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Laylat al-Qadr is the most important night during Ramadan. Traditionally it falls on the 27th day of Ramadan and means "Night of Power." The Night of Power commemorates Mohammad receiving the first verses of the Qur'an. Thus, the Laylat al-Qadr is the essence of Ramadan itself. Worshippers around the world spend the entire night in prayer because Laylat al-Qadr is believed to contain the spiritual power of a thousand months. I have stayed up with my family during the Night of Power and the experience is like nothing else. To be in a room full of people praying and worshipping at the same time does indeed feel like a Night of Power.
However, Laylat al-Qadr is not my favorite time of Ramadan. Ramadan comes to an end with a giant feast called Eid al-Fitr. The feast can only take place after the next month's new moon is spotted in the…
The article explains that many evangelicals believe that fasting in the same fashion as Muslims, undermines Christianity. They assert that such associations actually blur the lines between the faiths.
However, leaders of the Christian movement towards having such relationships with other faiths disagree with the aforementioned assertion. According to Brian McLaren, one of the Christian leaders of the interfaith movement, explains that the reason for fasting is not to become Muslim. Instead he asserts that "we are deeply committed Christians. But as Christians, we want to come close to our Muslim neighbors and to share this important part of life with them." The goal is to join Muslims in the observance as "a God-honoring expression of peace, fellowship and neighborliness (Gorski, 2009)."
McLaren started the movement because he believed that many Americans began to develop an anti-muslim ideology as a result of the terrorist attacks of 2001. He believed that…
Ariarajah S.W. Religious Diversity and Interfaith Relations in a Global Age. Retrieved December 12, 2009 from; http: / / www.flinders.edu.au/religiouscentre/multifaith _chaplaincy/Geoff_papers/ariarajah.PDF
Gorski, E. (2009) Muslims find new Ramadan fast partners: Christians. Retrieved December 12, 2009 from; http://www.usatoday.com/news/religion/2009-09-18-ramadan-christians_N.htm
oman and Islam
Islamic religion has its established guiding teachings and principles that ensure its followers submit totally to the will of Allah for all the adherents. In effect, Islamic religion recognizes the fact that people and things around them affect their survival irrespective of their age, community, families, and the nation. The quality of life of the Muslims invariably affects the existence of the Islamic nations and religion as a whole. Muslim women are highly vulnerable to various health problems due to the strict religious ideation of most of the conditions that affect them. Islamic women as most of the women from other contemporary communities face numerous health challenges, including reproductive health problems such as increased cases of maternal death, destitution, poor access to maternal health services, and social violation of their human rights. As such, the health challenges make it necessary for the adoption of policies that recognize…
Agnew, Vijay. Racialized Migrant Women in Canada: Essays on Health, Violence, and Equity. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2009. Print
Aswad, Barbara C, and Bilge? Barbara. Family and Gender among American Muslims: Issues Facing Middle Eastern Immigrants and Their Descendants. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1996. Print
Atighetchi, Dariusch. Islamic Bioethics: Problems and Perspectives. New York? Springer, 2007. Internet resource.
Cortese, Delia, and Calderini Simonetta. Women and the Fatimids in the World of Islam. Edinburgh: Edinburgh Univ. Press, 2006. Print.
Crouching Tiger Hidden Dragon
The film, documentaries and the last docudrama are exceptional production pieces by notable directors and producers. Crouching tiger-hidden dragon defies the usual mantra of strength only attributed to men. Jen effectively acts as person having higher morals. The martial arts performance was exceptional, an unusual feature in Hollywood. Islam, the empire of faith is another documentary made on the rise of Islamic empire and the life of Prophet Mohammad having a great impact on establishment of religion. 'Gandhi' also remains an unquestioned production classic that eloquently portrays Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, the unquestioned leader of India. The film sheds light on Hinduism as a religion and its faith and dogmas. Lastly, Kundan is a docudrama based on life of Dalai Lama. 'Kundan' might not have justified the stature of Buddhism in history of mankind but the piece of production remains an earnest effort on part of Martin…
Bowker, J. & Bowker, D. (1997). World religions. Dorling Kindersley.
Chan, K. (2004). The Global Return of the Wu Xia Pian (Chinese Sword-Fighting Movie): Ang Lee's Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon. Cinema Journal, 43(4), 3-17.
Conze, E. (2004). Buddhism: Its essence and development. Windhorse Publications.
Driver, M.W. & Ray, S. (2004). The medieval hero on screen: representations from Beowulf to Buffy (Vol. 56). McFarland & Company Incorporated Pub.
SPSS was used to analyze the data collected from the participants. A Pearson correlation coefficient evaluated the relationship between the ordinal variables (such as gender and tendency to give zakat maal or zakat fitah) and evaluated whether significance in the relationship existed. Chi-square was employed to evaluate whether ordinal and categorical relationships are significant or not and if so the level of their significance.
Lessy's (2010) discovered that most participants (54) gave their zakat fitrah to mosques, whilst 490 gave it directly to the poor, and only 20 gave their zakat fitrah to foundations. On the other hand, the reverse was evidenced with zakat maal where 45 participants gave directly to the poor, followed by only 25 who gave to mosques. 10 participants, on the other hand gave to orphanages and educational institutions, whilst a mere 8 individuals gave to relief organizations.
As to why they give the way they…
Al-Qur'an al-Karim. (2008). The Qur'an: A new translation. In T. Khalidi (Trans.). New York: Penguin Classics.
Benthall, J. (1999). Financial worship: The Quranic injunction to alms-giving. The Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, 5(1), 27-42.
Caster, J.J. (2008). A new direction in women's philanthropy. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 37, 353-361.
Dean, H., & Khan, Z. (1997). Muslim perspectives on welfare. Journal of Social Policy, 26(2), 193-209.
" The point made by the poet is similar to the poem above. The reference to John,
The Father of our souls, shall be,
John tells us, doth not yet appear;
is a reference to the Book of Revelations, at the end of the Bible.
That despite the promises of an Eternal life for those who eschew sin, we are still frail and have the faults of people. We are still besought by sin and temptations and there's really no escape. People are people. No matter what we say or do, we find that life is not so simple. Consider this reference, which really refers to a person's frame of reference or "way of seeing."
Wise men are bad -- and good are fools,
This is a paradoxical statement: there is large gap between spirituality and reality. Those we consider wise or bad, might make decisions that are globally profound,…
The Sawm is the Fourth Pillar of Islam and it teaches Muslims in regard to fasting (refraining from eating or drinking). The Ramadan is the ninth month in the Islamic lunar year and is believed to be the most important period of the year in Muslim tradition. Muslims are not allowed to eat, drink, or engage in sexual intercourse throughout daylight hours every day during the Ramadan. The person who abstains from eating, drinking, and sex during daylight hours at Ramadan also has to be moral, as any sort of immorality makes the fasting pointless.
The Fifth Pillar is the Hajj, the pilgrimage to Mecca. People understand this pilgrimage as a physical and spiritual journey to the holiest place in Islam. The Islamic world promotes the belief that any person who is a Muslim and who is physically able to travel to Mecca should do so at least once in…
Boyd Jenkins, Orville, "MAJOR TYPES OF ISLAM," Retrieved September 10, 2011, from the Orville Jenkins website: http://orvillejenkins.com/outlineintro/types.html
Mason, Bethany, "Following the Prophet: A Comparison of Sunni and Shiite Muslims," Retrieved September 10, 2011, from the East Tennessee State University website: http://www.etsu.edu/writing/teaching&theory_s06/sunnis.htm
Penney, Sue, "Islam," Heinemann, 1999.
Ridenour, Fritz, "So What's the Difference?," Gospel Light, 2001.
Kafr El-Elow is based upon the novel Kafr El-Elow: Continuity and Change in an Egyptian community written by Hani Fakhouri. This paper takes into account two chapters from the novel and explains why both of them are absolutely essential in understanding the social structure of the village, Kafr El-Elow. The paper also highlights some very important traditions and customs followed by the villagers.
The writer of the novel, Kafr El-Elow chose the village of Kafr El-Elow for the ethnographic research not because of its close association with Cairo but because of its location in the middle of Egypt's colossal mercantile complex. According to the author, the small village of Kafr El-Elow is bound to experience a lot of changes due to its most central location, as it is the industrial complex of a country that experience advancement. The people of Kafr El-Elow as result of urbanization and industrialization…
Hani F. Kafr El-Elow. Wave Land Press. May 1987.
