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Ramayana and the Mahabharata offer a cohesive explanation of the Hindu concept of the avatar, the manifestation of divinity in various forms. The god that practices avatara most is Vishnu, the Lord of Preservation whose intervention in the world has a direct impact on the lives of human beings and the outcomes of human civilization itself. Vishnu practices avatara in order to promote dharma, which refers to ethical duty and right action. The avatar concept is explored most deftly and explicitly in the two Hindu epics comprising the Itihasa, the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. Both narratives demonstrate that divine avatars are necessary for restoring cosmic and social order and for redeeming humanity.
The protagonists of these two tales are both avatars of Vishnu, but the Ramayana and Mahabharata relay completely different concepts of dharma and ethics. Dharma to Lord Rama is related to family and the commitments between men and…
Women in Ancient Egypt). It's also enough to tell that in special cases woman was able to become a pharaoh. Love and affection were considered to be integral parts of human life as Egyptians were pleasure seeking during their life, believing it to be the major goal in human's life. The myth about Isis proves it as Isis was a loving wife and mother to her son Horus. She is very independent in her actions, she is able to survive after her husband's death and raise her child alone without any help from the side of people and gods. We see that she respects the traditions and family morals as even after the death of her husband Osiris she decided to become pregnant from the dead body of Osiris in order to fulfill her duty of a wife and of a future mother. Horus, her son had to revenge Set…
Stearns, Peter N. World History in Brief (major patternms of change and continuity) 5th edition
Thompson, James C. Women in Ancient Egypt at http://www.womenintheancientworld.com/women_in_ancient_egypt.htm
Upanishads along with the Ramayana and the Mahabarata, represent the primary text leading to the constructs of Hinduism. A popular misconception is that these three works are immensely complex and are intense philosophical dialogs. In reality, they are quite simple diatribes and discussions on morality -- simplicity that is demonstrated in a close textual analysis of the Upanishads in Olivelle's synthesis translation.
The First Khanda begins as follows:
LET a man meditate on the syllable 2 Om, called the udgitha; for the udgitha (a portion of the Sama-veda) is sung, beginning with Om.
The full account, however, of Om is this:
The essence 3 of all beings is the earth, the essence of the earth is water, the essence of water the plants, the essence of plants man, the essence of man speech, the essence of speech the Rig-veda, the essence of the Rig-veda the Sama-veda 1, the essence of…
Olivelle, Patrick. Upanishads. (1996). Oxford: Oxford.
Agamemnon claims that he loves Chryseis more than his own wife, but agrees to give her up as long as he gets another prize. hen he demands Briseis from Achilles, it is clear that one sexual being can simply be traded for another in Agamemnon's eyes. Indeed, when Achilles refuses to fight because of Agamemnon's demand, it is not because Achilles deeply loves Briseis, but because he is insulted with Agamemnon's demand. The only redeeming treatment of women in the epic is the Chryses' love for his daughter, determination in getting her back again, and excitement when his request is fulfilled.
hen compared to the Epic of Gilgamesh, the Iliad often seems muted in references to women's sexuality, but it can be argued that the contents of this epic poem show women in a far worse place in society than women in Gilgamesh's epic. hile Gilgamesh's epic presents women as…
"Greek Mythology: Aphrodite (Venus)." About.com: Atheism. 2009. 20 June 2009.
Ramayana. Valmiki Ramayana. N.d. 20 June 2009.
"Ramayana: Summary." Myth Home: Mythology Site. n.d. 20 June 2009.
In what ways are the form and function of the Buddhist stupa and Hindu temple similar to or different from the Islamic mosque?
The Buddhist Stupa, the Hindu Temple, and the Islamic Mosque all have social, cultural, and religious functions. Their physical forms are more similar than they are different, in that each boasts tapered and often rounded edifices. However, Hindu temples are more likely to have angular features and involve the use of straight lines and parallel planes; both stupas and mosques prefer curvilinear elements and bulbous forms. Hindu temples and Muslim mosques will also have larger interior spaces devote to personal prayer.
In what ways may the Quwwat al-Islam Mosque in Delhi be considered an Islamic (ate) building and an Indic one in terms of its construction and its design?
