Racial Profiling Essays Examples

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Racial Profiing Discussion the Events From 2001

Words: 799 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2732559

Racial Profiing Discussion

The events from 2001 marked a crucial point in the history of the United States from the perspective of the casualties and human loss they produce but at the same time from the perspective of the changes these events marked in the American society. Nowadays, the security measures are increased to such an extend that there have been wide debates on the potential abuses that may take place in terms of human rights, privacy issues, as well as personal security.

One of the security measures enforced since September 2001 is the extended control measures and techniques used to prevent any terrorist attacks from taking place on American soil. At the same time though, despite the fact that increased security measures are justified, they also allow controversies over potential abuses. One of the arguments protesting against increased security measures as they are enforced today points out the role of racial profiling. According to the Department of Justice, racial profiling "rests on the erroneous assumption that any particular individual of one race or ethnicity is more likely to engage in misconduct than any particular individual of other races or ethnicities" (Dept. Of Justice, 2003). More precisely, there have been…… [Read More]

Cloud, John. "What's Race Got To Do With It?" Time Magazine. 2001. Online edition. Available at http://www.time.com/time/covers/1101010730/cover.html

Taylor, Leslie. "Police condemned for profiling of letter carrier." The StarI 2009. Available at http://www.thestar.com/News/GTA/article/670484
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Profiling Used as a Legitimate Law Enforcement Tool

Words: 2488 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93892508

Racial profiling is one of the most pressing civil right issues of our time. It extends beyond directs victims to negatively affect all persons of color of all generations and income levels. It undermines the legitimacy of the criminal justice system, and hinders effective policing in the communities that need it the most. A Resource Guide on Racial Profiling Data Collection System defines racial profiling as any police-initiated action that relies on the race, ethnicity or national origin rather than the behavior of an individual or information that leads the police to a particular individual who has been identified as being or having been, engaged in criminal activity. In the context of traffic stops by police officers, racial profiling should be defined broadly as encompassing officer's use of race or ethnicity as a factor in deciding to stop, question, search or arrest someone. Racial profiling has been monitored in a number of jurisdictions, and in nearly all of these jurisdictions was found to be a significant problem.

a) Racial Profiling violates civil rights

Racial profiling affects law abiding citizens as well as offenders innocent persons of color are stopped, question and searched for reason that would not lead to stops…… [Read More]

Brenner, S.J., Schencke, L. (2002). Local officials seek to resolve racial profiling.

Retrieved February 10, 2005, from The Daily Illini
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Profiling America S Racist Ideology

Words: 1329 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41630580

Racial Profiling and Discrimination in America

Slavery in the United States formally began during the late seventeenth century, when the country was still a British colony. The institution then expanded and intensified rapidly during the eighteenth century, reaching its peak during the start of the nineteenth. During most of this time, for all intents and purposes, simply to be black was enough to identify one as a slave. That is to say, racial distinctions between whites and people of color were not merely noted, but comprised the economic and legal foundation of American society. Once slavery was abolished, black Americans did not suddenly occupy a station equal to that of their white contemporaries. Jim Crow and anti-miscegenation laws were in effect, usually in the South, and other forms of segregation were commonplace throughout the nation. In the poem "Outcast," Claude McKay clearly identifies the prejudice and the alienation he faces as a legacy of slavery and of the forceful removal of Africans from their ancestral homelands (McKay 198). Racial discrimination in the United States is more easily understood when viewed in this wider context of American history: it can be hardly surprising that racism still exists in a country whose…… [Read More]

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Profiling an Effective Tool for Law Enforcement

Words: 1021 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84541360

profiling an effective tool for law enforcement to use in policing society?

Racial profiling is the practice of law enforcement officers in stopping an individual of a certain race or ethnicity and investigating them based on their ethnicity. Such practices may occur in traffic routines or in matters connected with security. Racial profiling is forbidden in most states and in fact, as the article "RACIAL PROFILING LAW STRENGTHENED" (2012) by Keating, Christopher shows the Senate recently strengthened the state's racial profiling law.

