Racial Profiling Essays (Examples)

Filter results by:

 

View Full Essay

Racial Profiing Discussion the Events From 2001

Words: 799 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2732559

Racial Profiing Discussion

The events from 2001 marked a crucial point in the history of the United States from the perspective of the casualties and human loss they produce but at the same time from the perspective of the changes these events marked in the American society. Nowadays, the security measures are increased to such an extend that there have been wide debates on the potential abuses that may take place in terms of human rights, privacy issues, as well as personal security.

One of the security measures enforced since September 2001 is the extended control measures and techniques used to prevent any terrorist attacks from taking place on American soil. At the same time though, despite the fact that increased security measures are justified, they also allow controversies over potential abuses. One of the arguments protesting against increased security measures as they are enforced today points out the role…… [Read More]

References

Cloud, John. "What's Race Got To Do With It?" Time Magazine. 2001. Online edition. Available at http://www.time.com/time/covers/1101010730/cover.html

Taylor, Leslie. "Police condemned for profiling of letter carrier." The StarI 2009. Available at http://www.thestar.com/News/GTA/article/670484

Dept. Of Justice. Fact Sheet: Racial profiling. June 17, 2003. Available online at http://www.justice.gov/opa/pr/2003/June/racial_profiling_fact_sheet.pdf
View Full Essay

Profiling Used as a Legitimate Law Enforcement Tool

Words: 2488 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93892508

Racial profiling is one of the most pressing civil right issues of our time. It extends beyond directs victims to negatively affect all persons of color of all generations and income levels. It undermines the legitimacy of the criminal justice system, and hinders effective policing in the communities that need it the most. A Resource Guide on Racial Profiling Data Collection System defines racial profiling as any police-initiated action that relies on the race, ethnicity or national origin rather than the behavior of an individual or information that leads the police to a particular individual who has been identified as being or having been, engaged in criminal activity. In the context of traffic stops by police officers, racial profiling should be defined broadly as encompassing officer's use of race or ethnicity as a factor in deciding to stop, question, search or arrest someone. Racial profiling has been monitored in a…… [Read More]

References

Brenner, S.J., Schencke, L. (2002). Local officials seek to resolve racial profiling.

Retrieved February 10, 2005, from The Daily Illini

Web site: http://illinimedia.com/di/feb02/feb28/news/stories/news_story01.shtml

Gewertz, K. (2005). Schauer: Profiling can be a useful investigative tool. Retrieved February 10, 2005, from the President and Fellows of Harvard College
View Full Essay

Profiling America S Racist Ideology

Words: 1329 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41630580

Racial Profiling and Discrimination in America

Slavery in the United States formally began during the late seventeenth century, when the country was still a British colony. The institution then expanded and intensified rapidly during the eighteenth century, reaching its peak during the start of the nineteenth. During most of this time, for all intents and purposes, simply to be black was enough to identify one as a slave. That is to say, racial distinctions between whites and people of color were not merely noted, but comprised the economic and legal foundation of American society. Once slavery was abolished, black Americans did not suddenly occupy a station equal to that of their white contemporaries. Jim Crow and anti-miscegenation laws were in effect, usually in the South, and other forms of segregation were commonplace throughout the nation. In the poem "Outcast," Claude McKay clearly identifies the prejudice and the alienation he faces…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Franklin, John Hope. "The Train from Hate." In Missy James and Alan P. Merickel, eds., Reading Literature and Writing Argument. Fifth Edition. New York: Longman, 2012.

McKay, Claude. "Outcast." In Missy James and Alan P. Merickel, eds., Reading Literature and Writing Argument. Fifth Edition. New York: Longman, 2012.

Okita, Dwight. "In Response to Executive Order 9066." In Missy James and Alan P. Merickel, eds., Reading Literature and Writing Argument. Fifth Edition. New York: Longman, 2012.
View Full Essay

Profiling an Effective Tool for Law Enforcement

Words: 1021 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84541360

profiling an effective tool for law enforcement to use in policing society?

Racial profiling is the practice of law enforcement officers in stopping an individual of a certain race or ethnicity and investigating them based on their ethnicity. Such practices may occur in traffic routines or in matters connected with security. Racial profiling is forbidden in most states and in fact, as the article "RACIAL PROFILING LAW STRENGTHENED" (2012) by Keating, Christopher shows the Senate recently strengthened the state's racial profiling law.

On the one hand, as stated in Harcourt (2004), many of the people involved in traffic incidents do seem to be of a similar race. We have the same occurrence with security matters where, over and again, it seems to be most frequently people of Islamic extraction who perpetrate terrorist activities against the West. More so, Fundamentalist Islam has come out overtly against the West threatening the West…… [Read More]

Sources

Harcourt, BE (2004) Rethinking racial profiling…. Univ. Chicago Law Review, 71, 4

Keating, C (2012) RACIAL PROFILING LAW STRENGTHENED Hartford Courant
View Full Essay

Racial Disparity in Incarceration Rates

Words: 1644 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96043365

incarceration in the United States exhibits extreme racial disparity. There are significantly more African-Americans in the prison system than there are in the general population in fact, almost 50% of those incarcerated at any given time are black men and yet the U.S. population is comprised of only 12% African-Americans. (Clear & Cole 2002, Chapter 19) Cole and Clear give three main explanations for this disparity, differential criminality among minorities, racist criminal justice system and lastly a racist general population. (Clear & Cole 2002, Chapter 19) Within all three of these arguments there is some limited validity, yet it is also clear that there is still problem in need of serious address. Racial disparity within prison and corrections in general is the most serious issue facing the corrections industry today.

The effects of racial disparity in incarceration reach much farther than the effects inside the social and economic structure of…… [Read More]

References

Clear, T. & Cole, G. (2002) American Corrections: Sixth Edition, New York, NY:

Wadsworth,

Coker, D. (2003). Foreword: Addressing the Real World of Racial Injustice in the Criminal Justice System. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 93(4), 827+. Retrieved November 14, 2004, from Questia database, http://www.questia.com.

Knepper, P. (2000). Chapter 2 the Alchemy of Race and Crime Research. In The System in Black and White: Exploring the Connections between Race, Crime, and Justice, Markowitz, M.W. & Jones-Brown, D.D. (Eds.) (pp. 15-27). Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers.
View Full Essay

Use of Profiling to Combat Terrorism

Words: 1636 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54540123

Racial Profiling

If seen from the perspective of law enforcement, racial profiling can be described as "government action that relies on the race, ethnicity, or national origin rather than the behavior of an individual or information that leads the police to a particular individual who has been identified as being, or having been, engaged in criminal activity" (Etienne, 2012).

Though racial profiling is practiced in almost every country of the world, United States is the best example to understand it and its pros and cons. The law enforcement agencies in the United States have often treated the minorities in the country rather unfairly. Before the 9/11 terrorist attacks on the U.S.A., the main victims of racial profiling were Blacks. However, since the occurrence of these terrorist attacks, the law enforcement agencies have primarily targeted Arabs and Muslims for profiling (Bah, 2006).