The Quwwat al-Islam Mosque in Delhi is clearly Islamic because of the minaret, as well as…
e. The Law of Hospitality, which stressed over the utilization of the expertise and support services towards an individual or community, which has experienced critical and crucial time, similarly, the services and obligations between the master and servant towards each other has been the focused of his teachings and practices (Steven, 2006).
The Odyssey attempted several times to return to his kingdom in Ithaca, whereas the exiled ama never planned any political or military outrage against the ruling authority to ensure his return. The major difference in both the epics has been the deep involvement and influence of the ama's family in his life. Sita, the wife of ama, contributed deeply towards the spiritual objectives of her spouse, their children were equally involved in the quest marked by their parents. The Sita was forcibly victimized by the associates of the ama, and she was alleged for malpractices which eventually resulted…
Catherine Clement. Theo's Odyssey. 1999. pp. 32-34. Arcade Publishing.
Arthur Charles Clarke, Gentry Lee. Rama Revealed. 1994. pp. 154-167. Bantam Books.
Steven J. Rosen. Essential Hinduism. 2006. pp. 54-67. Greenwood Press.
George William Cox. The Mythology of the Aryan Nations. 2004. pp. 213-222. Adamant Media Corporation.
While in exile, Ravana and Maricha trick Lakshmana into believing the Rama was in trouble. Since it was Lakshmana's duty to protect Rama, he goes to rescue them. While he is gone, Sita is abducted.
Interestingly, however, the evil Ravana is ultimately defeated through an act of deceit. Although the Brahma promised he could not be killed by a god, spirit or demon, they make no such promise as to humans. However, Ravana, being a god, would not even think of being defeated by a human as this is impossible. Yet, when the Brahma see Ravana destroying the earth, they become disturbed and thus create the plan of creating Rama, as a human incarnation of a god and thus powerful enough to kill Ravana without breaking their promise. In a sense, this is the greatest deceit of them all.
In summary, the story of Ramayana is an expression of what…
Hanuman is a god who helped Rama, an avatar of Vishnu, in rescuing his wife, Sita, from King Ravana of the Rakshasas, and symbolizes the pinnacle of bhakti, a Sanskrit term from Hinduism meaning loving devotion to the supreme God (Hanuman pp). He is also believed to be an avatar of Shiva, and also the source for the Chinese mythological character Sun ukong, and is most popular in the north of the Indian subcontinent (Hanuman pp).
Hanuman is the son of a cursed apsara, a celestial being called Punjisthala, who due to the curse becomes Anjana, a female monkey, so Hanuman is also called Anjaneya (Hanuman pp). She is the wife of Kesari, a "mighty monkey who once killed a mighty elephant that caused trouble to sages and hermits, therefore he got the name of Kesari, namely the lion, and is also called kunjara sudana, the elephant killer (Hanuman pp).…
Hanuman1. The Hutchinson Encyclopedia; 9/22/2003
April Fairs Festivals: Hanuman Jayanti
Maharshtrian cuisine comprises of hot, aromatic meat and fish curries and subtle flavoring of vegetarian cuisine. Peanuts and cashew nuts are widely used in vegetables and the main cooking medium is peanut oil. Another feature is the use of a deep purple berry with a sweet and sour taste, otherwise called kokum, in sol kadhi, an appetizer-digestive, which is served chilled. Non-vegetarian and vegetarian dishes are served with boiled rice or rotis made from rice flour. Dessert is commonly comprises rotis (a type of bread) stuffed with a sweet mixture of jaggery and gram flour.
Goan cuisine boasts of delicacies like tangy pork 'vindaloo', spicy 'sorpotel' and the popular fish curry with rice. Most of their meals are accompanied with local wine or local liqueur, 'Feni'. Meals are simple but most are also chili hot, spicy and pungent. The basic components include rice, fish and coconut and delicacies made from…
Audretsch, D.B. And Meyer, N.S. " Religion, Culture and Entrepreneurship in India." Indiana
University Public Affairs Conference. 2009. 17 Apr.2010.
