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In addition the author suggests that the relationship between police and racial minority citizens has throughout history been controversial, and argues that racial profiling is simply a method by which police agents can perpetuate discrimination and prejudice (Bass, 2001).
Mcleod (2003) examines the viewpoint that the problem with racial profiling is that it unmistakable identifies a certain portion of the population as 'them' and pairs that description against 'we' suggesting that racial disparities upset the natural order of things (p. 343). Such thinking is not only outdated, but it also lays the foundation for ineffective policy and law enforcement efforts that are not focused on the problem, but are rather focused on a superficial aspect of a persons overall composition, namely their race (Mcleod, 2003).
Banks (2003) suggests that racial profiling is irrational and pervasive, and results in widespread investigation of black, Latinos and other racial minorities without empirical evidence…
Banks, R.R. (2003). "Beyond profiling: Race, policing and the drug war." Stanford Law Review,
Bass, S. (2001). "Policing space, policing race: Social control imperatives and police discretionary decisions." Social Justice, 28(1): 156
Harris, D. (2002). "Flying while Arab: Lessons from the racial profiling controversy." Civil
Rights Journal, 6(1): 8
acial profiling is not new, however, and was a theory of sociology in the late 19th century known as Social Darwinism. Incorrectly using Darwin's theory of evolution, the Social Darwinists believed that some species were morally superior to others, and even some races superior to othersJohnson ()
Public perception, though, believes in favor of seeing race as a reason for crime, and having a considerable fear of anyone outside their own ethnic group -- depending on the situation. Similarly, much so-called "organized crime," amounting to billions of dollars annually has similar stereotypes of ethnic origin (e.g. Mafia -- La Costa Nostra, ussian Mafia, Chinese Triads, Mexican Mafia, etc.). Still, over the past few decades, at least since the odney King beating, the use of race by law enforcement, and then after 9/11 by Homeland security, has received considerable political and media attention. One is agog, for instance, at the number…
Ayres, I. "Racial Profiling in Los Angeles: The Numbers Don't Lie." The Los Angeles Times (2008). Web. March 2013.
Clearly, J. "Racial Profiling Studies in Law Enforcement: Issues and Methodology." Minnesota House of Representatives Research Brief (2000). Web. March 2013.
Grogger, J. And Ridgeway, C. "Testing for Racial Profiling in Traffic Stops from Behind a Veil of Darkness." Journal of the American Statistical Association 475.1 (2006): 878-87. Print.
Johnson, D.P. The Historical Background of Social Darwinism. Contemporary Sociological Theories. New York: Springer 2008. Print.
acial Profiling Since 911
The racial profiling implies the discrimination by police to detail a person as suspect basing on the racial manifestations. In the present days the process of racial profiling has changed to a great extent. (Harris, 58) The racial profiling, till the present period was indicated towards the practice of police dragging over the black male drivers discriminately on the empirically valid but morally denounced hypothesis that they are more prone to be involved in crime. Presently, the very term is used parallel to the concept of racial discrimination. However, the racial profiling implies to anything specific that means logical discrimination that is racial prejudice with a non-racist justification. (Kinsley, p: B07)
The dependence on racial factor is quite hard to cabin or confine one aspect of law implementation. The racial profiles establish and reinforce popular labels about the inclination for criminality among the racial minorities. Popular…
Abowd, Mary. Arabs Still Reeling from 9/11 backlash - Growing Fears. The Chicago Reporter. December, 2002. p. A5-7
Bai, Jane; Tang, Eric. The War at Home: National Targeting of Noncitizens Takes on New Dimensions - A New Era - Immigrants in U.S. After 9/11. ColorLines Magazine: Race, Action, Culture. Spring, 2002. pp: 27-31
Barbour, Christine; Wright, Gerald C. Chapter Six: The Struggle for Political Equality: What's at Stake in Racial Profiling? Retrieved from http://college.hmco.com/polisci/barbour_wright/keep_repub/1e/students/sept11/ch06.html Accessed on 24 November, 2004
Davis, Nicole. The Slippery Slope of Racial Profiling. ColorLines Magazine: Race, Action, Culture. 13 December, 2001. pp: 16-20
The inverse would also be true. However, that question is not entirely black and white, pardon the pun (Stenning).
The reason for this is that race can inform whether or why to stop someone for a traffic stop or on the sidewalk with racism not being the root reason. For example, a young white woman in her 20's would stand out like a sore thumb in a drug-infested area that is almost exclusively black and Hispanic. It is almost a certainty that the women is either horribly lost or that she's there for less than noble reasons such as buying drugs or something of that nature. There could be other explanations but they are very unlikely. It is not all that dissimilar from a person that is black and is in an affluent and mostly white area. The person could very well be rich and well-off but there are a…
Crank, John P. "Scholarly Debate on Racial Profiling: To What End?." Canadian
Journal of Criminology & Criminal Justice 53.1 (2011): 79-85. Academic Search
Premier. Web. 2 June 2013.
Fox, Dov. "The Second Generation of Racial Profiling." American Journal of Criminal
The distinguished Harvard Professor Henry Louis Gates Jr., director of Harvard's W.E.B. Du Bois Institute for African and African-American tudies, was arrested for trying to break into someone's house. It happened to be his own (Project America; 2008). This is but one of numerous cases of racial profiling that has been documented in this country and that points to the injustice and irrationality of singling out ethnic minorities for alleged crimes that these individuals have never perpetrated. This is the definition of racial profiling. More specifically, racial profiling is the practice of law enforcement officers stopping an individual of a certain race or ethnicity and investigating them based on their ethnicity. uch practices may occur in traffic routines, guns or drugs (African-Americans), illegal immigration (Hispanics or Latinos), or in matters connected with security (Muslims and Arabs).
Racial profiling was authorized in 2001 with the Bureau of Justice Assistance,…
About.com. "Racial Profiling in the United States" http://civilliberty.about.com/od/lawenforcementterrorism/tp/History-of-Racial-Profiling.htm
Aclu.org "Racial Profiling."
Keating, C (2012) "Racial profiling law strengthened." Hartford Courant Project America
Ramirez et al. explains this clearly stating "when law enforcement practices are perceived to be biased, unfair, and disrespectful, communities of color and other minority groups are less willing to trust and confide in law enforcement officers and agencies, to report crimes that come to their attention, to provide intelligence and information, and to serve as witnesses at trials (Ramirez et al., 1996)." The author further explains that as it pertains to terrorism, Muslims and people of Arab descent might become unwilling to assist police when they have valuable information because they feel they are being discriminated against. In other words, racial profiling serves to increase instead of deter crime because it increases the hostility between police and the communities that they serve.
In addition to the inability of racial profiling to deter crime, one of the main problems often associated with racial profiling is the issue of civil liberties…
Amar, Paul (2010) Introduction: New racial missions of policing: comparative studies of state authority, urban governance, and security technology in the twenty-first Century. Ethnic and Racial Studies 33.4: April 2010 pp. 575
Florence, Justin Making the No Fly List Fly: A Due Process Model for Terrorist Watchlists The Yale Law Journal, 115. 8 (Jun., 2006), pp. 2148-2181
Kleiner, Y.S. Racial Profiling in the Name of National Security: Protecting Minority Travelers' Civil Liberties in the Age of Terrorism. Boston College Third World Law Journal 30.1: p. 103-44 (Winter 2010)
Ramirez, Deborah A., Hoopes, Jennifer, Tara Lai Quinlan. DEFINING RACIAL PROFILING IN A POST-SEPTEMBER 11 WORLD. The American criminal law review 40.3: 1195-1233. 2003
Detroit has also joined Los Angeles and Chicago in having such a regulation. A similar bill was attempted unsuccessfully thus far in Texas (2001). esponding to the concerns of organizations that represent Hispanics, Muslims and individuals of Arab descent, the Detroit City Council unanimously recently approved an ordinance that prohibits city officials from profiling people based on their appearance, race and similar factors. The regulation also bans city officials from asking the immigration status of people who have not participated in a serious crime. The city says that it is against the harassment of individuals who are Detroit residents or who come to Detroit, based on their physical appearance (Kruppa, 2007, B5). Ordinance exceptions for police investigations of active crimes are if the immigration status is relevant and in the assistance of federal investigations of terrorism.