On the one hand, as stated in Harcourt (2004), many of the people involved in traffic incidents do seem to be of a similar race. We have the same occurrence with security matters where, over and again, it seems to be most frequently people of Islamic extraction who perpetrate terrorist activities against the West. More so, Fundamentalist Islam has come out overtly against the West threatening the West with retribution and extinction. In this case, then it would make sense to place more focus on people of Islamic extraction as more likely - although not necessarily so -- to commit terrorism. There are many exceptions too. Timothy McVeigh for instance was a home-spun American and many of the…… [Read More]

Harcourt, BE (2004) Rethinking racial profiling…. Univ. Chicago Law Review, 71, 4

Keating, C (2012) RACIAL PROFILING LAW STRENGTHENED Hartford Courant
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Racial Disparity in Incarceration Rates

Words: 1644 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96043365

incarceration in the United States exhibits extreme racial disparity. There are significantly more African-Americans in the prison system than there are in the general population in fact, almost 50% of those incarcerated at any given time are black men and yet the U.S. population is comprised of only 12% African-Americans. (Clear & Cole 2002, Chapter 19) Cole and Clear give three main explanations for this disparity, differential criminality among minorities, racist criminal justice system and lastly a racist general population. (Clear & Cole 2002, Chapter 19) Within all three of these arguments there is some limited validity, yet it is also clear that there is still problem in need of serious address. Racial disparity within prison and corrections in general is the most serious issue facing the corrections industry today.

The effects of racial disparity in incarceration reach much farther than the effects inside the social and economic structure of the prison's themselves and this disparity is likely to continue to feed itself through the societal effects to the whole population. Initial discrimination in the general population assails minorities with conflict and disproportionate social and economic challenges. "Restricted and isolated from the institutionalized means to achieve the goals of the…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Clear, T. & Cole, G. (2002) American Corrections: Sixth Edition, New York, NY:

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Use of Profiling to Combat Terrorism

Words: 1636 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54540123

Racial Profiling

If seen from the perspective of law enforcement, racial profiling can be described as "government action that relies on the race, ethnicity, or national origin rather than the behavior of an individual or information that leads the police to a particular individual who has been identified as being, or having been, engaged in criminal activity" (Etienne, 2012).

Though racial profiling is practiced in almost every country of the world, United States is the best example to understand it and its pros and cons. The law enforcement agencies in the United States have often treated the minorities in the country rather unfairly. Before the 9/11 terrorist attacks on the U.S.A., the main victims of racial profiling were Blacks. However, since the occurrence of these terrorist attacks, the law enforcement agencies have primarily targeted Arabs and Muslims for profiling (Bah, 2006).

One can find several notable likenesses among the profiling of Blacks and the profiling of Arabs and Muslims. The basic problems with racial profiling in both cases are that the civil liberties of guiltless people are defied and the equal protection of the law to minorities is denied. Today, racial profiling has been redefined by the War on Terror.…… [Read More]

Annabelle, L. (2007). What's Wrong with Racial Profiling? Another Look at the Problem. Criminal Justice Ethics, 26 (1), Retrieved August 4, 2012 from http://www.questia.com/read/1G1-202802842/what-s-wrong-with-racial-profiling-another-look-at

Bah, A.B. (2006). Racial Profiling and the War on Terror: Changing Trends and Perspectives1. Ethnic Studies Review, 29 (1), Retrieved August 3, 2012 from http://www.questia.com/read/1P3-1154091261/racial-profiling-and-the-war-on-terror-changing-trends
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Racial Dynamics the Organization for

Words: 983 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5344665

Differences in achievement are often attributed to race, ethnicity, gender or social class, when in reality it is often these demographic considerations that impact the ways teachers, parents, and educational professionals treat students. Lowered expectations for African-American students or elevated expectations for upper-income whites are common symptoms of the current and outmoded ideology. All schools needed to examine the problem with such obviously biased assumptions and to reform school curricula based on a more democratic ideology. Furthermore, the schools had to reform the definition of intelligence in order for the reforms to take root. Redefining intelligence was in fact the largest obstacle in altering the racial dynamics in the public schools.

We will not face such serious ideological challenges, as our organization is fundamentally different from a school. However, we face our own outmoded beliefs and assumptions and must also learn to redefine some of the essential aspects of our business. For example, our wish to diversify our workforce represents a kind of "detracking." We have prided ourselves in our uniqueness. In the same way that public schools gleefully distinguish their "gifted" students from the masses, so too have we proudly distinguished ourselves as a unique company offering unique services.…… [Read More]

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Arab- and African-Americans and Racial

Words: 2860 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40513026

(Davis, 2001) That number is sure to have risen dramatically since Davis did her research.