Ethnographic Perspective: Guests of the Sheik
Guests of the Sheik: An Ethnography of an Iraqi Village -- analysis
Elizabeth Fernea's book "Guests of the Sheik: An Ethnography of an Iraqi Village" provides readers with a complex description of women in Iraqi village during the 1950s. The text is meant to enable people to abandon stereotypes they might have considered when coming across Iraqi women. The book should not necessarily be understood as a form of criticism with regard to society's understanding of this particular community, as it is actually meant to inform readers and to make it possible for them to employ more open-minded attitudes with regard to the group. The fact that the writer provides a personal account regarding Iraqi women during the 1950s contributes to the overall authenticity of the manuscript.
The book is based on Fernea's experiences in Iraq during her stay there with her husband, an…
Warnock Fernea, E. (2010). Guests of the Sheik: An Ethnography of an Iraqi Village. Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group.
Muslims are a family oriented people with religious centered traditions and government. They follow the law of Sharia based the Koran or Qur'an. The women experience a range of individual rights from dressing more liberally with colors and headscarves, to being unable to drive or dance in public. Although Westerners often paint a negative picture of Muslim culture, there are many wonderful and beautiful things to be learned of the Muslim faith and Muslim culture.
In recent times, many Muslims have adopted new ways of living, providing outsiders' access to their pursuits. From female racecar drivers to singing competitions, Muslims have grown and expanded their culture to embrace modernity and variety. The best example of this is Dubai. Dubai houses ultramodern skyscrapers and the latest in cars and fashions. Although separation of genders remains prevalent even in a more modern city like Dubai, that does not keep Muslims from enjoying…
Knight, K. (2006). My Muslim faith. North Mankato, MN: Cherrytree Books.
Modood, T. (2005). Multicultural politics. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Pohl, F. (2010). Modern Muslim Societies. New York: Cavendish Square Publishing.
A large body of literature has treated many different aspects of these influences on Asia, Europe and the United States (Busser & Sadoi, 2003). The importance of the study relates to the current trends taking place in Libya where aggressive steps have been taken in recent years to normalize relations with the international community. For example, Libya opened up its programs to develop weapons of mass destruction to international scrutiny and renounced terrorism as a political tool (Libya, 2010). Moreover, the country's political leadership has been equally forthcoming in its efforts to normalize their relations with Western nations since 2003 (Libya, 2010). More recently, Libya has been removed from the U.S. State Department's list of states that sponsor terrorism in 2006 and in 2008, Libya joined the United Nations as a nonpermanent member on the UN Security Council during the 2008-2009 term (Libya, 2010).
Other signs that clearly point to…
About us. (2010). Mobil. Retrieved from http://www.exxonmobil.com/Corporate/about.aspx .
Al-Waha Oil Company overview. (2010). Al-Waha Oil Company. Retrieved from http://www.
Announcement of oil discovery. (2010, July). National Oil Corporation. Retrieved from http://en.noclibya.com.ly/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=1423& ;
The most egregious sins that can be committed by a Muslim include to deny the unity of God by ascribing divine status to any person or object. This sin is called shirk. Emphasizing the importance of shirk to Muslim morality, all iconography is strictly forbidden in Islam. Iconography in a mosque, the Muslim place of worship, would be akin to idol worship. The second major sin of Islam is kufr, or atheism.
The religious beliefs of Islam are based around a core set of tenets known as the Five Pillars. The first pillar is the Shahadah: there is only one God, and the prophet Mohammed is God's messenger. At the same time, Islam encourages respect of and unity with "all prophets" of God and "all revealed scriptures," (p. 381).
The Second Pillar is prayer, five times a day. Ritual washing is also integral to Muslim prayer. When praying, the…
The EU, first and foremost, takes care of its own interests. Turkey's candidacy reflects EU interest of expanding its sphere of influence, but the sluggish pace of negotiations reflects the EU's defense of Cypriot and Greek interests as well as issues with respect to natural gas and illegal immigration.
The EU has traditionally emphasized European cultural values as a prerequisite for entering the union. Historically, these values have been reflected in democratic government, human rights and capitalist economies. The Turkey question, however, expands the notion of European cultural values. hen the predictable issues such as the squabble over Cyprus are removed, Turkey's accession is a challenge for Europe because it adds the undercurrent of religion into the discussions. hile many point to the formal process as being one of laws, economies and political systems, it is clear that European cultural values now extends into a Christian worldview for many.
Champion, M. (2009). EU expansion fosters stability, Bildt says. Wall Street Journal. Retrieved December 8, 2009 from http://online.wsj.com/article/SB124568425718637441.html
EC. (2009). EU -- Turkey relations. European Commission Retrieved December 8, 2009 from http://ec.europa.eu/enlargement/candidate-countries/turkey/eu_turkey_relations_en.htm
EU. (2009). Turkey. European Union. Retrieved December 8, 2009 from http://ec.europa.eu/enlargement/pdf/enlargement_process/accession_process/how_does_a_country_join_the_eu/negotiations_croatia_turkey/overview_negotiations_tr_en.pdf
Ramadan, T. (2009). Turkey is part of Europe. Fear keeps it out of the EU. The Guardian. Retrieved December 8, 2009 from http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/2009/aug/06/turkey-eu-membership
Holy books contain the prophets' teachings" (Douglass). Islam has the Qur'an and Christians have the Bible. Douglass points out that both texts teach about "Adam, and that Noah, Abraham, Moses, Jesus, and others" (Douglass). Christians also believe in prayer, fasting, and alms - just not in the same way that Muslims do. Christians pray whenever they like and while the Bible teaches that believers should tithe 10% of their earnings, it is not a strict recommendation. Christians can also fast but it not required of them to do so at any particular time of year. Both religions warn against false prophets and worshipping the creation as opposed to the creator. Both religions believe in angelic beings and both religions believe in some type of day of judgment. Furthermore, both religions adopt a version of hell and heaven in the afterlife.
Christianity and Islam share many difference as well. hile Muslims…
Philips, Abu Ameenah Bilal. "The True Religion." IslamWorld.net. Site Accessed September 03, 2008. http://islamworld.net/docs/true.html
Besancon, Alain. "What Kind of Religion Is Islam?" Commentary. May 2004. EBSCO Resource Database. Site Accessed September 03, 2008. http://search.epnet.com
Douglass, Susan. What is Islam? Faces. February 2008. EBSCO Resource Database. Site Accessed September 03, 2008.
It was their right and duty as loyal followers, a way they could prove their faith and their commitment to God. This mindset is one reason the Muslims under Mohammed's leadership during his conquests were so successful, as described below.
Reasons for Success
Mohammed and his followers defeated migrants and other raiding parties in part because they decided to attack and defend their holy place during the holy month of Ramadan, something that was unexpected. Among those the Muslims following Mohammed opposed included a group named the Quraysh. During the infamous battle at adr Walls, Mohammed said to his followers about to engage in battle, that "no man will be slain this day fighting against them with steadfast courage, advancing and not retreating, but God will cause him to enter Paradise." Many Muslims following the messenger Mohammed believed that God sent to them 3,000 angels the day of the conquest…
Akbar, M.J. The Shade of Swords: Jihad and the Conflict between Islam and Christianity.
London: Routledge, 2002.
Ali, Ameer. The Spirit of Islam: A History of the Evolution and Ideals of Islam with a Life of the Prophet. London: Christophers. 1922.
Bainbridge, William Sims and Stark, Rodney. "The Rise of a New World Religion."
The children also rent decorated bikes to ride around town on for the holiday. It is a time for families to get together and celebrate with food and music and fellowship.
For a lot of families from working neighborhoods, Eid celebration also includes picnics in green areas including parks, zoos, botanical gardens and even green islands on major roads (Osama, 2004)."
Most of Egypt is Islam. Like Christians, the Islam followers trace their roots to Abraham and believe in one God who is universal. In Islam God is referred to as ALLAH which means One Universal God.
The Quran is the final revealed Word of God and provides the complete guide for human behavior. Its text was revealed directly to the prophet Muhammad between 610 and 632 C.E. Muhammad is revered by Muslims as the last of God's prophets but is not worshipped (Ahmad, 2005)."