One can find several notable likenesses among the profiling…… [Read More]

References

Annabelle, L. (2007). What's Wrong with Racial Profiling? Another Look at the Problem. Criminal Justice Ethics, 26 (1), Retrieved August 4, 2012 from http://www.questia.com/read/1G1-202802842/what-s-wrong-with-racial-profiling-another-look-at

Bah, A.B. (2006). Racial Profiling and the War on Terror: Changing Trends and Perspectives1. Ethnic Studies Review, 29 (1), Retrieved August 3, 2012 from http://www.questia.com/read/1P3-1154091261/racial-profiling-and-the-war-on-terror-changing-trends

Etienne, M. (2012). Making Sense of the Ethnic Profiling Debate. Mississippi Law Journal, 80 (4), 1523-1538. Retrieved August 3, 2012 from http://Mississippilawjournal.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/04/12_Etienne_Final_Edit.pdf

Rudovsky, D. (n.d.). Racial Profiling and the War on Terror. Retrieved August 4, 2012 from http://www.pennumbra.com/debates/debate.php?did=5
View Full Essay

Racial Dynamics the Organization for

Words: 983 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5344665

Differences in achievement are often attributed to race, ethnicity, gender or social class, when in reality it is often these demographic considerations that impact the ways teachers, parents, and educational professionals treat students. Lowered expectations for African-American students or elevated expectations for upper-income whites are common symptoms of the current and outmoded ideology. All schools needed to examine the problem with such obviously biased assumptions and to reform school curricula based on a more democratic ideology. Furthermore, the schools had to reform the definition of intelligence in order for the reforms to take root. Redefining intelligence was in fact the largest obstacle in altering the racial dynamics in the public schools.

We will not face such serious ideological challenges, as our organization is fundamentally different from a school. However, we face our own outmoded beliefs and assumptions and must also learn to redefine some of the essential aspects of our…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Arab- and African-Americans and Racial

Words: 2860 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40513026

(Davis, 2001) That number is sure to have risen dramatically since Davis did her research.

The debates surrounding both the efficacy and the morality of racial profiling have created a lot of disagreement from many communities of color. Kabzuag Vaj is an organizer with the Asian Freedom Project in Madison, Wisconsin. The Asian Freedom Project has garnered hundreds of accounts of racial profiling of Southeast Asian youth over the past year. (Davis, 2001)

"Talking to the mainstream about racial profiling is hard," says Vaj. "The excuse people give us is extreme times demand extreme measures, whatever is necessary to catch the terrorists." (Davis, 2001) Organizers at People United for a Better Oakland (PUEBLO) also face similar concerns. They understand that although they are on all levels a multiracial organization, their campaign against racial profiling and police misconduct is simply inadequate to address the current political and sociological situation. "The fact…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Nicole Davis. 2001. The slippery slope of racial profiling. Color Lines. December 2001.

St. Petersburg Times, June 8, 2003. Aschroft's America. Editorial.

Anthony Romero. 2001. Letter to Attorney General Ashcroft. American Civil Liberties Union, Oct. 17, 2001.

New York Times, Mar. 13, 2002. Hundreds of Arabs still detained in U.S. Jails. From Reuters.
View Full Essay

Addressing Racial Disparities in Incarceration

Words: 921 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97578649

Racial Disparities in Incarceration

There is an abundance of salient information related to prisons and the correctional system in the United States dispensed throughout Mauer's article, "Addressing racial disparities in incarceration." The article was published in 2011, which makes it still relevant and informative for contemporary society. As the title of this work of literature suggests, it widely discusses various aspects of the prison system pertaining to racial disparities. Despite this title, it is noteworthy that the bulk of the author's research is concentrated on those disparities as related to Caucasians, African-Americans and Latinos, with little more than a note about other races including Asians and Native Americans (both of which the author claims there is a paucity of relevant data for) (Mauer, 2011, p. 88S). Additionally, it is important to realize that the racial disparity in various facets of incarceration reflects a relative scarcity of Caucasians and an abundance…… [Read More]

References

Mauer, M. (2011). Addressing racial disparities in incarceration. The Prison Journal Supplement to 91(3), 87S-101S.
View Full Essay

Criminal Justice Systemic Malignity Racial

Words: 2221 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3292173

Baker reviewed three landmark Supreme Court decisions on capital punishment and concluded that the death penalty is capriciously imposed on Black defendants and thus serves the extra-legal function of preserving majority group interests. He viewed discrimination in capital sentencing as deliberate and identified the primary reasons why Black defendants with white victims have been denied fairness in capital sentencing. These are prosecutorial discretion in the selective prosecution of capital cases, prosecutorial misuse of peremptory challenges to systematically exclude Blacks from juries, judicial overrides by trial judges, prosecutorial misconduct and the ineffective assistance by defense counsel (Emmelman).

Helen Taylor Greene used a colonial model to explore the effectiveness and limitations placed on the police in the past and in the present (Emmelman, 2005). This colonial model showed that the police, regardless of color, were an oppressive force in many communities. Lately, Black political empowerment and ascendancy in many law enforcement departments…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

American Law Library (2009). Racial profiling: should police practice racial profiling?

Vol.8, American Encyclopedia: Net Industries. Retrieved on March 29, 2013

from  http://law.jrank.org/pages/9628/Racial-Profiling.html 

Banks, C (2004), Racial Discrimination in the Criminal Justice System. Chapter 3. Sage
View Full Essay

Offender Profiling Essential and Effective

Words: 4763 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75779490

(Harris, 2002, p. 8)

Terrorist acts are both crimes and forms of warfare, and in both respects are unlike what we are used to." 2 Understanding the larger possibilities, such as warfare, law enforcement will be able to make informed decisions on matters concerning data collection. When gathering information it is important to document and standardize every step of the process. This will alleviate any complications when categorizing behaviors or activities and will ensure that all participants in the process are on the same playing field. (Ronczkowski, 2004, p. 72)

Following the 9/11 attacks on the U.S. which is an example of foreign terrorism, though domestic terrorism has been present in the U.S. For decades, many individuals accepted new standards of security that might infringe upon their rights as citizens to freely travel, assemble and speak, yet more recent protests have been leveled against law enforcement and security measures as…… [Read More]

References

Califano, J.A. (1998, October). A New Prescription: Investing in Substance-Abuse Treatment Would Take a Big Bite out of Crime. Washington Monthly, 30, 9.

Evans, D.J., Fyfe, N.R., & Herbert, D.T. (Eds.). (1992). Crime, Policing, and Place: Essays in Environmental Criminology. New York: Routledge.

Glenn, R.W., Panitch, B.R., Barnes-Proby, D., Williams, E., Christian, J., Lewis, M.W., et al. (2003). Training the 21st Century Police Officer: Redefining Police Professionalism for the Los Angeles Police Department / . Santa Monica, CA: Rand.

Groth, a.N. (1979). Men Who Rape: The Psychology of the Offender. New York: Plenum Press.
View Full Essay

Government Have the Right to Racially Profile

Words: 725 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59171341

government have the right to racially profile?

We all stereotype others to some extent or other. These are natural, evolutionary ways of perceiving others, namely categorizing them into particular groups. Stereotypes are often erroneous, since people, are, after all, individuals rather than categories, and, therefore, stereotyping is often considered a subjective negative thing to do. On the other hand, it is argued that sometimes, people in positions of authority may be compelled to stereotype and to categorize certain groups for the sake of public security.

One such instance is racial profiling, perpetrated by the government and by, for instance, airport security, particularly when applied to people of Middle East extraction in order to ascertain that they are not carrying bombs or other harmful weapons on their person. On the one hand, the political times warrants this racial profiling; on the other hand, instances such as Timothy McVeigh have taught us…… [Read More]

Reference:

Issue17: Is Middle Eastern Profiling ever Justified?
View Full Essay

Crash Character Profile Anthony One

Words: 625 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19915183

' Anthony, an actual resident of the street, sneers at white perceptions of how blacks talk in the media: "You think whites go around callin' each other honky all day?" While Anthony's theft of the SUV is clearly shown to be destructive, socially as well as morally, the film also shows how black inner city views of law and order have evolved in such a negative and polarized fashion: the presence of the black officer Detective Graham Waters is undercut by the racism and racial profiling of other members of the force.