Overall, changes in the law have been slow in coming -- especially on the…
ACLU. (2007, April 29). Department of Justice Statistics Show Clear Pattern of Racial Profiling. Retrieved on May 10, 2007 at http://www.aclu.org/racialjustice/racialprofiling/29532prs20070429.html
Amnesty International (nd). Testimony from Amnesty International USA's hearings on Racial Profiling. The Case of Donald Boyd. Retrieved on May 10, 2007 at http://www.amnestyusa.org /' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
The individual who learns the intensity of the racial hatred that exists through experiential learning knows that it is never wise to walk amongst the roses with one's head in the clouds just thinking or dreaming because living in the world meant watching at all times for approaching insult, breach of rights, danger and even death due to racial profiling.
III. Perspective Two: The Public Official
The public official is ever aware of the votes that hold him or her into their position. The position holds within it realm a certain power and safety that cannot be entered into, at least too harshly, with such things as racial profiling which are scary things indeed. However, to admit that such things were scary, and indeed that they even exist while one is in office is the quickest way to lose that office to the next man in line who claims to…
Racial Profiling: A Report on "Driving While Black" and the Controversial Law Enforcement strategy of racial profiling" (2001) PBS Online NewsHour 13 Mar 2001 Online available at: http://www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/race_relations/jan-june01/profiling_3 -
Racial Profiling Amnesty International USA Online at: http://www.amnestyusa.org / racial_profiling/index.do]
Federal Commission says NYPD Engages in "Racial Profiling" CNN News 2000 May 13 CNN News Report 2000 May 13 Online available at: http://racerelations.about.com/gi/dynamic/offsite.htm?site=http://www.cnn.com/2000/U.S./05/13/nypd.civil.rights/index.html
The Loudest Silence Ever Heard (1992) Fair site August/September 1992 Posted http://www.fair.org/extra/best-of-extra/black-conservatives.html Print Media Visibility of Conservative and Progressive Black Academics (In major papers and magazines on the Nexis database, Jan. 1, 1984 to July 20, 1992.)
acial Profiling of African-Americans in Lake County, Indiana
Students need to have an awareness about racial profiling, who are most likely to be targets for racial profiling, and about the steps necessary to work upon the solutions to racial profiling and this can be understood within the context of racial profiling in North West Carolina. acial profiling is considered to be one of the vital civil rights concerns of the present day. It has widespread influences adversely affecting more than just the victims to all the persons of all the generations and different status. It weakens the legitimacy of the criminal justice system and inhibits effective policing in the communities that necessitates it the most. In the circumstances of traffic stops by police officers, racial profiling is indicated to be the application of race or ethnicity by the enforcing officers as an element in concluding to stop, question, and search…
"Badge challenge: Recruit minorities." Post Tribune. Retrieved from http://www.post-trib.com/news/race0826.html Accessed on 16 May, 2005
"Components of Racial Profiling Legislation." (5 March, 2001) Institute on Race and Poverty. Retrieved from http://www1.umn.edu/irp/publications/racialprofiling.html Accessed on 16 May, 2005
Danitz, Tiffany. (10 May 1999) "States Face up To Realities of Police Racial Profiling"
Retrieved from http://www.stateline.org/live/ViewPage.action?siteNodeId=136& ; languageId=1& contentId=13679 Accessed on 16 May, 2005
New Jersey held hearings concerning racial profiling in which one state police investigator testified that 94% of the motorists stopped were minorities (Anderson Pp). Not only were minorities more likely to be stopped than whites, but more often than not are pressured to allow searches of their vehicles, and are more likely to allow such searches (Anderson Pp). In March 2001, the New York Times reported that a 1997 investigation by New Jersey police of their own practices found that "turnpike drivers who agreed to have their cars searched by the state police were overwhelmingly black and Hispanic" (Anderson Pp).
Although African-Americans and Hispanics have been the targeted victims of racial profiling, since the September 11th attacks, Arab-Americans and visitors from Middle Eastern countries also find themselves the target of racial profiling due to their ethnicity and the global profile of terrorists (Barnes Pp). Many believe that racial profiling is…
Lund, Nelson. "The conservative case against racial profiling in the war on terrorism." Albany Law Review; 12/22/2002; Pp.
Barnes, Katherine Y. "Road work: racial profiling and drug interdiction on the highway." Michigan Law Review; 12/1/2002; Pp.
Anderson, William. "The Roots of Racial Profiling." Reason; 8/1/2001; Pp.
When discussing law enforcement and crime prevention, one inevitably hits up against a philosophical impasse -- the rights and freedoms of the individual are inherently at odds with the purpose of the government which has its interest in controlling their actions. As law enforcement becomes increasingly tough-minded, it is increasingly true that the rights of the innocent must be sacrificed along with the rights of the guilty. So those who are more interested in the law than in freedom will inevitably be at odds with those who are more interested in freedom than in the law -- as there is no way to logically determine which is more valuable, so there is no way to logically determine which deserves the greater protection. The issue of racial profiling is one which falls into this area of debate quite naturally. It is generally inspired not by rabid racism but is…
4%, among whites, it was 7.2%, and was 6.4% among Hispanics, yet African-Americans represent more than 57% of those incarcerated for drug offenses in state prisons (Coker pp).
Police officers are more likely to stop African-Americans for traffic stops and once stopped, officers are more likely to search the vehicles of African-Americans. According to the 2001 traffic stop data in San Diego, African-American drivers had a sixty percent greater chance and Hispanic drivers had a thirty-seven percent greater chance of being stopped compare to white drivers, and once stopped, African-American drivers were more likely to have their vehicles searched (Coker pp). Many believe that this increased opportunity to discover criminal offending is a significant reason for the disproportionate rate of arrest and incarceration of African-Americans (Coker pp).
Drug enforcement concentrated in poor inner city areas populated predominately by African-Americans and other people of color results in deepened social disorganization in…
Banks, R. Richard. (2003 December 01). Beyond profiling: race, policing, and the drug war. Stanford Law Review. Retrieved October 12, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site.
Coker, Donna. (2003 June 22). Foreword: addressing the real world of racial injustice in the criminal justice system. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology. Retrieved October 12, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site.
As such, the question of fairness is not easily decided. Yet, we see that the Supreme Court has upheld racial profiling if used as a complementary technique. The American people as well support the utilitarian view that racial profiling is fair when evaluated in the context of all stakeholders, even if it seems unfair to a small few. The philosophical outlook of some may lead them to label racial profiling as unfair, but it is equally unfair to assume that one outlook -- especially a minority one -- is the only right outlook by which to evaluate racial profiling. Both legally and morally, America supports the use of racial profiling in limited context. To Americans, then, it is fair, because racial profiling is a valuable law enforcement tool that for all of its problems delivers more benefit to American society than it costs.
Bunzel, H. & Marcoul, P.…
Bunzel, H. & Marcoul, P. (2005). On the use of racial profiling as a law enforcement tool. Iowa State University. Staff General Research Papers 12397.
Cleary, J. (2000). Racial profiling studies in law enforcement: Issues and methodology. Minnesota House of Representatives, Information Brief. Retrieved February 23, 2010 from http://www.house.leg.state.mn.us/hrd/pubs/raceprof.pdf
Fetto, J. (2002). The usual suspects. American Demographics. Retrieved February 23, 2010 from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m4021/is_2002_June_1/ai_88679061/
Siggins, P. (2002). Racial profiling in an age of terrorism. Markkula Center for Applied Ethics.
In evaluating the legality of racial disparities in
law enforcement, the courts have clearly sought to determine the motivation
for discriminating." (Knowles et al, 207) This illustrates a wide
political and philosophical variance in the way that Americans understand
this concept of police discrimination, with the courts asking questions
seeming to imply that discrimination is not in and of itself a negative
Quite to the point, across the last eight years, the ar On Terror
had promoted the idea, especially within the law enforcement culture, that
there were significant justifications for the intensification of methods
which focused specifically on the activities of individuals descending from
targeted nationalities, religions and ethnic backgrounds. Specifically,
even as the Bush administration had initiated the discourse on profiling by
explicitly stating a position of opposition where law enforcement is
concerned, it would quickly alter its stance when faced with the challenges
implied after the…
AELE. (1999). New Jersey Attorney General issues a lengthy and
controversial Report on racial profiling by state troopers. State of New
Jersey: Department of Law and Public
Service. Online at
Dept. Of Justice. (2000). Addressing Police Misconduct. Civil Rights
Division: Coordination and Review Section. Online at
For the past several decades the emphasis in policing has been building trust in the community. Making the streets safe for everyone requires mutual cooperation between the general public and the police. Without community support, the police cannot do it alone. In this regard, respect as been shown to be a better tool for decreasing crime than fear and when fear is present residents tend to avoid contact with local police officials and other government officials that the residents believe may check on their immigration status or the status of family members. Information from these groups regarding criminal activities in their community is non-existent. Respect between law enforcement and community members is far more conducive to developing a good and lawful environment and involving local authorities in immigration enforcement creates an aura of fear. Auras that even the best law enforcement officials will have difficulty overcoming.
