: State laws. Retrieved from: http://www.ncsl.org/research/health/health-disparities-laws.aspx .
Strickland, B.B., Jones, J.R., Ghandour, R.M., Kogan, M.D., & Newacheck, P.W. (2011). The medical home: Health care access and impact for children and youth in the United States. Pediatrics, 127(4), 604-11.
aker reviewed three landmark Supreme Court decisions on capital punishment and concluded that the death penalty is capriciously imposed on lack defendants and thus serves the extra-legal function of preserving majority group interests. He viewed discrimination in capital sentencing as deliberate and identified the primary reasons why lack defendants with white victims have been denied fairness in capital sentencing. These are prosecutorial discretion in the selective prosecution of capital cases, prosecutorial misuse of peremptory challenges to systematically exclude lacks from juries, judicial overrides by trial judges, prosecutorial misconduct and the ineffective assistance by defense counsel (Emmelman).
Helen Taylor Greene used a colonial model to explore the effectiveness and limitations placed on the police in the past and in the present (Emmelman, 2005). This colonial model showed that the police, regardless of color, were an oppressive force in many communities. Lately, lack political empowerment and ascendancy in many law enforcement departments…
American Law Library (2009). Racial profiling: should police practice racial profiling?
Vol.8, American Encyclopedia: Net Industries. Retrieved on March 29, 2013
Banks, C (2004), Racial Discrimination in the Criminal Justice System. Chapter 3. Sage
Health Disparities in Healthy People 2020
For the last two decades now, one of the central goals of Healthy People has been on alleviating disparities. Healthy people 2000 focused on reducing health related disparities in the American population. The Healthy people 2020 mission defines health disparity as a health difference that has close links with socio-economic and environmental disadvantages. Such heath disparities negatively affect groups that face systematic obstacles because of their race, socio-economic stature, religion gender, age cognitive abilities, physical disability, geographic location, exclusive considerations, sexual orientation, or ethnic group (Anon., n.d.).
Maternal, Infant and Child Health
As in the case with adults, social and demographic forces, including the income that the family gets affects infant health, too. Physical and mental health dynamics of the caregiver and parent are also causal to the effects. acial-based disparities have been observed in both mortality and morbidity for children and mothers. This…
Anon., n.d. Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. [Online]
Available at: https://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/about/foundation-health-measures/Disparities
[Accessed 27 August 2016].
Anon., n.d. Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. [Online]
Injustices based on racial discrimination and gender bias in a democratic country sounds weird and hard-to-believe. However, what history has witnessed proves what nobody wants to hear or believe. This analytical research paper addresses grave issues concerning racial discrimination and gender bias pertaining to black vs. white and the related causes for the orld ar II as well as the prejudices that led to the Civil Rights Movement. Thus, the paper revolves around the popular poem "Mending all" by Robert Frost, addressing the issue of the racial conflict between blacks and whites in America. Poems by Langston Hughes will also be incorporated in the paper to better explain the black experiences before the II and Civil Rights Movement. The orks Cited appends seven sources in MLA format.
Among many renowned literary figures that understood the cost that the world is paying for racial prejudices and the rebellious nature…
Robert Frost (1874-1963). Available at http://www.americanpoems.com/poets/robertfrost/ (October 31, 2002)
Frost, "Poetry Of Robert Frost: Five Poems From North Of Boston," Monarch Notes, 01-01-1963
Frost, "Poetry Of Robert Frost: Essay Questions, Criticism," Monarch Notes, 01-01-1963.
America After Slavery: From Lynchings to White Riots." Available at http://www.geocities.com/CollegePark/Classroom/9912/lynchingera.html (October
Namely, the institutions of
slavery and Jim Crow that were used to constrain the growth and advancement
of African Americans are today disregarded as being directly relevant to
the fortunes and opportunities of blacks in America. This is both
unrealistic and unethical, with the denial of its lasting impact casting
American racism in an historical light rather than one which is still
present and problematic. It is thus that the social contract today serves
the interests of dominance even as it feigns to have disavowed these
aspects of itself.
A true resolution to the failures of the social contract may only
really occur when the discourse on America's racialist past and the lasting
effects of this on the current fortunes of African Americans is resolved.
In that regard, Mills regards it as largely a fiction that racial
discrimination ended in any meaningful way after the Emancipation
Proclamation; rather, racial prejudice…
Mills, C.W. (2000). Race and the Social Contract Tradition. Social
Race, Class & Crime
The confluence of race, class and crime is a hot topic nowadays. This is especially true when discussing events or topics of various types. Very or fairly specific examples of this would include the recent shooting of Mike Brown in Ferguson, MO and the subsequent non-indictment of the officer who shot him despite the fact that Brown was not armed and the ongoing discussion about how paying a "wage" should be a moral imperative of all employers and how people in poverty are much more apt to commit crimes. Throw in the fact that people that exist in racial minorities are much more likely to be in poverty, it seems to make sense to some that minorities are also more commonly incarcerated and committing crimes in general. However, this is not entirely true as white people commit plenty of crimes themselves. However, blacks and Hispanics are…
Racial Gap in Teachers' Perceptions of the Achievement Gap," Jeffrey Uhlenberg and Kathleen M. Brown examine possible reasons for the disparity between Black and White student academic performance. In addition to examining prior research, the authors surveyed teachers to assess their perceptions and opinions about the achievement gap. The four main categories under investigation are the child; the parent(s) and home environment; the teachers; and the school system. The authors surveyed both Black and White teachers to determine whether there was any significant difference in their perceptions. While most of the results confirmed the authors' hypothesis that Black teachers would focus more on the teachers and school system than on the student or the home environment and that the reverse would be true for White teachers. However, the results of the survey show that all teachers, regardless of race, point to several factors that impact the disparity between minority and…
U.S. residents want a society in which all persons live long, healthy lives (1); however, that vision is yet to be realized fully. As two of its primary goals, CDC aims to reduce preventable morbidity and mortality and to eliminate disparities in health between segments of the U.S. population. The first of its kind, this 2011 CDC Health Disparities and Inequalities eport (2011 CHDI) represents a milestone in CDC's long history of working to eliminate disparities.