Racism is circular in nature, and this is revealed in Anthony's lapses in logic: "That waitress sized us up in two seconds. We're black and black people don't tip. So she wasn't gonna waste her time. Now somebody like that? Nothing you can do to change their mind. You expect me to pay for that kind of service?"…… [Read More]

Work Cited

Crash. Directed by Paul Haggis. 2004.
View Full Essay

Academic Achievement and Racial Background Is There a Relationship

Words: 2817 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42726921

Race, Ethnicity, and Academic Achievement - Proposal of Research Design

This research will study the relationship between race and ethnicity and academic achievement.

This study will look at whether students from five racial classifications - White, Asian, Black, Hispanic and Native American - show statistically significant differences in their scores in reading and math. Using disaggregated data, this study will also examine whether significant differences occur within these racial classifications. In addition, this paper will study whether socio-economic status and language proficiency have a significant effect on a child's reading and math skills.

Because of many socio-economic factors linked to the construction of race, this paper predicts that white and Asian students will show higher test scores in reading and math. However, because racial classifications can obscure the differences between ethnicities, this paper also predicts that there will be significant differences in test scores within the racial categories themselves. In…… [Read More]

References

Dozier, Arthur Lee and Michael James Barnes (1997). "Ethnicity, drug user status and academic performance." Adolescence. 32(128): 825-837.

Hale, Janice E. (2001). Learning While Black: Creating educational excellence for African-American children. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press.

Jencks, Christopher and Meredith Phillips (1998). The Black-White Test Score Gap. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution.

Liu, Eric (1999). The Accidental Asian: Notes of a native speaker. New York: Random House.
View Full Essay

Black Perspective

Words: 1464 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32964077

Racial Profiling: Driving While Black

For years, the Black community believed that Black Americans were routinely and disproportionately stopped by police officers while driving in their cars.

Statistical evidence now supports the anecdotal evidence that had been fermenting for so many years.

For example, one scholar conducted a study in New Jersey which concluded that from 1988 to 1991, more than 73% of the persons stopped and arrested while driving on the New Jersey Turnpike were Black. Shockingly, less than 14% of the cars on the Turnpike even carried a Black person - whether as a passenger or driver.

Other studies have come to the same findings and conclusions, and more and more reports of such evidence has been reported as the problem becomes widely known.

Racial profiling affects the victim not just incidentally and individually, but it also affects and reflects many larger societal issues and injustices involving race…… [Read More]

Glisson, C. The Art of the State of Social Work Research: Implications for Mental Health. Research on Social Work Practice 5. 1995: 201-2

Marsh, Jeanne. "Learning from Clients." Social Work.

Davis Angela J.."Prosecution and Race: The Power and Privilege of Discretion." Fordham Law Review. 67 (1998)..
View Full Essay

According to the U S Justice Department in 2003 About 10 4 Of All African America

Words: 1884 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78270857

Racial Equality

Race is used in this country to exploit and use people's emotions to eventually control their actions. Race is something that we are born with and is assigned to us in a completely mysterious way. Somehow this quirk in life has been used to divide and conquer huge masses of people. Although slavery and racial tensions are not unique to America, it appears that these issues still reverberates throughout the discussions in this country.

The purpose of this essay is to examine how cultural diversity, and race specifically, plays a role of institutional control. This essay will examine the racial disparity between blacks, whites, and Latinos in terms of justice, law and lawmaking. This essay will give some background information on the subject before exposing some new approaches to this problem while trying to comprehend its true purpose.

Background Information

Fewer than half of 1% of Americans are…… [Read More]

References

Brooks, E. (2011). Cultural Resources. The African-American Lectionary, 1 Nov 2011. Retrieved from  http://www.theafricanamericanlectionary.org/PopupCulturalAid.asp?LRID=235 

Goldmacher, S. (2012). Disparate Impact: Black Lawmakers and Ethics Investigations. The Atlantic, 3 Mar 2012. Retrieved from http://www.theatlantic.com/politics/archive/2012/03/disparate-impact-black-lawmakers- and-ethics-investigations/253931/

Kerby, S. (2012). The Top10 Most Startling Facts about the People of Color And Criminal Justice in the United States. Center For American Progress, 13 March 2012. Retrieved from http://www.americanprogress.org/issues/race/news/2012/03/13/11351/the-top-10- most-startling-facts-about-people-of-color-and-criminal-justice-in-the-united-states/

Kansal, T. & Mauer, M. (2005). Racial Disparity in Sentencing: A Review of the Literature. The Sentencing Project, January 2005. Retrieved from http://www.sentencingproject.org/doc/publications/rd_sentencing_review.pdf
View Full Essay

Community Profile Research Community Diversity

Words: 1055 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9244680

'In New York City, the controls are better. Since Sept. 11, as police are looking for terrorists and those who mail anthrax, the controls have increased. So crime continues to go down. Everyone is much more alert.'" (NewsMax Wires)

Queens, NY has also become really diverse with people from different ethnic and racial backgrounds coming in and living there. There are large numbers of Hispanics, Asians and African-American in Queens. However there is a difference in the drop of crime rate in Queens and Brooklyn. "Year to date, overall crime is down 7.1% in Queens, 5.6% in Brooklyn" (Anonymous). However the overall general change is that in both communities, crime rates have plummeted and there is increased safety for the civilians. Normally in areas where there is a wide diversity of people living, there is an increased rate in crime and although there has been unemployment in the entire city…… [Read More]

References

1) U.S. Bureau of the Census, Population Estimates Program, Population Division, "Counties Ranked by Black Population in 1998" (Table CO-98-16), September 15, 1999.

2) Anonymous - The Tipping Point. [Online website] Available at http://www.gladwell.com/1996/1996_06_03_a_tipping.htm[Accessed on: 15/09/2005]

3) Randy Bergmann - New York City: Few places can match Brooklyn's imprint on American culture. [Online website] Available at http://www.phillyburbs.com/pb-dyn/news/170-11122002-120.html[Accessed on: 15/09/2005]

4) NewsMax Wires - NYC Crime Rate Continues To Drop. [Online website] Available at http://www.newsmax.com/archives/articles/2002/3/20/60653.shtml[Accessed on: 15/09/2005]
View Full Essay

Personal Profile My Name Is

Words: 781 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61881411



As to my "negative characteristics": I do indeed get frustrated when my children forget their manners and behave poorly; I have a habit of losing track of time occasionally when I'm deeply involved in a project; as indicated earlier, I trust people too soon; I have a tendency to do things perfectly the first time, which can cause stress; and five, I become very intense when I see that something needs to be done around the house immediately.

In order to make positives out of my negatives, I believe in the Chinese ideogram that says obstacle and challenge are really the same thing - it's all in how you approach the problem. I work hard to keep my moods in a positive flow, and although we humans are sometimes the product of our emotions, professionals strive to control emotions and see life in its full perspective.

As to motivation, I…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

WASP Elites and Discriminatory Methods Against Blacks

Words: 1265 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72336197

Racial Discrimination

The social problem studied in this paper is racial discrimination. Racial discrimination is any discriminatory act against a person based on race. A subtype of racial discrimination would be racial harassment. The magnitude of racial discrimination is very high: according to the FBI's most recent HCSA report, 51% of reported hate crimes are based on race (Hate Crimes in America, 2015). However, as Blank, Dabady and Citro (2004) point out, "simply identifying an association with race is not equivalent to measuring the magnitude of racial discrimination or its contribution to differential outcomes by race" (p. 72). In other words, it is not easy to define the magnitude of racial discrimination because distilling the cause-and-effect relationship requires testing and in complex socio-economic environments, experiments are difficult to conduct with adequate controls. Nonetheless, a qualitative magnitude may be discerned in the narratives of men like Malcolm X and Martin Luther…… [Read More]

References

Blank, R., Dabady, M., Citro, C. (2004). Measuring Racial Discrimination. NY: NAP.