The process of racial…
Aguirre, A. (2004). Profiling Mexican-American Identity: Issues and Concerns. The American Behavioral Scientist, 928-942.
Friedersdorf, C. (2010, May 18). The Best Case Against Arizona's Immigration Law: The Experience of Greater Phoenix. Retrieved June 7, 2011, from The Atlantic: http://www.theatlantic.com/special-report/the-future-of-the-city/archive/2010/05/the-best-case-against-arizonas-immigration-law-the-experience-of-greater-phoenix/56859/
Harris, D. (2010, June 17). Ending Racial Profiling: Necessary for Public Safety and the Protection of Civil Rights. (U.S. House of Representatives Judiciary Committee)
Jadallah, D. (2010). State Power and the Constitution of the Individual: Racial Profiling of Arab-Americans. Arab Studies Quarterly, 218-237.
Enforcement of law and order in the most efficient manner is one of the crucial and most challenging tasks. In order to keep the social environment peaceful and progressive, it is important for the law enforcement agencies to function with maximum efficiency within the ethical boundaries. However, in recent years, the law enforcement agencies in the United States, especially the police department, has been criticized for being biased and prejudiced towards the minorities. Their have been a number if incidences in which the minority citizens have accused the police of treating them with discrimination. Even though, the police department claims that there has been a decline in the crime rate in recent years but the accusations of racially biased policing creates doubts about the authenticity of such claims. With an increase in criticism on the practice of racially biased policing, the authorities have now started to investigate the…
David a. Harris: Driving While Black: Racial Profiling on our nation's highway: from the World Wide Web: http://www.aclu.org/profiling/report/
Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia: Racial Profiling: from the World Wide Web: http://www.wikipedia.com/wiki/racial+profiling
David a. Harris: Profiles in Injustice: Why Police Profiling Cannot Work: New Press: 2002
John Cloud: Racial Profiling: What's Race Got to Do With it? Time Magazine Online Edition: from the World Wide Web: http://www.time.com/time/covers/1101010730/ cover.html
The problem is endemic and deeply rooted, but it is also one that cannot be openly discussed with social stigma.
Racial profiling as a theoretical practice is not wholly unfair, it is the rational use of discrimination to pre-empt crime. However, since racial profiling is often combined with racial discrimination, the inevitable result is that both such practices are institutionally rebuked. Law enforcement will continue to use race as a causal factor for stopping citizens, however, due to the severe social stigma of voicing such opinions, it is an issue that no one will want or need to confront.
Driving While Black: Racial Profiling on Our Nations Highways by David a. Harris, University of Toledo College of Law. An American Civil Liberties Union Special Report, June 1999:
R. Richard Banks, Racial Profiling and Antiterrorism Efforts, 89 Cornell Law Review 1201-1217 (2004).
rom Racial to Religious Profiling, in ree Inquiry. By…
From Racial to Religious Profiling, in Free Inquiry. By Guy Harrison. 2 pages
Policing Space, Policing Race: Social Control Imperatives and Police Discretionary Decisions Journal article by Sandra Bass; Social Justice, Vol. 28, 2001
The Truth about Racial Profiling, in the American Enterprise. By Martin Morse Wooster. 1 pages
A poll conducted by the Gallop group and published in the journal Public Administration Review (ard, 2002, p. 726) shows that 59% of adults surveyed agreed that "…some police officers stop motorists of certain racial or ethnic groups" simply because the officers guess that those certain groups "are more likely than others to commit certain types of crime." Of the African-Americans that were surveyed, 78% agreed with that statement; 56% of the Caucasians agreed; and 80% of both groups agreed that it is an unfair practices (ard, 726).
ard references a study called "The Ohio Study" (conducted by David Harris in 1999) that used municipal court records from the metropolitan regions of Akron, Dayton, Toledo and Columbus. This study indicated that over a two-year period, African-Americans were "twice as likely to receive tickets as non-blacks, whites or Hispanics (ard, 726). Another research survey was conducted in the late 1980s and…
Cole, George F., and Smith, Christopher E. The American System of Criminal Justice.
Cengage Learning, 2006.
Kops, Deborah. Racial Profiling. Tarrytown, NY: Marshall Cavendish, 2006.
Muffler, Steven J. Racial Profiling: Issues, Data, and Analysis. Hauppauge, NY: Nova
And just what do officers see that indicates to them that there might be something amiss in an automobile, enough so to justify pulling that car over to the side of the road? The authors remind readers that officers have, with each encounter, a "wide scope for numerous acts of on-the-spot discretion." Basically, a traffic stop is "an interpretative act," the article explains. The officer has to determine and identify the "physical and behavioral clues that indicate a violation of the law" (Vito, 91). The officer has to "translate those cues into legal procedures and rules of evidence." This takes training, and when the dust has settled, the question that is important is was their "probable cause" to justify the stop, the search, the ticket or the arrest?
An article in the online version of the San Francisco Chronicle (Fagan, 2008) refers to a situation in Palo Alto, California,…
Fagan, Kevin. (2008). Palo Alto police chief denies racial profiling. San Francisco
Chronicle. Retrieved Dec. 2, 2008, at http://www.sfgate.com .
Racial Profiling Data Collection Resource Center. (2008). Northwestern University.
Retrieved Nov. 28, 2008, at http://www.racialprofilinganalysis.neu.edu/
Racial profiling in airports [...] how terrorist attacks in America call for increasing racial profiling in airports, similar to Israel's El Al Airlines racial profiling tactics. Racial profiling is a highly controversial topic, but some countries have found racial profiling helps keep people safer, and makes sense, while many political groups feel it is a clear violation of rights, and should never be used. Racial profiling may be controversial, but after the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, it may be one of the only reliable ways available to keep the country safe from further attacks.
RACIAL PROFILING IN AIRPORTS
In the days after the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, people in the United Sates were afraid. They were afraid of another attack, and they were angry. They were angry the government had not known about the attacks, and somehow stopped them. They were angry about the senseless killing…
Colb, Sherry F. "The New Face of Racial Profiling: How Terrorism Affects the Debate." FindLaw.com. 10 Oct. 2001. 15 July 2003. http://writ.news.findlaw.com/colb/20011010.html
Editors. "Attack Shows Limits to Airport Security." BBC News. 5 July 2002. 15 July 2003. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/americas/2096081.stm
Kinsley, Michael. "Racial Profiling at the Airport." Slate.com. 28 Sept. 2001. 15 July 2003. http://slate.msn.com/?id=116347
Mac Donald, Heather. "The Myth of Racial Profiling." City Journal. Spring, 2001. 15 July 2003. http://www.city-journal.org/html/11_2_the_myth.html
Racial Profiling: To What End?" By John P. Crank attempts to reason upon the race debate concerning racial profiling. He attempts to focus on broad implications that police policy has on society. It seems to concentrate on whether or not policy is racist concerning inner-city populations with high crime rates. This perspective misses the mark entirely. High crime rates, in dense populations of minorities, mean reactive politics resulting in higher rates of incarceration. This is a societal problem of social/economic stagnation due to failings of every level government. The epidemic should not be boiled down to differing policies of law enforcement.
Studying the consequences of racial profiling as Henry and Tator suggest is to ignore the rampant crime epidemic in America's inner cities. Basically, we need to explore why the educational systems in high minority/low economic areas suffer from graduation rates as low as 40% and wholesale dropouts. We also…
acial Profiling in Maricopa County Sheriff's Office:
acial profiling is a practice that contributes to unfair treatment of individuals based on their origins and/or race. In the past few years, there have been accusations that the Sheriff's Office of Maricopa County engages in this practice. These allegations have particularly been leveled against Sheriff Joe Arpaio who is renowned for his tough position on illegal aliens, crime, and minimal prisoner benefits. As a result of his tough stance, Sheriff Joseph Arpaio is considered as the toughest Sheriff in the United States since he commonly referred to as such by the country's media. As an individual with a long standing history in the criminal justice, the Sheriff has achieved remarkable success that has attracted global media, governmental officials, and politicians. While this office continues to be accused of racial profiling, the reality of these allegations is yet to be fully determined. Actually,…
Carter, T. (2010, April). THE Maricopa Courthouse WAR. ABA Journal, 96(4), 43-49.
