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This often creates a frustrating situation within the home, as children and parents may clash over these ideas.
Of course, cultural issues are not the only differences in parenting in the United States. Phegley (2009) states that parents can easily identify what they want in their relationships with their children -- they wan the best. The best, she argues, "is entirely up to an individual's perception" (para. 2). Thus, parents often have different styles of parenting. These differences are often based upon differences in views about authority, respect, rewards, punishments, formalities, etc. While some argue that differences in parenting styles can benefit children, they can also become a source of tension within the family (Phegley, 2009). Because of this parents who have different styles of parenting might actually harm their children though fighting with each other about the best ways to parent. Thus, parenting styles in the United States further…
Child Help. (2009). "National Child Abuse Statistics." Retrieved April 5, 2009, from Child Help. Web Site: http://www.childhelpusa.org/resources/learning-center/statistics
Child Trends Data Bank. (2008, Summer). Family Structure. Retrieved April 5, 2009,
from the Child Trend Databank. Web Site: http://www.childtrendsdatabank.org/indicators/59FamilyStructure.cfm
Educator Support Network. (2007). Healthy and Unhealthy Cultures at Work. Retrieved April 5, 2009, from the Educators Support Network. Web Site: http://www.educatorsupportnetwork.com/files/Healthy%20and%20unhealthy%20cultures%20at%20work.pdf
Understanding others is crucial to developing empathy; that is, knowing how others feel about things. Compassion comes when empathy develops. Young children can learn to identify feelings by looking at pictures that reveal happiness, anger, sadness, etc. The parent or caregiver can point these out and also comment on the child's feelings as they arise. "You look sad. Is it because you have to stop playing and take a nap now?" natural structure for socialization and formation of good character is the story. Children need exposure to stories with moral messages -- in books, video, and from a parent's own life. When I was 12 I read a book called "The Secret Garden" that was full of good ideas for development of moral character. These ideas were not "preachy-teachy" but built into the fabric of the story. Young children still love "The Little Engine that Could," and the lesson of…
Elkind, D. (1998). Reinventing childhood: Raising and educating children in a changing world. Rosemont, NJ: Modern Learning Press.
Graeber, L. (1998). Raising smart kids. Parents, 73 (5), 134-6. Retrieved on 8 April 2008 from Wilson Select Database.
O'Rourke, T.W. (1996). Raising children in a socially toxic environment. Journal of School Health, 66 (5), 193-95. Retrieved 7 April 2008 from InfoTrac Psychology Collection, Gale Library.
Slater, L. (2002). Raising a good-hearted child. Parenting, 16 (10), 88-90, 93-4. Retrieved 8 April 2008 from Wilson Select Database.
Yet warm, trusting relationships with adults are required if moral and spiritual guidance is to be reclaimed. (167)
The church is perhaps the only institution with the beliefs, literature, liturgy, practices, social structure and authority (diminished though it be) necessary to rescue children from the violence and other deforming features of late 20th-century life. But it cannot accomplish this by simply laying the faith before young people and inviting them to choose it.
Furthermore, the pulpit offers perhaps the only remaining locus of personal and public edification and exhortation. (166)
Prayer is crucial. t teaches children to reflect on their own lives and on the world around them. t provides breathing space from the overstimulation of our society. Attending to how to pray and for whom to pray trains children to focus on the welfare of others and on world events.
Prayerbooks are wonderful resources; they contain prayers for travelers,…
If you mold her completely in this way, you will save not only her but also the husband who will marry her, not only the husband but also the children, not only the children but also the grandchildren. For when the root becomes good, the shoots are outstretched toward what is better, and for all these you will receive the reward. Therefore, let us do all things so as to help not one soul alone, but many through the one (494).
Harrison, Nonna Verna. Raising Them Right: Early Christian Approaches To Child Rearing
Theology Today 56 no 4 Ja 2000, p 481-494. 2000
raising children in single parent homes and dual parent homes. The writer explores the differences and the similarities between the two homes and uses three sources to identify each category.
Children in Dual Parent and Single Parent Homes
In today's world there are as many children living in homes of single parents as there are children living in homes with two parents. It has become so commonplace that it is not unusual to hear questions such as "Does your dad live with you?" Or "Are your parents divorced"? As a normal part of daily conversation. There have been numerous studies done on the effects of being raised in a single parent home and being raised in a dual parent home. Many differences between the two settings have been discovered and many similarities have also been noted. The one thing experts agree on is that they are not one and the…
Author not available. "Single Parent Adoption: What You Need to Know." Contemporary Women's Issues Database, (1994): January. pp 5-10.
Peters, Cynthia. "A Bewildering Nostalgia for the '50s Family. Vol. 24, Contemporary Women's Issues Database."(1998): December, pp 33-34.
Renkl, Margaret. "The Single-Mom Boom their numbers are growing fast, and their future's looking bright." Baby Talk, (2000): October, pp 68+.
Responsible for Raising Children
ho's Responsible for Raising Children's Children?
High school day care centers criminalize our Society
Each year majority of the teenage girls are becoming pregnant. Majority of the high schools have observed this statistic and therefore they are trying to introduce day care facility for the babies. Teen pregnancy is something which should not be promoted while on the other hand facilitating young girls by providing day care facility is going to harm the social structure of the society. High schools are there to provide quality education to the children. Introduction of day care facility in the high school will deviate the management of school from their ultimate objective. Some people argue that the day care facility is good for working women since day care centers help them in solving the problem of accommodating children while they are at the work. These mothers should also realize the…
Aviezer, Ora, Abraham Sagi, and Marinus Van Ijzendoorn. "Balancing the Family and the Collective in Raising Children: Why Communal Sleeping in Kibbutzim Was Predestined to End." Family Process 41.3 (2002): 435+. Questia. Web. 16 Nov. 2011.
Crim, Courtney. "Raising the Creative Child." Parenting for High Potential June 2006: 26+. Questia. Web. 17 Nov. 2011.
"Elium, Jeanne, & Elium, Don. Raising a Teenager: Parents and the Nurturing of a Responsible Teen." Adolescence 42.168 (2007): 861+. Questia. Web. 17 Nov. 2011.
Kramer, Rita. In Defense of the Family: Raising Children in America Today. New York: Basic Books, 1983. Questia. Web. 16 Nov. 2011.
Were I advising my friend about the age-specific eating habits of her four-year-old son, I would begin by telling her that her son is at the age in which children simply want to eat the food that tastes good. They do not necessarily want to eat the food that their bodies truly need to grow and thrive, because they want to eat the food that is pleasing to their palates. However, I would also advise her that family mealtime routines can significantly affect that behavior. The strategy my friend could use to create healthy and peaceful mealtimes would be predicated on explaining to her four-year-old that during meals, everyone eats from the different food groups. She should tell the child that as a member of the family, the child is expected to do the same. Also, my friend should tell her child that the best way to eat…
The Watertown (MA) Family Network creates a community for mothers who may not have anyone to ask questions about their infants and toddlers. As the video's narrator stated, "There are no roadmaps to raising children." With the Network, which is free and provides resources such as a new mom support group, parents do not need to feel as if they are all alone with this rewarding, but challenging, job of raising a child.
Epstein (2009) suggests there are five types of family engagement: childrearing, communicating, volunteering, learning at home, and representing other families. A comprehensive family involvement plan can be developed by choosing several of these types.
In the church-based childcare center where I worked, as with the Watertown Network, staff helped parents who had questions about what they should do at home. This center was in a military community where many young mothers were away from their…
Grisham-Brown, J., Hallam, R., and Brookshire, R. (2006). Using authentic assessment to evidence children's progress toward early learning standards. Early Childhood Education Journal 34(1), pp. 45-51.
Kostelnik, M.J., Soderman, A.K., and Whiren, A.P. (2011). Developmentally appropriate curriculum: Best practices in early childhood education. Boston: Pearson.