The debates surrounding both the efficacy and the morality of racial profiling have created a lot of disagreement from many communities of color. Kabzuag Vaj is an organizer with the Asian Freedom Project in Madison, Wisconsin. The Asian Freedom Project has garnered hundreds of accounts of racial profiling of Southeast Asian youth over the past year. (Davis, 2001)

"Talking to the mainstream about racial profiling is hard," says Vaj. "The excuse people give us is extreme times demand extreme measures, whatever is necessary to catch the terrorists." (Davis, 2001) Organizers at People United for a Better Oakland (PUEBLO) also face similar concerns. They understand that although they are on all levels a multiracial organization, their campaign against racial profiling and police misconduct is simply inadequate to address the current political and sociological situation. "The fact that we have members from the Arab-American community means we work in solidarity with that community, but our work is not set up right now specifically to meet the needs of that community," laments Dawn Phillips, PUEBLO director.

The debates surrounding racial profiling have also engendered tolerance in some unlikely…… [Read More]

Nicole Davis. 2001. The slippery slope of racial profiling. Color Lines. December 2001.

St. Petersburg Times, June 8, 2003. Aschroft's America. Editorial.
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Addressing Racial Disparities in Incarceration

Words: 921 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97578649

Racial Disparities in Incarceration

There is an abundance of salient information related to prisons and the correctional system in the United States dispensed throughout Mauer's article, "Addressing racial disparities in incarceration." The article was published in 2011, which makes it still relevant and informative for contemporary society. As the title of this work of literature suggests, it widely discusses various aspects of the prison system pertaining to racial disparities. Despite this title, it is noteworthy that the bulk of the author's research is concentrated on those disparities as related to Caucasians, African-Americans and Latinos, with little more than a note about other races including Asians and Native Americans (both of which the author claims there is a paucity of relevant data for) (Mauer, 2011, p. 88S). Additionally, it is important to realize that the racial disparity in various facets of incarceration reflects a relative scarcity of Caucasians and an abundance of African-Americans and Latinos -- despite the fact that there are substantially more Caucasians in this country than either one of the other two racial groups.

One of the boons of this document is the clear way in which the author has chosen to structure it. The paper is roughly…… [Read More]

Mauer, M. (2011). Addressing racial disparities in incarceration. The Prison Journal Supplement to 91(3), 87S-101S.
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Criminal Justice Systemic Malignity Racial

Words: 2221 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3292173

Baker reviewed three landmark Supreme Court decisions on capital punishment and concluded that the death penalty is capriciously imposed on Black defendants and thus serves the extra-legal function of preserving majority group interests. He viewed discrimination in capital sentencing as deliberate and identified the primary reasons why Black defendants with white victims have been denied fairness in capital sentencing. These are prosecutorial discretion in the selective prosecution of capital cases, prosecutorial misuse of peremptory challenges to systematically exclude Blacks from juries, judicial overrides by trial judges, prosecutorial misconduct and the ineffective assistance by defense counsel (Emmelman).

Helen Taylor Greene used a colonial model to explore the effectiveness and limitations placed on the police in the past and in the present (Emmelman, 2005). This colonial model showed that the police, regardless of color, were an oppressive force in many communities. Lately, Black political empowerment and ascendancy in many law enforcement departments have somewhat lessened police colonialism. Drawing from the history of Black policing in the U.S., Greene contended that Black police chiefs impacted policing because they held the power to establish priorities within their agencies and thus affect law enforcement policy on a national level. Elissa Krauss and Martha Schulman discussed…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Retrieved on March 29, 2013 from http://connection.ebscohost.com/c/articles/5602875/role-race-law-enforcement-racial-profiling-legitimate-use

Sentencing Project, The (2008) Reducing racial disparity in the criminal justice system.