Conde, C.D. (2010, June 7). Whereas Watch Your Step, Latinos. The Hispanic Outlook in Higher Education, 20(5).
Conde, C.D. (2012, August 20). Sheriff Joe Says to "Shut Your Mouths." The Hispanic Outlook
in Higher Education, 22(5).
Police and Racial Profiling
Racial profiling, the practice by law enforcement of targeting people for police and security stops based on their race or ethnicity, has become a topic of concern and debate across the country. Many refer to this practice as DB -- "driving while black," however, many other minorities feel that they too are singled out unnecessarily by law enforcement in public areas due simply to the color of their skin (Porter Pp). Numerous studies suggest that law enforcement does appear to practice racial profiling (Banks Pp).
In 1999 the foundations of law enforcement were shaken after New Jersey state police commanders admitted to using "drug-courier profiles" to stop motorists on the state's main turnpikes, the New Jersey Turnpike and the Garden State Parkway (Edelstein Pp). New York, as well, was spotlighted in the media concerning the beating and sodomizing of Abner Louima by Police Officer Justin Volpe…
Trende, Sean P. "Why modest proposals offer the best solution for combating racial profiling." Duke Law Journal. 10/1/2000; Pp.
Kruger, Karen J. "Collecting statistics in response to racial profiling Allegations."
The FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin. 5/1/2002; Pp.
Rudovsky, David. "Breaking the pattern of racial profiling: when law enforcement officers make discretionary judgments based on race, can litigation put an end to stop-and-search violations?" Trial. 8/1/2002; Pp.
tenet of Christian societies is a need to create healthy and safe local communities. Christians frequently emphasize freedom and justice within the Judeo-Christian perspective. That means creation and promotion of fair criminal justice policies. These criminal justice policies must do away actions based on stereotypes and try to eliminate racial profiling as of apprehending potential criminals. With the support of religious entities and congregations, implementation of community-oriented policing methods through collaboration with intelligence-gathering entities may lead to effective and easier community policing. Things like fusion centers and intelligence-led policing (ILP) may make such a novel aim possible.
Fusion centers act as an information sharing center. Fusion centers were created under the U.S. Department of Justice through two government agencies: Office of Justice Programs and U.S. Department of Homeland Security. Most of them were formed from 2003-2007 (ukus, Warner, & Zhang, 2017). The purpose of fusion centers is to promote at…
Lambert, D. (2010). FBI -- Intelligence-Led Policing in a Fusion Center. Retrieved from https://leb.fbi.gov/2010/december/intelligence-led-policing-in-a-fusion-center
Rukus, J., Warner, M. E., & Zhang, X. (2017). Community Policing: Least Effective Where Need Is Greatest. Crime & Delinquency, 1-24. doi:10.1177/0011128716686339
Schmalleger, F. (2017). Criminal justice today: An introductory text for the twenty-first century (14th ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall Career & Technology.
Spencer, K. B., Charbonneau, A. K., & Glaser, J. (2016). Implicit Bias and Policing. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 10(1), 50-63. doi:10.1111/spc3.12210
Racial Profiling: An Overview of the Debate
According to the National Institute of Justice (NIJ), racial profiling is one of the most controversial issues in America today. The data is clear that there is a stronger perception within many historically discriminated-against minority groups that profiling goes on and this has had a negative impact on community-police relations. Although data suggests that often members of minority groups perceive themselves as singled out by the police the NIJ also reports that satisfaction with the police is often more strongly correlated with neighborhood crime rates than race ("Race, Trust and Police Legitimacy"). The evidence is ambiguous regarding the extent to which racial profiling actually takes place. Some police supporters contend that higher rates of searches of minority suspects are likely to be due to a confluence of factors, including crime rates within specific neighborhoods, while critics point out that even minorities who are…
Natarajan, Ranjana. "Racial profiling has destroyed public trust in police. Cops are exploiting our weak laws against it." The Washington Post. 15 Dec 2014. 4 Dec 2016. Web.
"Racial Profiling and Traffic Stops." NIJ. 10 Jan 2013. 4 Dec 2016. Web.
"Race, Trust and Police Legitimacy." NIJ. 17 Jul 2016. 4 Dec 2016. Web.
Restoring a National Consensus: The Need to End Racial Profiling in America. The Leadership
Race and Arrests
Racial Profiling, according to the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU), is a "longstanding and deeply troubling national problem." It involves police and private security personnel targeting people of color based on suspicions, in most cases, that the individual being targeted is up to something illegal. The ACLU states that racial profiling "occurs every day," and the result for the innocent person of color is often a "frightening detention, interrogation, and searches without evidence of criminal activity." The basis for the stop in many cases is a person's perceived race, ethnicity, and national origin -- and in some cases the clothing a person is wearing in addition to the color of his skin. This paper delves into a few of the questions that surround racial profiling: a) why do police feel the need to racially profile people? b) Is it just part of the work of a cop…
American Civil Liberties Union. (2011). Racial Profiling. Retrieved December 2, 2014, from https://www.aclu.org .
Blair, L. (2014). Michigan Police Officer Detains Man for 'Making People Nervous' by Walking With Hands in Pockets in Near Freezing Cold. The Christian Post.
Retrieved December 2, 2014, from http://www.christianpost.com .
Brumback, K. (2014). Holder Announces Plan to Target Racial Profiling. ABC News.
Criminal and acial Profiling
Criminal profiling is the act of using a profile of crime in order to locate and identify suspects: it is, in the words of Grafton (2008), "where you look at a specific crime and you try to determine -- does it occur in a specific way and is it caused by a specific type of person." acial profiling, on the other hand, is the act of using race to locate and identify suspects -- "to target people" (Dutta, 2010). Criminal profiling is part of a process that law enforcement agents employ in order to get a better understanding of and hold on crime and crime-ridden areas. acial profiling, which can often be confused with criminal profiling because criminal profiles often produce a theme of "ethnic group in control for a specific type of crime," is part of a process of harassing individuals based primarily on their…
Dutta, S. (2010). Criminal profiling vs. racial profiling. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved from http://articles.latimes.com/2010/nov/22/opinion/la-oe-dutta-racial-profiling-20101122
Grafton, L. (2008). Law enforcement expert discusses differences between criminal and racial profiling. Shreveport Times. Retrieved from http://archive.shreveporttimes.com/article/99999999/NEWS01/801200303/Law-enforcement-expert-discusses-differences-between-criminal-racial-profiling
Koffler, J. (2015). University of Cincinnati Cop Indicted in Killing of Unarmed Black
Man. Time. Retrieved from http://time.com/3976976/samuel-dubose-footage/
Stop and Frisk: The Efficacy of This Technique
Stop and frisk is one of the most controversial techniques used by the NYPD to reduce crime. Stop and frisk, as its name suggests, is when police officers stop pedestrians on the street and frisk them for drugs, weapons, and other illegal substances. On the surface, it might seem as if this is a violation of the Fourth Amendment which prohibits searches and seizures without probable cause. Almost by definition, stop and frisks are conducted without adhering to usual standards of probable cause since they are usually made relatively randomly at police discretion with only minor evidence of an infraction. Furthermore, the NYPD's specific stop and frisk program was recently declared unconstitutional but not primarily based on the Fourth Amendment. According to the district court judge the policy was "discriminatory, and showed little regard for the requirement that stops be based on…
Bergner, D. "Is stop and frisk worth it?" The Atlantic. Mar 2014. [20 Mar 2014]
"Stop and frisk data." NY Civil Liberties Union. [20 Mar 2014]
acial Profiing Discussion
The events from 2001 marked a crucial point in the history of the United States from the perspective of the casualties and human loss they produce but at the same time from the perspective of the changes these events marked in the American society. Nowadays, the security measures are increased to such an extend that there have been wide debates on the potential abuses that may take place in terms of human rights, privacy issues, as well as personal security.