Mueller, J. (2011). Authentic assessment toolbox. Retrieved from http://jfmueller.faculty
There are no suggestions from him on how these boys, their mother, and their five siblings can turn their lives around without simply expecting the government to intervene. And what about their mother? How can a woman have seven children with a drug addict and not realize at some point that she herself is condemning her children to a life of poverty, violence and constant struggle? Of course she wants her children to have the same things as any child deserves to have - a safe, happy childhood where there's always enough to eat and they don't have to worry about ducking their heads whenever they play outdoors - but what has she done to make that happen? Kotlowitz does nothing to address these questions or point the finger of blame at the parents of Lafayette, Pharaoh and their siblings for being a large part of the problem in the…
children cannot help but notice about certain unusual behavioral, cognitive, emotional, and physical traits and wonder if they are "normal." The puzzle of human development has been a popular area of study and, as a result, there is a wealth of theories striving to understand the many twists and turns of maturation. rik rikson, a developmental psychologist and psychoanalyst; Jean Piaget, a Swiss biologist and Lev Vygotsky, a Russian psychologist, put forth three of the most well-known theories on aspects of human development.
rikson believed humans went through eight distinct physical and emotional developmental periods called "psychosocial stages." In each stage rikson proposed that humans confront a task or dilemma and that their ability to address each challenge would further define their personality and abilities. The stages correspond to specific physical stages and are as follows: Trust vs. Mistrust (infancy), Autonomy vs. Shame (toddler), Initiative vs. Guilt (preschool), Industry vs.…
Erickson, E.H. (1972). Eight ages of man. In C.S. Lavatelli & F. Stendler (Eds.), Readings to child behavior and child development. San Diego, CA: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.
Piaget, J. (1929). The child's concept of the world. New York: Harcourt, Brace.
Vygotsky, L.S. (1997). Educational psychology. Boca Raton, FL: St. Lucie Press
The main point of the article, "Moms at ork and Dads at Home: Children's Evaluations of Parental Roles," is that when children are given a chance to express their opinions on traditional vs. non-traditional roles, they speak up. In this case, the children used in the survey (67 second-graders and 54 fifth-graders) saw it as "acceptable for both mothers and fathers to work full-time" (Sinno, et al., 2009). However, children found it not as acceptable for fathers to be stay-at-home parents as it is for mothers to be stay-at-home parents. Clearly, 2nd graders were "more likely to rely on ... stereotype knowledge of appropriate roles" (mom home, dad at work), and when dad was the key child-rearing parent it became a non-traditional family. http://abcnews.go.com/NT/story?id=130760&page=1. (This is an ABC News report on the growing trend of fathers raising children.)
Another non-traditional family is the Foster Care family. According to…
Sinno, S.M., and Killen, M. (2009) Moms at Work and Dads at Home: Children's
Evaluations of Parental Roles. Applied Developmental Science, 13(1), 16-29.
Tyler, K.A., and Melander, L.A. (2010). Foster Care Placement, Poor Parenting, and Negative Outcomes Among Homeless Young Adults. Journal of Child and Family
Studies, volume 19, 787-794.
Child Poverty and Its Effects on Education and Development
Beyond problems of financial inequality that occur when countless young children reside in poor as well as persistently inadequate households, poor children can easily perpetuate the never-ending cycle when they achieve adulthood. Prior study implies that children who're born poor as well as are constantly poor are considerably much more most likely to remain poor as grownups, quit school, give teenage premarital births, and also have spotty employment details than all those not very poor at birth (atcliffe and McKernan 2010). This previous research focused on the earliest cohort of youngsters reviewed here-children born in between 1967 and 1974 as well as who turned Thirty amid 1997 and 2004. An important query is whether or not this link has endured with time. Even though information aren't accessible to see outcomes via age 30 for children born within the subsequent two cohort…
Duncan, Greg, W. Jean Yeung, Jeanne Brooks-Gunn, and Judith Smith. 1998. "How Much Does Childhood Poverty Affect the Life Chances of Children?" American Sociological Review 63(3): 406 -- 23.
Ratcliffe, Caroline, and Signe-Mary McKernan. 2010. "Childhood Poverty Persistence: Facts and Consequences." Washington, DC: Urban Institute.
Ratcliffe, Caroline, and Signe-Mary McKernan. 2012. "Child Poverty and Its Lasting Consequence." Washington, DC: Urban Institute
Vericker, Tracy, Jennifer Macomber, and Olivia Golden. 2010. "Infants of Depressed Mothers Living in Poverty: Opportunities to Identify and Serve." Washington, DC: Urban Institute.
Raising Cain: Protecting the Emotional Life of Boys
Dan Kindlon, Michael Thompson
The Raising Cain: Protecting the Emotional Life of Boys by Dan Kindlon, a researcher and psychology professor at Harvard who is also practicing psychotherapist specializing in boys and Michael Thompson, a child psychologist, workshop leader, and staff psychologist of an all-boys school. Both are Ph.Ds and two of the country's foremost child psychologists. In this book they have very successfully shared the experience of what they have learned in more than thirty-five years of mutual experience working with boys and their families.
The book is an important and a fascinating read to all boys and their families. Both authors have been convincing in their argument that for boys it would be good if they become more 'emotionally literate,' in order to comprehend their own feelings as well as of others. The valuable and insightful proposal given by these…
Raising Cain: Protecting the Emotional Life of Boys by Dan Ph.d Kindlon, Michael Ph.d
Thompson. Ballantine Reader's Circle. www.enotalone.com
Raising Cain: Protecting the Emotional Life of Boys by Dan Ph.d Kindlon, Michael Ph.d
Thompson. The Canadian Centres for Teaching Peace. www.peace.ca
Gradually, there are lesser desired adoptive kids as society have come to accept single mother who parent their children compared to earlier. The disgrace of giving birth to a child outside marriage has lowered and hence, the bulk of single moms prefer to have their kids with them in place of "relinquishing them" for being adopted. Besides, thanks to advanced technology, "birth control" pills are instantly accessible to the fertile populace, and, as abortion has been legalized, a pregnancy which is unplanned could be stopped. A new dimension to the problem has emerged because of the decrease in the supply of desirable adoptable infants and the rising infertility among Americans. (Infant Adoption is Big Business in America)
It is anticipated that out of every six couples, one couple has problems in conceiving and total infertile couples may number 5.3 million. A lot of adopters who are presently desirous of adoption…
Adoption is big business: Rationalizations for Adoption. http://www.adoption-articles.com/adoption_business.htm
Adoption: The Child Commodities Market is Big Business. http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/224728/adoption_the_child_commodities_market.html?page=2
Avery, Rosemary. J. Adoption Policy and Special Needs Children. Auburn. Westport: CT.
Cahn, Naomi R; Hollinger, Joan Heifetz. Families by Law: An Adoption Reader. New York
" Does the child show impulsiveness, or have problems transitioning from one activity to another activity, or seem rigid and inflexible at times? Moreover, are there signs of carelessness or clumsiness -- and is the child uncomfortable while involved with group situations? All of these behaviors in this paragraph are signs that SI dysfunction may be part of the problem, the authors assert.
And there are several more that the authors point to -- including when a kid has a big problem handling frustration, when he can't smoothly transition from an active state to a "calm, rested state" -- but just because one or more of these behaviors are apparent that doesn't automatically mean the child has SI dysfunction. "Lots of kids show these signs for lots of reasons," the authors explain. And some of the behaviors are quite "appropriate at certain ages" because "most toddlers are pretty impulsive" (note…
Biel, Lindsey, and Peske, Nancy K. (2005). Raising a Sensory Smart Child: The
Definitive Handbook for Helping Your Child With Sensory Processing Issues.
New York: Penguin Books.