Health disparities are differences in health outcomes and their determinants between segments of the population, as defined by social, demographic, environmental, and geographic attributes (7). Health inequalities, which is sometimes used interchangeably with the term health disparities, is more often used in the scientific and economic literature to refer to summary measures of population health associated with individual- or group-specific attributes (e.g., income, education, or race/ethnicity) (8). Health inequities are a subset of health…
1. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), the Secretary's Advisory Committee on National Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Objectives for 2020. Phase I report: recommendations for the framework and format of Healthy People 2020. Rockville, MD: DHHS; 2008. Available at http://www.healthypeople.gov /hp2020/advisory/PhaseI/PhaseI.pdf' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Fiction of ace
ace: The cultural power of the fiction of race
A recent PBS documentary was titled ace: The power of an illusion. This underlines what constitutes race -- race is a fiction, created by the faulty observational perceptions of human beings, and the history of human culture. ace is not a scientific reality. Because we can see color (and hair texture, facial shapes, and other characteristics) we perceive something we call race. But our scientific knowledge tells us that race does not exist. This is not to deny that race is a very powerful fiction that has influenced human history. The idea of racial categories proved to be deadly and destructive to the lives and the cultures of indigenous peoples. It was used to validate slavery, genocide, colonialism, and exploitation. But race is not 'real,' any more than the idea of 'carrying the white man's burden' was…
Duster, Troy. (2005). Race and reification in science. Science, 307 (5712). 1050-1051.
Garcia, Richard. (2003). The misuse of race in medical diagnosis. The Chronicle of Higher
tenet of Christian societies is a need to create healthy and safe local communities. Christians frequently emphasize freedom and justice within the Judeo-Christian perspective. That means creation and promotion of fair criminal justice policies. These criminal justice policies must do away actions based on stereotypes and try to eliminate racial profiling as of apprehending potential criminals. With the support of religious entities and congregations, implementation of community-oriented policing methods through collaboration with intelligence-gathering entities may lead to effective and easier community policing. Things like fusion centers and intelligence-led policing (ILP) may make such a novel aim possible.
Fusion centers act as an information sharing center. Fusion centers were created under the U.S. Department of Justice through two government agencies: Office of Justice Programs and U.S. Department of Homeland Security. Most of them were formed from 2003-2007 (ukus, Warner, & Zhang, 2017). The purpose of fusion centers is to promote at…
Lambert, D. (2010). FBI -- Intelligence-Led Policing in a Fusion Center. Retrieved from https://leb.fbi.gov/2010/december/intelligence-led-policing-in-a-fusion-center
Rukus, J., Warner, M. E., & Zhang, X. (2017). Community Policing: Least Effective Where Need Is Greatest. Crime & Delinquency, 1-24. doi:10.1177/0011128716686339
Schmalleger, F. (2017). Criminal justice today: An introductory text for the twenty-first century (14th ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall Career & Technology.
Spencer, K. B., Charbonneau, A. K., & Glaser, J. (2016). Implicit Bias and Policing. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 10(1), 50-63. doi:10.1111/spc3.12210
(Davis, 2001) That number is sure to have risen dramatically since Davis did her research.
The debates surrounding both the efficacy and the morality of racial profiling have created a lot of disagreement from many communities of color. Kabzuag Vaj is an organizer with the Asian Freedom Project in Madison, Wisconsin. The Asian Freedom Project has garnered hundreds of accounts of racial profiling of Southeast Asian youth over the past year. (Davis, 2001)
"Talking to the mainstream about racial profiling is hard," says Vaj. "The excuse people give us is extreme times demand extreme measures, whatever is necessary to catch the terrorists." (Davis, 2001) Organizers at People United for a etter Oakland (PUELO) also face similar concerns. They understand that although they are on all levels a multiracial organization, their campaign against racial profiling and police misconduct is simply inadequate to address the current political and sociological situation. "The fact…
Nicole Davis. 2001. The slippery slope of racial profiling. Color Lines. December 2001.
St. Petersburg Times, June 8, 2003. Aschroft's America. Editorial.
Anthony Romero. 2001. Letter to Attorney General Ashcroft. American Civil Liberties Union, Oct. 17, 2001.
New York Times, Mar. 13, 2002. Hundreds of Arabs still detained in U.S. Jails. From Reuters.
Community resources must be identified and brought together to meet needs. Actions can be developed to prevent poor health outcomes by: appropriately identifying, collecting, and reporting racial/ethnic group-specific data; identifying where data are lacking and developing appropriate tools to collect those data; and linking poor health status indicators to social conditions and influences, as well as personal behaviors and genetics.
As indicated by other counties, the populations experiencing these disparities have many strengths and traditions to draw upon for solutions. In the African-American communities, churches provide connections and leadership on community issues. Other models have provided the use of community engagement principles encouraged throughout any state and local processes addressing eliminating health disparities, whether funded by this initiative or not. Such community engagement principles include fostering openness and participation in the planning process, ensuring that those representing a specific community truly represent that community's values, norms, and behaviors, and using…
Alpha.org. "Racial / Ethnic Disparities." Fact Sheets. 2004. 17 May 2005. www.apha.org/NPHW/facts/RaceEth-PHW04_Facts.pdf.
Fenwick, E. et.al. "Improving the Efficiency and Relevance of Health Technology
Assessment: The Role of Iterative Decision Analytic Modeling." 2003. Che
Discussion Paper. 17 May 2005. http://www.york.ac.uk/inst/che/DP179.pdf .