One of the security measures enforced since September 2001 is the extended control measures and techniques used to prevent any terrorist attacks from taking place on American soil. At the same time though, despite the fact that increased security measures are justified, they also allow controversies over potential abuses. One of the arguments protesting against increased security measures as they are enforced today points out the role…
Cloud, John. "What's Race Got To Do With It?" Time Magazine. 2001. Online edition. Available at http://www.time.com/time/covers/1101010730/ cover.html
Taylor, Leslie. "Police condemned for profiling of letter carrier." The StarI 2009. Available at http://www.thestar.com/News/GTA/article/670484
Dept. Of Justice. Fact Sheet: Racial profiling. June 17, 2003. Available online at http://www.justice.gov/opa/pr/2003/June/racial_profiling_fact_sheet.pdf
acial profiling is one of the most pressing civil right issues of our time. It extends beyond directs victims to negatively affect all persons of color of all generations and income levels. It undermines the legitimacy of the criminal justice system, and hinders effective policing in the communities that need it the most. A esource Guide on acial Profiling Data Collection System defines racial profiling as any police-initiated action that relies on the race, ethnicity or national origin rather than the behavior of an individual or information that leads the police to a particular individual who has been identified as being or having been, engaged in criminal activity. In the context of traffic stops by police officers, racial profiling should be defined broadly as encompassing officer's use of race or ethnicity as a factor in deciding to stop, question, search or arrest someone. acial profiling has been monitored in a…
Brenner, S.J., Schencke, L. (2002). Local officials seek to resolve racial profiling.
Retrieved February 10, 2005, from The Daily Illini
Web site: http://illinimedia.com/di/feb02/feb28/news/stories/news_story01.shtml
Gewertz, K. (2005). Schauer: Profiling can be a useful investigative tool. Retrieved February 10, 2005, from the President and Fellows of Harvard College
Racial Profiling and Discrimination in America
Slavery in the United States formally began during the late seventeenth century, when the country was still a British colony. The institution then expanded and intensified rapidly during the eighteenth century, reaching its peak during the start of the nineteenth. During most of this time, for all intents and purposes, simply to be black was enough to identify one as a slave. That is to say, racial distinctions between whites and people of color were not merely noted, but comprised the economic and legal foundation of American society. Once slavery was abolished, black Americans did not suddenly occupy a station equal to that of their white contemporaries. Jim Crow and anti-miscegenation laws were in effect, usually in the South, and other forms of segregation were commonplace throughout the nation. In the poem "Outcast," Claude McKay clearly identifies the prejudice and the alienation he faces…
Franklin, John Hope. "The Train from Hate." In Missy James and Alan P. Merickel, eds., Reading Literature and Writing Argument. Fifth Edition. New York: Longman, 2012.
McKay, Claude. "Outcast." In Missy James and Alan P. Merickel, eds., Reading Literature and Writing Argument. Fifth Edition. New York: Longman, 2012.
Okita, Dwight. "In Response to Executive Order 9066." In Missy James and Alan P. Merickel, eds., Reading Literature and Writing Argument. Fifth Edition. New York: Longman, 2012.
profiling an effective tool for law enforcement to use in policing society?
Racial profiling is the practice of law enforcement officers in stopping an individual of a certain race or ethnicity and investigating them based on their ethnicity. uch practices may occur in traffic routines or in matters connected with security. Racial profiling is forbidden in most states and in fact, as the article "RACIAL PROFILING LAW TRENGTHENED" (2012) by Keating, Christopher shows the enate recently strengthened the state's racial profiling law.
On the one hand, as stated in Harcourt (2004), many of the people involved in traffic incidents do seem to be of a similar race. We have the same occurrence with security matters where, over and again, it seems to be most frequently people of Islamic extraction who perpetrate terrorist activities against the West. More so, Fundamentalist Islam has come out overtly against the West threatening the West…
Harcourt, BE (2004) Rethinking racial profiling…. Univ. Chicago Law Review, 71, 4
Keating, C (2012) RACIAL PROFILING LAW STRENGTHENED Hartford Courant
incarceration in the United States exhibits extreme racial disparity. There are significantly more African-Americans in the prison system than there are in the general population in fact, almost 50% of those incarcerated at any given time are black men and yet the U.S. population is comprised of only 12% African-Americans. (Clear & Cole 2002, Chapter 19) Cole and Clear give three main explanations for this disparity, differential criminality among minorities, racist criminal justice system and lastly a racist general population. (Clear & Cole 2002, Chapter 19) Within all three of these arguments there is some limited validity, yet it is also clear that there is still problem in need of serious address. acial disparity within prison and corrections in general is the most serious issue facing the corrections industry today.
The effects of racial disparity in incarceration reach much farther than the effects inside the social and economic structure of…
Clear, T. & Cole, G. (2002) American Corrections: Sixth Edition, New York, NY:
Coker, D. (2003). Foreword: Addressing the Real World of Racial Injustice in the Criminal Justice System. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 93(4), 827+. Retrieved November 14, 2004, from Questia database, http://www.questia.com .
Knepper, P. (2000). Chapter 2 the Alchemy of Race and Crime Research. In The System in Black and White: Exploring the Connections between Race, Crime, and Justice, Markowitz, M.W. & Jones-Brown, D.D. (Eds.) (pp. 15-27). Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers.
If seen from the perspective of law enforcement, racial profiling can be described as "government action that relies on the race, ethnicity, or national origin rather than the behavior of an individual or information that leads the police to a particular individual who has been identified as being, or having been, engaged in criminal activity" (Etienne, 2012).
Though racial profiling is practiced in almost every country of the world, United States is the best example to understand it and its pros and cons. The law enforcement agencies in the United States have often treated the minorities in the country rather unfairly. Before the 9/11 terrorist attacks on the U.S.A., the main victims of racial profiling were Blacks. However, since the occurrence of these terrorist attacks, the law enforcement agencies have primarily targeted Arabs and Muslims for profiling (Bah, 2006).
One can find several notable likenesses among the profiling…
Annabelle, L. (2007). What's Wrong with Racial Profiling? Another Look at the Problem. Criminal Justice Ethics, 26 (1), Retrieved August 4, 2012 from http://www.questia.com /read/1G1-202802842/what-s-wrong-with-racial-profiling-another-look-at
Bah, A.B. (2006). Racial Profiling and the War on Terror: Changing Trends and Perspectives1. Ethnic Studies Review, 29 (1), Retrieved August 3, 2012 from
Differences in achievement are often attributed to race, ethnicity, gender or social class, when in reality it is often these demographic considerations that impact the ways teachers, parents, and educational professionals treat students. Lowered expectations for African-American students or elevated expectations for upper-income whites are common symptoms of the current and outmoded ideology. All schools needed to examine the problem with such obviously biased assumptions and to reform school curricula based on a more democratic ideology. Furthermore, the schools had to reform the definition of intelligence in order for the reforms to take root. Redefining intelligence was in fact the largest obstacle in altering the racial dynamics in the public schools.
We will not face such serious ideological challenges, as our organization is fundamentally different from a school. However, we face our own outmoded beliefs and assumptions and must also learn to redefine some of the essential aspects of our…
(Davis, 2001) That number is sure to have risen dramatically since Davis did her research.
The debates surrounding both the efficacy and the morality of racial profiling have created a lot of disagreement from many communities of color. Kabzuag Vaj is an organizer with the Asian Freedom Project in Madison, Wisconsin. The Asian Freedom Project has garnered hundreds of accounts of racial profiling of Southeast Asian youth over the past year. (Davis, 2001)
"Talking to the mainstream about racial profiling is hard," says Vaj. "The excuse people give us is extreme times demand extreme measures, whatever is necessary to catch the terrorists." (Davis, 2001) Organizers at People United for a etter Oakland (PUELO) also face similar concerns. They understand that although they are on all levels a multiracial organization, their campaign against racial profiling and police misconduct is simply inadequate to address the current political and sociological situation. "The fact…
Nicole Davis. 2001. The slippery slope of racial profiling. Color Lines. December 2001.
St. Petersburg Times, June 8, 2003. Aschroft's America. Editorial.
Anthony Romero. 2001. Letter to Attorney General Ashcroft. American Civil Liberties Union, Oct. 17, 2001.
New York Times, Mar. 13, 2002. Hundreds of Arabs still detained in U.S. Jails. From Reuters.
aker reviewed three landmark Supreme Court decisions on capital punishment and concluded that the death penalty is capriciously imposed on lack defendants and thus serves the extra-legal function of preserving majority group interests. He viewed discrimination in capital sentencing as deliberate and identified the primary reasons why lack defendants with white victims have been denied fairness in capital sentencing. These are prosecutorial discretion in the selective prosecution of capital cases, prosecutorial misuse of peremptory challenges to systematically exclude lacks from juries, judicial overrides by trial judges, prosecutorial misconduct and the ineffective assistance by defense counsel (Emmelman).
Helen Taylor Greene used a colonial model to explore the effectiveness and limitations placed on the police in the past and in the present (Emmelman, 2005). This colonial model showed that the police, regardless of color, were an oppressive force in many communities. Lately, lack political empowerment and ascendancy in many law enforcement departments…
American Law Library (2009). Racial profiling: should police practice racial profiling?