Men and women are…
Dhimmis (minorities of other religions) participated as equal citizens in this renaissance and Muslim scholars made more scientific discoveries during this time than in the whole of previously recorded history (Goldschmidt & Davidson, 2007). The break between the hiis (those who considered Ali to be legitimate ruler of the nation) and the unnis (those who revered Muhammad and all four rashidun) occurred during this period. Mystic Islam (best known as ufism), or esoteric groups were born during this period as well as Muslim philosophy.
Today, approximately 80-90% of Moslems are unnis whilst 10-20% are hiites. The key difference between unnis and hiites is that unnis believe that the first four caliphs were rightful successors to Mohamed and that caliphs should be chosen by the whole community. The alafi sect (otherwise notoriously known as Wahabbissm) is an extreme Islamic movement derived from unnism. hiites, on the other hand, believe in the…
Armstrong, K. (2000). Islam: A Short History The Modern Library: UK.
Brown, D. (1999). Rethinking Tradition in Modern Islamic Thought Cambridge: Cambridge Univ,. Press
Goldschmidt, A. & Davidson, L. (2010) A concise history of the Middle East Boulder, CO: Westview Press
Hourani, A. (1991) A History of the Arab People London: Penguin
In the city of Medina, Muhammad united the warring tribes. Following eight years of fighting Mecca tribes the Muslims conquered Mecca. In the year 632, after returning to Medina from a farewell pilgrimage to Mecca, Muhammad became ill and died. At the time of his death, almost all of the Arabian Peninsula had converted to the Islamic faith. He had united the Arabian tribes into a single Muslim religious polity hegemon (ibid, 34-40).
The revelations Muhammad reported receiving until his death in 632 form the body of the Qur'an, regarded by Muslims as the "ord of God" and around which the Muslim religion is built upon. In addition to the Qur'an, Muhammad's life and traditions are observed by Muslims. These stories discuss Muhammad and the other prophets with reverence, adding the phrase peace be upon him whenever his name is mentioned. His life and deeds have been debated and criticized…
Braswell, G. (2000). What you need to know about islam and muslims. New York, NY: B&H Book.
Goldschmidt, A., & Davidson, L. (2005). A concise history of the middle east. (9th
ed.). Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
In Sufism anyone who is in a position to give out what they have has an obligation to do so. Through this giving they get an opportunity to purify their wealth and at the same time attain salvation. In Sufism there is strict adherence to the Quran and hence they follow what is stipulated within the Quran as what is to be subjected to the Zakat tax or the exact share of an individual's income that has to be paid at zakat. Therefore, it is expected that 2.5% of the wealth that one has should be used to benefit the poor within the society in Sufism. The fourth pillar is fasting; this is a practice that is followed in Sufism as it is stipulated in the Quran. In Sufism there is following of the three types of fasting which are ritual fasting, repentance fasting and ascetic fasting. In Sufism ritual…
Pecorino, a.P. (2001).Philosophy of religion; Islam. Retrieved April 29, 2013 from http://www.qcc.cuny.edu/socialSciences/ppecorino/PHIL_of_RELIGION_TEXT/CHAPTER_2_RELIGIONS/Islam.htm
Rahim, B.M. (2009).Sufism and Islam. Retrieved April 29, 2013 from http://www.al-islam.org/beliefs/spirituality/suffism.html
Select a eligion
eligion is considered to be belief and acts of worship, which concentrates on worshiping a deity and gives a detailed and comprehensive outline for the way of living. It teaches the difference between good and evil, right and wrong and morality and immorality. This paper has selected Islam as the religion to be discussed.
Analysis of Christianity
Analysis of Christianity
Analysis of Islam
eligion plays an essential role in providing spiritual, moral and ethical guidelines to individuals in order to apply it into their daily lives (Fisher, 2005). eligion is considered to be belief and acts of worship, which concentrates on worshiping a deity and gives a detailed and comprehensive outline for the way of living. It teaches the difference between good and evil, right and wrong and morality and immorality. There are several religions in the world, which includes Islam, Christianity, Buddhism, Hinduism and Taoism.…
Fisher, M.P. (2005). Living religions (6th ed.). New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.
McInerney, W. (2003). Instructor's manual with tests: Living religions (5th ed.). New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.
Religion of Islam.(2009). Minnesota State University. Retrieved from http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/cultural/religion/islam/beliefs.html
In his book, "Western Ways of eing Religious," (Kessler, 1999) the author Gary E. Kessler identifies the theological, philosophical and societal ramifications of the evolution of religion in the West. Christianity, Judaism and Islam can be traced to a single origin but their divergence has been very marked. Kessler sets his thesis very early in the book. He avers that there are two approaches to religion. One is to be immersed in it -- as a practitioner; the other is to study it as an objective observer, looking in from the outside. This work is unique. The author challenges the traditional notions with his own opinions then follows it with the views of an expert on that notion (in the form of a speech or an essay). He avers that a student of religion has to approach the topic with honesty and openness. This often involves imagining the…
Kessler, Gary E. Western Ways of Being Religious. Mountain View, Calif.: Mayfield Pub., 1999.pp.
Edwards, Rem Blanchard. Reason and Religion; an Introduction to the Philosophy of Religion. New York,: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1972.pp. 386
Paden, William E. Religious Worlds: The Comparative Study of Religion. Boston: Beacon Press, 1988.pp. 192
Proudfoot, Wayne. Religious Experience. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1985.pp. 263
Enumeate the influence of cultue on health
How much an individual is equipped to live with infections at its vaious stages has been found to be stongly affected by taditional beliefs. In the case of diabetes, taditional beliefs have been found to affect teatment effectiveness positively and vice vesa. When this was suveyed, it was discoveed that the patients all held simila taditional beliefs about the nomal gey aeas of the disease i.e. its pevention, causative actions, signs, associated poblems and finally its teatment. A commonly held taditional belief among UK-based Afo-Caibbean and Mexican-Ameicans suffeing fom diabetes is that seious diabetes and its associated pains could be cued by supplication and devotion. Due to the high level of confidence placed in paye and devotion by these people, it would be vey effective to cay the chuch along when new teatment methods tageting English-speaking Afo-Caibbean diabetes patients and equally othe…
references toward Diabetes Research Spending. J Health Polit Policy Law.
Haymarket Media. (2015, January 31). Does political affiliation affect life span? Retrieved from Clinical Advisor: http://www.clinicaladvisor.com/web-exclusives/political-affiliation-republican-democrat-affect-lifespan/article/395354/
Smith, C. (2011). Living with Sugar: Influence of Cultural Beliefs on Type 2 Diabetes Self-Management of English-Speaking Afro-Caribbean Women. Journal of Immigrant Minority Health.
Watkins, Y., Quinn, L., Ruggiero, L., Quinn, M., & Choi, Y.-k. (2013). Spiritual and Religious Beliefs and Practices, and Social Support's Relationship to Diabetes Self-Care Activities in African-Americans. Diabetics Education, 231 - 239.
This experience also extends to partnerships throughout the industry, for example with major hotel chains and airline groups. Expedia is able to work with those companies to package off unused capacity in exchange for superior pricing and exclusive deals on attractive packages.
It must be considered that the combined effect of Expedia's experience, strong brand and high traffic, along with its ample financial might, enables the company to compete as a cost leader in the packaged vacation business, as well as operate a differentiated strategy. The Expedia website will be able to consistently offer very low prices, because it does substantial volume. The high traffic also allows the company to offer packages that other travel agents simply cannot offer. Expedia can gain exclusive deals, based on its partnerships within the industry, and these will be tough for most competitors to match.
In addition, Expedia's family of brands allows it to…
2009 Expedia Annual Report. Retrieved December 8, 2010 from http://files.shareholder.com/downloads/EXPE/1089237301x0x380770/B0610802-5ED2-481C-AE99-C00480EE5DB6/ar09.pdf
Alexa.com. (2010). Retrieved December 8, 2010 from http://www.alexa.com/
ASTA. (2009). ASTA releases landmark survey study on U.S. packaged travel industry. American Society of Travel Agents. Retrieved December 8, 2010 from http://www.asta.org/news/prdetail.cfm?itemnumber=5490
ExpediaInc.com. (2010). Company facts & history. Expedia. Retrieved December 8, 2010 from http://www.expediainc.com/company.cfm
Alex Pulsipher notes that all but one of these pillars Involve "daily life" (Pulsipher 314), thus it is difficult to separate the religion from the very existence of the culture. In addition to the pillars, there are other requirements of those that practice Islam. Justice, truthfulness, abstention from alcohol, and pork, and "anything that seems remotely connected to idolatry" (44) are all things from which Muslims must refrain.
hen we look at the practices involved with being Muslim, we can see why these people behave the way they do. It is not because they are strange; it is because they are upholding ancient religious values through practices that help them define who they are. Understanding this helps build the bridge to understanding our differences.