A Manual for Practitioners and Policymakers. Retrieved on March 29, 2013 from http://www.sentencingproject.org/doc/publications/rd_reducingracialdisparity.pdf
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Offender Profiling Essential and Effective

Words: 4763 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75779490

(Harris, 2002, p. 8)

Terrorist acts are both crimes and forms of warfare, and in both respects are unlike what we are used to." 2 Understanding the larger possibilities, such as warfare, law enforcement will be able to make informed decisions on matters concerning data collection. When gathering information it is important to document and standardize every step of the process. This will alleviate any complications when categorizing behaviors or activities and will ensure that all participants in the process are on the same playing field. (Ronczkowski, 2004, p. 72)

Following the 9/11 attacks on the U.S. which is an example of foreign terrorism, though domestic terrorism has been present in the U.S. For decades, many individuals accepted new standards of security that might infringe upon their rights as citizens to freely travel, assemble and speak, yet more recent protests have been leveled against law enforcement and security measures as time has passed, and the memory of atrocities has faded and people have become increasingly aware that knee jerk legal passages have become increasingly intrusive into their lives and the lives of others and the community at large and law enforcement are seeking to develop a balance that allows security…… [Read More]

Califano, J.A. (1998, October). A New Prescription: Investing in Substance-Abuse Treatment Would Take a Big Bite out of Crime. Washington Monthly, 30, 9.

Evans, D.J., Fyfe, N.R., & Herbert, D.T. (Eds.). (1992). Crime, Policing, and Place: Essays in Environmental Criminology. New York: Routledge.
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Linguistic Profiling the Elaboration of

Words: 1127 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37761341

The man claimed that he had not met either of the two landlords in person that he had been attempting to contact for application. Thus, the man began his pursuit into legal action under the terms of racial discrimination. The case, Johnson v. Jensen, one of the first documented arguments of linguistic profiling was brought forth for consideration (Erard, 2002).

As in the case of Johnson v. Jensen, the defendants - the accused, often play the part of an ignorant or unaware innocent victim of wrongful accusations. It is easy for one to "play-stupid" when there has been nothing more than a phone conversation as compared to a face-to-face communication. Little can be held concrete as evidence against the defendants claim to be unaware of the ethnicity of the accuser, therefore the dangers of linguistic profiling can then extend to the oppressed. When accusations that incur legalities, there is a level of credit that lies in the balance. This pertains to the credit of either the accused or the accuser.

In the end, the means will only be justified by whoever prevails in their account against the other. This can create a level of apprehensiveness among those who are most…… [Read More]

Paul McFedries and Logophilia Limited, Word Spy (June, 2002). Retrieved April 27, 2007, from the World Wide Web: http://www.wordspy.com/words/linguisticprofiling.asp

Rice, P. (2006). Linguistic profiling: The sound of your voice may determine if you get that apartment or not, Washington Univ. In St. Louis, News and Information, 18, 29-30.
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Government Have the Right to Racially Profile

Words: 725 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59171341

government have the right to racially profile?

We all stereotype others to some extent or other. These are natural, evolutionary ways of perceiving others, namely categorizing them into particular groups. Stereotypes are often erroneous, since people, are, after all, individuals rather than categories, and, therefore, stereotyping is often considered a subjective negative thing to do. On the other hand, it is argued that sometimes, people in positions of authority may be compelled to stereotype and to categorize certain groups for the sake of public security.

One such instance is racial profiling, perpetrated by the government and by, for instance, airport security, particularly when applied to people of Middle East extraction in order to ascertain that they are not carrying bombs or other harmful weapons on their person. On the one hand, the political times warrants this racial profiling; on the other hand, instances such as Timothy McVeigh have taught us that exceptions occur and that categorization can, therefore be subjective and unfair.

Summary: Pipes

Daniel Pipes asserts that racial profiling is in order. This is particularly so since, even though, exceptions may exist, terrorism and Muslims are significantly positively correlated and that, therefore, we must take precautions. This may not…… [Read More]

Issue17: Is Middle Eastern Profiling ever Justified?
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Crash Character Profile Anthony One

Words: 625 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19915183

' Anthony, an actual resident of the street, sneers at white perceptions of how blacks talk in the media: "You think whites go around callin' each other honky all day?" While Anthony's theft of the SUV is clearly shown to be destructive, socially as well as morally, the film also shows how black inner city views of law and order have evolved in such a negative and polarized fashion: the presence of the black officer Detective Graham Waters is undercut by the racism and racial profiling of other members of the force.