Hate Crimes in America. (2015). Civil Rights. Retrieved from http://www.civilrights.org/publications/hatecrimes/nature-and-magnitude.html?referrer=https://www.google.com/

Jones, E. M. (2000). Libido Dominandi: Sexual Liberation and Political Control.

South Bend, IN: St. Augustine's Press.
View Full Essay

Criminal Justice - Profiling Criminal

Words: 1451 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34871233

e. height, weight, age, race, etc.), in connection with the investigation of specific criminal activity, that information allows authorities to narrow the search for individuals who match those identifying characteristics. The process is perfectly logical and obviously makes infinitely more sense than continuing to search for individuals who bear no resemblance to the descriptions provided by reliable sources.

However, the same legitimate techniques with respect to specific evidence of crimes also has a history of impermissible application in ways that deprive subjects of police investigation of their fundamental constitutional rights. For example, in the late 20th century, the U.S. Customs Service and the Drug Enforcement Administration both made extensive use of what they called "criminal indicators" in connection with their efforts to apprehend criminal drug traffickers as they attempted to enter the U.S. At the borders (Schmalleger, 2007).

Among other criteria, those sets of indicators including Hispanic origin and language,…… [Read More]

References

Dershowitz, a. (2002) Shouting Fire: Civil Liberties in a Turbulent Age. New York: Little Brown & Co.

Peak, K. (2002) Policing America: Methods, Issues, Challenges (Third Edition). New Jersey: Prentice Hall.

Schmalleger, F. (2007). Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Text for the 21st Century. Hoboken, NJ: Prentice Hall

U.S. Institute of Justice and Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research (1999) Police-Public Contact Survey; Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences; Mar 2004
View Full Essay

Terrorism Intentions of the Group Profiling Terrorists

Words: 646 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61931165

Terrorism

Intentions of the Group

Profiling terrorists can be helpful for counter-terrorism efforts. While there is no one terrorist profile, there are "risk factors for involvement," (Kershaw, 2010). One of the risks that has been most explored in scholarly research is the need for a collective, shared identity in the terrorist organization (Post, Ali, Henderson, Shanfield, Victoroff & Weine, 2009). This is true for the Aryan Nation, recognized as a top domestic terrorism threat by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). The Aryan Nations Group dubs itself a "Premier Christian Identity Church Organization," with the word "identity" featuring firmly (Aryan Nations, 2013). Members of the Aryan Nation also emphasize the "nation" part of their identity, creating an artificial in group-out group status that enforces personal and collective identities.

Although Vaisman-Tzachor (2006) claims that race is not a necessary component in the profile of a terrorist, it certainly is with the…… [Read More]

References

Aryan Nations (2013). Website retrieved online:  http://www.aryan-nation.org/ 

Aryan Nations. (2012). Terrorist Organization Profile, University of Maryland. Retrieved from: http://www.start.umd.edu/start/data_collections/tops/terrorist_organization_profile.asp?id=29

Kershaw, S. (2010). The terrorist mind: An update. The New York Times. 9 Jan, 2010. Retrieved online: http://www.nytimes.com/2010/01/10/weekinreview/10kershaw.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0

Post, J., Ali, F., Henderson, S., Shanfield, S., Victoroff, J., and Weine, S. (2009). The psychology of suicide terrorism. Psychiatry, 72(1), 13-31. Retrieved November 14, 2012, from ProQuest. (Document ID: 1683378291).
View Full Essay

A concise Analysis of The Lifestyle Profile of the Neighborhood of University of Illinois Hospital

Words: 1241 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90535527

Lifestyle Profile of the Neighborhood of University of Illinois Hospital

Marketing research represents a crucial business activity, since it helps identify factors such as consumer characteristics, market size and nature, and nature of rivals, which ascertain a corporation's ability to succeed. This is generally connected with the activity of market segmentation, performed for distinguishing the diverse customer groups. This paper will offer a lifestyle profile of University of Illinois (UI) Hospital's neighborhood.

UI Health, which forms a division of the UIC (University of Illinois at Chicago), offers inclusive health care, research and education services to Illinois State residents, as well as those of other states. It includes a clinical business, which encompasses a tertiary care organization with a capacity to house 495 inpatients, 22 outpatient healthcare organizations, and a dozen Federally-Qualified MSHCs (Mile Square Health Centers). UI Health's PSA (Primary Service Area) covers two dozen neighboring localities. These PSAs are…… [Read More]

References

Boundless. (2016). "Developing a Market Segmentation." Retrieved 15 Sep. 2016 from https://www.boundless.com/marketing/textbooks/boundless-marketing-textbook/consumer-marketing-4/market-segmentation-36/developing-a-market-segmentation-188-4065/

University of Illinois Health. (2016). The University of Illinois Community Assessment of Needs (UI-CAN) 2016: Towards Health Equity. Retrieved September 15, 2016, from https://hospital.uillinois.edu/Documents/about/2016CHNA_v6.pdf
View Full Essay

Intelligence Profiling - Hitler Intelligence

Words: 362 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85543704

At the same time, Hitler had very old-fashioned ideas when it came to his behavior towards the opposite sex. He believed that women belonged in the home, and had no role in public life of the Reich. Their main role was to mother racially pure Aryan children.

If Hitler were to have removed himself to a German-speaking part of Argentina in order to pursue an art career rather than remain in Europe and become leader of the Third Reich, one can only assume that he would have limited his contacts to Argentineans of German descent. Hitler felt that Jews, Slavs, and other racial "undesirables" were polluting the purity of the German race. Add to that his repressed nature that surfaced in the form of traditional attitudes towards sex and procreation, and it seems readily apparent that he would attempt to ground his Argentinean art career among German-speaking "pure" Argentineans.

Welch,…… [Read More]

Welch, David. Hitler: Profile of a Dictator (London and New York: Routledge, 1998), 79.

Victor, George. 1998. Hitler: The Pathology of Evil (Dulles, Virginia: Brassey's), 13-20.

Victor 1988, 62.
View Full Essay

Academic Profile of Home Schoolers a Case Study

Words: 16937 Length: 62 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56680433

Academic Profile of Home Schooling - a Case Study

Home Schooling vs. Traditional Educational Methods

Home Schooling Methodology

Focus of the Practicum

Culture

Area of Inquiry

Subject/Topic Areas

Home Schooling as an Alternative

Curricula and Materials Used for Home Schooling

The Success of Home Schooling

Evaluation Design

Conditions for Change

Timeline

Chronology

Legislative Information:

Maryland: A Legal Analysis

State Laws and Regulations - Maryland

Goulart and Travers vs. Calvert County

Home-schooled Kids Find Social Growth"

Home Schoolers in the Trenches"

Home School Academic Advantage Increases Over Time"

Home Schooling." ERIC Digest, Number 95.

Abstract

The Academic Profile of Home Schoolers

Case Study

The focus of this applied dissertation proposal is to examine and analyze home school families' academic environment, the institutional materials they use, and to gain an understanding of their academic success.

Prince George's County Public School System is the nineteenth largest school system in the nation with a…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Monticello, IL.