Vol.8, American Encyclopedia: Net Industries. Retrieved on March 29, 2013
Banks, C (2004), Racial Discrimination in the Criminal Justice System. Chapter 3. Sage
(Harris, 2002, p. 8)
Terrorist acts are both crimes and forms of warfare, and in both respects are unlike what we are used to." 2 Understanding the larger possibilities, such as warfare, law enforcement will be able to make informed decisions on matters concerning data collection. When gathering information it is important to document and standardize every step of the process. This will alleviate any complications when categorizing behaviors or activities and will ensure that all participants in the process are on the same playing field. (onczkowski, 2004, p. 72)
Following the 9/11 attacks on the U.S. which is an example of foreign terrorism, though domestic terrorism has been present in the U.S. For decades, many individuals accepted new standards of security that might infringe upon their rights as citizens to freely travel, assemble and speak, yet more recent protests have been leveled against law enforcement and security measures as…
Califano, J.A. (1998, October). A New Prescription: Investing in Substance-Abuse Treatment Would Take a Big Bite out of Crime. Washington Monthly, 30, 9.
Evans, D.J., Fyfe, N.R., & Herbert, D.T. (Eds.). (1992). Crime, Policing, and Place: Essays in Environmental Criminology. New York: Routledge.
Glenn, R.W., Panitch, B.R., Barnes-Proby, D., Williams, E., Christian, J., Lewis, M.W., et al. (2003). Training the 21st Century Police Officer: Redefining Police Professionalism for the Los Angeles Police Department / . Santa Monica, CA: Rand.
Groth, a.N. (1979). Men Who Rape: The Psychology of the Offender. New York: Plenum Press.
government have the right to racially profile?
We all stereotype others to some extent or other. These are natural, evolutionary ways of perceiving others, namely categorizing them into particular groups. Stereotypes are often erroneous, since people, are, after all, individuals rather than categories, and, therefore, stereotyping is often considered a subjective negative thing to do. On the other hand, it is argued that sometimes, people in positions of authority may be compelled to stereotype and to categorize certain groups for the sake of public security.
One such instance is racial profiling, perpetrated by the government and by, for instance, airport security, particularly when applied to people of Middle East extraction in order to ascertain that they are not carrying bombs or other harmful weapons on their person. On the one hand, the political times warrants this racial profiling; on the other hand, instances such as Timothy McVeigh have taught us…
Issue17: Is Middle Eastern Profiling ever Justified?
' Anthony, an actual resident of the street, sneers at white perceptions of how blacks talk in the media: "You think whites go around callin' each other honky all day?" hile Anthony's theft of the SUV is clearly shown to be destructive, socially as well as morally, the film also shows how black inner city views of law and order have evolved in such a negative and polarized fashion: the presence of the black officer Detective Graham aters is undercut by the racism and racial profiling of other members of the force.
Racism is circular in nature, and this is revealed in Anthony's lapses in logic: "That waitress sized us up in two seconds. e're black and black people don't tip. So she wasn't gonna waste her time. Now somebody like that? Nothing you can do to change their mind. You expect me to pay for that kind of service?"…
Crash. Directed by Paul Haggis. 2004.
Racial Profiling: Driving While Black
For years, the Black community believed that Black Americans were routinely and disproportionately stopped by police officers while driving in their cars.
Statistical evidence now supports the anecdotal evidence that had been fermenting for so many years.
For example, one scholar conducted a study in New Jersey which concluded that from 1988 to 1991, more than 73% of the persons stopped and arrested while driving on the New Jersey Turnpike were Black. Shockingly, less than 14% of the cars on the Turnpike even carried a Black person - whether as a passenger or driver.
Other studies have come to the same findings and conclusions, and more and more reports of such evidence has been reported as the problem becomes widely known.
Racial profiling affects the victim not just incidentally and individually, but it also affects and reflects many larger societal issues and injustices involving race…
Glisson, C. The Art of the State of Social Work Research: Implications for Mental Health. Research on Social Work Practice 5. 1995: 201-2
Marsh, Jeanne. "Learning from Clients." Social Work.
Davis Angela J.."Prosecution and Race: The Power and Privilege of Discretion." Fordham Law Review. 67 (1998)..
'In New York City, the controls are better. Since Sept. 11, as police are looking for terrorists and those who mail anthrax, the controls have increased. So crime continues to go down. Everyone is much more alert.'" (NewsMax Wires)
Queens, NY has also become really diverse with people from different ethnic and racial backgrounds coming in and living there. There are large numbers of Hispanics, Asians and African-American in Queens. However there is a difference in the drop of crime rate in Queens and Brooklyn. "Year to date, overall crime is down 7.1% in Queens, 5.6% in Brooklyn" (Anonymous). However the overall general change is that in both communities, crime rates have plummeted and there is increased safety for the civilians. Normally in areas where there is a wide diversity of people living, there is an increased rate in crime and although there has been unemployment in the entire city…
1) U.S. Bureau of the Census, Population Estimates Program, Population Division, "Counties Ranked by Black Population in 1998" (Table CO-98-16), September 15, 1999.
2) Anonymous - The Tipping Point. [Online website] Available at http://www.gladwell.com/1996/1996_06_03_a_tipping.htm [Accessed on: 15/09/2005]
3) Randy Bergmann - New York City: Few places can match Brooklyn's imprint on American culture. [Online website] Available at http://www.phillyburbs.com/pb-dyn/news/170-11122002-120.html [Accessed on: 15/09/2005]
4) NewsMax Wires - NYC Crime Rate Continues To Drop. [Online website] Available at http://www.newsmax.com/archives/articles/2002/3/20/60653.shtml [Accessed on: 15/09/2005]
As to my "negative characteristics": I do indeed get frustrated when my children forget their manners and behave poorly; I have a habit of losing track of time occasionally when I'm deeply involved in a project; as indicated earlier, I trust people too soon; I have a tendency to do things perfectly the first time, which can cause stress; and five, I become very intense when I see that something needs to be done around the house immediately.
In order to make positives out of my negatives, I believe in the Chinese ideogram that says obstacle and challenge are really the same thing - it's all in how you approach the problem. I work hard to keep my moods in a positive flow, and although we humans are sometimes the product of our emotions, professionals strive to control emotions and see life in its full perspective.
As to motivation, I…
The social problem studied in this paper is racial discrimination. acial discrimination is any discriminatory act against a person based on race. A subtype of racial discrimination would be racial harassment. The magnitude of racial discrimination is very high: according to the FBI's most recent HCSA report, 51% of reported hate crimes are based on race (Hate Crimes in America, 2015). However, as Blank, Dabady and Citro (2004) point out, "simply identifying an association with race is not equivalent to measuring the magnitude of racial discrimination or its contribution to differential outcomes by race" (p. 72). In other words, it is not easy to define the magnitude of racial discrimination because distilling the cause-and-effect relationship requires testing and in complex socio-economic environments, experiments are difficult to conduct with adequate controls. Nonetheless, a qualitative magnitude may be discerned in the narratives of men like Malcolm X and Martin Luther…
Blank, R., Dabady, M., Citro, C. (2004). Measuring Racial Discrimination. NY: NAP.
Hate Crimes in America. (2015). Civil Rights. Retrieved from http://www.civilrights.org/publications/hatecrimes/nature-and-magnitude.html?referrer=https://www.google.com/
Jones, E. M. (2000). Libido Dominandi: Sexual Liberation and Political Control.
South Bend, IN: St. Augustine's Press.
e. height, weight, age, race, etc.), in connection with the investigation of specific criminal activity, that information allows authorities to narrow the search for individuals who match those identifying characteristics. The process is perfectly logical and obviously makes infinitely more sense than continuing to search for individuals who bear no resemblance to the descriptions provided by reliable sources.
However, the same legitimate techniques with respect to specific evidence of crimes also has a history of impermissible application in ways that deprive subjects of police investigation of their fundamental constitutional rights. For example, in the late 20th century, the U.S. Customs Service and the Drug Enforcement Administration both made extensive use of what they called "criminal indicators" in connection with their efforts to apprehend criminal drug traffickers as they attempted to enter the U.S. At the borders (Schmalleger, 2007).
Among other criteria, those sets of indicators including Hispanic origin and language,…
Dershowitz, a. (2002) Shouting Fire: Civil Liberties in a Turbulent Age. New York: Little Brown & Co.