Children's Literature - Hardy Boys and Encyclopedia Brown
The Shore oad Mystery
On page 12 of The Shore oad Mystery there is moment of potential stress between brothers Joe and Frank, and their Aunt Gertude, over the boys' bad move of tracking in dirt on mother's freshly vacuumed carpet. In any family, boys (and fathers) especially are prone to forget to take their shoes off (in the winter it's snow and ice; in the spring, summer and fall, it's dirt, mud, and leaves). "Frank and Joe! Look at yourselves!" their aunt barked out. And when Joe compliments his aunt of the aroma of food cooking, she urges him not to "change the subject" (a ploy boys are quite adept at), but soon she sees Joe's skinned arm and bruised forehead and notices Frank's limp (the result of the accident), and her tone changes.
The brothers loved their aunt and knew…
Dixon, Franklin W. The Shore Road Mystery. New York: Grosset & Dunlap, 1964.
Sobol, Donald J. Encyclopedia Brown and the Case of the Sleeping Dog. New York:
Delacorte Press, 1998.
I.'s friends, Dot and Glen arrive to visit with their out of control kid and bad parenting habits. The couple are exaggerated in their ineptitude by their wardrobe and actions; Dot is the "trailer trashy" woman, and her equally trailer-trashy, beer guzzling husband, Glen, who ignores his own child, as does Dot, and the child runs wild. These behaviors and the scene is one that many young parents who have a better command and control over their lives and children can relate to. In this parody comedy, it is amusing and helps deflect the reality of the experience of real life, but it is nonetheless one which is easy to relate to having had.
As often is the case, art mirrors life and we find that once children arrive, life changes for couples in ways in which they perhaps never anticipated. Suddenly, Dot and Glen are not the best company…
Children and the Media
Whether or not children should be allowed to watch television or movies is one that elicits great controversy among parents, educators, and child development experts. Some have no problem with exposing children to media, others have distinct criteria to fulfill before allowing children to watch any form of media, and still others strongly advise against exposing children to media at all. The real issue is about the nature and quality of the messages and images that children consume as they watch or listen to media.
I believe there are distinct advantages for children and the potential for positive impact with many shows that are available for children today. Generally, the commercials that are viewed by children during age-appropriate viewing are not harmful in any way, though caregivers will want to be certain that the messages being conveyed match up with their overall philosophy. I also believe…
aising Public Awareness of Special Needs
The sudden calamitous event that results to destructions or loss and devastation to the life and property is defined as disaster. In most cases, the damage caused by disasters tends to be immeasurable as it varies within the geographical location and climatic conditions causing a great influence on socio-economic, political as well as, cultural state of the affected areas. The various examples of disasters includes; the floods, earthquakes, droughts and many others which are caused as a result of manmade. All these affect each and every individual in the societies. However, when such disasters arise, there are special needs that are supposed to be given to special group of people within the society to ensure that their lives are not at risk.
The groups that should be given the first priority when these occur are the aged group, the pregnant women, the disabled people,…
Gupta, H.K. (2002). Disaster Management. Retrieved September 11, 2012 from http://books.google.co.ke/books?id=m7UD_y4vP-0C&printsec=frontcover&dq=disaster+management
Rao, K., & Rao, P.S. (2008). Disaster management. New York: Serials Publications.
Children in urban areas may lack support for physical education, because of the absence of safe places to play in their environments. While the contributing factors to obesity may be the same -- too many calories and not enough physical activity -- the reasons that an activity and caloric balance occurs must be addressed locally, and not in a generic fashion.
Within six months: aise awareness about the organization. Contact local, state, and national leaders. Touch base with leaders who are sympathetic to the goals of the organization. Disseminating the message of obesity reduction through public service messages as well as replicating existing programs and advocacy messages will be part of the organization's efforts to make connections with sympathetic leaders.
Within a year: esearch and target critical programs and initiatives that will become the focus of fundraising of the organization.
Ongoing, but within a year to six months to…
Edible schoolyard. (2010). Official website. Retrieved October 27, 2010 at http://www.edibleschoolyard.org/
Fast food near schools means fatter kids. (2009, January 10). Reuters. Retrieved October 27,
2010 at http://www.reuters.com/article/idUSTRE5013LU20090102
Hellmich, Nina. (2010, January 20). Michelle Obama to launch initiative fighting childhood obesity. USA Today. Retrieved October 27, 2010 at http://www.usatoday.com/news/health/weightloss/2010-01-20-michelle-obama-obesity_N.htm
Religion Good for Children?
Faith and religion are significant components to every religious family with regards to raising a child or children. Notably, every religious individual and family will always claim that their path or religion is the correct one. Therefore, it impossible to find parents or families that would mistakenly choose the wrong religion or path for their children. In attempts to take their responsibility of raising children to become productive adults later in life, parents choose different progressive and correct paths including religion. However, the responsibility of raising children is not an easy task and is usually the burden of every person that comes into contact with the child. As a result, parents would take necessary measures to ensure that their children are surrounded by examples from approved people and paths. hile parents consider religion as one of the correct steps in raising their children, the main question…
Drexler, Peggy. "Why Kids and Religion Mix." The Huffington Post. TheHuffingtonPost.com, Inc., 02 Feb. 2013. Web. 30 Apr. 2013. .
Giberson, Karl. "Are We 'Cramming Religion Down Our Children's Throats' or Creating Good Citizens?" The Huffington Post. TheHuffingtonPost.com, Inc., 17 Sept. 2010. Web. 30 Apr. 2013. .
"Study: Religion Good for Children." WND - America's Independent News Network. WND.com., 24 Apr. 2007. Web. 30 Apr. 2013. .
Raise Respectful Children
Children are an extension of their parents and they were they are raised affects their personality to a great extent. It is only right that parents should focus on building the right kind of relationship with them so that they grow up to be better human beings and better citizens and carry that upbringing with them as well.
Since it is a stage where human beings can be easily molded into whatever shape you would like them to, you should particularly care for what you say in front of them or do, and what you teach them, because they are impressionable and pick everything, not just the good.
In raising children, one should always keep God in mind, and seek Him out, and look to Him for help at all times. And teach your kids to do the same. And one should remember that no matter how…
Palmer, P.J. (1998/1999). Evoking the spirit in public education. Educational Leadership, 1-7.
Rigby, J. (2006). Raising respectful children in a disrespectful world. New York, NY: Howard Books.
Farber, A. (1995). How to talk so kids can learn at home & in school. New York, NY: Scribner.
Young Diverse Children Living in ig Cities
This paper will focus on the lives and challenges minority and culturally diverse youths face growing up in major urban city environments, such as Newark, New York, altimore or Seattle. The advent of major metropolitan areas has stimulated a rapidly increasing population of disadvantaged and volatile youths. In today's America, it seems that more and more young people growing up in major cities are subjected to poor socio-economic conditions, which anymore lead to an increased likelihood for violence and life disruption.
Today's youths growing up in major urban cities are often disadvantaged; they lack the self-esteem, confidence and tools necessary to succeed in their later adulthood. I hope through my research to uncover facts related to urban distress among youths. I hope to also explore community organizations that have focused their efforts on improving the conditions prevalent among urban youths. I propose that…
Achtyes, Eric. (1998). "Big Problem, Small Band Aid." The Daily. Available: http://archives.thedaily.washington.edu/1998/110298/O5.i-.html
Casey Foundation. (2004). Available: http://www.aecf.org
Casey Foundation. Child Trends.
Child Trends. (2004). "Raising Children in Big Cities." Right Start City Trends. Child Trends Kids Count Special Report. The Annie E. Casey Foundation. Available:
They do not believe in the capability of the growing child to make his or her own decisions. In short, instead of parenting and mothering, they are smothering the child. As children grow up, this fear-centered thinking is imbibed into their personality, making them equally afraid of certain things and experiences. They grow up to be socially incompetent and immature individuals who do not know what to do without their parents and who always fear new experiences.