Buchanan, Jim (1984). Home Instruction: A Growing Alternative to Public Schools. Monticello, IL.

Lande, Nancy (2000). Home school Open House: Interviews with 55 Home schooling Families. Bozeman, MT

Waring, Bill and Diane (1999). Emerald Books: A look back on what they learned along the way by veteran home schooling parents of varying approaches.
View Full Essay

Demographic Profile of Chicago ZIP Code 60631

Words: 1316 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23712077

metropolitan city of Chicago. The area has a total population of 28886 persons. The socio economic class structure is dominated by the middle class or lower middle class families. The overall population is dominated by the females. Life expectancy is higher among females as compared to males.

The racial and ethnic composition of the area is dominated by whites followed by Asians, of which majority comprises of Indian origin. The third highest ethnicity is of blacks. There is little or no existence of Pacific Islanders or Native Americans.

The highest level of education in the area 60631 is of high school graduates. The second highest level of education is college attendance without a diploma while the third highest level of education is of bachelor's degree holders. The level of education from there onwards is on significant decline. Suggested reasons for this may be people opting out of educational institution to…… [Read More]

References

Hello Chicago. (2011). Census data for Chicago 60631. Retrieved from http://www.hellochicago.com/zip/chicago_illinois_zip_code_60631.cfm#census.

Hello Chicago. (2011). Location Map 60631. Retrieved from http://www.hellochicago.com/zip/chicago_illinois_zip_code_60631.cfm.

Movoto. (2011). Population Demographics in Chicago, IL. Retrieved from http://www.movoto.com/neighborhood/il/chicago/60631.htm.

U.S Census Bureau. (2011). Chicago, Illinois. Retrieved from http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/states/17/1714000.html.
View Full Essay

Teacher Profile Sarah Cormier Is

Words: 1736 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65296301

Cormier in six weeks' time to note changes in Ms. Cormier's approach to discipline and any positive results with students. At that time, they will conference about Ms. Cormier's progress and further plans for improvement.

Section V: Summary

Ms. Cormier was nervous about being observed. At the end of the lesson, she seemed near tears and confessed that she believed the lesson had not gone well at all. The supervisor assured Ms. Cormier that the lesson idea was a good one. It was suggested that, in the future, Ms. Cormier provide students with clearer direction so they would not use questions as a delaying tactic when they were charged to sit down and begin the assignment. It was suggested that Ms. Cormier include a list of "brainstormed" words on the board that students could use. It was also suggested that she give students a writing prompt rather than an open-ended…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Criminal Justice - Profiling Serial

Words: 581 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35099272



The perpetrator may even have a documented prior criminal history involving physical or sexual assaults of victims with some of the same characteristics as the current series of victims. More likely than not, the perpetrator is a product of a home in which children witnessed physical abuse of their mother and/or experienced physical abuse themselves.

The fact that all but one victim shows evidence that the force used in the murder far exceeded that necessary to achieve death by strangulation suggests that the perpetrator possesses a significant amount of anger, even rage, at someone represented by his victims. The fact that all but one of the victims suffered a broken neck suggests that the perpetrator is more likely under the age of 50 than older, and more likely either a large or physically robust individual or both. Suggested Investigatory Focus:

Based on preliminary analysis of the behavioral evidence, it is…… [Read More]

Sources Consulted

Gerrig, R., Zimbardo, P. (2005) Psychology and Life 17th Edition. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

Innes, B. (2007) Serial Killers: The Stories of History's Most Evil Murderers. London: Quercas.

Schmalleger, F. (2001) Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Text for the 21st Century. Hoboken, NJ: Prentice Hall
View Full Essay

Thomas Jefferson Personal Profile Contirbutions to the

Words: 6156 Length: 22 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94981989

Thomas Jefferson

Personal Profile

contirbutions to the founding of the nation

Religious Freedom

Declaration of Independence

OPINION OF SLAVERY AND RACE RELTIONS

Thomas Jefferson has undoubtedly made significant contributions to the founding of the United States. Regarded as one of America's most predominant political figures, Jefferson has been lauded for several milestones during his career. Jefferson is perhaps most well-known as the author of the Declaration of Independence and as the staunchest supporter of the separation of church and state. Several of Jefferson's writings are focused around religious and individual freedom as the American way of life. Among Jefferson's other well-known accomplishments include, serving as the first secretary of state, the second vice-president, the third president and as the politician responsible for the Louisiana Purchase.

Although Jefferson is strongly connected with the theology of personal and individual freedom, much has been made of his dependence on slavery and his conviction…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Adams, H. (1871). History of the United States of America during the administrations of Thomas Jefferson. New York: Viking Press.

Ambrose, St. (1996). Undaunted courage: Meriwether Lewis, Thomas Jefferson and the opening of the American west. New York: Simon & Schuster.

Bailyn, B. (1990). Thomas Jefferson. Faces of revolution and themes in the struggle for American independence. New York: Alfred Knopp.

Beard, C. (1936). Jefferson, corporations and the Constitution. Washington: National Home
View Full Essay

Diverse Policing DQ

Words: 2544 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84929638

Diverse Policing

Criminal Profiling

While this opinion might be considered unpopular, the reality is that these repetitive stops are reasonable. These repetitive stops represent a phenomenon known as criminal profiling. Criminal profiling is done simply because it does catch criminals. For example, criminal profiling was precisely what helped police investigators catch a criminal known as George Metesky, a bomber who had eluded the police for over 15 years. The frustrated police force asked investigator James Brussel (the assistant commissioner of mental hygiene) to come up with a detail description of the subject based on crime scene photos, notes, and other details provided. Brussel came up with the following description of the subject: "He would be unmarried, foreign, self-educated, in his 50s, living in Connecticut, paranoid and with a vendetta against Con Edison -- the first bomb had targeted the power company's 67th street headquarters" (Winerman, 2004). As experts do admit,…… [Read More]

References

Belkin, L. (1990, March 20). Airport Drug Efforts Snaring Innocents Who Fit 'Profiles'. Retrieved from NYTimes.com: http://www.nytimes.com/1990/03/20/us/airport-drug-efforts-snaring-innocents-who-fit-profiles.html?pagewanted=all&src=pm

Bruce, B. (2012, April 17). Muslim Woman Forced To Remove Headscarf In Jail. Retrieved from Fox2now.com: http://fox2now.com/2012/04/17/muslim-woman-forced-to-remove-headscarf-in-jail/

Debatewise.org. (2013). The Police Should Use Racial Profiling To Tackle The Problems Of Illegal Immigration. Retrieved from Debatewise.org: http://debatewise.org/debates/2242-the-police-should-use-racial-profiling-to-tackle-the-problems-of-illegal-immigration/

Goyette, B. (2010, October 7). Racial Profiling Is Ineffective and Wrong, So Why Does It Keep Happening? Retrieved from genprogress.org: http://genprogress.org/voices/2010/10/07/15828/racial-profiling-is-ineffective-and-wrong-so-why-does-it-keep-happenin/
View Full Essay

ACLU Case

Words: 634 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31728646

ACLU

Racial profiling cases have always been an integral part of the American Civil Liberties Union's (ACLU) docket. Cases involving racial profiling have become increasingly high profile, if not actually more prevalent, since September 11 created mass witch hunts against Muslims and Muslim-Americans. According to the ACLU (2011), "Racial profiling continues to be a prevalent and egregious form of discrimination in the United States. This unjustifiable practice remains a stain on American democracy and an affront to the promise of racial equality."