Racism is circular in nature, and this is revealed in Anthony's lapses in logic: "That waitress sized us up in two seconds. We're black and black people don't tip. So she wasn't gonna waste her time. Now somebody like that? Nothing you can do to change their mind. You expect me to pay for that kind of service?" Anthony has been scarred by racism, and every time he actively (such as when he carjacks the DA's SUV) or passively (not tipping) lashes out against the world, he creates a more racist view of black young men in the minds of whites.

Anthony would clearly support affirmative action, given…… [Read More]

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Criminal Justice Criminal Profiling or

Words: 570 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72693237

If human behavior can be loosely predicted, then so too can criminal behavior.

4. Criminal profiling is not one hundred percent accurate or valid. It is an inexact science. Results of profiling are close to chance, which is one reason why the process is criticized and used cautiously. Officers of the law may be misled by an inaccurate or hasty profile, and in some cases might even apprehend innocent persons because they meet the characteristics listed in the profile. Generalizations, stereotypes, and false conclusions can be drawn during the process of criminal profiling. Biases and assumptions can cloud the profiling process, too. For example, the author's own assumptions about human behavior and demographic traits can cloud judgment during an investigation. Criminal profiling can in some cases derail an investigation by diverting attention away from the actual perpetrator to focus on a false lead. Therefore, criminal profiling should be used cautiously.

5. Criminal profiling can be improved by incorporating psychological theories and principles. For example, behavioral psychology examines the patterns of human behavior that can be scientifically tested. The most basic of all behavioral psychological patterns is based o Pavlov's experiments, in which a stimulus evokes a predictable response in the…… [Read More]

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Academic Achievement and Racial Background Is There a Relationship

Words: 2817 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42726921

Race, Ethnicity, and Academic Achievement - Proposal of Research Design

This research will study the relationship between race and ethnicity and academic achievement.

This study will look at whether students from five racial classifications - White, Asian, Black, Hispanic and Native American - show statistically significant differences in their scores in reading and math. Using disaggregated data, this study will also examine whether significant differences occur within these racial classifications. In addition, this paper will study whether socio-economic status and language proficiency have a significant effect on a child's reading and math skills.

Because of many socio-economic factors linked to the construction of race, this paper predicts that white and Asian students will show higher test scores in reading and math. However, because racial classifications can obscure the differences between ethnicities, this paper also predicts that there will be significant differences in test scores within the racial categories themselves. In addition, affluence is predicted to affect the scores positively while a lack of language proficiency is expected to lower the scores.


This goal of this paper is to contribute to studies about racial classifications and educational policy. If the test scores of vary significantly between the groups, measures should…… [Read More]

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Black Perspective

Words: 1464 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32964077

Racial Profiling: Driving While Black

For years, the Black community believed that Black Americans were routinely and disproportionately stopped by police officers while driving in their cars.

Statistical evidence now supports the anecdotal evidence that had been fermenting for so many years.

For example, one scholar conducted a study in New Jersey which concluded that from 1988 to 1991, more than 73% of the persons stopped and arrested while driving on the New Jersey Turnpike were Black. Shockingly, less than 14% of the cars on the Turnpike even carried a Black person - whether as a passenger or driver.

Other studies have come to the same findings and conclusions, and more and more reports of such evidence has been reported as the problem becomes widely known.

Racial profiling affects the victim not just incidentally and individually, but it also affects and reflects many larger societal issues and injustices involving race and African-Americans in particular.

Moreover, racial profiling in general is a phemonomena that has plagued all people of color in America for years.

However, Blacks have been its primary targets. One scholar notes that:

In America, police targeting of Black people for excessive and disproportionate search and seizure is a…… [Read More]

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According to the U S Justice Department in 2003 About 10 4 Of All African America

Words: 1884 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78270857

Racial Equality

Race is used in this country to exploit and use people's emotions to eventually control their actions. Race is something that we are born with and is assigned to us in a completely mysterious way. Somehow this quirk in life has been used to divide and conquer huge masses of people. Although slavery and racial tensions are not unique to America, it appears that these issues still reverberates throughout the discussions in this country.