Dr. Leonard Egede published an editorial in the Journal of General Internal Medicine regarding various issues in health care i.e. race, ethnicity, culture, and disparities. The editorial was published on the premise that existing evidence shows that racial and ethnic minorities obtain lower quality of health care services as compared to non-minorities. This trend continues to exist despite the significant development in the diagnosis and treatment of numerous chronic diseases. The main focus of this editorial was to highlight the disparities in health care delivery due to racial, ethnic, and cultural factors. In this regard, the publisher focused on examining why patients from minorities experience greater mortality and morbidity from several chronic diseases unlike non-minorities despite the significant medical advances. The editorial focused on three studies that were published on the issue of race, ethnicity, and disparities in the delivery of health care services to various patient populations.
The increased collaboration and mutual awareness of both mainstream and minority projects -- and the vanishing of the differentiation between the two spheres -- could only lead to better and more relevant arts projects (Moscou 2010). I hope to be able to facilitate increased integration of the performing arts community to this end.
Some major concepts that relate to the issue of race include identity, self-confidence and self-image, and a host of sociological and economic factors. The economic disparity between the various racially segregated neighborhoods in the greater Seattle area is readily apparent on a drive through such neighborhoods -- the "non-white" neighborhoods have older buildings in greater states of disrepair, a larger number of boarded-up and defunct storefronts, and higher crime rates than the more affluent white neighborhoods of the city itself and in outlying areas (Cornwall 2004; SJI 2010). Greater integration would likely also result in greater economic…
Cornwall, W. (2004). "Racial issues raised over Democratic mailing." Seattle times. Accessed 3 August 2010. http://seattletimes.nwsource.com/html/localnews/2002070838_48thrace23e.html
Moscou, J. (2010). Personal interview. Conducted 1 August 2010.
Race & social justice initiative. (2010). City of Seattle Official Website. Accessed 3 August 2010.
race and racial inequality are structured in the United States of America. It explains the concepts of oppression and privilege, describing ways in which various social institutions (educational system, the media, the economy, politics and the state, criminal justice system, etc.) intersect to construct categories of difference in society. It concludes with a policy suggestions that would help to decrease racial and ethnic inequality in U.S. society.
Institutional Structures and acial Inequality
The manifestation of racism in social institutions are major impediment in the struggle against rampant prejudice in the country. Specific example is shown by Simon (2008), in the television drama series, The Wire created and written by a former police reporter. The series depicts institutional dysfunction in the police department, City Hall, the public school system. It reveals how the characters are betrayed by the same institutions that are important to them in provision of education, protection and…
Catholic Charities USA. (2008). Poverty and Racism: Overlapping Threats to the Common Good. Alexandria: Larry Snyder.
Kuznia, R. (2009, April 8). Racism in Schools: Unintentional But No Less Damaging. Retrieved from www.miller-mccune.com: http://www.miller-mccune.com/culture-society/racism-in-schools-unintentional-3821/
Mauer, M. (2010 ). Statement of Marc Mauer Executive Director The Sentencing Project . Prepared for the House Judiciary Committee Subcommittee on the Constitution, Civil Rights and Civil Liberties. Washington DC.
Quigley, B. (2010, July 26). Rampant Racism in the Criminal Justice System. Retrieved from www.counterpunch.org: http://www.counterpunch.org/2010/07/26/rampant-racism-in-the-criminal-justice-system/
Preventing Sentence Disparity
Ultimately, sentencing disparity is rooted in a combination of how laws are authored and how they are enforced. Such is to say that the approach to sentencing in the United States is not itself racially biased. However, when contextualized by a legal system that is decidedly tilted to the disadvantage of African-Americans, Hispanics and other ethnic minorities, sentencing does take on unequal proportions.
The text by orrall (2008) points out that the way certain laws are designed seems to suggest that the system is inherently and purposefully designed to produce longer incarcerations for racial minorities. According to orrall, mandatory minimums are an area in which the strategy of sentencing is especially troubling. Here, the emphasis on using drug sentences in order to produce incarcerations is magnified by the three-strikes format. Here, a third offense, regardless of severity, will result in life imprisonment. This combines with…
Worrall, J. (2008). Crime Control in America: What Works? 2nd ed. Boston: Pearson.
acial profiling is one of the most pressing civil right issues of our time. It extends beyond directs victims to negatively affect all persons of color of all generations and income levels. It undermines the legitimacy of the criminal justice system, and hinders effective policing in the communities that need it the most. A esource Guide on acial Profiling Data Collection System defines racial profiling as any police-initiated action that relies on the race, ethnicity or national origin rather than the behavior of an individual or information that leads the police to a particular individual who has been identified as being or having been, engaged in criminal activity. In the context of traffic stops by police officers, racial profiling should be defined broadly as encompassing officer's use of race or ethnicity as a factor in deciding to stop, question, search or arrest someone. acial profiling has been monitored in a…
Brenner, S.J., Schencke, L. (2002). Local officials seek to resolve racial profiling.
Retrieved February 10, 2005, from The Daily Illini
Web site: http://illinimedia.com/di/feb02/feb28/news/stories/news_story01.shtml
Gewertz, K. (2005). Schauer: Profiling can be a useful investigative tool. Retrieved February 10, 2005, from the President and Fellows of Harvard College
Figure 1 portrays the state of Maryland, the location for the focus of this DR.
Figure 1: Map of Maryland, the State (Google Maps, 2009)
1.3 Study Structure
Organization of the Study
The following five chapters constitute the body of Chapter I: Introduction
Chapter II: Review of the Literature
Chapter III: Methods and Results
Chapter IV: Chapter V: Conclusions, Recommendations, and Implications
Chapter I: Introduction
During Chapter I, the researcher presents this study's focus, as it relates to the background of the study's focus, the area of study, the four research questions, the significance of the study, and the research methodology the researcher utilized to complete this study.