Monk, Robert, et al. Exploring Religious Meaning. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall. 1997.
Monk, Robert, et al. Exploring Religious Meaning. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall. 1997.
Pulsipher, Alex. World Regional Geography. New York: Macmillan. 2007.
Much like Catholicism, the religious system known as Islam whose believers are called Muslim dates back to around 610 A.D. when the prophet Muhammad allegedly was visited by the angel Gabriel who spoke to him and conveyed the actual words of Allah Himself (i.e., Allah as God). Muhammad was also told that he had been chosen by Allah as a prophet and that he must write down everything he had been told. Shortly before his death in 632 A.D., these writings became the Holy Quran, the sacred scriptures of Islam.
One of the most important similarities between Islam and Catholicism is that both are founded on monotheism or the belief in one God, a God who is believed to be "personal, righteous and holy" (Corbett, 2001, p. 233). Of course, one of the most contrasting differences between Islam and Catholicism is that Islam was founded in the Middle East as…
Corbett, Julia Mitchell. (2001). Religion in America. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall,
"Roman Catholicism." (1997). Biblical Discernment Ministries. Internet. Retrieved June 7,
2009 from http://www.rapidnet.com/~jbeard/bdm/Cults/Catholicism/catholic.htm .
In the lines of the Apostles, Bishops of particular Churches throughout the world in charge of particular diocese are part of the Church and form the College of Bishops when the College is united as a decision-making body under the leadership of the Pope. The College may exercise power over the Universal Church by coming together in an ecumenical council when the council is recognized by the Pope, the successor of St. Peter. Additionally, "certain bishops are granted special status and position within the Church by being elevated to the College of Cardinals. The primary role of the College of Cardinals is to act as special advisors to the Pope and to come together on the death of a Pope to vote for his successor" ("The Catholic Church Hierarchy," Catholic Pages, 2007). Finally, there is also a counsel, created after Vatican II known as the Synod of Bishops. This formal…
The Catholic Church Hierarchy." Catholic Pages. 2007. December 7, 2008. http://www.catholic-pages.com/church/hierarchy.asp
History and Development of the Papacy." Religion Facts. 2008
Murphy, Donald. "Islam's Sunni-Shiite Split." 2007. The Christian Science Monitor. http://www.csmonitor.com/2007/0117/p25s01-wome.html
The main holy book of Islam is the Quran, which is the word of God as communicated directly to Mohammed. It is the core book of the religion, and concerns both spiritual issues, and more practical, moral ones. Islamic law comes from interpretation of the Quran, and of Mohammed's life, rather than from the book itself.
From Mohammed, Islam spread rapidly throughout the world. The religion's main split occurred as a result of an early difference of opinion concerning leadership of the religion, resulting in two main sects, the Sunnis and the Shia. Other sects have emerged, such as Sufism, Ibadism, and the Ismailis. These groups have all formed as the result of various minor schisms.
The Amish religion began in Switzerland, and are considered an Anabaptist Christian denomination. The offset left Europe and resettled in North America during the 18th century. Today, there are 231,000 Amish, and their population…
No author. (2008). Judaism. Religion Facts. Retrieved October 21, 2008 at http://www.religionfacts.com/judaism/
Pfeffer, Anshel. (2008). Percent of world Jewry living in Israel climbed to 41% in 2007. Haaretz. Retrieved October 21, 2008 at http://www.haaretz.com/hasen/spages/942009.html
No author. (2008). Islam. Religion Facts. Retrieved October 21, 2008 at http://www.religionfacts.com/islam/overview.htm
No author. (2008). Amish population surges. United Press International. Retrieved October 21, 2008 at http://www.upi.com/Top_News/2008/10/11/Amish_population_surges/UPI-16211223751949/
Fear of oil shortages in the West drove oil prices to unprecedented levels, about three times the pre-war price. Gasoline shortages in the United States resulting from the Arab embargo, combined with the rise in oil prices, began a spiral of world-wide inflation and a recession in 1974-75.
Attempts began to resume the peace process when Security Council esolution 338 was passed and a ceasefire was ordered on October 22, 1973. The resolution was meant to immediately terminate of all military activity, implementation of esolution 242 and the start of negotiations "aimed at establishing a just and durable peace in the Middle East." esolution 338 subsequently became a companion piece to 242 as the basis of future proposals for a peace settlement. In December a Middle East Peace Conference convened in Geneva under the cochairmanship of the Soviet and American foreign ministers and the U.N. secretary-general. Egypt, Jordan and Israel…
Interview with Moshe Dayan by Rami Tal on November 22, 1976, Yediot Aharanot, April 27, 1997.
Anwar Sadat, in Search of Identity: An Autobiography (New York: Harper and Row, 1977), P- 259;
Haim Herzog, the War of Atonement, October 1973: The Fateful Implications of the Arab-Israeli Conflict (Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1975), p. 51
Abba Eban, Personal Witness: Israel Through My Eyes (New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1992), p. 523.
This ritual takes place on the eighth day after birth and the ceremony itself involves both religious and surgical elements and may be performed by a surgeon of a specially-trained Mohel who has both surgical and religious knowledge. After the circumcision is performed, a festive meal almost always follows as a symbol of thanks to God and to the prophet Abraham.
One of the most complicated religious rituals of Judaism is the ar Mitzvah for boys and less frequently, the at Mitzvah for girls. These words mean "the son or the daughter of the commandment and mark the coming of age of a male or female child" (Harvey, 325) who is then seen as an adult and is responsible for observing the commandments set down by Moses and to fill adult roles in the congregation of the synagogue. This ritual traditionally occurs on the Sabbath following the child's thirteenth birthday…
Grissom, Harold J. "Ritual Practice in American Religious Sects." The Journal of Religion. (April 2006): 239-48.
Hall, Manley P. The Psychology of Religious Ritual. Los Angeles: Philosophical
Research Society, 2003.
Harvey, Graham. Ritual and Religious Belief. UK: Equinox Publishing, Ltd., 2005.
D., various rulers expanded the religion in what was known as the Golden Age of Islam. Muslims made huge advances in military might, the sciences, and the arts. However, the different factions of Islam haunted the religion, even in the Golden Age of its existence. Gregorian then goes to explore the territorial dispute which led to the centuries of fighting with Christian nations in what was known in the West as the Crusades. However, it was not the Christian Westerners who did the most damage to the Muslim strongholds but barbaric Mongols who eventually ended the Golden Age of Islam. The rise of the Ottoman Empire in the 15th century revived the greatness of the Muslim tradition. The modern era, with the culmination of the Industrial Revolution, later diminished the grandeur and power of the various Muslim empires in the Middle East and Asia. With this decline many empires which,…
As is customary in other parts of the world, Saudis have a different sense of personal space than we do, and may stand much closer to each other when talking. Likewise, they usually incorporate physical gestures and touches more than Americans, especially in conjunction with positive rapport, which is why it may very well be taken as an insult for someone to step back to create more personal space or to withdraw from their physical gestures. Doing so during negotiations may be perceived as sign of disagreement or reluctance to the substantive matters of their part of the discussion.
One exception to the rule of physical contact pertains to female, because Saudis do not often shake hands or otherwise initiate physical contact with women outside of their families. However, many Saudis who conduct business in the United States more extensively may do so, but as in other cases of dealing…
Hughes, R., Chesters, G. (2003) Living and Working in Gulf States & Saudi Arabia. Survival Books: London
Parker, N. (2006) Your Guide to Saudi Arabia. Accessed October 6, 2007, at http://www.executiveplanet.com/index.php?title=Saudi_Arabia
Virgilia Moran, S., Harris, P., Moran, R. (2007) Managing Cultural Differences:
Global Leadership Strategies for the 21st Century
One of the more surprising statistics cited by Shadid is that in post-war Iraq, jobs with Americans are actually the most plentiful source of labor, and pay the best, from $130 up to $175 a month (284).