In this changing world, parents have to adapt their parenting style in order to raise children who can be globally competitive. We do not want them to be labelled as wimps, right? Encouraging our children to experience new things and explore their world is a smart parenting style. Yes, we have the authority over them and we need to establish boundaries, but these limitations should not include all activities that have…
Homosexual Parents on Children
Conversations around the appropriateness of homosexual parents adopting, having or even raising children pose the argument of the effects on the children. However, research of the effects is rare, as well as limited in the direct topic. To follow is a review of key pieces of literature discussing the concepts of diverse family environments and the effects the environments.
Evidence supports the knowledge that children do not learn how to be homosexual by interacting and upbringing by homosexual parents. In fact, more research leads to the belief that children of homosexual families have a broader understanding of sexuality and awareness, and most information points to a heterosexual environment in the learning process (Gabb, 2004). Suggesting that learning environments need more diversity, yet there is the stigmatic thought that "social codes of decency" (Gabb, 2004) are "universal truths and normality's" (Gabb, 2004) of what would be deemed…
(1978). Children of gays: Sexually 'normal'. Science News, 113(24), 389.
Chan, R., Brooks, R., Raboy, B., & Patterson, C. (1998). Division of labor among lesbian and heterosexual parents: Associations with children's adjustment. Journal of Family Psychology, 12(3), 402-419. doi:10.1037/0893-3188.8.131.522.
Cramer, D. (1986). Gay Parents and Their Children: A Review of Research and Practical Implications. Journal of Counseling & Development, 64(8), 504.
Gabb, J. (2004). Sexuality education: how children of lesbian mothers 'learn' about sex/uality. Sex Education, 4(1), 19-34.
Proposal for Study: Is society causing biracial children to struggle with their identity?
hen forming their identity, children seek to look, act, feel, and mimic significant people in their social environment. "In his book Youth and Identity, Erickson relates ego identity and self-esteem to racial identity. He states that ambiguous messages about one's race may place a person at risk for developing what he referred to as a 'negative identity'" (Oka, 1994, p. 3). The possibility of negative identity is a controversial topic regarding biracial children. Opponents of interracial marriage argue that interracial couples are jeopardizing the futures of their children, as there is a possibility that biracial children will not be accepted by either culture and this rejection will lead to personal problems.
Some studies have found that it is more likely for interracial children to experience difficulties related to a poor self-identity, such as gender confusion,…
Beswick, Richard (1990) Racism in America's schools. ERIC Clearinghouse on Educational Management: ED 320-196.
Cole, Michael & Cole, Sheila (1993) The development of children (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Scientific American Books, 339-369.
Hoskins, Nichele (1996). Mixed-race couples, children brave racism. Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.startelegram.com/news/doc/1047/1:Metro73/1:Metro73101296.htm
Oka, Julie Mari (1994). Self-concept and parental values: Influences on the ethnic identity development of biracial children. Thesis, San Jose State University.
Grandparents as Caregivers
An Introduction to the Skipped Generation
Families in the late 20th and early 20th century are not the same as they were prior to World War II and even up into the 1960s. The idea of marriage is both a social and religious contract that is sanctioned by society as a valid contract and event. Depending on the particular society and culture, marriage combines the institution of family with intimate and sexual relationships, and the idea of the unit growing from this union. Traditionally, marriage has been with a man and a woman with the potential of having children, thus creating kinship ties to extended families. Historically, this was also an economic unit; families joined forces with land or property, or even joined nations together. Over the past few decades, though, marriage has weakened as the prime social institution of family life. There are a number of…
Collins, W. (2011). A Strengths-Based Support Group to Empower African-American Grandmothers Raising Grandchildren. Social Work and Christianity. 38 (4): 456-66.
Goodman, C., et al. (2008). The Health of Grandmothers Raising Grandchildren: Does the Quality of Family Relationships Matter? Families, Systems and Health. 26 (4): 417-30.
Lipscomb, R. (2005). The Challenges of African-American Grandparents Raising Their Children. Race, Gender and Class. 12 (2): 163-77.
Strom, P., Strom, R. (2011). Grandparent Education: Raising Grandchildren. Educational Gerontology. 37 (1): 910-23.
This is one of the major aspects of Romanticism, a notion that was entirely missing from raising children up to this point.
ook II of Emile describes the educational framework of a child's formative years, most likely from the approximate ages of seven to eleven or twelve, within Rousseau's philosophy. In this theory, education in this stage should take place within the context of personal experiences and interactions with the outside world. The emphasis should be on developing the senses and drawing inferences from them. ook III has the child successfully integrated with the physical world and ready to make a decision regarding his trade, which Rousseau believed was necessary in order for him to search out the appropriate role models and focus on the necessary skills.
ook IV is the section that interests this writer the most. The child is now physically strong and able to carefully observe and…
Rousseau, Jean Jacques. (1979) Emile (or On Education). Translation by Bloom, Alan. New York: Basic Books.
Stroup, William. (Jan. 2003-Dec. 2004) The Romantic Child. Literature Compass. Volume 1, Issue 1.
Ferguson, Frances. (Winter 2003) The Afterlife of the Romantic Child: Rousseau and Kant Meet Deleuze and Guattari. The South Atlantic Quarterly. Vol. 102, No. 1, pp. 215-234.
hile many articles tend to deal with the fact that victims of child abuse tend to become abusers, I wanted to go in another direction, looking at how child abuse can actually affect the life of the abused. In order to consider this, I contemplated Belik et al.'s study, "Relation Between Traumatic Events and Suicide Attempts in Canadian Military Personnel." In this article, the authors' purpose wanted to "determine whether exposure to particular types of traumatic events was associated with suicide attempts in a representatives ample of active military personnel" (Beilik et al. 93). In order to test the connection between certain traumatic events and suicide attempts, the authors drew data from the Canadian Community Health Survey, which asked respondents to mark whether they had been victims of 28 different traumatic events during their lives. One of these events was child abuse. The survey was representative of such variables including…
Belik, S., Stein, M.B., Amudson, G. JG., and Sareen, J. "Relation Between Traumatic
Events and Suicide Attempts in Canadian Military Personnel." La Revue canadienne de psychiatre. 54.2. (2009): 93-104.
Kim, Min Jung. Tajima, Emiko A., Herrenkohn, Todd I., and Huang, Bu. "Early Child
Maltreatment, Runaway Youths, and Risk of Delinquency and Victimization in Adolescence: A Mediational Model." Social Work Research. 13.1 (2009): 19-28.
The document states this in this wording (United Nations):
Bearing in mind that the need to extend particular care to the child has been stated in the Geneva Declaration of the Rights of the Child of 1924 and in the Declaration of the Rights of the Child adopted by the General Assembly on 20 November 1959 and recognized in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, in the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (in particular in articles 23 and 24), in the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (in particular in article 10) and in the statutes and relevant instruments of specialized agencies and international organizations concerned with the welfare of children.
Thus under the leadership of the United Nations, many different groups have joined forces to improve the quality of lives of children around the world.
Many people have defended the Chinese culture and…
Garvin, G. "Tiger mom Amy Chua roars with new controversial book about 'America's elite'." 2 February 2014. Miami Herald Books. Online. 15 April 2014.
Intlekofter, K. "Discipline or abuse?" 3 December 2012. John Hopkins Magazine. Online. 15 April 2014.
Jiali, G. "Child abuse in a culture of non-interference." 7 June 2012. China.org.cn. Online. 14 April 2014.
Pedro, B. "Study debunks 'tiger mom'- myth: children worse grades, are more depressed and more alienated from their parents." 12 May 2013. The Economy of Meaning. Online. 15 April 2014.
Extended families and the support they provide is essential to the continuation of African-American culture, customs, and heritage, and the mothers, grandmothers, aunts, and nieces of the family, (as the previous article indicated) are often the messengers of these elements of their family's history and preparation for the future.
While many Black parents discuss race with their children, and believe that is an important life lesson for the future, many families do not, as they feel their children will learn this hard lesson on their own, and do not need to make their children feel inferior or lesser than their White counterparts. Others believe if their children do not know about the concept of race and racial inequity, it will not harm them in the future.