Chapter II: Review of the Literature in Chapter II, the researcher explores information accessed from researched Web sites; articles; books; newspaper excerpts; etc., relevant to considerations of the disparity in access to health care services between rural and urban residence in Maryland…
Potter, S. (2002) Doing Postgraduate Research. London: Sage.
Qualitative research: Approaches, methods, and rigour, (2008, Nov. 7). Microsoft PowerPoint Qualitative Research AdvC08 RS.PPT. Retrieved March 10, 2009 from www.unimaas.nl/bestand.asp?id=11629
Wolvovsky, Jay. (2008). Health disparities: Impact on Business and Economics Summit. Maryland's healthcare at a glance. The Heart of Community Health Baltimore Medical Syste. Retrieved March 10, 2009 at http://dhmh.maryland.gov/hd/pdf/2008/oct08/Jay_Wolvovsky.pdf
Among the most important aspects to the health promotion plan will be the benefits associated with a care manager, who can ensure that all six core elements of CCM are implemented fully. If this is accomplished, there should be a significant reduction in health disparities for patient and caregiver outcomes across generations.
AHQ. (2012). National Healthcare Disparities eport, 2011. No. 12-0006. ockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare esearch and Quality. etrieved 16 Apr. 2014 from http://www.ahrq.gov/research/findings/nhqrdr/nhdr11/nhdr11.pdf.
Braveman, P.A., Kumanyika, S., Fielding, J., Laveist, T., Borrell, L.N., Manderscheid, . et al. (2011). Health disparities and health equity: The issue is justice. American Journal of Public Health, 101(Suppl. 1), S149-55.
Brodaty, H. & Donkin, M. (2009). Family caregivers of people with dementia. Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience, 11, 217-28.
Castro, A. & uiz, E. (2009). The effects of nurse practitioner cultural competence on Latina patient satisfaction. Journal of the American Academy of Nurse…
AHRQ. (2012). National Healthcare Disparities Report, 2011. No. 12-0006. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Retrieved 16 Apr. 2014 from http://www.ahrq.gov/research/findings/nhqrdr/nhdr11/nhdr11.pdf .
Braveman, P.A., Kumanyika, S., Fielding, J., Laveist, T., Borrell, L.N., Manderscheid, R. et al. (2011). Health disparities and health equity: The issue is justice. American Journal of Public Health, 101(Suppl. 1), S149-55.
Brodaty, H. & Donkin, M. (2009). Family caregivers of people with dementia. Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience, 11, 217-28.
Castro, A. & Ruiz, E. (2009). The effects of nurse practitioner cultural competence on Latina patient satisfaction. Journal of the American Academy of Nurse Practitioners, 21(5), 278-86.
Unequal Treatment: Confronting Racial and Ethnic Disparities
in Health Care
The recent report of the Institute of Medicine, Unequal Treatment: Confronting Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care (2002 Smedley et. al.), indicates that bias, stereotyping, and prejudice may often contribute to the quality of health care that is provided to non-white patients. For anyone entering into the field of health care, this information is beneficial because it uncovers many of the reasons why some patients receive inadequate health care that can lead to future prevention of this problem.
The vast majority of studies reviewed concluded that minorities are less likely to get the same treatment as whites, including necessary procedures. The studies also suggested that patient attitudes cannot explain completely why disparities exist in health care. Clearly, race has become as issue in the health care industry. The report brings to light the depth of the problem when it…
Smedley, Brian, Stitth, Adrienne, and Nelson, Alan. (2002) Unequal Treatment:
Confronting Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care. Retrieved September 5,
2003, from http://books.nap.edu/books/030908265X/html/index.html
Health Disparities in Louisville KY
Health inequities have become a major problem in the United States. Hofrichter stresses in Tackling Health Inequities Through Public Health Practice:
A Handbook for Action ( 2006) that, "The awareness of the existence of inequities in health, health status and health outcomes between racial and ethnic groups in America is as old as the nation itself" (Hofrichter, 2006,P. vii). As will be discussed in this paper, these inequalities have a wide range of repercussions, including social and psychological implications. A definition of health disparity is: "... The difference in the incidence, prevalence, morbidity, mortality, and burden of diseases and other adverse health conditions that exist among specific population groups" ( Samuels, 2005).
There is also a consensus in the literature that inequalities in health and healthcare throughout the world are on the increase. This is largely due to the increasing gap between rich…
Eliminating social and economic barriers to good health and safety: Louisville
Center for Health Equity. Retrieved from http://www.preventioninstitute.org/component/jlibrary/article/id-278/127.html?tmpl=component&print=1
Galvin, J.R. (2006) Diabetes. Ebony, 61 p. 157.
GradNation - Making the Connection: Health & Student Achievement. Retrieved from http://www.silentepidemic.net/Our-Work/Dropout-Prevention/~/media/Files/Our%20Work/Dropout%20Prevention/Grad%20Nation%20Action%20Forum/Steve%20Tarver%20working%20sess%20PPT.ashx
isk Factors for Obesity: A Critique
Major isk Factors for Obesity: A Critique of the esearch Literature
Major isk Factors for Obesity: A Critique of the esearch Literature
The World Health Organization (WHO, 2013) estimated that close to 1.4 million adults were overweight in 2008 and of these 500 million were obese. For adults over the age of 20 this implies that 35 and 11% of the global adult population were overweight and obese, respectively. The definition of overweight is a body mass index (BMI) of 25 or higher, while obesity is defined as a BMI of 30 or higher. While obesity does not directly result in the death of anyone, it is the fifth leading mortality risk globally and is responsible for 2.8 million deaths annually. This is due to obesity representing a significant risk factor for serious comorbid conditions, including diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Accordingly, nearly…
Cooper, M. (2012, December 12). Census officials, citing increasing diversity, say U.S. will be a 'plurality nation.' New York Times, p. A20.