Peak, K. (2002) Policing America: Methods, Issues, Challenges (Third Edition). New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Schmalleger, F. (2007). Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Text for the 21st Century. Hoboken, NJ: Prentice Hall
U.S. Institute of Justice and Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research (1999) Police-Public Contact Survey; Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences; Mar 2004
Intentions of the Group
Profiling terrorists can be helpful for counter-terrorism efforts. While there is no one terrorist profile, there are "risk factors for involvement," (Kershaw, 2010). One of the risks that has been most explored in scholarly research is the need for a collective, shared identity in the terrorist organization (Post, Ali, Henderson, Shanfield, Victoroff & Weine, 2009). This is true for the Aryan Nation, recognized as a top domestic terrorism threat by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). The Aryan Nations Group dubs itself a "Premier Christian Identity Church Organization," with the word "identity" featuring firmly (Aryan Nations, 2013). Members of the Aryan Nation also emphasize the "nation" part of their identity, creating an artificial in group-out group status that enforces personal and collective identities.
Although Vaisman-Tzachor (2006) claims that race is not a necessary component in the profile of a terrorist, it certainly is with the…
Aryan Nations (2013). Website retrieved online: http://www.aryan-nation.org/
Aryan Nations. (2012). Terrorist Organization Profile, University of Maryland. Retrieved from: http://www.start.umd.edu/start/data_collections/tops/terrorist_organization_profile.asp?id=29
Kershaw, S. (2010). The terrorist mind: An update. The New York Times. 9 Jan, 2010. Retrieved online: http://www.nytimes.com/2010/01/10/weekinreview/10kershaw.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0
Post, J., Ali, F., Henderson, S., Shanfield, S., Victoroff, J., and Weine, S. (2009). The psychology of suicide terrorism. Psychiatry, 72(1), 13-31. Retrieved November 14, 2012, from ProQuest. (Document ID: 1683378291).
At the same time, Hitler had very old-fashioned ideas when it came to his behavior towards the opposite sex. He believed that women belonged in the home, and had no role in public life of the Reich. Their main role was to mother racially pure Aryan children.
If Hitler were to have removed himself to a German-speaking part of Argentina in order to pursue an art career rather than remain in Europe and become leader of the Third Reich, one can only assume that he would have limited his contacts to Argentineans of German descent. Hitler felt that Jews, Slavs, and other racial "undesirables" were polluting the purity of the German race. Add to that his repressed nature that surfaced in the form of traditional attitudes towards sex and procreation, and it seems readily apparent that he would attempt to ground his Argentinean art career among German-speaking "pure" Argentineans.
Welch, David. Hitler: Profile of a Dictator (London and New York: Routledge, 1998), 79.
Victor, George. 1998. Hitler: The Pathology of Evil (Dulles, Virginia: Brassey's), 13-20.
Victor 1988, 62.
Academic Profile of Home Schooling - a Case Study
Home Schooling vs. Traditional Educational Methods
Home Schooling Methodology
Focus of the Practicum
Area of Inquiry
Home Schooling as an Alternative
Curricula and Materials Used for Home Schooling
The Success of Home Schooling
Conditions for Change
Maryland: A Legal Analysis
State Laws and Regulations - Maryland
Goulart and Travers vs. Calvert County
Home-schooled Kids Find Social Growth"
Home Schoolers in the Trenches"
Home School Academic Advantage Increases Over Time"
Home Schooling." ERIC Digest, Number 95.
The Academic Profile of Home Schoolers
The focus of this applied dissertation proposal is to examine and analyze home school families' academic environment, the institutional materials they use, and to gain an understanding of their academic success.
Prince George's County Public School System is the nineteenth largest school system in the nation with a…
Buchanan, Jim (1984). Home Instruction: A Growing Alternative to Public Schools. Monticello, IL.
Lande, Nancy (2000). Home school Open House: Interviews with 55 Home schooling Families. Bozeman, MT
Waring, Bill and Diane (1999). Emerald Books: A look back on what they learned along the way by veteran home schooling parents of varying approaches.
Cormier in six weeks' time to note changes in Ms. Cormier's approach to discipline and any positive results with students. At that time, they will conference about Ms. Cormier's progress and further plans for improvement.
Section V: Summary
Ms. Cormier was nervous about being observed. At the end of the lesson, she seemed near tears and confessed that she believed the lesson had not gone well at all. The supervisor assured Ms. Cormier that the lesson idea was a good one. It was suggested that, in the future, Ms. Cormier provide students with clearer direction so they would not use questions as a delaying tactic when they were charged to sit down and begin the assignment. It was suggested that Ms. Cormier include a list of "brainstormed" words on the board that students could use. It was also suggested that she give students a writing prompt rather than an open-ended…
metropolitan city of Chicago. The area has a total population of 28886 persons. The socio economic class structure is dominated by the middle class or lower middle class families. The overall population is dominated by the females. Life expectancy is higher among females as compared to males.
The racial and ethnic composition of the area is dominated by whites followed by Asians, of which majority comprises of Indian origin. The third highest ethnicity is of blacks. There is little or no existence of Pacific Islanders or Native Americans.
The highest level of education in the area 60631 is of high school graduates. The second highest level of education is college attendance without a diploma while the third highest level of education is of bachelor's degree holders. The level of education from there onwards is on significant decline. Suggested reasons for this may be people opting out of educational institution to…
Hello Chicago. (2011). Census data for Chicago 60631. Retrieved from http://www.hellochicago.com/zip/chicago_illinois_zip_code_60631.cfm #census' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
The perpetrator may even have a documented prior criminal history involving physical or sexual assaults of victims with some of the same characteristics as the current series of victims. More likely than not, the perpetrator is a product of a home in which children witnessed physical abuse of their mother and/or experienced physical abuse themselves.
The fact that all but one victim shows evidence that the force used in the murder far exceeded that necessary to achieve death by strangulation suggests that the perpetrator possesses a significant amount of anger, even rage, at someone represented by his victims. The fact that all but one of the victims suffered a broken neck suggests that the perpetrator is more likely under the age of 50 than older, and more likely either a large or physically robust individual or both. uggested Investigatory Focus:
Based on preliminary analysis of the behavioral evidence, it is…
Gerrig, R., Zimbardo, P. (2005) Psychology and Life 17th Edition. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
Innes, B. (2007) Serial Killers: The Stories of History's Most Evil Murderers. London: Quercas.
Schmalleger, F. (2001) Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Text for the 21st Century. Hoboken, NJ: Prentice Hall
While this opinion might be considered unpopular, the reality is that these repetitive stops are reasonable. These repetitive stops represent a phenomenon known as criminal profiling. Criminal profiling is done simply because it does catch criminals. For example, criminal profiling was precisely what helped police investigators catch a criminal known as George Metesky, a bomber who had eluded the police for over 15 years. The frustrated police force asked investigator James Brussel (the assistant commissioner of mental hygiene) to come up with a detail description of the subject based on crime scene photos, notes, and other details provided. Brussel came up with the following description of the subject: "He would be unmarried, foreign, self-educated, in his 50s, living in Connecticut, paranoid and with a vendetta against Con Edison -- the first bomb had targeted the power company's 67th street headquarters" (Winerman, 2004). As experts do admit,…
Belkin, L. (1990, March 20). Airport Drug Efforts Snaring Innocents Who Fit 'Profiles'. Retrieved from NYTimes.com: http://www.nytimes.com/1990/03/20/us/airport-drug-efforts-snaring-innocents-who-fit-profiles.html?pagewanted=all&src=pm
Bruce, B. (2012, April 17). Muslim Woman Forced To Remove Headscarf In Jail. Retrieved from Fox2now.com: http://fox2now.com/2012/04/17/muslim-woman-forced-to-remove-headscarf-in-jail/
Debatewise.org. (2013). The Police Should Use Racial Profiling To Tackle The Problems Of Illegal Immigration. Retrieved from Debatewise.org: http://debatewise.org/debates/2242-the-police-should-use-racial-profiling-to-tackle-the-problems-of-illegal-immigration/
Goyette, B. (2010, October 7). Racial Profiling Is Ineffective and Wrong, So Why Does It Keep Happening? Retrieved from genprogress.org: http://genprogress.org/voices/2010/10/07/15828/racial-profiling-is-ineffective-and-wrong-so-why-does-it-keep-happenin/
acial profiling cases have always been an integral part of the American Civil Liberties Union's (ACLU) docket. Cases involving racial profiling have become increasingly high profile, if not actually more prevalent, since September 11 created mass witch hunts against Muslims and Muslim-Americans. According to the ACLU (2011), "acial profiling continues to be a prevalent and egregious form of discrimination in the United States. This unjustifiable practice remains a stain on American democracy and an affront to the promise of racial equality."