Of course, these are all personal parenting choices, and they indicate, that just as in any ethnic group, there are differences in how parents…
McAdoo, Harriette Pipes. "The Village Talks: Racial Socialization of Our Children." 47-54.
Harriette Pipes McAdoo. "The Village Talks: Racial Socialization of Our Children." 47.
Attention-deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) are commonly linked mental health disorders that children exhibit. This paper examines some of the challenges that both children and parents face as a result of living with these disorders. It suggests some positive approaches to parenting that parents may find useful and offers recommendations in terms of how parents can most positively help a child with ADHD or ODD. The most important conclusion that this paper provides is the notion that parents must be able to demonstrate patience over the long term while facilitating their love and support for the child with guidance, reinforcement, and education. Eliminating stress from the child’s environment can be especially helpful in allowing the child to deal in a healthy manner with the impulses he or she feels, and parents, for their part, may benefit from parental training so that they can learn what…
Diverse and Changing Face of the Family Structure
The state of marriage has statistically changed in recent years, transforming the familiar structure of the nuclear family into an institution of non-traditional deviations. As with any issue, deviations from the norm pose objections and controversy. In the case of the family, philosophical, theological, and social debates revolve around the question of what constitutes the family structure ideal for raising children. The trend in single parenting, a decline in marriage rates, and the introduction of the homosexual family has led to the conservative opinion calling for a return to traditional family values and ethics to counter the demoralization of America. Sociologists, however, observe that family diversity is healthy and should be supported by society. Thus the depiction of the ideal family framework becomes a struggle between social opinions and political agendas. Society is changing, and the family compositions are reflective of those…
Harms, William. (1999, Nov. 24). "Marriage wanes as American families enter new century,
University of Chicago research shows." The University of Chicago News Office.
Herbst, Matthew T. (2003, July). "Do Family Values Lead to Family Violence?: A Consideration
of the Idea of Family." Quodlibet: Online Journal of Christian Theology and Philosophy. 5:2-3. Retrieved February 17, 2004. http://www.quodlibet.net/herbst-family.shtml
Saudi Women's Role in Respect of Raising Family Within the Male-Dominated Culture
The present study reports an interview with a Saudi woman on the changing role of women in the Saudi society in regards to raising a family within the male-dominated culture that characterizes the Saudi society. Attached to this study are an informed consent form as well as the interview transcript marked Appendix A and Appendix B, respectively. This study will review the narrative contained in the interview to this study and will conduct an analysis and interpretation of the interview findings answering the question of what areas of inquiry can this personal story lead to and as to the types of theories that explain the situation faced by Mrs. K.
The first question in the interview with Mrs. 'K' asks about the daily routine of the interviewee as a Saudi woman 'right now'. Mrs. K stated…
Early Childhood Development Issues
Module One of Chen's work Early Intervention in Action... presents a number of different aspects of the experience of families raising children who have multiple disabilities. It is quite different to consider these aspects from a clinical or even educational perspective rooted in theory, versus doing so from the perspective of the impact of this situation on one's family. There seems to be a greater amount of difficulty in raising children with multiple disabilities that can challenge a family in numerous ways. Based on the information in this module, it seems almost certain that one of the most exacting is simply modifying one's schedule and accounting for the different people and places that such a child must interact with and go to, respectively, in order to achieve success in life.
Perhaps the most vital facet of this module is the way that it is able to…
Chen, Deborah. (2008). Early Intervention in Action: Working Across Disciplines to Support Infants with Multiple Disabilities and Their Families. Module 1. Retrieved from ***
Chen, Deborah. (2008). Early Intervention in Action: Working Across Disciplines to Support Infants with Multiple Disabilities and Their Families. Module 2. Retrieved from ***
WIDA (2014). THE EARLY YEARS: Dual language learners. www.wida.us Retrieved from ***
Military Deployment Impacts Families
Families are social structures that, like all structures, require stability and solid foundations to serve their purpose (Joshi, Connelly, osenberg, 2014). If the purpose of the family is to provide shelter and support for the growth and development of the individual members of the family as active participants of society, a family that suffers from departures of significant or substantial role players/infrastructural supporters can have a negative effect on the remaining members and in particularly children. Such is the case among military families, where military deployments create a void within the family system dynamic; i.e., while the military parent is away on military service, the house becomes essentially a single-parent home, with ramifications for both the parent and the children. This paper will discuss the issue of the effect of military deployment on the family.
While it is necessary that military deployments be enacted in…
Joshi, H., Connelly, R., Rosenberg, R. (2014). Family Structure and Stability. In:
Millennium Cohort Study Initial Findings from the Age 11 Survey. London: Centre for Longitudinal Studies, Institute of Education.
Lester, P., Flake, E. (2013). How wartime military service affects children and families.
The Future of Children, 23(2): 121-141.
Autism is one of the most severe and disruptive of all childhood disorders - a level of disruption that of course lasts well into adulthood. With both genetic and environmental elements at work, autism (which affects boys at least three times more often than girls and is found in all races and throughout the world) is a communicative disorder that interferes with an individual's ability to form social relationships as well as to communicate with others.
The inability to communicate easily with others is devastating for many children with autism. Being disconnected from other members of the human community is always a difficult condition, but it is especially difficult to the young. An adult who finds himself or herself unable to communicate will already have established connections with other people.
But a child with autism often has the greatest possible difficulties communicating and so establishing those connections to begin with.…
Einfeld, S., & Tonge, B. (1994). The Developmental Behavior Checklist: The development and validation of an instrument to assess behavioral and emotional disturbance in children and adolescents with mental retardation. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 25, 81-101. http://www.behavior.org/autism/index.cfm?page=http%3A//www.behavior.org/autism/autism_causes.cfm http://cecp.air.org/fba/default.htm
Koegel, R., Rincover, A., & Egel, A. (1982). Educating and Understanding Autistic Children. San Diego: College-Hill.
Kozloff, M. (1983). Reaching the autistic child: A parent teaching program. Cambridge, MA: Brookline Books.
Paluszny, M. (1979). Autism: A Practical Guide for Parents and Professionals. NY: Syracuse University Press.
homelessness in America, especially looking at children and families who are homeless. Homelessness has always been an issue in America, but today, there are even more homeless people in the country because of the economic crisis. People have lost their jobs and their homes, and have nowhere to go but the streets. Homelessness used to be viewed as an often solitary issue, but today, many families with children are homeless, and that leads to a dim view of the future for these families.
First, it is important to define homelessness. Two authors write, "It is usually accepted that those who sleep in public places or squat in derelict buildings are homeless" (Chamberlain, and Johnson 35). However, there are many other ways to define homelessness. Families living temporarily in shelters are homeless, and so are people who are hospitalized or institutionalized that have nowhere to go on their release. So are…
Chamberlain, Chris, and Guy Johnson. "The Debate about Homelessness." Australian Journal of Social Issues 36.1 (2001): 35.
Latham, Buffalo. "The Art of Homelessness." The Humanist Jan.-Feb. 2002: 20+.
Nunez, Ralph Da Costa, and Laura M. Caruso. "Are Shelters the Answer to Family Homelessness?" USA Today (Society for the Advancement of Education) Jan. 2003: 46+.
Therefore, although the current analysis took into consideration three of the most important countries in the world, they do not lack the problems facing each country because everywhere in the world there are poor areas and low income families who will abuse their children, will abandon them, and even torture them according to their own religious or personal beliefs. Taking these aspects into consideration, it is important to consider the three different child protection policies applied in Japan, Switzerland, and Germany in order to see the extent in which the economic development is related to the child protection policy.