Gaskin, D.J., Thorpe, R.J. Jr., McGinty, E.E., Bower, K., Rohde, C., Young, J.H. et al. (2013). Disparities in diabetes: The nexus of race, poverty, and place. American Journal of Public Health, published online ahead of print 14 Nov. 2013.
Goldschmidt, A.B., Wilfley, D.E., Paluch, R.A., Roemmich, J.N., & Epstein, L.H. (2013). Indicated prevention of adult obesity: How much weight change is necessary for normalization of weight status in children? Journal of the American Medical Association -- Pediatrics, 167(1), 21-6.
Hearst, M.O., Pasch, K.E., & Laska, M.N. (2012). Urban v. suburban perceptions of the neighborhood food environment as correlates of adolescent food purchasing. Public Health Nutrition, 15(2), 299-306.
Family, Community, and acial Trends in U.S. Juvenile Criminal Justice
The subject of race and ethnicity as they relate and correlate to criminality and prison populations in the United States has been the subject of a great deal of study and commentary for many decades. It is unquestionably true that a disproportionate number of people of color are convicted of crimes than are Caucasians both on a national level and at the community level in the majority of the country; this fact is easily supported by a cursory review of criminal justice statistics and is not a matter of debate despite the contentiousness of the issue. What is debated are the reasons behind this skewed prison population/criminal element, and in an effort to address this debate the following paper will study the problem as it appears not amongst adults, but amongst the still-developing youth of the country.
Dixon, T.L., & Azocar, C.L. (2006). The representation of Juvenile Offenders by Race on Los Angeles Area Television News. The Howard Journal of Communication, 17,
Jordan, K.L., & Freiburger, T.L. (2011). Examining the Impact of Race and Ethnicity on the Sentencing of Juveniles in the Adult Court. Criminal Justice Research Review,
Piquero, A.R. (2008). Disproportionate Minority Contact., 18( 2),
Rodriguez, M. (2007). Juvenile Court Context and Detention Decisions: Reconsidering the Role of Race, Ethnicity, and Community Characteristics in Juvenile Court Process. Justice Quarterly, 24( 4),
Gender variation in clinical decision-making was measured, including (1) the number, types, and certainty levels of diagnoses considered and (2) how diagnoses vary according to patient characteristics, when patients have identical symptoms of CHD (Maserejian et al., 2009).
This was a factorial experiment presenting videotaped CHD symptoms, systematically altering patient gender, age, socioeconomic status (SES) and race, and physician gender and level of experience. The primary end point was physicians' most certain diagnosis. The results: Physicians (n=128) mentioned five diagnoses on average, most commonly heart, gastrointestinal, and mental health conditions. Physicians were significantly less certain of the underlying cause of symptoms among female patients regardless of age, but only among middle-aged women were they significantly less certain of the CHD diagnosis. Among middle-aged women, 31.3% received a mental health condition as the most certain diagnosis, compared with 15.6% of their male counterparts. An interaction effect showed that females with high…
Chou, Anne F., Sarah Hudson Scholle, Carol S. Weisman, Arlene S. Bierman, Rosaly
Correa-de-Araujo, & Lori Mosca (2007). "Gender Disparities in the Quality of Cardiovascular Disease Care in Private Managed Care Plans." In Women's Health
Issues 17: 120 -- 130.
DeVon, H., Ryan, C.J., Ochs, a.L., & Shapiro, M. (2008). "Symptoms Across the Continuum of Acute Coronary Syndromes: Differences Between Women and Men." In Am J. Crit Care 17:14-24.
Diabetes is a chronic and progressive disease that leads patients affected to seek the help of medical professionals throughout various stages and time frames. From surgery to patient education to physical therapy, diabetes treatment can be a daunting task that may require complex, multi-faceted effort. Such effort can lead to sever disparities in treatment and in prevalence of the disease. For example, if patient education is at the forefront of chronic disease management and prevention, then it stands to ask if patient education or lack thereof, is creating the kinds of health disparities seen in diabetes. The patients receiving the information on diabetes and lifestyle choices to prevent diabetes, may reduce their chances of developing diabetes versus those that do not receive the information. What kinds of health disparities arise in diabetes as a result of lack of access to information?
Lack of access to information can occur for several…
Abdool, R., Szego, M., Buchman, D., Justason, L., Bean, S., Heester, A., . . . Kaufman, H. (2016). Difficult healthcare transitions. Nursing Ethic, 23(7), 1.
Balogh, R. S., Lake, J. K., Lin, E., Wilton, A., & Lunsky, Y. (2014). Disparities in diabetes prevalence and preventable hospitalizations in people with intellectual and developmental disability: a population-based study. Diabetic Medicine, 32(2), 235 -- 242.
Gaskin, D. J., Thorpe, R. J., McGinty, E. E., Bower, K., Rohde, C., Young, J. H., . . . Dubay, L. (2014). Disparities in Diabetes: The Nexus of Race, Poverty, and Place. American Journal of Public Health, 104(11), 2147-2155. doi:10.2105/ajph.2013.301420
Lindberg, C., Fagerstrom, C., Sivberg, B., & Willman, A. (2014). Concept analysis: patient autonomy in a caring context. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 70(10), 2208-2221. doi:10.1111/jan.12412
Desir, E. (2014). Exploring Obstacles to Success for Early Careerists in Healthcare Leadership. J Healthc Manag., 59(4), 250-3.