The purpose of this essay is to examine how cultural diversity, and race specifically, plays a role of institutional control. This essay will examine the racial disparity between blacks, whites, and Latinos in terms of justice, law and lawmaking. This essay will give some background information on the subject before exposing some new approaches to this problem while trying to comprehend its true purpose.

Background Information

Fewer than half of 1% of Americans are in state and federal prisons. That sounds like a small number. But when the U.S. prison population is examined by race, we find that the effects of the criminal justice system in the United States are unequally distributed in society. While whites make up 64% of the U.S. population, they…… [Read More]

Brooks, E. (2011). Cultural Resources. The African-American Lectionary, 1 Nov 2011. Retrieved from  http://www.theafricanamericanlectionary.org/PopupCulturalAid.asp?LRID=235 

Goldmacher, S. (2012). Disparate Impact: Black Lawmakers and Ethics Investigations. The Atlantic, 3 Mar 2012. Retrieved from http://www.theatlantic.com/politics/archive/2012/03/disparate-impact-black-lawmakers- and-ethics-investigations/253931/
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Community Profile Research Community Diversity

Words: 1055 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9244680

'In New York City, the controls are better. Since Sept. 11, as police are looking for terrorists and those who mail anthrax, the controls have increased. So crime continues to go down. Everyone is much more alert.'" (NewsMax Wires)

Queens, NY has also become really diverse with people from different ethnic and racial backgrounds coming in and living there. There are large numbers of Hispanics, Asians and African-American in Queens. However there is a difference in the drop of crime rate in Queens and Brooklyn. "Year to date, overall crime is down 7.1% in Queens, 5.6% in Brooklyn" (Anonymous). However the overall general change is that in both communities, crime rates have plummeted and there is increased safety for the civilians. Normally in areas where there is a wide diversity of people living, there is an increased rate in crime and although there has been unemployment in the entire city of New York after the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center, crime rates have decreased instead of rising. This change from the norm has been really surprising for the police department as well as the citizens and some fail to understand why crime rates decreased. Much credit goes to…… [Read More]

1) U.S. Bureau of the Census, Population Estimates Program, Population Division, "Counties Ranked by Black Population in 1998" (Table CO-98-16), September 15, 1999.

2) Anonymous - The Tipping Point. [Online website] Available at http://www.gladwell.com/1996/1996_06_03_a_tipping.htm[Accessed on: 15/09/2005]
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Personal Profile My Name Is

Words: 781 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61881411

As to my "negative characteristics": I do indeed get frustrated when my children forget their manners and behave poorly; I have a habit of losing track of time occasionally when I'm deeply involved in a project; as indicated earlier, I trust people too soon; I have a tendency to do things perfectly the first time, which can cause stress; and five, I become very intense when I see that something needs to be done around the house immediately.

In order to make positives out of my negatives, I believe in the Chinese ideogram that says obstacle and challenge are really the same thing - it's all in how you approach the problem. I work hard to keep my moods in a positive flow, and although we humans are sometimes the product of our emotions, professionals strive to control emotions and see life in its full perspective.

As to motivation, I am a highly inspired person, and I pride myself on finishing what I start. My impulses are nearly always fully under control as I have rehearsed channeling them into productivity. My people skills, which I learned in large part from my parents, are well defined and well developed. All my…… [Read More]

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WASP Elites and Discriminatory Methods Against Blacks

Words: 1265 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72336197

Racial Discrimination

The social problem studied in this paper is racial discrimination. Racial discrimination is any discriminatory act against a person based on race. A subtype of racial discrimination would be racial harassment. The magnitude of racial discrimination is very high: according to the FBI's most recent HCSA report, 51% of reported hate crimes are based on race (Hate Crimes in America, 2015). However, as Blank, Dabady and Citro (2004) point out, "simply identifying an association with race is not equivalent to measuring the magnitude of racial discrimination or its contribution to differential outcomes by race" (p. 72). In other words, it is not easy to define the magnitude of racial discrimination because distilling the cause-and-effect relationship requires testing and in complex socio-economic environments, experiments are difficult to conduct with adequate controls. Nonetheless, a qualitative magnitude may be discerned in the narratives of men like Malcolm X and Martin Luther King, Jr., whose legacies depict a kind of magnitude of racial discrimination in America that has broad historical associations and origins.