Japan is well-known for the way in which the family ties and connections are mirrored in the society. More precisely, it is rather well-known the fact that in general the Japanese family is committed to their own beings and the relations that establish at the level of the family members are…
BBC. Merkel in child protection plea. 2007. 7 April 2008. http://newsvote.bbc.co.uk/mpapps/pagetools/print/news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/7166094.stm
Clemons, Steven. "Koizumi Needs Fiscal Shot to Ring Round the World, New America Foundation. Daily Yomiuri." New American Foundation. 2002. 7 Apr 2008. http://www.newamerica.net/publications/articles/2002/koizumi_needs_fiscal_shot_to_ring_round_the_world
Deutche Welle. German Standard of Living in Decline. 2004. 7 April 2008. http://www.dw-world.de/dw/article/0,1305105,00.html
Goodman, Roger. Children of the Japanese State: The Changing Role of Child Protection Institutions in Contemporary Japan. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000.
0%), cohabiting parents (61.8%), cohabiting stepparents (71.0%), and married stepparents (65.2-16%).
Recall that when we consider all children, we find that the food insecurity rates are significantly lower for children living with married stepparents than for children with cohabiting parents or single-mother families.
Finally, food insecurity rates are significantly lower for lower-income children living with their married biological/adoptive parents (46.8%) than for all other groups considered.
The share of lower-income children who are food-insecure declined by 4.0 percentage points between 1997 and 2002.
Food insecurity rates fell for lower-income children living with married parents, married stepparents, and single mothers but went up for children with cohabiting parents, although none of these changes are statistically significant.
According to Sari Friedman, attorney, children still need both parents even after the divorce and the parents should both continue involvement in the child health education and welfare taking an active role. In December 1,…
Mood disorders like profound depression, as well as childhood schizophrenia, autism, ADH/D, may all qualify a child for this classification, so long as they are not the result of physical health conditions (like blindness making it difficult for a child to adjust to normal social life with his or her school-age peers and sighted family) or intellectual limitations, which may cause a developmentally delayed child to function in age-inappropriate ways, but are not the result of an emotional disturbance disorder.
Discuss several effective ways to identify and assess students with E/BD.
hile all students may exhibit signs of emotional disturbance under stress, students with emotional and behavioral disorders show such disturbances even outside of such conditions. Unlike school phobia, they are fearful in a variety of situations. A recent immigrant may be experiencing a culture clash with the school environment due to linguistic or cultural barriers, but even at home,…
Human Exceptionality, School, Community and Family. 8th Ed.
In comparing a number of literary elements in one story, Smith and Wiese (2006) contend that at times, when attempting to transform an old story into a modern multicultural version, cultural meanings of the original story may be lost. In turn, the literature does not subject the reader to another culture. For instance, in the story about the fisherman, that Smith and Wiese access, the plot remains similar plot, however, significant changes transform the reported intent to make the story multicultural. Changes included the fisherman's daughter's stated name, being changed from one common to her culture to Maha. Instead of God, as written in the original version, the reference notes "Allah." Other changes Smith and Wiese point out include:
& #8230;The admonition to retrieve the fish or "be sorry" instead of the threatened curse, the reference to the golden shoe as a sandal instead of a clog;
Anderson, Connie Wilson. (2006). Examining Historical Events through Children's Literature.
Multicultural Education. Caddo Gap Press. 2006. Retrieved May 03, 2009 from HighBeam Research: http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1P3-1229798181.html
Banned Book Quiz. (2009). Retrieved May 03, 2009 from http://www.shetland-library.gov.uk/documents/BannedBooksWBD09quiz.pdf
Bottigheimer, Ruth B. (2008). Stories of heaven and earth: Bible heroes in contemporary
Infancy is the stage between birth and two years of age. This stage is characterized by rapid physical growth than any other stage of life. Very interesting changes occur in this couple of years. Brain development also occurs rapidly at this stage. Prior to birth, the unborn baby has most of the brain cells, but not all. There is a very rapid development of the neural connections between the cells. Contrary to what most people think, the baby is not entirely helpless. It is capable of all the basic activities required to sustain life -- breathing, suckling, swallowing and excretion. By the first week, the newborns can identify the direction from which sound is coming, recognize the voice of the mother from other voices and is capable of simple imitating basic gestures such as opening the mouth and sticking out the tongue (Shaffer & Kipp, 2013).
ritten by Alex Kotlowitz, a reporter for the all Street Journal, the book There Are No Children There follows two boys' activities around the Henry Horner Homes, a low-income public housing project in Chicago, Illinois. The book covers the time period from the summer of 1987 through September, 1989, and follows the protagonists, Lafeyette Rivers (nearly 12 years old) and Pharoah Rivers (nine years old). This is not an ordinary American neighborhood. It is a heavy gang area, a war zone where shootings are commonplace, drugs are a catalyst for crime and death seems to lurk around every corner. This paper will review the book chronologically through five chapters then provide a closer critique of LaJoe Rivers, the mother of the protagonists.
The average American comes home from work in the evening, opens a refreshing cold drink, gets comfortable on the couch and turns on the evening news.…
Bushey, Claire. "Saying goodbye to Henry Horner Homes." Chi-Town Daily News. Retrieved February 15, 2011, from http://www.chitowndailynews.org .
Grace, Julie. "There Are No Children Here." Time Magazine. Retrieved February 16, 2011,
from http://www.time.com/printout/0,8816,981434,00.html . (1994).
Kotlowitz, Alex. There Are No Children Here: The Story of Two Boys Growing Up in the Other
Children and Young People Risk of Harm:
The identification and reaction to children and young people risk of harm basically involves the proper application of necessary knowledge and skills to deal with the requirements of duty of care. This process involves all workers who are engaged in providing various services to children such as health, education, family services, and community services. In addition, this process incorporates three major elements i.e. implementation of relevant work practices, reporting the probable risk of harm, and application of nurturing practices.
The other critical aspect in this process is the need for these workers to possess essential knowledge and skills to enable them achieve their respective goals. Children and young people may be at risk of harm when their psychological and physical needs are unmet, they lack necessary medical care, and they are susceptible to sexual or physical abuse. Moreover, when children and young people…
But though she was the first journalist whose fairly innocent lack of responsibility started the domino effect of Marla's story in the media, Elizabeth Cohen was far from the worst transgressor in this area. The segment Bar-Lev shows of the television newsmagazine 60 Minutes' coverage of Marla's painting was even more inflammatory, and just as shoddily researched. The story quite blatantly suggest that Marla's parents might be fraudulently representing their daughter's talents, but there is no real evidence of this. They show a child psychologist -- not an art expert, it should be noted -- who is initially impressed with the quality of the paintings attributed to Marla, but is surprised to see on a video of Marla painting that she paints like any child her age. It is after this that the child psychologist begins to possibly detect a difference in the quality of the paintings attributed to Marla…
raising IQ scores/Education. Question: Should the IQ cutoff for mental retardation be raised to 80? Six sources. APA.
Should the IQ Cutoff for Mental Retardation be raised to 80?
The debate regarding IQ tests continues to rage into the new millennium. Every decade has a myriad of new studies supporting or contradicting the last accepted theories and studies. There are new studies which indicate that the IQ scores in the United States has risen by 3 points per decade, "indicating that intelligence is not stable but is flexible with regards to environmental influences." However, after vast research, no one knows just exactly what is causing the rise in IQ scores. Moreover, there is an ongoing debate in regards to raising the IQ cutoff scores for the mental retardation assessment. The American Association of Mental Retardation's definition of mental retardation is "a disability characterized by significant limitations both in intellectual functioning…
Davis, Sharon. "The Human Genome Project: Examining The Arc's Concerns Regarding the Project's Ethical, Legal, and Social Implications." November 12, 1997. http://www.ornl.gov/hgmis/resource/arc.html .(accessed 11-24-2002).
Definition of Mental Retardation." American Association of Mental Retardation: 2002
Policy Forum. July 29, 2002. http://www.aamr.org/Policies/faq_mental_retardation.shtml .(accessed 11-24-2002).