he article begins with an introduction covering a short story about a young man of Caribbean descent. He showed remarkable leadership skills and attended a top-tier pre-med program. During his time as an MHA student, he was accepted into an internship program. However, his limited exposure to a healthcare environment led to not being accepted to two top medical centers' paid administrative fellowships. Someone else, a woman, who grew up with CEOs and healthcare leaders in her family, was able to do everything needed to secure her position in the fellowship program and took an impressive job in the healthcare system. his example showed how a person of color who is needed in a country like the United States (with a higher concentration of minorities than other countries) could not secure a…
Taplin, S., Foster, M., & Shortell, S. (2013). Organizational Leadership for Building Effective Health Care Teams. The Annals of Family Medicine, 11(3), 279-281. http://dx.doi.org/10.1370/afm.1506
The article examines the Affordable Care Act or ACA and the increasing movement toward patient-centered medical homes along with accountable care organizations. Through the rise of these kinds of organizations and medical homes, teams will play a pivotal and important role in health care. The article continues by describing what a team consists of and it consists of two or more people who are rooted in a bigger social system differentiating between their roles, interacting with each other, sharing their common aims, and performing tasks that have direct or indirect effect on others. Various kinds of teams fit this description and are discussed briefly.
Because teams are so important to this growing movement, leadership also plays a crucial part. Teams need strong leaders in order to succeed. Teams are seen as necessary too in addressing patient needs, especially patients that suffer from multiple chronic conditions. With medical workforce shortages affecting the makeup and stability of a team, there is a need to consider how ACA will spur organizational leadership and thus team development. By learning how to support, incentivize, and train for better team function, team development will be successful. Leaders in the meantime need more evidence via advanced research to help guide their work and promote effective leadership. Advanced research also highlights best practices that further educate leaders and teams on how to cultivate effective communication. Communication is an important aspect of organizational leadership.
Latin Americans in the United States
Labor immigrants formed the bulk of foreign workers in search of menial and low paying jobs. Mexicans occurred as the dominant Latin group in this category. The level of the minimum wage, approximately $4.25, about six times higher than that in Mexico lured most of the laborers from their native lands (Portes and Rumbaut 20). Demand for foreign laborers, especially those from Mexico depicts the desired attributes of the laborers that include motivation, reliability, diligence, and willingness to work for low pay. The higher wages in the U.S. enables immigrants to plow back in various investments, and the support of families left back at home. 'Yield' obtained through wages also goes to consumption and upgrade of the social status of the immigrants. After accumulation of enough savings, most of the immigrants return home to gain a position of social respectability.
Logan, John. How Race Counts for Hispanic-Americans. pp 471-484
Portes, Alejandro and Rumbaut, Ruben. Chapter 1 "Who they are and why they come" in Legacies: The Story of the Immigrant Second Generation. California: University of California Press, 2001: 1-27
Of course, a separation of the races meant really the preservation of white superiority at the expense of those formerly enslaved. The law mandated distinct facilities for hites and Blacks. Everything from schools, to transportation, movie theaters, hotels, and even public restrooms were carefully segregated. Few Black only facilities approached white ones in quality or amount of money expended on their upkeep. Black public schools were notoriously inferior as were hospitals and other essential services. As arguments about the disparities became more apparent toward the mid-Twentieth Century, the South sought to defend its segregationist policies by - in the case of medical schools - expanding and consolidating its physician training facilities so as to avoid providing more facilities for Blacks. A plan was actually floated, not to increase Black enrollment at the South's twenty-six medical colleges, but rather to consolidate all training of Black medical personnel at a single facility.…
http://www.questia.com /PM.qst?a=o&d=7745289' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Policy and Practice
acial disparity in arrests and convictions in Georgia are is a significant and growing social problem. Yet, legislation and policy seems to be lacking in an attempt to solve or even begin to reverse the increasing trend. Georgia has been a special focus of several human rights organizations for some time with regard to the disparity associated with arrests, convictions and sentencing but especially with those having to do with drug laws. In 1996 Human ights Watch (HW)a nonprofit organization that seeks to bring awareness to legal and policy issues that are applied unfairly to minorities determined that Georgia has one of the worst race records in the nation with regard to new drug enforcement laws as well as extremely disproportionately applied mandatory sentencing laws with regard to those laws.
HW determined through careful examination that between 1990 and 1995 3% of whites who qualified for mandatory…
Georgia's Supreme Court Chief Justice's Commission on Indigent Defense, 2002, www.georgiacourts.org/aoc/press/idc/idchearings/idcreport.doc
Human Rights Watch, 1996 Human Rights Violations in Drug Law Enforcement in Georgia. http://ndsn.org/sept96/hrw.html
Human Rights Watch, 2008, Targeting Blacks: Drug Law Enforcement and Race in the United States. http://www.hrw.org/sites/default/files/reports/us0508_1.pdf
Tonry, Michael. Malign Neglect New York: Oxford University Press. 1996.
humans unique is the combination of attitudes and opinions that make up perspective. Development of perspective determines how an individual lives, learns, and what decisions the individual makes. The attitude of a person has behavioral, affective, and cognitive components. Furthermore, it can exist in two different ways. The first is explicit attitudes. These attitudes manifest at a conscious level. They are intentionally formed and easy to identify (Wittenbrink & Schwarz, 2007). Implicit attitudes occur in an unconscious level, are not easy to identify, and are involuntarily formed. A brief example of this is a person meeting someone new.
The new person is wearing the shirt of the other person's favorite team. His name is Stu. Stu already likes the new person because he likes that team and they have something big, in common. Stu goes out a second night and has a bad interaction with a stranger. He doesn't know…
Dragiewicz, M. (2012). Gender bias in the courts: Implications for battered mothers and their children.Family And Intimate Partner Violence Quarterly, 5(1), 13-35. Retrieved from http://www.safetylit.org/citations/index.php?fuseaction=citations.viewdetails&citationIds%5B%5D=citjournalarticle_426721_38
Rehavi, M. & Starr, S. (2012). Racial Disparity in Federal Criminal Charging and Its Sentencing Consequences. SSRN Electronic Journal. http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.1985377
Ross, D. & Dove, T. (2014). Bias in the Box: For capital juries across America, race still plays a role in who gets to serve. Virginia Quarterly Review, 90(4), 178-201.