This statistic starkly underlines how the hope of America pulling out of Iraq without causing economic as well as military chaos seems bleak. The volunteers soldiers still hold fast to the sunrise to sunset fast of Ramadan, and feel grateful that they are able to help their families during the nightly feast in a month that is so sacred -- but not because they feel the ideals of America are important to their nation's collective future. Of course, for some Iraqis, no matter what the salary, joining the occupying forces was morally wrong, and simply not worth the money, however high, that Americans might pay. The enlisted Iraqi soldiers worry about retaliation, stating…
Shadid, Anthony. Night Draws Near. New York, Henry Holt and Co., 2005.
Initially, there was no separation between religious and civil law within Islamic countries, however Turkey became a secular state during the twentieth century (Introduction).
Both Christians and Muslims believe that Jesus' birth was miraculous, that he was the Messiah, that he performed miraculous healings, and resurrected the dead (Introduction). However Muslims do not believe in original sin, that Jesus was killed during a crucifixion (but rather escaped and reappeared to his disciples without having first died), that Jesus was resurrected; or that salvation is dependent upon belief in the resurrection of Jesus (Introduction). The majority of Christians believe in the Trinity (three persons in one Godhead), the Father, Son and Holy Spirit, however Muslims believe that God (Allah) is one and indivisible (Comparing). Christians believe in the identity of a comforter in the Holy Spirit, while Muslims believe in Muhammad as the comforter (Comparing).
Christians believe that Adam disobeyed God…
Comparing Christianity and Islam." Religious Tolerance. Retrieved November 30, 2006 at http://www.religioustolerance.org/comp_isl_chr.htm
Gartenstein-Ross, Daveed. "No other Gods before me: spheres of influence in the relationship between Christianity and Islam." Denver Journal of International Law and Policy. March 22, 2005. Retrieved November 30, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.
Grillo, Ralph. "Islam and transnationalism." Journal of Ethnic and Migration
Studies. September 1, 2004. Retrieved November 30, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.
Despite high security in Baghdad, house searches, and strret patroling by the troops, the city remains pagued with violence. The current situation makes the use of miltary force as remedy for the current situation a useless option. A joint operation by Iraqi and coalition forces by the name of Operation Forward Together was also launched but jihadi elements, sectarian forces and nationalist elements continue to paly havoc with the security situation. Shiite and Sunni violent elements continue to hanut each other and resultantly inncoent people including women and children keep on losing their lives. The loss of innocent lives by the armed culprits in the daylight make people less confident of their security forces and skeptical of the seriousness on part of government.
The failure of efforts in the form of Operation Forward Together made the role of Iraqi security forces doubtful. In current situation people are unable to live…
Ghosh A. (August 2006). Baghdad Diary. Time. Vol:168 Isuue:9.
Muravchik, J. (April-May 2005).And the Walls Came Tumbling Down: The World's Last Holdout against Democracy -- the Middle East-Is Experiencing a Wave of Nascent Freedom. The American Enterprise. Vol: 16. Issue: 3.
Lowry, R. (May 9, 2005). What Went Right: How the U.S. Began to Quell the Insurgency in Iraq. National Review. Vol: 57. Issue: 8.
Teson, F. (2005). Ending Tyranny in Iraq. Ethics & International Affairs. Vol: 19. Issue: 2.
When studying Islam, it is important to understand the essential elements of the faith, how they are practiced, and the distinctions among the three branches: Shiite Islam, Sunni Islam, and Sufism.
Tawhid -- strict monotheism of God. There is only one, unsurpassable, omniscient God that cannot be visualized or reified in any which manner (although Sunnis do believe that God has some form of body). There are no intermediaries between God and creations. Mohamed might have come the closest to that. Mohammed, God's Prophet, is the closest to perfection that any human can be. Angels are a central part to Islam thought to intercede in all matters of a human's existence. The Quran was divinely revealed to Mohammed, via the archangel Gabriel, and is God's final revelation. Mohammed as one (presumably the most perfect) of God's messengers, all of whom -- human (Shiites believe they are…
C China's changes to the CMF marketing launch program justifiable?
Burton's objective was to market Colgate Max Fresh (CMF) as global venture. Each country had its own assumptions and trends that would make certain products popular. For CMF to appeal to a Chinese market it had to investigate and target those specific selling appeals.
Del Levin, who was in charge of conducting R&D for Colgate in Asia, discovered that that whilst a potentially huge market existed for the product -- it being that Asia had a large freshness segment -- it had to be marketed in a particular way in order to best appeal to the Asian consumer. Firstly, the name itself - Colgate Max Fresh -- did not appeal as well as other names in China would; the name was therefore changed to "Icy Fresh." Secondly, original marketing that used 'breath strips' was meaningless to an Asian market and…
Pine, J. & Gilmore, J. 1998. 'Welcome to the experience economy', Harvard Business Review, vol. 76, no.4, pp.1-6.
Ryan, C. 2002 . 'From motivation to assessment' in The Tourist Experience, ed. C. Ryan, Routledge..
Silverberg, T. 1995. "Cultural tourism and business opportunities for museums and heritage sites" Tourism management. Pdf
She points out that there has been such division in modern Christianity that it is difficult to describe a universal Christian worldview. However, she describes the basic beliefs and practices that are considered universal to Christians. She also discusses Christianity's waves in Africa, the first one occurring in the first century a.D. Jesus was taken to Egypt to avoid being killed by King Herod and Jesus' early message spread into North Africa. Christianity did not become a major influence in African religion until the 1800s, and is now one of the two primary religions practiced in the country.
Finally, Aderibigbe discusses Islam. She describes Islam as a monotheistic religion worshipping Allah. She describes the historic origins of Islam, which grew out of the teachings of Mohammed. She also links Islam to Judaism and Christianity, naming it the third in the three Abrahamic religions. She describes the major themes of Islam…
Aberibigbe, I. (2012). Chapter Five: Religions in Africa. In I. Aderbigbe & a. Ojo Eds.
Continental Complexities: A Multidisciplinary Introduction to Africa, ( pp.61- 84). USA: University Readers, Inc.
Therefore, Americans seeking to do business with Saudi nationals would be well advised to research their prospective Saudi counterparts thoroughly but to make preparations to travel to Saudi Arabia first before actually initiating contact with Saudi business people. Doing so and calling after arriving in Saudi Arabia instead of initiating contact from abroad demonstrates awareness of and respect for Saudi business customs right off the bat and in a way that should be noticed by Saudis, especially those who might be familiar with the fact that the norm in the U.S. is simply to call first or email to arrange the first meeting.
Saudis seeking to do business with American firms should understand that in the U.S., it might be inappropriate to travel to the location of a business first and then make initial contact expecting that the meeting will necessarily be planned during their stay. That is because in…
Harris, P., Moran, R. (2007). Managing Cultural Differences: Global Leadership
Strategies for the 21st Century
Hughes, R., Chesters, G. (2003). Living and Working in Gulf States & Saudi Arabia.
Survival Books: London
These settlements make sure that the state of fragmentation and insecurity of the Palestinians continues and thereby hinders the economic, social and political development of the Palestinians. The total number of such settlements in the West bank, Jerusalem and the Gaza strip are 205, with the vast majority of them in West bank and Jerusalem. "These settlements have led to the more than 403,249 settlers in the West bank and Jerusalem itself." (Israeli Settlements on Occupied Palestinian Territories) Israel continues to expand the number of these settlements from time to time as well as the bypass roads connecting them. These new bypass roads as well as the expansions to the existing bypass roads add to the disruption of the Palestine economy, autonomy and society.
The Israeli settlements also have a negative impact on the access of the Palestinians to natural resources like water and arable land. This problem is likely…
Definition of Zionism." Jewish Virtual Library. Retrieved at http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Zionism/zionism.html . Accessed on February 16, 2005
Boling, J. Gail. (January 2001) "Palestinian Refugees and the Right of Return: An International Law Analysis" Retrieved at http://www.badil.org/Publications/Briefs/Brief-No-08.htm Accessed on February 17, 2005
Israeli Settlements on Occupied Palestinian Territories." The Palestine Monitor.