Cases involving racial profiling or accusations thereof range from those that deal with individual cases (such as drivers being pulled over for no reason other than they were black) and collective cases. Collective cases include recent ones involving an ACLU=led lawsuit against the Transportation Security Administration (TSA). The lawsuit was successful, resulting in "the first time ever" that an agency within the U.S. Department of Homeland Security was…… [Read More]

References

ACLU (2005). "In Landmark Racial Profiling Settlement, Arizona Law Enforcement Agents Agree to Major Reforms." ACLU. Retrieved online: http://www.aclu.org/racial-justice/landmark-racial-profiling-settlement-arizona-law-enforcement-agents-agree-major-refor

ACLU (2011). Racial profiling. Retrieved online: http://www.aclu.org/racial-justice/racial-profiling
View Full Essay

Barry Friedman Details the Ethical

Words: 2159 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14270846

But if it wishes to stand by the stated principles of its founding and the message it attaches to its history, than profiling cannot be allowed to exist.

4) Deontological ethical systems "guide and assess our choices of what we ought to do," as opposed to suggesting what types of people we should be (Stanford, 2007). Another important distinction of deontological viewpoints is their emphasis on the motives and intentions behind an act in regards to that act's ethicality, as opposed to the consequences of that act. One narrow form of deontological ethics is moral absolutism, propagated by such thinkers as Immanuel Kant (Stanford, 2007). According to his view, acts are either moral or immoral in all situations, without any regard to the consequences (Stanford, 2007). Not all deontological viewpoints are this extreme, however it provides the clearest example of the deontological view. According to deontological ethics, acting in a…… [Read More]

References

Fauchon, C. (2004). "Counterpoint: the case against profiling." International social review, Fall-Winter 2004.

Friedman, Barry. (2004). "Policy point-counterpoint: profiling at airports." International social review, Fall-Winter 2004.

Reddick, S. (2004). "Point: the case for profiling." International social review, Fall-Winter 2004.

Stanford. (2007). Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Accessed 22 February 2009.  http://plato.stanford.edu
View Full Essay

Criminological Event Racism Has Always Been a

Words: 3112 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89761168

Criminological Event

Racism has always been a defining feature of the American criminal justice system, including racial profiling, disparities in arrests convictions and sentencing between minorities and whites, and in the use of the death penalty. Racial profiling against blacks, immigrants and minorities has always existed in the American criminal justice system, as has the belief that minorities in general and blacks in particular are always more likely to commit crimes. American society and its legal system were founded on white supremacy going back to the colonial period, and critical race criminology would always consider these historical factors as well as the legal means to counter them. From the 17th Century onward, Black Codes and slave patrols were used to control the black population, and keep them confined to farms and plantations. Blacks did not have the right to trial by jury or to testify against whites, and the law…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Capital Punishment (2011). Bureau of Justice Statistics.

http://bjs.ojp.usdoj.gov/index.cfm?ty=tp&tid=18

Cooper, S. (2006). "A Closer Look at Racial Profiling" in S.J. Muffler (ed). Racial Profiling: Issues, Data and Analyses. Nova Science Publishers, pp. 25-30.

Garland, D. (2010). Peculiar Institution: America's Death Penalty in an Age of Abolition. Harvard University Press.
View Full Essay

Government Ethics

Words: 1944 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64672022

Ethics

Criminal justice is an inherently ethical profession. The judiciary ostensibly crafts laws that reflect the ethical sensibilities and social norms of the society, which are often embedded in the American Constitution. The role of the criminal justice system is to ensure that local, state, and federal laws are applied and enforced in a manner consistent with constitutional and regional codes. Issues like the equal protection clause are also ethical matters. The core objective of the criminal justice system is built on ethical responsibility: the ethical responsibility of the system to its main stakeholders, which is the American people.

However, there are also ancillary ethical issues associated with criminal justice that are not codified. Such issues are often linked with ambiguities and philosophical complexities. Applying criminal justice ethics entails sensitivity and awareness to prevailing political and social climates. Among the most pressing ethical issues in criminal justice include those related…… [Read More]

References

American Civil Liberties Union (2012). Racial profiling. Retrieved online: http://www.aclu.org/racial-justice/racial-profiling

Banks, C. (2012). Criminal Justice Ethics. Sage.

Block, W.E. & Obioha, V. (2012). War on black men: Arguments for the legalization of drugs. Criminal Justice Ethics 31(2): 106-120.

Harfield, C. (2012). Police informers and professional ethics. Criminal Justice Ethics 31(2): 73-95
View Full Essay

Race Discrimination Justice Discrimination Race Discimination Criminal

Words: 1518 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91802995

Race Discrimination Justice

Discrimination

RACE DISCIMINATION CRIMINAL JUSTICE

Race and Discrimination in the Criminal Justice System

Racial inequality has long been an issue in the American society. Despite making substantial progress in creating a more racially equal society, there are still many issues involving race and discrimination that can be found today. The criminal justice system was designed to treat all individuals equally under the law. However, covert racism and discrimination still plague the system and many minorities are adversely impacted and are not treated equally under the law. While most judges and public officials profess a strong dedication to remaining racially impartial, the evidence suggests otherwise. This literature review will focus on various points that indicate that there is a substantial amount of inequality to found within the criminal justice system in our modern society.

Background

Racial differences in the criminal justice system have been important topics since the…… [Read More]

References

Crutchfield, R., Fernandes, A., & Martinez, J. (2010). Racil and Ethnic Disparity and Criminal Justice: How Much is Too Much? The Journal of Criminal Law & Criminology, 903-932.

Green, E. (1991). Judicial Attitudes in Sentencing - A Study of the Factors Underlying the Sentencing Practice of the Criminal Court of Philidelphia. National Criminal Justice Reference Service, 157.

Gross, S. (1997). Crime, Politics, and Race. Harvard Journal of Law & Public Policy, 405-416.

Staples, R. (2009). White Power, Black Crime, and Racial Politics. The Black Scholar, 31-41.
View Full Essay

Social Concerns

Words: 666 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42575452

Social Concern

In complex societies such as the United States, few things happen in isolation. When the country sets national policies into effect, those policies ripple throughout the population and affect other features of the society in dynamic ways. One such public policy is the "war on drugs." The war on drugs has rippled through society and affected other policies, such as racial profiling. Those two policies have become tied to urban poverty, tying all three together.

Profiling, or determining a set of characteristics a group of criminals are likely to share, has been justified by police forces as a way to fight the war on drugs. However, all too often the profiles are not terribly accurate and applied unfairly to one group over another. A detailed study in New Jersey done in 2001 showed that state troopers were pulling over more Blacks than whites or Hispanics, and then asking…… [Read More]

SOURCES:

Muschick, Paul. 2001. "Black Prisoners Increase While Population Stays Steady; Poverty, Racism and the Drug War all May be Putting more Blacks into Jail, Legal Experts Say." The News & Record (North Carolina), August 12.

Snow, Tony. 2001. "Police Still Using Racial 'Profiling': Whites carry more drugs, but blacks are stopped more often." The Voice, April 9.
View Full Essay

Criminal Justice Diversity in Criminal

Words: 684 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94685552

It appears to have become popular in the early 1990's by advocates and not police officers. Prior to those in charge telling the police what they are doing incorrect, they must outline it for themselves first. Criminologists are still trying to figure out how much profiling really goes on. It is very hard to measure since there is no set definition been determined. It has been suggested that the police are more probable to look for minorities because they commit an uneven amount of crimes. According to statistics in 2001, blacks were twelve percent of the nation's population but accounted for twenty seven percent of all sexual-assault convictions, sixty six percent of all robbery convictions and thirty eight percent of all fraud and embezzlement convictions.