The problem can best be understood, in causal terms, by identifying the tension in American history between White Anglo-Saxon Protestant (WASP) elites and the disenfranchised (formerly-enslaved) blacks. The history…… [Read More]

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Criminal Justice - Profiling Criminal

Words: 1451 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34871233

e. height, weight, age, race, etc.), in connection with the investigation of specific criminal activity, that information allows authorities to narrow the search for individuals who match those identifying characteristics. The process is perfectly logical and obviously makes infinitely more sense than continuing to search for individuals who bear no resemblance to the descriptions provided by reliable sources.

However, the same legitimate techniques with respect to specific evidence of crimes also has a history of impermissible application in ways that deprive subjects of police investigation of their fundamental constitutional rights. For example, in the late 20th century, the U.S. Customs Service and the Drug Enforcement Administration both made extensive use of what they called "criminal indicators" in connection with their efforts to apprehend criminal drug traffickers as they attempted to enter the U.S. At the borders (Schmalleger, 2007).

Among other criteria, those sets of indicators including Hispanic origin and language, age range, gender, and country of origin, among other behavioral elements such as paying for tickets in cash, and staying only briefly in the country. According to the federal authorities, previous arrests of drug courier and distributors revealed the statistical likelihood of drug activity based on such factors. Nevertheless, in…… [Read More]

Dershowitz, a. (2002) Shouting Fire: Civil Liberties in a Turbulent Age. New York: Little Brown & Co.

Peak, K. (2002) Policing America: Methods, Issues, Challenges (Third Edition). New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
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Terrorism Intentions of the Group Profiling Terrorists

Words: 646 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61931165


Intentions of the Group

Profiling terrorists can be helpful for counter-terrorism efforts. While there is no one terrorist profile, there are "risk factors for involvement," (Kershaw, 2010). One of the risks that has been most explored in scholarly research is the need for a collective, shared identity in the terrorist organization (Post, Ali, Henderson, Shanfield, Victoroff & Weine, 2009). This is true for the Aryan Nation, recognized as a top domestic terrorism threat by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). The Aryan Nations Group dubs itself a "Premier Christian Identity Church Organization," with the word "identity" featuring firmly (Aryan Nations, 2013). Members of the Aryan Nation also emphasize the "nation" part of their identity, creating an artificial in group-out group status that enforces personal and collective identities.

Although Vaisman-Tzachor (2006) claims that race is not a necessary component in the profile of a terrorist, it certainly is with the Aryan Nation, which is purposefully built on the concept of a "structure of our racial kindred," according to the organization's website (Aryan Nations, 2013). Furthermore, members of the Aryan nation react towards perceived grievances against the "white race," and perceived grievance is a core component of the terrorist psychological profile…… [Read More]

Aryan Nations (2013). Website retrieved online:  http://www.aryan-nation.org/ 

Aryan Nations. (2012). Terrorist Organization Profile, University of Maryland. Retrieved from: http://www.start.umd.edu/start/data_collections/tops/terrorist_organization_profile.asp?id=29
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Intelligence Profiling - Hitler Intelligence

Words: 362 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85543704

At the same time, Hitler had very old-fashioned ideas when it came to his behavior towards the opposite sex. He believed that women belonged in the home, and had no role in public life of the Reich. Their main role was to mother racially pure Aryan children.

If Hitler were to have removed himself to a German-speaking part of Argentina in order to pursue an art career rather than remain in Europe and become leader of the Third Reich, one can only assume that he would have limited his contacts to Argentineans of German descent. Hitler felt that Jews, Slavs, and other racial "undesirables" were polluting the purity of the German race. Add to that his repressed nature that surfaced in the form of traditional attitudes towards sex and procreation, and it seems readily apparent that he would attempt to ground his Argentinean art career among German-speaking "pure" Argentineans.

Welch, David. Hitler: Profile of a Dictator (London and New York: Routledge, 1998), 79.

Victor, George. 1998. Hitler: The Pathology of Evil (Dulles, Virginia:…… [Read More]

Welch, David. Hitler: Profile of a Dictator (London and New York: Routledge, 1998), 79.

Victor, George. 1998. Hitler: The Pathology of Evil (Dulles, Virginia: Brassey's), 13-20.

Victor 1988, 62.