Retrieved at http://www.palestinemonitor.org/factsheet/settlement.html . Accessed on Isseroff, Ami. "Israel and Palestine: A Brief History." MidEastWeb. Retrieved at http://www.mideastweb.org/briefhistory.htm . Accessed on February 16, 2005
Islam and Human Rights
a Critique of Contemporary Muslim Approaches
The basic objective of this research is note the errors that are committed by Muslims in their argument of human rights in Islam or in other words to explore possible means of formulation of a more coherent alternative expression of values to point out the errors committed by Muslims in their attempt to argue the case of human rights in Islam in the hope that efforts and resources expended in that direction can be derived to a more agreeable end; which is the exploration of possible means of formulating a more coherent alternative expression of values to the so-called "Islamic human rights."
A considerable amount of literature has been produced on these issues by competent Muslim thinkers and scholars but because they either
purposefully or 2) inadvertently chose to follow almost the same style as explored in the Western tradition…
Hassan, Riffat, Ph.D. ( ) Are Human Rights Compatible with Islam? The Issue of the Rights of Women in Muslim Communities, University of Louisville, KY [Online available at: http://www.religiousconsultation .org/hassan2.htm
Islam 101 "Human Rights in Islam" 2005 [Online available at: http://www.islam 101. com/rights/index.Htm 'Allamah Abu Al'A'la Mawdudi at Tawid Journal 'Vol.. IV No. 3 Rajah-Ramadan 1407 ajab-Ramadahan 1407 Human Rights in Islam.]
This meant that individuals were 'elected' for salvation by God, and this view of human salvation is called either the 'doctrine of the elect' or the doctrine of living saints' (www.wsu.edu/~dee/REFORM/CALVIN.HTM)."
John the Baptist was a prophet who "preached a message of repentance to the people of Jerusalem. He converted many, and prepared the way for the coming of Jesus. He baptized Christ, after which he stepped away and told his disciples to follow Jesus (www.catholic-forum.com/saints/saintj02.htm)."
Three terms in Islam that should be explored are Quraysh, Hijra, and Saum. Quraysh is "the ancient Bedouin tribe near Mecca to which Muhammad belonged. At one time camel drivers and caravan guides, they became, after acquiring custody of the Kaaba, one of the most powerful tribes in central Arabia and the chief family of Mecca. They were at first bitter opponents of Muhammad but became his devoted followers when Muhammad retained the…
Hijra. (accessed 25 May 2005). www.strath.ac.uk/Departments/SocialStudies/RE/Database/Glossaries).
John Calvin. (accessed 25 May 2005). www.wsu.edu/~dee/REFORM/CALVIN.HTM).
John the Baptist. (accessed 25 May 2005). www.catholic-forum.com/saints/saintj02.htm).
Samuel Holdheim. (accessed 25 May 2005). www.knowallabout.com).
Mediterranean Food History
Food History of Mediterranean Cuisine
hat is the geographical location of the Mediterranean and why it would have an affect on the Mediterranean cuisine? (i.e., what is the Mediterranean's weather condition and what do they eat mostly, etc.).
Although the list of Mediterranean countries encompasses some of the oldest national cultures of the world, the so-called Mediterranean diet has gotten much popular recent press, because of its supposed contribution to an individual's longevity -- today, all people wish to be as long-lived as the influence of the countries that spawned the diet and enjoy the lowered risk of a heart attack the Mediterranean food and lifestyle supposedly conveys! However, the adaptation of the Mediterranean diet was a product of necessity, not a carefully controlled decision by the populace of the region to live longer and to create the perfect diet. (Barry, 2005)
All of the Mediterranean countries…
Alexiadou, Vefa. (2005) "Greek Food and Tradition." Retrieved 12 Oct 2005 http://www.yasou.org/food/FandTrad.htm
Barry, Colleen. (2005) Cheshire Medical Serivces. Retrieved 12 Oct 2005 http://www.cheshire-med.com/services/dietary/nutrinew/mediter.html
'Best of Sicily" (2005) Best of Sicily. Retrieved 12 Oct 2005
Jews worship in synagogues, which rarely share common architectural elements in common with one another. ather, the presence of the Arc within a synagogue remains one of the only features present in synagogues around the world. Some of the ultra-liberal synagogues from the eform tradition may not even have an Arc.
Christian churches vary widely, too. Catholic Churches constructed in Europe during the height of the Church's power from the late Middle Ages through the Enlightenment often share some elements in common including cross-shaped floor plan and altar. Mosques may differ widely but most have minarets topped with the symbol of the crescent moon. Unlike Christianity, neither Judaism nor Islam tolerates the presence of any anthropomorphic representations within their holy places. Thus, the interiors of synagogues and mosques contain only geometric and abstract designs in contrast to the prolific imagery of Christ, the apostles, and the saints in Catholic churches.…
Rich, T. (2002). "Halakhah: Jewish Law." Judaism 101. Retrieved Aug 7, 2006 at http://www.jewfaq.org/halakhah.htm
Hein, A. (2006) "A History of Women's Ordination as Rabbis." Jewish Virtual Library. Retrieved Aug 7, 2006 at http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Judaism/femalerabbi.html
The Islamic Calendar." Calendars through the Ages. Retrieved Aug 7, 2006 at http://webexhibits.org/calendars/calendar-islamic.html
Kennedy, D.J. (1912; 2003). Sacraments. New Advent Catholic Encyclopedia. Retrieved Aug 7, 2006 at http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/13295a.htm
Hence, Islam was able to penetrate other areas and build an empire by using two methods: by force or war against other believers and by the appeal of a new religion (http://www.history.navy.mil/library/online/islam.htm,2006).
The invasion of Muslims in estern Europe has brought tremendous impact to the people in the said area. Science and learning, in particular, were greatly influenced when Arabs of the Muslims came over. This is also the very reason why Islam, as a religion, is considered to have had a profound impact on the creation of the world civilization where cultural diversity was viewed positively. Moreover, with the invasion of Muslims, was the one responsible in the creation of a diverse and upgraded scientific, intellectual and cultural life (http://www.barkati.net/english/#25,2006).
Muslims' Allah," (2006) [online] http://religion-cults.com/allah.htm
Tenets of Islam," (2006) [online] http://www.history.navy.mil/library/online/islam.htm
The Spread of Islam," (2006) [online] (http://www.barkati.net/english/#25,2006).
Muslims' Allah," (2006) [online] http://religion-cults.com/allah.htm
Tenets of Islam," (2006) [online] http://www.history.navy.mil/library/online/islam.htm
The Spread of Islam," (2006) [online] ( http://www.barkati.net/english/#25,2006 ).
Nursing and eligion Practice
ELIGION AND NUSING PACTICE
Nursing success depends on the ability to put the patient in a state of rest and comfort as much as it is about administering the prescriptions of the doctor. To secure the rest of the patient, nurses need to understand their needs and show respect to their beliefs and values. This requires courteous and open communication with the patient and adopting a patient-centric orientation. Along with other factors, the religious background of the patient makes a lot of difference to their values and expectations. eligious doctrines and practices may differ across religions and denominations such as Jehovah's Witnesses, Muslims, Seventh Day Adventists and Scientologists and may impose restrictions on certain kinds of interaction between nurse and patient or on certain forms of treatment. Moreover, people with a different religious background are not usually aware of such differences. Therefore, it is necessary for…
Banja, J.D. (2010). Overriding the Jehovah's Witness patient's refusal of blood: A reply to Cahana, Weibel, and Hurst. Pain Medicine, 10(5), 878-882. doi: 10.1111/j.1526-4637.2009.00648.x.
Charles, C.E., & Daroszewski, E.B. (2012). Culturally competent nursing care of the Muslim patient, Issues in Mental Health Nursing. 33(1), 61-63. doi: 10.3109/01612840.2011.596613.
Cort, M., & Cort, D. (2008). Willingness to participate in organ donation among Black Seventh-Day Adventist college students. Journal of American College Health, 56(6), p. 691-697. Retrieved from EBSCO Academic Search Primer.
Effa-Heap, G. (2009). Blood transfusion: Implications of treating a Jehovah's Witness patient. British journal of nursing, 18(3), 174-177.