If one sets aside the numbers and goes back to Cincinnati. In 2001, riots exploded following a white officer shooting and killing a black man…… [Read More]

References

Cloud, John. (2001). What's Race Got to Do With it? Retrieved November 10, 2010, from Time

Web site: http://www.time.com/time/covers/1101010730/
View Full Essay

Attacks of September 11 2001 Spawned a

Words: 392 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96494096

attacks of September 11, 2001 spawned a number of dubious government actions, including the intensification of racial profiling to target Arabs and Muslims. This means that a certain section of American society is under immediate suspicion of terrorism simply for being of a particular race or religion. Tolerance and equality are two of the highest principles treasured by the United States and its inhabitants. The fear and suspicion cultivated by racial profiling, especially after September 11, represents an abomination of the rights guaranteed under the Constitution to all within American borders.

To suspect millions of law-abiding, innocent people of terrorism as a result of the actions of a handful, is like suspecting all white males of perversion as a result of a few perverted serial killers. It is illogical and causes more harm than good.

There are many actions that are helpful in preventing terrorism. Immigration laws for example can…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Ambrose, Thomas. "Profiling's place on Sept. 11." Insight on the News, Sept 16, 2002. News World Communications, Inc., 2002.

Derbyshire, John. "At First Glance - Racial profiling, burning hotter." National Review, Oct 15, 2001. National Review, Inc., 2001.

Elvin, John. "Antiterror tactics spark differences of opinion." Insight on the News, Feb 4, 2003. News World Communications, Inc., 2003

Harris, David. "Flying while Arab: lessons from the racial profiling controversy." Civil Rights Journal, Winter, 2002. U.S. Commission on Civil Rights, 2002.
View Full Essay

Skittles Death Brings Both Profit Risk Http Www nytimes 2012 03 29 Skittles-sales-trayvon-martin-shooting html

Words: 1224 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2785965

Skittles, Death Brings Both Profit Risk" http://www.nytimes./2012/03/29//skittles-sales-trayvon-martin-shooting.html PLEASE CUT AND PASTE THIS LINK AND READ CAREFULLY TOP TO BOTTOM ************************************************************************************************ PLEASE READ CAREFULLY FROM START TO END THEN START YOUR WRITING You Chief Strategist a leading community relations consulting firm.

For Skittles, Death Brings Both Profit and Risk

Skittles is one of the most profitable candy brands in the world, with a globe wide presence and popularity. Throughout the past recent months, it has registered dramatic increases in its sales levels, but this increase is not entirely positive for the firm.

In February 2012, Trayvon Martin, an African-American teenage boy, was shot and killed by George Zimmerman, a crime watch volunteer (The New York Times, 2012). Martin was unarmed and only carried a bag of Skittles and a bottle of frozen tea.

The initial investigation ruled in favor of Zimmerman and decided that no charges would be pressed. This pronouncement…… [Read More]

References:

Severson, K., For Skittles, death brings both profit and risk, The New York Times, 2012, http://www.nytimes.com/2012/03/29/us/skittles-sales-up-after-trayvon-martin-shooting.html?_r=2 last accessed on April 4, 2012

Velez, A., Skittles sales rise after Trayvon Martin killing, 2012,  http://thestir.cafemom.com/food_party/135366/skittles_sales_rise_after_trayvon  last accessed on April 4, 2012

Diversity and inclusion, Wrigley Website, 2012, http://www.wrigley.com/global/principles-in-action/diversity.aspx last accessed on April 4, 2012

Trayvon Martin, The New York Times, 2012, http://topics.nytimes.com/top/reference/timestopics/people/m/trayvon_martin/index.html?inline=nyt-per last accessed on April 4, 2012
View Full Essay

Change Nursing and Health Care Discuss the

Words: 1133 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49961449

Change

Nursing and Health Care

Discuss the implications of Whren et al. v. United States (1996) and why many argue that this case has simply allowed for racial profiling to occur under the guise of pre-textual stops. Do you find any issues with pre-textual stops?

The pre-text stops are the stops from police officers in order to investigate the individuals that violated the traffic rules. These violations are minor and the police may stop in order to check the driver and passengers for any illegal possessions including drugs and weapons. These pre-text stops are often criticized because people feel that their freedom is attacked by stopping them without any 'reasonable' violations. Such a case occurred when two persons were stopped by police officers simply for stopping at road side for few seconds. The individuals also sped the vehicle that created suspicion in the minds of officers and led to the…… [Read More]

References

Barry, D.P., (1999), "Handling Police Misconduct In An Ethical Way," Retrieved from:

http://www.neiassociates.org/storage/HandlingPoliceMisconductEthicalWay-barrythesis.pdf

Dillon, C.R., (1997), "Whren v United States and Pretextual Traffic Stops: The Supreme Court

Declines to Plumb Collective Conscience of Police," Boston College Law review, 38(4)
View Full Essay

Free How the Criminal Justice System Is

Words: 2325 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79452872

Free

How the Criminal Justice System is Dysfunctional according to Paul Butler's Let's Get Free

The American criminal justice system has had a long history of prejudice. From the Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) decision that institutionalized the false concept of "separate but equal" to the Jim Crow laws that followed to the methods of "control" enacted by police in urban communities, criminal justice in the U.S. has seen lots of crime but little justice. Part of the reason for the inherent dysfunction in the way minorities have always been treated in America is that the country was founded on prejudiced WASP (White Anglo-Saxon Protestant) principles: the principle of "manifest destiny" was based on the supposedly "divine right" that WASPs had to "control" the New World and eradicate the "lesser" races (such as the Native Americans and the African-Americans). These prejudiced principles were absorbed into the criminal justice system through lawmakers…… [Read More]

Reference List

Butler, P. (2010). Let's Get Free: A Hip-Hop Theory of Justice. UK:

ReadHowYouWant Publishers.
View Full Essay

Street Gangs and Loitering Laws Los Angeles

Words: 2213 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61253036

Street Gangs and Loitering Laws

Los Angeles politicians have recently come together behind a proposed city ordinance that would allow police to arrest loitering street gang members. Mayor James K. Hahn, voiced his support for this new weapon in the battle against gang violence and drug trafficking. "Law abiding citizens shouldn't be afraid to go get a carton of milk at night," he said. "This ordinance will put gang members on notice."

Although the presence of gangs in Los Angeles is a prevalent problem that often leads to criminal activity and may pose a threat to public safety, pre-emptive police practices such as anti-loitering laws only stigmatize and indiscriminately target young men based on racial profiling instead of on criminal conduct. LAPD drug busts and massive raids have proven unsuccessful in establishing accountability and has resulted in police brutality and overly harsh enforcement on petty offences such as minor drug…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Davis, Mike. City of Quartz. New York: Vintage Books, 1992.

Winton, Richard. "Los Angeles; Politicians Back Call for Gang Loitering." The Los Angeles Times. 12, February 2003.

Savage, David G. "High Court Rejects Ban on Gang Loitering." The Los Angeles Times. 11 June 1999.

Megan Garvey and Richard Winton. "City Declares War on Gangs." The Los Angeles Times. 4 December 2002.
View Full Essay

Sociology of Crime Primarily Using

Words: 3045 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64968696



FIGHT AGAINST TERRORISM

A similar crime was witnessed on September 11, 2001. The United States of America saw the sad death of thousands of innocent people just because some people wanted to acquire their goals. This followed an economic crisis and many innocent civilians faced unnecessary loss of jobs. The political environment has ever since been changing constantly and the United States went into war against Afghanistan. After Afghanistan there was a pre-emptive action on Iraq against the regime of Saddam Hussein who was accused of possessing weapons of mass destruction.