Cases involving racial profiling or accusations thereof range from those that deal with individual cases (such as drivers being pulled over for no reason other than they were black) and collective cases. Collective cases include recent ones involving an ACLU=led lawsuit against the Transportation Security Administration (TSA). The lawsuit was successful, resulting in "the first time ever" that an agency within the U.S. Department of Homeland Security was…
ACLU (2005). "In Landmark Racial Profiling Settlement, Arizona Law Enforcement Agents Agree to Major Reforms." ACLU. Retrieved online: http://www.aclu.org/racial-justice/landmark-racial-profiling-settlement-arizona-law-enforcement-agents-agree-major-refor
ACLU (2011). Racial profiling. Retrieved online: http://www.aclu.org/racial-justice/racial-profiling
But if it wishes to stand by the stated principles of its founding and the message it attaches to its history, than profiling cannot be allowed to exist.
4) Deontological ethical systems "guide and assess our choices of what we ought to do," as opposed to suggesting what types of people we should be (Stanford, 2007). Another important distinction of deontological viewpoints is their emphasis on the motives and intentions behind an act in regards to that act's ethicality, as opposed to the consequences of that act. One narrow form of deontological ethics is moral absolutism, propagated by such thinkers as Immanuel Kant (Stanford, 2007). According to his view, acts are either moral or immoral in all situations, without any regard to the consequences (Stanford, 2007). Not all deontological viewpoints are this extreme, however it provides the clearest example of the deontological view. According to deontological ethics, acting in a…
Fauchon, C. (2004). "Counterpoint: the case against profiling." International social review, Fall-Winter 2004.
Friedman, Barry. (2004). "Policy point-counterpoint: profiling at airports." International social review, Fall-Winter 2004.
Reddick, S. (2004). "Point: the case for profiling." International social review, Fall-Winter 2004.
Stanford. (2007). Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Accessed 22 February 2009. http://plato.stanford.edu
acism has always been a defining feature of the American criminal justice system, including racial profiling, disparities in arrests convictions and sentencing between minorities and whites, and in the use of the death penalty. acial profiling against blacks, immigrants and minorities has always existed in the American criminal justice system, as has the belief that minorities in general and blacks in particular are always more likely to commit crimes. American society and its legal system were founded on white supremacy going back to the colonial period, and critical race criminology would always consider these historical factors as well as the legal means to counter them. From the 17th Century onward, Black Codes and slave patrols were used to control the black population, and keep them confined to farms and plantations. Blacks did not have the right to trial by jury or to testify against whites, and the law…
Capital Punishment (2011). Bureau of Justice Statistics.
Cooper, S. (2006). "A Closer Look at Racial Profiling" in S.J. Muffler (ed). Racial Profiling: Issues, Data and Analyses. Nova Science Publishers, pp. 25-30.
Garland, D. (2010). Peculiar Institution: America's Death Penalty in an Age of Abolition. Harvard University Press.
Criminal justice is an inherently ethical profession. The judiciary ostensibly crafts laws that reflect the ethical sensibilities and social norms of the society, which are often embedded in the American Constitution. The role of the criminal justice system is to ensure that local, state, and federal laws are applied and enforced in a manner consistent with constitutional and regional codes. Issues like the equal protection clause are also ethical matters. The core objective of the criminal justice system is built on ethical responsibility: the ethical responsibility of the system to its main stakeholders, which is the American people.
However, there are also ancillary ethical issues associated with criminal justice that are not codified. Such issues are often linked with ambiguities and philosophical complexities. Applying criminal justice ethics entails sensitivity and awareness to prevailing political and social climates. Among the most pressing ethical issues in criminal justice include those related…
American Civil Liberties Union (2012). Racial profiling. Retrieved online: http://www.aclu.org/racial-justice/racial-profiling
Banks, C. (2012). Criminal Justice Ethics. Sage.
Block, W.E. & Obioha, V. (2012). War on black men: Arguments for the legalization of drugs. Criminal Justice Ethics 31(2): 106-120.
Harfield, C. (2012). Police informers and professional ethics. Criminal Justice Ethics 31(2): 73-95
ace Discrimination Justice
ACE DISCIMINATION CIMINAL JUSTICE
ace and Discrimination in the Criminal Justice System
acial inequality has long been an issue in the American society. Despite making substantial progress in creating a more racially equal society, there are still many issues involving race and discrimination that can be found today. The criminal justice system was designed to treat all individuals equally under the law. However, covert racism and discrimination still plague the system and many minorities are adversely impacted and are not treated equally under the law. While most judges and public officials profess a strong dedication to remaining racially impartial, the evidence suggests otherwise. This literature review will focus on various points that indicate that there is a substantial amount of inequality to found within the criminal justice system in our modern society.
acial differences in the criminal justice system have been important topics since the…
Crutchfield, R., Fernandes, A., & Martinez, J. (2010). Racil and Ethnic Disparity and Criminal Justice: How Much is Too Much? The Journal of Criminal Law & Criminology, 903-932.
Green, E. (1991). Judicial Attitudes in Sentencing - A Study of the Factors Underlying the Sentencing Practice of the Criminal Court of Philidelphia. National Criminal Justice Reference Service, 157.
Gross, S. (1997). Crime, Politics, and Race. Harvard Journal of Law & Public Policy, 405-416.
Staples, R. (2009). White Power, Black Crime, and Racial Politics. The Black Scholar, 31-41.
In complex societies such as the United tates, few things happen in isolation. When the country sets national policies into effect, those policies ripple throughout the population and affect other features of the society in dynamic ways. One such public policy is the "war on drugs." The war on drugs has rippled through society and affected other policies, such as racial profiling. Those two policies have become tied to urban poverty, tying all three together.
Profiling, or determining a set of characteristics a group of criminals are likely to share, has been justified by police forces as a way to fight the war on drugs. However, all too often the profiles are not terribly accurate and applied unfairly to one group over another. A detailed study in New Jersey done in 2001 showed that state troopers were pulling over more Blacks than whites or Hispanics, and then asking…
Muschick, Paul. 2001. "Black Prisoners Increase While Population Stays Steady; Poverty, Racism and the Drug War all May be Putting more Blacks into Jail, Legal Experts Say." The News & Record (North Carolina), August 12.
Snow, Tony. 2001. "Police Still Using Racial 'Profiling': Whites carry more drugs, but blacks are stopped more often." The Voice, April 9.
It appears to have become popular in the early 1990's by advocates and not police officers. Prior to those in charge telling the police what they are doing incorrect, they must outline it for themselves first. Criminologists are still trying to figure out how much profiling really goes on. It is very hard to measure since there is no set definition been determined. It has been suggested that the police are more probable to look for minorities because they commit an uneven amount of crimes. According to statistics in 2001, blacks were twelve percent of the nation's population but accounted for twenty seven percent of all sexual-assault convictions, sixty six percent of all robbery convictions and thirty eight percent of all fraud and embezzlement convictions.
If one sets aside the numbers and goes back to Cincinnati. In 2001, riots exploded following a white officer shooting and killing a black man…
Cloud, John. (2001). What's Race Got to Do With it? Retrieved November 10, 2010, from Time
Web site: http://www.time.com/time/covers/1101010730/
attacks of September 11, 2001 spawned a number of dubious government actions, including the intensification of racial profiling to target Arabs and Muslims. This means that a certain section of American society is under immediate suspicion of terrorism simply for being of a particular race or religion. Tolerance and equality are two of the highest principles treasured by the United States and its inhabitants. The fear and suspicion cultivated by racial profiling, especially after September 11, represents an abomination of the rights guaranteed under the Constitution to all within American borders.
To suspect millions of law-abiding, innocent people of terrorism as a result of the actions of a handful, is like suspecting all white males of perversion as a result of a few perverted serial killers. It is illogical and causes more harm than good.
There are many actions that are helpful in preventing terrorism. Immigration laws for example can…
Ambrose, Thomas. "Profiling's place on Sept. 11." Insight on the News, Sept 16, 2002. News World Communications, Inc., 2002.
Derbyshire, John. "At First Glance - Racial profiling, burning hotter." National Review, Oct 15, 2001. National Review, Inc., 2001.
Elvin, John. "Antiterror tactics spark differences of opinion." Insight on the News, Feb 4, 2003. News World Communications, Inc., 2003
Harris, David. "Flying while Arab: lessons from the racial profiling controversy." Civil Rights Journal, Winter, 2002. U.S. Commission on Civil Rights, 2002.