Wittenbrink, B. & Schwarz, N. (2007). Implicit measures of attitudes. New York: Guilford Press.
It is difficult to argue that the death penalty is being applied evenly and fairly as required by the Supreme Court's Furman v. Georgia decision. In fact, it could be argued, with statistics like these, that the application of the death penalty is being influenced by racial factors.
If the race of the victim is a factor in deciding whether or not the defendant receives the death penalty, then the race of the defendant is even more of a factor. For decades, critics of the justice system have asserted race to be a factor in crime and prosecutions in the United States, and it was ultimately the arbitrary imposition of the death penalty on African-Americans in Georgia that led to the Supreme Court's banning it in 1971. Black defendants are still overwhelming prosecuted more often than white defendants, but it is not only death penalty cases where this is the…
"ACLU: Race and the Death Penalty." (2003). The American Civil Liberties Union.
Retrieved from http://www.aclu.org/capital-punishment/race-and-death-penalty
Banner, Stuart, the Death Penalty: An American History. (2002) United States: Harvard
ace Discrimination Justice
ACE DISCIMINATION CIMINAL JUSTICE
ace and Discrimination in the Criminal Justice System
acial inequality has long been an issue in the American society. Despite making substantial progress in creating a more racially equal society, there are still many issues involving race and discrimination that can be found today. The criminal justice system was designed to treat all individuals equally under the law. However, covert racism and discrimination still plague the system and many minorities are adversely impacted and are not treated equally under the law. While most judges and public officials profess a strong dedication to remaining racially impartial, the evidence suggests otherwise. This literature review will focus on various points that indicate that there is a substantial amount of inequality to found within the criminal justice system in our modern society.
acial differences in the criminal justice system have been important topics since the…
Crutchfield, R., Fernandes, A., & Martinez, J. (2010). Racil and Ethnic Disparity and Criminal Justice: How Much is Too Much? The Journal of Criminal Law & Criminology, 903-932.
Green, E. (1991). Judicial Attitudes in Sentencing - A Study of the Factors Underlying the Sentencing Practice of the Criminal Court of Philidelphia. National Criminal Justice Reference Service, 157.
Gross, S. (1997). Crime, Politics, and Race. Harvard Journal of Law & Public Policy, 405-416.
Staples, R. (2009). White Power, Black Crime, and Racial Politics. The Black Scholar, 31-41.
Statistics show that black murderers are far more likely than white murderers to get the death penalty, especially if the victim was white. Blacks make up 12% of the population but 40% of the population on death row, as noted. Georgia can serve as a case in point. Statistics show that a black man accused of killing a white person in Georgia is substantially more likely to receive the death penalty than a white person convicted of killing either a white or a black, and forty-six percent of the inmates on Georgia's death row are black, with most on death row for killing a white person. The situation is much the same in the 35 other states that have capital punishment. In Maryland, blacks make up nearly 90% of the prisoners on death row; in Illinois, 63%; and in Pennsylvania, 60%. The disparity nationwide is even greater when the race…
Aguirre, a., Jr., & Baker, D.V. (1991). Race, racism, and the death penalty in the United States. Berrien Springs, Michigan: Vande Vere Publishing.
Amnesty International (1999).. Killing with prejudice: race and the death penalty. Amnesty International, Pub. No. AMR 51/52/99. London: Amnesty International.
Baldus, D.C., Woodworth, Q., & Pulaski, C.A., Jr. (1990). Equal justice and the death penalty: A legal and empirical analysis. Boston: Northeastern University Press.
Baldus, D.C., Woodworth, G., Zuckerman, D., Weiner, N.A., & Broffitt, B. (1998). Racial discrimination and the death penalty in the post-Furman era: An empirical and legal overview, with recent findings from Philadelphia. Cornell Law Review 83:1638-770
EDUCING ISKY BEHAVIO FO African-American TEENS
An Intervention for educing isky Behavior Among African-American Female Adolescents: Provider Cultural Competency Training
The Office of Minority Health in the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (2013) quotes Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. As a way to introduce the topic of updating and enhancing the National CLAS (Culturally and Linguistically Appropriate Services) Standards. The quote is "Of all forms of inequality, injustice in health care is the most shocking and inhumane" (p. 14). Long recognized as a significant problem in the United States, health inequity along social, economic, racial, and ethnic boundaries has become a central focus of health care policy in this country. Although health care providers have little control over the historical determinants of discrimination in the U.S. they can work towards eliminating health disparities that exist through cultural competency. In addition to the ethical and moral rationale for attaining…
Aronowitz, T. & Agbeshie, E. (2012). Nature of communication: Voices of 11- to 14-year-old African-American girls and their mothers in regard to talking about sex. Issues in Comprehensive Pediatric Nursing, 35(2), 75-89.
Aronowitz, T. & Eche, I. (2013). Parenting strategies African-American mothers employ to decrease sexual risk behaviors in their early adolescent daughters. Public Health Nursing, 30(4), 279-87.
CDC. (2012). HIV and AIDS among African-American youth. Retrieved 2 Feb. 2014 from: .