With terrorism becoming more organized, the law enforcement bodies try to formulate more laws to provide security to their citizens. There have been many congressional debates on the Antiterrorism and the Immigration policies of the United States. The immigration laws have been made stricter with a better screening of who comes in and who does not. Recently the citizens…… [Read More]

REFERENCES:

(1) The History Guide -- Lectures on Modern European Intellectual History [http://www.historyguide.org/intellect/marx.html] Accessed on 27/08/2005

(2) Frank Elwell - The Sociology of Karl Marx [http://www.faculty.rsu.edu/~felwell/Theorists/Marx/#Printable%20Version] Accessed on 27/08/2005

(3) Conflict Theories [ http://www.sociology.org.uk/p2t3.htm ] Accessed on 27/08/2005

(4) Council on Foreign Relations [http://cfrterrorism.org/home/] Accessed on 27/08/2005
View Full Essay

Undocumented Students Equity to In-State Tuition Reducing

Words: 8115 Length: 22 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92893549

Undocumented Students Equity to in-State Tuition:

Reducing The Barriers

There exist policy ambiguities and variations at federal, state, and institutional levels related to undocumented student access to and success in higher education and this has created problems for these students. This study investigated specific policies and procedures to provide the resources and capital to assist undocumented students as well as reviewed key elements of showing the correlation of these difficulties with ethnic identity in access and equity to higher education that would help eliminate student's frustration. The study also illustrated that there is no accountability system surrounding the success of undocumented student's postsecondary education divide significant structure. Three research questions guided the study; a) Without the fundamental requirements met how will undocumented students achieve their goal to attain a degree, and seek a rewarding career? b) Is it unjust to extradite an illegal alien who has been living a constructive…… [Read More]

Scott, W.R. (2004). Institutional theory: Contributing to a theoretical research program. Retrieved from http://icos.groups.si.umich.edu/Institutional%20Theory%20Oxford04.pdf

Spickard, P. (2007). Almost all aliens: Immigration, race, and colonialism in American history and identity. New York, NY: Routledge.

Taylor, E. (2009). The foundations of critical race theory in education: An introduction. In E. Taylor, D. Gillborn & G. Ladson-Billings (Eds.), Foundations of critical race theory in education (pp. 1-13). New York, NY: Routledge.
View Full Essay

Criminological Research Surpasses the Mere Act of

Words: 969 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59205292

criminological research surpasses the mere act of searching and viewing material on a topic and writing an expressive paper. Before research is conducted, it is important to fully grasp and comprehend what it is that needs to be research, why it would be researched, why if it at all it has been researched, and how it may be performed. Types of research that can be performed are basic, multipurpose, or applied. The purpose for research is usually to gain information or knowledge. This information might be predictive, explanatory, intervening, or descriptive in nature.

All research follows basic steps. These steps can be interpreted in a variety ways, but normally follow the same structure, form hypothesis, state hypothesis, collect data, review and record results or conclusion. Fitzgerald, Cox, & Fitzgerald, 2002, p. 124). Different methods of inquiry help gather the data for the research. Reasoning, causal (observation), deduction, induction, and the…… [Read More]

References

Fitzgerald, J.D., Cox, S.M., & Fitzgerald, J.D. (2002). Research methods and statistics in criminal justice. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Pub.

Graziano, A.M., & Raulin, M.L. (2013). Research methods: A process of inquiry. Boston, Mass: Pearson.
View Full Essay

Criminal Justice General the Lackawanna

Words: 682 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95758806

S. (Bluhm & Heineman 2006: 124). As a result of surveillance activities carried out under the U.S. Patriot Act, they were apprehended, although other than a vague email there was no evidence of any planned attack (Bluhm & Heineman 2006: 124). They were originally accused of knowing about the 9/11 terror plot (Temple-Raston 2007:2).

According to Temple-Raston, "many people ask me why the United States hasn't been hit again. The FBI would tell you that its vigilance has prevented additional attacks; the Department of Homeland Security would add that our borders are better protected and that terrorists are better tracked. To some extent, that's true. But it's also important to note that the relationship between U.S. law enforcement and the American Muslim community has improved significantly. They increasingly share information, which lets law enforcement get leads on homegrown terrorism suspects early on and stop plots before they get beyond the…… [Read More]

Reference

Bluhm, William & Robert Heineman. (2006). Ethics and public policy. Prentice Hall.

Temple-Raston, Dina. (2007, September 7). Enemy within? Not quite. The Washington Post.

Retrieved October 22, 2010 at  http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/09/07/AR2007090702049.html
View Full Essay

Ethnicity in Stafford Virginia Living in the

Words: 2098 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91267179

Ethnicity in Stafford, Virginia

Living in the commonwealth of Virginia in the year 2012 is a mostly enjoyable existence for myself and the fellow members of my community. Stafford, Virginia is a relatively small place. We have about 100,000 people living here. This is a community steeped in heritage. One of the landmarks of our community is the boyhood farm of First President of the United States, George Washington. Ferry Farm is the central tourist attraction in Stafford and many of our local events center around our Founding Father. During the Civil War, President Abraham Lincoln visited Chatham, a private home in the region. The land was used as a station for the Union army during that war. America's history is part of our daily lives. This is evidenced by the fact that the phrase "Where history meets the promise of tomorrow" is emblazoned on the town's website (Stafford 2012).…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Callandar, Alane (2008). "Race Remains Complex Issue in South." The Stafford County Sun.

Cohan, Stacey (2010). "Autistic Teen Jailed for Officer Assault." Fox DC: Washington, D.C.

Freehling, Bill (2011). "Stafford Moving on Up on U.S. Wealth List." The Free Lance Star.

Fredericksburg, VA.
View Full Essay

Diversity in Law Enforcement on

Words: 647 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39438219

While some improvements in those strategies have occurred, further improvements are needed. To achieve this ends communities must begin to insist that their police department's leadership seriously seek to discover and eliminate cultural biases, prejudices, and other barriers that impede the ability of the police to effectively deal with cultural differences in the community. As America becomes more culturally diverse and citizens' skin colors begin to meld, the importance of recognizing sameness, rather than difference, becomes imperative.

Alexa Kasdan (2006) believes community groups need to work with police departments to analyze gaps in current recruitment efforts in order to develop new approaches to increase race and gender diversity among law enforcement personnel in their jurisdictions. The focus of recruitment efforts should aim toward building police forces whose members reflect the diversity of the wider society, even in overwhelmingly homogenous communities. Kasdan recommends beginning the process by gathering data to find…… [Read More]

References

Coderoni, G., R. (2002, November) The realtionship between mulitcultural training for police and effective law enforcement -- Perspective. The FBI law enforcement bulletin. In BNET, The CBS Interactive Business Network. Retrieved October 9, 2010, from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2194/is_11_71/ai_94873352/?tag=content;col1

Jan, T. (2009, July 20). Harvard professor Gates arrested at Cambride home. Metrodesk. Boston.com. Retrieved October 10, 2010, from http://www.boston.com/news/local/breaking_news/2009/07/harvard.html

Kasdan, A. (2006, October) Increasing diversity in police departments: Stratigies and tools for human rights commisions and others. Program in Criminal Justice and Management, John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University. Retrieved October 9, 2010, from http://www.hrccj.org/pdfs/increasing_police_diversity.pdf

Saulny, S., & Brown, R. (2009, July 24) Professor's arrest tests beliefs on racial progress. The NewYork times. New York Times Company. Retrieved October 9, 2010, from http://www.nytimes.com/2009/07/24/us/24blacks.html