MacMillan, Donald L.; Forness, Steven R. "The Role of IQ in Special Education
Raising Children in a Socially Toxic Environment by Dr. James Garbarino is a book for anyone interesting in studying the social environment of children. It's a book for educators who want to study the results of a poor environment and recognize the signs of it; it's for parents who want to know what's good and what's not so good for their children to see. And finally, it's for students like myself who are interested in learning just how much a child's environment affects a child's psyche and what they will grow up to be.
Most of us know that today's social environment is a danger to children. Without reading this book, we can figure out that today's world of violence, sex, pop, television, and gangster rap is not the best teachers to children. Dr. Garbarino obviously agrees about the danger of this environment but goes on to tell us why…
Since biblical times, children have been mentioned and admonished about social transgressions. The first man and woman, according to the Christian Holy Bible suggest that Adam and Eve, both children of God, were in trouble from the outset; the consequences were dire with no "out" such as rehabilitation. Today, of course, we see that rehabilitation is the primary focus for children's behaviors. Further, social attitudes toward children differ around the world in various cultures. These attitudes have changed over time, of course. The purpose of this paper is to detail differences in perception of children throughout history, with a particular emphasis in the periods between 1824-1960 and, in contrast the "modern" period after 1960.
The age at which children are considered responsible for their own actions (e.g., marriage, voting, etc.) has also changed over time, and this is reflected in the way they are treated in courts of law.…
Melchiorre, A. (2004) At What Age?...are school-children employed, married and taken to court? Retrieved from: http://www.right-to-education.org/node/53
Rachel K. Jones and April Brayfield, Life's greatest joy?: European attitudes toward the centrality of children. Social Forces, Vol. 75, No. 4, Jun 1997. 1,239-69 pp. Chapel Hill, North Carolina
Akers, R.L. (1973). Law and Control in Society. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Emotionally Competent Children:
A lesson for soon-to-be parents
Children learn basic emotional skills from relatives, neighbors, and peers, but by far the most important role in a child's emotional development is that of his parents. Parents have the unique role of providing guidance and instruction to facilitate healthy emotional development in their children from the time they are born. Thus, parents should be proactive in coaching their children to appropriately handle a wide variety of feelings and emotions. Moreover, parents should lead by example, modeling emotionally healthy interactions between each other and with their children on an ongoing basis, particularly when family conflict arises (Gottman & Declaire, 15-16).
esearch has shown support for a five-step process to effectively instill emotional intelligence in children. Gottman & Declaire (1998) state that the following five-step approach should be applied at the time an emotional challenge arises:
Identify and recognize the child's emotion.
Gottman, J. & Declaire, J. (1998) Raising An Emotionally Intelligent Child: The Heart of Parenting. New York: Simon & Shuster.
Markham, L. (2012). How to Raise an Emotionally Competent Child. Retrieved from http://www.ahaparenting.com
These "interventions are strategies that target whole communities in order to build public resources and attend to the factors that contribute to child maltreatment" (Holzer et al. 2006 p 3). In NAPCAN's 2006 campaign, the organization was promoting parental education through social marketing. NAPCAN's campaign is directed at individuals in order to bring awareness of how their parenting can negatively impact their children.
One of the biggest strengths the campaign boasted was its price tag. The cost effectiveness of social media is a major strength to the overall campaign. Prevention programs are often less likely to be rigorously funded and supported by government agencies and institutions, with most funding coming only for short periods of campaign management (Tomison 1998). As a result, social media serves as an extremely beneficial platform because of its cost effective nature. The cost of the campaign is much less than other forms…
Barth, Richard P, 2009. Preventing child abuse and neglect with parent training: Evidence and opportunities. Future of Children, 19(2), 95-119.
Horsfall, Briony, Bromfield, Leah, and McDonald, Myfanwy, 2010. Are social marketing campaigns effective in preventing child abuse and neglect? National Child Protection Clearinghouse Issues, 32(2010), 1-28.
Holzer, Prue J., Higgins, Jenny R., Bromfield, Leah M., Richardson, Nick and Higgins, Daryl, 2006. The effectiveness of parent education and home visiting child maltreatment prevention programs. National Child Abuse Prevention Clearinghouse Issues, 24(Autumn 2006), 1-24.
Kaplan, Andreas M. And Haenlein, Michael, 2010. Users of the world, unite! The challenges and opportunities of social media. Business Horizons, 53(2010), 59-68.
Parenting Styles and their Effect on Children Behavior
Different Parenting Styles
This research paper is based on Baumrind's theory of parenting and covers the impact and consequences of different parenting styles on children's development extensively. Four parenting styles named authoritarian, authoritative, permissive, and uninvolved are discussed in detail. This paper also discusses parenting style of Canada, Japan and China in contrast with Baumrind's theory of parenting. All the impacts and influences on parenting style are deeply studied and discussed.
Early years of learning in a child's life is believed to make a significant difference in the way they develop and go on to learn throughout their lives (Kim, 1999). Developmental psychologists have been making research about the role played by parents and its impact on child development. However, developing a cause-and-effect link between parents behavior and brought up and its impact on child behavior and attitude is a relatively tough…
Golombok, S. (2000). Parenting: What Really Counts? new york: Routledge.
Kim, M. (1999). Parental Involvement, Family Processes, and Parenting Styles of First Generation Korean parents on early childhood education. New York: Umi.
Nevid, J.S. (2009). Psychology: Concepts and Applications. New York: wadsworth.
Pressley, M., & McCormick, C.B. (2007). Child And Adolescent Development for Educators. New York: Guilford Publications.
Family-Centered Approach in Child Development
Child Development: Importance of Family Involvement
Family plays a vital role in the upbringing of a child. A child has not developed his/her senses at the time of his birth. Senses are present from the time of the birth and give the child enough potential to step out in the practical world. Apart from five basic senses i.e. taste, smell, touch, sight and sound, there are countless of other senses that are fed by the family. Ideally a person must be able to utilize every resource he has in him but this does not happen. Einstein being the world's genius person utilized his potential up to 11% approximately which means 89%of his brain was left unexplored. Similarly a lot of other people can do better if their family helps them to explore their personalities while growing up. This research will investigate a family's…
Britto, P.R. & Brooks-Gunn, J. (Eds.). (2001). The Role of Family Literacy Environments in Promoting Young Children's Emerging Literacy Skills. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Davies, D. (2010). Child Development. NY: Guilford.
Hojat, M., Gonnella, J.S., Nasca, T.J., Mangione, S., Vergare, M., & Magee, M. (2002). Physician empathy: Definition, components, measurement, and relationship to gender and specialty. American Journal of Psychiatry.
Meggitt, C. (2006). Child Development: An Illustrated Guide. UK: Hienemann.
Domestic violence is an ongoing experience of physical, psychological, and even sexual abuse in the home that is often a method used by one adult to establish control and power over another person (Flitcraft et al., 1992). Exposure by children to marital aggression is now a recognized public health concern. The investigation of the effects of the exposure to this type of aggression on the functioning of a child is a significant societal concern. Marital conflict is generally defined as any difference of opinion between martial or domestic partners whether it is minor or major. Marital conflict can assume many different forms including displays of both negative and positive emotions and/or constructive and destructive tactics. Marital aggression is characterized by physical and/or psychological abuse and would fall at the negative extreme on a continuum of marital conflict (Cummings, 1998). Marital psychological/verbal aggression refers to things such as threats, insults, and…
Babcock, J.C., Green, C.E. & Robie, C. (2004). Does batterers' treatment work? A meta-
analytic review of domestic violence treatment. Clinical Psychology Review 23(8), 1023-1053.
Carlson, B.E. (1984). Children's observations of interparental violence. In A.R. Roberts (ed.),
Battered women and their families (pp. 147 -- 167). New York: Springer.