CDC. (2013). HIV among African-Americans: Fast facts. Retrieved 2 Feb. 2014 from: .
representative system of government has motivated a vital chain of discussions in the literature about police workers administration and representation of women and racial minorities. The serious questions in this study are: (a.) Does the under oath police force rationally mirror a cross section of the groups being monitored? And (b.) hat aspects are measured in representation of women and minority police officers in law-enforcement agencies? Black and Hispanic depictions on police forces are strongly associated with its incidence in community populations. Regions differ in the quantity of female and minority illustrations, blacks being better characterized in southern police forces than in another place; women are better characterized in the northwest. Nevertheless, findings disclose that men, more often than not whites, maintain to hold unreasonably more sworn positions in the largest part of law-enforcement agencies. The data sets of female and minority representation also demonstrate the extent of female and…
Ayres, Ian, and Steven Levitt. Measuring Positive Externalities from Unobservable Victim Precaution: An Empirical Analysis of Lojack. Quarterly Journal of Economics, February 2008, 43-77.
Bahrke, Mike, and Bob Hoffman. Identifying the Fitness Needs of Law Enforcement Officers. Working Paper, Fit Force, 2007.
Coate, Stephen, and Glenn Loury. Will Affirmative-Action Policies Eliminate Negative Stereotypes? American Economic Review, 2003, 1220-40.
Donohue, John J, and Steven D. Levitt. The Impact of Race on Policing, Arrest Patterns, and Crime. Working Paper, Stanford University Law School, August 2009.
Hernandez vs. Texas and its Importance to Latinos in the U.S.
Studies conducted in the past have clearly indicated that some racial groups are overrepresented in the U.S. criminal justice system. There have been claims that some stages of the criminal justice system disadvantage some groups, with some of the disadvantaged groups being Asian-Americans, Hispanics, and African-Americans. This text largely concerns itself with the U.S. Supreme court ruling of Hernandez vs. Texas, a landmark Court ruling that has had a significant impact on the civil rights of Mexican-Americans. In so doing, it will, amongst other things, speculate on the relevance of this particular court ruling to Latinos in the U.S.
In basic terms, the Hernandez case "involved the exclusion of Mexican-Americans from serving as jurors, which, like voting, is a primary duty and privilege of U.S. citizenship" (Soltero, 2009, p. 38). Accused of murdering Joe Espinoza, Hernandez was indicted…
American Civil Liberties Union - ACLU. (2014). About the ACLU. Retrieved from https://www.aclu.org/about-aclu-0
Bado, A. (2013). Fair Trial and Judicial Independence: Hungarian Perspectives. New York, NY: Springer
Carson, E.A. (2014). Prisoners in 2013. Retrieved from http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/p13.pdf
Cyndi, B. (2009). Criminal Justice Ethics: Theory and Practice (2nd ed.). Los Angeles: SAGE.
" (Dafler, 2005) Dafler relates that for more than thirty years children who were 'half-caste' "were forcibly removed from their families, often grabbed straight from their mother's arms, and transported directly to government and church missions." (Dafler, 2005) This process was termed to be one of assimilation' or 'absorption' towards the end of breeding out of Aboriginal blood in the population. At the time all of this was occurring Dafler relates that: "Many white Australians were convinced that any such hardship was better than the alternative of growing up as a member of an 'inferior' race and culture." (2005) it is plainly stated in a government document thus:
The destiny of the natives of Aboriginal origin, but not of the full blood, lies in their ultimate absorption by the people of the Commonwealth, and [the commission] therefore recommends that all efforts be directed towards this end." (eresford and Omaji, Our…
Dafler, Jeffrey (2005) Social Darwinism and the Language of Racial Oppression: Australia's Stolen Generations ETC.: A Review of General Semantics, Vol. 62, 2005.
Erich Fromm Foreword to a.S. Neill SummerHill (New York, 1960).
Hawkins, Social Darwinism; Shibutani, Tamotsu and Kwan, Kian M. Ethnic Stratification: A Comparative Approach. New York: The Macmillan Company (1965).
Jacques Ellul, the Technological Society (New York, 1967), 436.
Judicial discretion enables judges to make sentencing decisions within specific statutory limits. As with prosecutorial discretion, judicial discretion is built into the system as a means of enabling flexibility, accounting for special circumstances and rapidly shifting norms, and also increasing efficiency. Although judicial discretion has been widely and voraciously accused of fostering racial disparities, it has also been presented as the means to reduce sentencing disparities and promote justice (Bunin, 2009).
Federal sentencing guidelines provide the structure and limitations of judicial discretion. The Sentencing eform Act of 1984 followed on the heels of similar legislation, and heavily restricted judicial discretion in federal sentencing. The pendulum swung in 2005, when the Supreme Court decided United States v. Booker, 543 U.S. 220. In United Stats v. Booker, the court ruled that federal sentencing guidelines are to be guidelines only and not mandatory. The post-Booker environment enables judges to account for situational and…
Albonetti, C. (2011). Judicial discretion in federal sentencing. American Society of Criminology 10(4),.
Bogan, B.W. (2012). An introduction to federal sentencing. Retrieved online: http://txw.fd.org/sites/default/files/Introduction%20to%20Federal%20Sentencing%2014%20Final.pdf
Bunin, A. (2009). Reducing sentencing disparity by increasing judicial discretion. Federal Sentencing Reporter 22(2), 81-84.
Office of General Counsel United States Sentencing Commission, (2010). Supreme Court cases on sentencing issues. Retrieved online: http://www.ussc.gov/sites/default/files/pdf/amendment-process/Supreme_Court_Cases_201007.pdf
¶ … Coatesville" John Jay Chapman "The Letter Birmingham Jail" Martin Luther
The United States of America has meant a wide variety of things to several different people, particularly to those who have had to call its shores home. The initial promise of this land -- as one of redemption, as a place where the lofty ideas engraved within such documents as the Bill of Rights and the Constitution have never been fully realized by a widening number of people who have never been treated with the degree of parity and ideals within them -- wasted little time in going sour. Virtually any Native American can tell you: there can never be justice on stolen land. In spite of this fact, men such as Martin Luther King, Jr. have written their own documents (such as "Letter From A Birmingham Jail," a discourse about the need for public non-violent…