Medina Charter" Prophet Muhammed's reign 1948 "International Declaration Human Rights" in terms similarities differences. (Please essay simple eyes). Font: 14 times roman
Even with the fact that the masses have been accustomed to considering that human rights have not been a priority for most major powers from around the world until the second half of the twentieth century, the truth is that humanity has expressed great interest in the concept centuries before this moment. Muhammad founded the Medina Constitution in 622 A.D. with the purpose of having a complex community of Muslims, Jewish individuals, and pagans living together in harmony. It is very intriguing that this Charter was issued thirteen centuries earlier than the Universal Declaration of Human Rights when taking account that the latter contains a great deal of ideas present in the former.
hile the Medina Charter can be perceived as a rough and faulty draft of the…
Ramadan, Hisham R., "Understanding Islamic Law: From Classical to Contemporary," (Rowman Altamira, 2006)
"Human rights not coined in heaven," Retrieved October 14, 2012, from the Institute of Islamic Understanding Malaysia Website: http://e-kiosk.ikim.gov.my/downloadarticle.asp?id=251
"The Medina Charter," Retrieved October 14, 2012, from the MPAC Website: http://www.mpac-ng.org/specialtopic/386-the-medina-charter.html
Teachings and Practice of Islam
The Teachings of Islam Around the World: Outline
Islam is an incredibly complex religion, where religious practices often differ depending on the cultural context of the region in which it is practices in.
Basic Teachings of Islam
History of Islam
Five Pillars: Prayer and Practices
How it is Practiced in the United States and Great Britain
Influx in Muslims
Facing Adversity and Stereotypes
Muslims as a Minority
Spread of Islam into India
Other Asian Nations
Islam as eacting Against a Growing Western Presence
The Middle East
Islamic Law as National Law
C. Gender Issues
The Teachings of Islam Around the World
No two Muslims are alike, just as any two persons of any other religion. Here in the West, we tend to lump categories of Muslims together, without understanding…
Ahmad, Ghulam. (2003). Teachings of Islam 1896. Kessinger Publishing.
Morgan, Diane. (2010). Essential Islam: A Comprehensive Guide to Belief and Practice. ABC-CLIO.
Raatma, Lucia. (2009). World Religions: Islam. Capstone Publishing.
Shamsul, A.B. (2006). Convergence of interesting and sharing a future: Deepening the Understanding of Islam in Asia and Europe. ASIEN. 62-69. Web. http://www.asienkunde.de/content/zeitschrift_asien/archiv/pdf/A100_062_069.pdf
Jesus and Mohammed -- Their Lives & Legacies
Jesus Christ and Mohammed are thought of historically -- and today as well -- as the two individuals that have probably had the greatest impact on the world in a spiritual and religious context. hile other iconic spiritual and religious leaders have made their mark on history and society, Jesus (who founded Christianity; today there are an estimated 2.8 billion followers) and Mohammed (Islam's most holy figure; there are an estimated 2.2 billion Muslims), Jesus was believed to be the Son of God, who came to earth to offer humans an opportunity to have everlasting life. Mohammed, on the other hand, is believed to be the prophet who received the text of Islam from God and led the growth of Islam.
This paper traces the lives of Jesus and Mohammed, compares the impact that their deaths had on society, describes the way…
Biography. (2005). Jesus Christ Biography / Synopsis. Retrieved April 18, 2013, from http://www.biography.com .
Boff, Leonardo. (2011). Passion of Christ, Passion of the World. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books
History-Timelines. (2007). Timeline of Jesus. Retrieved April 18, 2013, from http://www.history-timelines.org.uk .
Public Broadcast Service. (2006). The Life of Mohammed. Retrieved April 18, 2013, from http://www.pbs.org .
Mohammed Professional Values
In Hey. I a research paper "Professional Work Values life Prophet Mohammad" Your research answer questions 1.What values? 2.What impact values? Use business corporate evidence prove argument. 3.How values a foundation organizational culture unifies Human Capital a diverse nature a contemporary organization?.
Professional work values and leadership: The life of the prophet Mohammed
The founder of Islam, the prophet Mohammed, is mainly known as a spiritual leader. But many of the values he embodied in his life would also be instructive for the world of business. Mohammed was a man committed his vision and values, just like all business leaders must be, to ensure that their followers believe that the organization is delivering something unique to consumers. Mohammed's life as well as his words continues to inspire people of all faiths.
Even before he became a religious figure, Mohammed was famous for his honesty and trustworthiness. "When…
Five pillars of Islam. (2009). BBC. Retrieved:
http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/ islam/practices/fivepillars.shtml' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Education of Abbasid
Today, the majority of high school students hope to finish college one day. This is a realistic dream for many, as there is an established education system that gives students a choice of career paths and training. The modern world if full of universities and training centers. However, the world was not always like this. Many centuries ago, education was limited to the privileged and even the privileged did not have many opportunities in learning. Today's existing modern educational system has been influenced by traditions of the past, particularly by the great advances that occurred during the Abbasid Dynasty in the Muslim world.
One of the achievements of Muslim culture during the Abbasid Dynasty was the widespread spread of literacy. Elementary education was almost universal, especially in the cities. Emphasis on the value of reading and writing stems from the very first revelations of the Qur'an, which…
Ethics of Accommodating Religion
As the diversity within businesses increases at an alarming pace with the entire world transforming into a global village, employers, employees and legislators are all concerned about accommodating religious beliefs and observances. ith the signing of Title VII that permits employees to observe the tenets of their religion at workplace, employers are planning how to obey the laws and utilize the religious accommodation as a growing strength for their profitable businesses. This research paper addresses the most debatable issue of accommodating religious beliefs in commercial, professional and industrial dealings. Furthermore, the paper will outline the ways in which religious accommodation can be made possible and positive for both employees and the employers. The paper will also highlight the implication of religious accommodation in the workplace and will present the future direction.
Ethics of accommodating religion
The reason for being at work is to perform a job.…
Murphy H., Hildebrandt W. & Thomas J., Effective Business Communications, Seventh Edition, McGraw Hill Publishers, ISBN: 0-07-114507-9
Mallory M. Balancing faith with work Employees, firms must weigh beliefs vs. offending others., The Atlanta Journal and Constitution, 04-08-2001,-Page: R1.
Religion in the workplace: liabilities and opportunities. Available at: http://www.orcinc.com/readroom/WI-12.pdf (November 15, 2002)
Lynn J., Your Business: Management. Vol. 27, Entrepreneur Magazine, 08-01-1999, Pages: 69-71
Religions and Development
It is popularly believed that countries, where religion has major influence in governance, tend to develop slower than those where religious beliefs are not a main influence or consideration. This statement uses the cases of poor and traditionally colonized Christian countries in Southeast Asia, like the Philippines; Russia; and the African countries to support the claim.
The four major monotheistic religions in the world all tend to bar changes in one's life. Their faith or lifestyle does not involve material acquisition and is even hostile to it. They are bound to the wiles and stated will and preferences of an unseen Deity. Their happiness consists precisely in denying their own progress and contentment, the furthering of their blessings and potential. India is a supreme example of this. ut this blind adherence to brutal fate and faith is also taken advantage by some opportunists, such as in the…
Baha'i International. 1999. Values, Norms and Poverty: A Consultation on the World Development Report 2000. South Africa
Bohlin, Sue. 2000. A Short Look at Six World Religions. Texas, USA:
Probe Ministries International
Hilton, Ronald. 2001. Religion and Poverty. (accessed 16:03:03). http://www.standford.edu/group/wais/religion_relandpoverty42501.html
The world's spiritual traditions and religious practices have major groupings. However, in these groupings there is no uniformity of practice. Various religions have different culture and ways of practice. This practice began in the 18th century as developing civilized societies. Different cultures of the world have had an influence on the religious beliefs of the people. For example, Hinduism borrows from the Indian culture, Islam from Muslim culture and Taoism from particular cultures in china. Traditionally, scholars of religion recognized the fact that, different religious beliefs have the same philosophy of searching for the truth. It may argue that religion is an act of worship given to God irrespective of religion.
Overview of Christianity and Islam
Christianity as a religion teaches salvation from sin. The religion also teaches issues of eternal life, physical death as well as the resurrection of Jesus Christ the messiah. The religion began as…
Van Voorst, R.E. (2006). Anthology of world scriptures. Belmont: Cengage Learning.
Byzantine Empire in the Eastern Mediterranean that extended from Syria, Egypt up to and across North Africa is seen to have made significant contact with the emerging Islamic world in the period from seventh and ninth Centuries. The seventh century saw the vast territories in these regions being ruled by the Byzantine Empire from Constantinople, the now Istanbul. These Southern provinces or territories were greatly influenced by the Greco-oman traditions and formed the home of Coptic, Orthodox and Syriac Christians and Jewish communities. These regions were critical to the wealth and the power of the empire. Great centers for pilgrimage saw large numbers of faithful visit the place coming from as far off as Yemen towards the East and Scandinavia towards the West. There were also major trade routes that extended all the way to India in the South that saw ferrying of silk and ivories into the region, commerce…
Cunningham & Reich, (n.d.: Pp 162). Byzantium.