Poverty and Inequality Among Children
Studies show that child poverty has been increasing at an alarming rate in the last decade. In 1994, 15.3 million children, or 21.8% of all Americans, were poor (Lichter 1997) and that, although children constituted only 26.7% of the population, 40.1% of all poor persons in the U.S. were children (U.S. ureau of Census 1996 as qtd in Lichter). These rising poverty rates are used by government agencies in determining the criteria for eligibility in social insurance programs and public assistance interventions developed by these government agencies. And, according to these criteria, the economic well-being of American children is on a downtrend, which indicates that tomorrow's adults will be less economically adjusted than adults today and that the future of today's children is materially and psycho-emotionally less promising (Lichter).
In his study, Lichter (1997) pointed to the rapid changes in the most fundamental institutions --…
1. Achs, Gregory and Megan Gallagher. Income Inequality Among America's Children. Urban Institute, 2000. http://www.urban.org/url.cfm?ID=309307
2. Lichter, Daniel T. Poverty and Inequality Among Children. Annual Reviews, vol 23, 1997. http://links.jstor.org/sici=0360-0572%281997%2923%3C121%APAIAC%E2.0.C )%3B2-L
3. Smeeding, Timothy M, et al. U.S. Poor are Among World's Poorest, Luxembourg Income Study. New York Times, Aug 4, 1995. http://pangaea.org/street_children/nameri/poor.htm
4. Van Hook, Jennifer. Poverty Grows Among Children of Immigrants in U.S., Center for Family and Demographic Research. Migration Policy Institute, 2003. http://www.migrationinformation.com/USfocus/display.cfm?ID=188
In order to formulate effective early childhood development interventions, though, it is important to determine what risk factors are involved and what coping skills young children possess. In this regard, Pati and her associates add that, "Identifying critical risk and resilience factors is the first step in developing interventions to promote early school success" (p. 5). These recommendations, though, will not magically produce the resources needed to eradicate poverty, but they do emphasize the need to determine what specific factors must be addressed in order to develop effective interventions to address them. These recommendations also make it clear that all children and their families are unique and some may require more assistance than others in certain areas. This recommendation is congruent with Pati et al.'s observations that, "From a treatment perspective, separating patients into different service intensity levels is also commonplace in clinical practice" (p. 13).
No matter what other…
Aber, L. (2007, December). Changing the climate on early childhood: The science of early childhood development is as persuasive as the science of global climate change. The American Prospect, 18(12), 4-5.
Barnett, W.S. & Belfield, C.R. (2006). Early childhood development and social mobility. The Future of Children, 16(2), 73-74.
Bornstein, M.H., Davidson, L., Keyes, C.L. & Moore, K.A. (2003). Well-being: Positive development across the life course. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Brooks-Gunn, J. & Duncan, G.J. (1997). The effects of poverty on children. The Future of Children, 7(2), 55-71. [Online]. Available: http://www.jstor.org.ezproxy.memphis.edu / stable/1602387?cookieSet=1.
Sponsor a Needy Child
Many philanthropic organizations provide a means for the average person to donate a relatively small amount of money to sponsor a needy child. These organizations often advertise their services on television, and most of them are Christian. Although these organizations exist in Canada, New Zealand, Australia, and various other countries, a majority of these Christian charities are based in the United States.
Compassion International is one such organization. Based in Colorado Springs, Colorado, Compassion International offers sponsorship opportunities in children in twenty-two countries around the world. Compassion International was founded by Reverend Everett Swanson in the early 1950s, when he was in Korea. Reverend Swanson saw the potential to help poor Korean children and started the charity "to release them from their spiritual, economic, social, and physical poverty and enable them to become responsible and fulfilled Christian adults," ("About Us").
It costs U.S. $28 per month…
About Us," "Children Waiting for a Sponsor," and "Frequently Asked Questions." Compassion International. http://www.compassion.com/sponsor/faq.asp
parent with a young child and a demanding job -- whether it is a mother or a father -- has challenges that a family with both parents on board does not experience, in most cases. And when you add to the equation the fact that the single parent in this case is a male in the U.S. Army, there are complications and serious work-life balance issues to be addressed. After all, the health and care of the child in question must be at the top of the list of priorities, along with the employment of the father and the balance of the conflicting challenges and issues.
As a single dad with a young child, I already face challenges when it comes to raising my child, providing a good home and good health for the child; but in addition I am in the U.S. Army and my duties and responsibilities necessarily…
Britt, T.W., Adler, A.B., and Castro, C.A. (2006). Military Life: The military family. Chicago,
IL: Greenwood Publishing Group.
Lieke, L, Brummelhuis, T., and Van Der Lippe, T. (2010). Effective Work-Life Balance
Support for Various Household Structures. Human Resource Management, 49(2), 173-193.
Educated Women Deciding to Have Children
Most of us grow up with the belief and feeling that we should have children and that our lives are not fulfilled unless we have children.th is not the take of most educated women. Most f educated women in the society today opt not to bear any children in fact they even lack the time to start up families. They often have a lot of things they consider being of much greater importance compared to starting up families and bearing children. These women are often judged and looked down upon by the society. They are labeled as being unfair people who do not have any humanity in them. However what most people fail to take note is that the choice of having a child lies on an individual.no one should be looked down upon simply because they do not want have children. This paper…
Filipovic, J.(2013). The Choice to be Child-free is Admirable, not Selfish. Retrieved February 20,2014 from http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2013/aug/16/choice-child-free-admirable-not-selfish
Monstad, K.(2011).Consider Peer Effects. Retrieved February 20,2014 from https://www.nytimes.com/roomfordebate/2011/07/14/womens-choices-school-vs.-children/peer-effects-on-childbearing
King, D.(2011). Highly Educated Women Pay a High Price to Have Children. Retrieved February 20, 2014 from http://www.dailyfinance.com/2011/01/25/highly-educated-women-pay-a-high-price-to-have-children/
Goff, K.(2013).Are smarter women less likely to want children? Retrieved February 20,2014 from http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/she-the-people/wp/2013/08/07/are-smarter-women-less-likely-to-want-children/
On the whole, the Academy calls for the abolition of exemption laws and endorses initiatives to educate the public about the medical needs of children (Committee on ioethics)..
While AAP recognizes the importance of religion to people's lives, it also warns physicians and other health care professionals should put the health and welfare of children over religious considerations (Committee on ioethics 1997). It encourages pediatricians to respect parents' decision but not when their religious convictions interfere with medical care necessary to prevent harm, suffering or death. When this happens, pediatricians should seek the authorization of the court to override parental authority. If the threat to a child's life is imminent, the health care practitioner should intervene over parental objections. Securing court authorization should, however, be the last course of action. The health care practitioner should cooperate with the family in applying appropriate palliative care. Even when the securing of court…
Bender, Denise G. Do Fourteenth Amendment Considerations Outweigh a Potential State
Interest in Mandating Cochlear Implantation for Deaf Children. Journal of Deaf
Studies and Deaf Education: University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, 2004
Committee on Bioethics. Religious Objections to Medical Care. Volume 9 number 2
In reality, such a parent would have difficulty raising a child on his or her own and the finances that he or she previously invested in providing the child with entertaining activities need to be directed at buying more important resources for the child.
A parent who is no longer in charge of his or her child's life has practically no problems buying a great deal of things for his or her child and thus influences the child in feeling that he or she is not receiving enough attention from the parent holding custody. Children can also be affected by the fact that parents often believe that there is a competition between themselves and their peers concerning who receives the most appreciation from the child.
IV. Children's development
hereas people are well-aware that divorce can be harmful for a large number of children who see their parents getting separated, the…
Amato, Paul R. "The Consequences of Divorce for Adults and Children," Journal of Marriage and the Family 62.4 (2000)
DeBord, Carmen, "The Effects of Divorce on Children," Retrieved November 11, 2011, from the North Carolina State University Website: http://www.ces.ncsu.edu/depts/fcs/pdfs/fcs471.pdf
Leo, John, "The Sleeper Effect," Human Life Review Fall 2000.
Palosaari, Ulla and Aro, Hillevi, "Effect of Timing of Parental Divorce on the Vulnerability of Children to Depression in Young Adulthood,"Adolescence 29.115 (1994)