Rosenberg K., (2012). Ornate Links Tethering Cultures in Flux. Retrieved June 6, 2014 from http://www.nytimes.com/2012/03/16/arts/design/byzantium-and-islam-age-of-transition-at-the-met.html?_r=1& ;
The Metropolitan Museum of Art, (2012). Byzantium and Islam Age of Transition. Retrieved June 6, 2014 from http://www.metmuseum.org/exhibitions/listings/2012/byzantium-and-islam
Asian Indian Muslims in America
The current Muslim population in the United States is made of people from extraordinary social, economic, ethnic, linguistic, racial, and ideological groups. While the exact size of the Muslim-American population is relatively difficult to determine and estimate, Asian Indian Muslims account for a significant portion of this population. Actually, Indian-Americans are reportedly the second-largest single-race group from Asian ancestry in the United States. The huge size of Asian Indian Muslims in America is partly attributed to the fact that India is the most populous country in South Asia with a population of 900 million people of diverse language, ethnicity, and religion. It is estimated that 12% of India's population are Muslims since the country's Islamic presence took place around 8th Century AD.
Asian Indian Muslims in the United States originated from India, Bangladesh, and Pakistan. While this group migrated to America with higher academic levels…
Garcia, A., Ramsey, N. & Velez, R. (n.d.). Asian Indian Muslims in America.
"Muslims in America -- A Statistical Report." (n.d.). American Muslims. Retrieved from Embassy of the United States -- Baghdad, Iraq website: http://iraq.usembassy.gov/resources/information/current/american/statistical.html
The Diet and Lifestyle of the Followers of Mohammed
People who lived during the time of Mohammed followed a specific dietary system and lifestyle which was modeled on that of the prophet. The diet was natural and holistic and the lifestyle was as well. For example, after morning prayers, the prophet would dissolve a spoonful of honey in water and drink this, and his followers would do the same. The purpose of this was that not only would the honey sweeten the water but also it would prepare the digestive tract for the breakfast that was soon to follow (Abdalshafy, 2014). This honey juice was especially important in the life of Mohammed and his followers in maintaining a healthy, regimental lifestyle. This paper shall discuss other aspects of the lifestyle and dietary system of the followers of Mohammed at this point in time.
Breakfast for the followers of…
Abdalshafy, M. (2014). Optimum health from the Food of the Prophet. Encyclopedia of Miracles in Coran and Sunnah. Available from http://www.quran-m.com/firas/en1/index.php/prophetical/458-optimum-health-from-the-food-of-the-prophet.html
Muir, W. (1861). Life of Mahomet. London: Smith, Elder.
Muslim Health Network. (2014). Islam and Health. MHN. Available from http://www.muslimhealthnetwork.org/islamandhealth.shtml
Nigosian, S. (2004). Islam: Its History, Teaching, and Practices. IN: Indiana
social media of hotel industy influence consume puchasing behavio 24/09/2015
Pominent examples of social media
Business Use of Social Media
Social media and consume puchasing
Role of Social media in Advetising and Maketing
Social Media Maketing
Evidence of impotance of Social Media Maketing
Impact of Social Media Maketing on Consume Puchasing Behavio
The Heding Effect
Theoy of Social Impact
Social Media Influence Factos on Consumes
Social Media in the Hotel Industy
Social media and Thailand Hotels
Appoaches to Methodology
Outline of eseach Method
Sample selection and Size
Obstacles in Reseach
: Data Analysis
: Ethical Consideations in Reseach
: Limitations of the study
Results and Analysis
: Results fom Suvey of Hotel subscibes
: Results fom Suvey of Hotel Maketing Officials
Infeence fom the Analysis
Social Media Factos Affecting Custome Puchasing Behavio 39
5.2: Recommendations fo Manages fo Use of Social Media 40
Chapte 1: Intoduction…
references and social tagging information. International Journal of Web Science, 2(1/2), p.80.
Balakrishnan, B., Dahnil, M. and Yi, W. (2014). The Impact of Social Media Marketing Medium toward Purchase Intention and Brand Loyalty among Generation Y. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 148, pp.177-185.
Book, L., Tanford, S., Montgomery, R. and Love, C. (2015). Online Traveler Reviews as Social Influence: Price is no Longer King. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research.
Burke, R., Martin, G. and Cooper, C. (2011). Corporate reputation. Farnham, Surrey: Gower.
Chaney, P. (2009). The digital handshake. Hoboken, N.J.: Wiley & Sons.
Each standardized nursing language is designed for use in a number of clinical settings, including home care, ambulatory care, and inpatient treatment, with certain languages providing decided advantages within particular circumstances. Although it is true that "improved communication with other nurses, health care professionals, and administrators of the institutions in which nurses work is a key benefit of using a standardized nursing language" (utherford, 2008), the proliferation of several nursing languages throughout the years has inevitably resulted in discrepancies, wherein the personal preferences of nurses, the policy of a hospital's corporate ownership, or other factors determine when, where, and why a specific language is used.
To address the growing concern over the inability of nurse's to communicate through a single standardized language system, the International Council of Nurses (ICN) commissioned a comprehensive study which resulted in the International Classification for Nursing Practice (ICNP) being selected as the most advantageous option.…
Cho, I., & Park, H. (2006). Evaluation of the expressiveness of an ICNP-based nursing data dictionary in a computerized nursing record system. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association, 13(4), 456-464. Retrieved from http://18.104.22.168/content/13/4/456.full
Rutherford, M. (2008). Standardized nursing language: What does it mean for nursing practice?. OJIN: The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, 13(1), 57-69. Retrieved from http://www.nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/ThePracticeofProfessionalNursing/H ealth-it/StandardizedNursingLanguage.html
African estaurant evival
New York is home to people from all over the world, and it is well-known that they often bring with them cuisine from their homelands. Foodies descend on food courts in subterranean malls in Queens, ussian bakeries in Brooklyn, and ethnic food trucks pretty much anywhere throughout the five boroughs. For being a cosmopolitan city with such cosmopolitan tastes, surprisingly little attention is paid to the diversity of African food. The continent of Africa is rich in food tradition and, increasingly, we are seeing these traditions manifest throughout New York. This trend is occurring in many places, in particular Manhattan and Brooklyn. In fact, several openings over the past few years have dramatically altered the African dining scene, and this development is very much worthy of coverage. This citywide exposure to the African food trend makes it an excellent topic heading into the summer eating season.
Kugel, S. (2007, March 18). Sampling a Continent at Home. Retrieved from nytimes.com: http://www.nytimes.com/2007/03/18/travel/18weekend.1.html?_r=0
Laing, N. (2013, October). New York's First African Restaurant Week Offers New Flavors and a Dash of Culture. Retrieved from fo2w.org: http://fi2w.org/2013/10/14/new-yorks-first-african-restaurant-week-offers-new-flavors-and-a-dash-of-culture/
Pearlman, E. (2014). Ponty Bistro. Retrieved from blacboardeats.com: http://www.blackboardeats.com/sp/ponty-bistro-gramercy-new-york-3
Spiropoulos, R. (2014, June 28). Dining African: 3 Restaurant Biz Success Stories Savor N.Y. African Restaurant Week. Retrieved from blackenterprise.com: http://www.blackenterprise.com/lifestyle/new-york-african-restaurant-week-wraps-in-style/
NYC African Restaurants
African Restaurants in NYC
The restaurant's soft industrial lighting makes the chrome gleam. A soft and expansive backdrop of blue gives the space a cool and slightly futuristic industrial like a hip loft in the future. Exposed brick walls are tinged in a blue sheen and the distressed wood chairs and tables have been stained steel gray and have marble table tops. In three weeks, Cisse Elhadji, the owner of Ponty Bistro in Midtown, will open his new restaurant La Terengea. Located at 144 West 139th St., the restaurant us nestled in between the Hudson and Harlem rivers a few blocks west of the City College of New York. The location of the restaurant is quite lucrative given its relative proximity to both Central Park as well as Yankee Stadium.
Though Elhadji has succeeded once with an African restaurant, La Teregenga is still a gamble.…