"Cuisine." Cuisine Tours of India, Culinary Tour India, Indian Cuisines information,
Unknown artist. Unknown date. This is a painting of Vedic art, depicting Krishna eating lunch with his friends. It was commissioned for an Indian monastery. Culturally, this form of art depicts a story from the life of Krishna. Krishna is usually depicted as an adult, so this is somewhat unusual, but in this case as a child from folklore. The story would probably be well-known to the audience at the monastery.
Artist: Rabi Behera. ate: Unknown. This is a modern interpretation of folk art from Orissa, depicting Hanuman as Eleventh Rudra. Hanuman here has five heads. In this incarnation, Hanuman battles Ravana, an antagonist in the Ramayana who sought to overpower the gods. This story is well-known as part of the Indian national epic the Ramayana.
Artist: Unknown ate: 18th century
This landscape is traditional in Korean art. Nature is considered sacred in Korean…
This is a playbill from a kabuki show in 1849. So the art itself illustrates a scene from the play. The art still has the straight lines common in Japanese art, but certainly looks more cluttered than the finest classical art from that period, because this is not something that would have been done by a top artist for display.
I think friends back home will find these to be fairly classical images. None of these would really surprise, I do not think. Art from these countries has tended to focus on the same themes, at least until the mid-20th century, and these images reflect that. As these societies have evolved with industrialization, their art has become a lot more varied, if nothing else.
If there was a weakness, it was the repetitiveness of the many different hymns and chants. Many of them seemed to repeat themselves throughout the book, such as the many different chants and hymns to heaven and dawn, and to the various gods. I understand that some conveyed different messages, but it seemed to bog the book down, and just add weight. Cutting some of these redundant messages would have made it an even more appealing text.
These texts are effective too because they explain the religion in relatively simple language, so even foreign readers can get the feeling and spirit of the religion, and take away a more intimate understanding of Hindu belief systems. It is meant as a guidebook for Hindus, but it opens up new ideas about religious thought in other readers, and shows, although we are different, many world religions are remarkably similar, as well.
Unknown. "The Vedas." SacredTexts.com. 2010. 2 June 2010.
Tradition says that a dying person should be put on the floor in order for them to be closer to the earth. After the ailing person dies, the body is washed and prepared for funeral practices. Most Hindu people would rather have a Hindu priest pray and bless their recently departed relative.
4.In Hinduism, people that don't believe are not threatened to perish in hell as they are given another chance to recognize the religion as having great importance in one's life. From the Hindu point-of-view, hell is something experienced by people that have a bad Karma.
Hindu people believe that they've attained a level of happiness when they reach a perfect Karma and their mind and body are pure. Hinduism regards life as being complex process in which the soul undergoes several phases of reincarnation in order to reach a final phase where it is saved and reincarnation no…
1. Chopra, Anita. Alagiakrishnan, Kannayiram. "HEALTH and HEALTH CARE of ASIAN INDIAN-American ELDERS." Retrieved April 8, 2009, from Stanford University Web site: http://www.stanford.edu/group/ethnoger/asianindian.html
2. Wendell, Thomas. "Wendell Thomas." Kessinger Publishing, 2003.
3. "Hindu American Foundation Denounces Temple Entry Ban on Harijans (Dalits) in Orissa." Retrieved April 8, 2009, from the Hindu American Foundation Web site: http://www.hinduamericanfoundation.org/media_press_release_jagannath_harijan.htm
4. "Hinduism." Retrieved April 8, 2009, from diehardindian Web site: http://www.diehardindian.com/demogrph/moredemo/hindu.htm
The research showed that Hinduism is a religion that has been practiced in South Asia for more than 4,000 years, and despite having experienced some fundamental changes during these millennia, the religion has been adopted by people from all over the world. hile the majority of Hindus are still in India where four out of five people are Hindus, the research also showed that the billions of people who subscribe to Hinduism do not assign this term to their faiths, and may not even have ever heard the term "Hindu" in their lives. The worldview held by these billions of faithful is therefore naturally varied, but largely relates to a perpetual universe in which unrequited desire is the source of human misery, and the cycle of life will continue until these desires are understood and extinguished. Finally, the research also showed that Hinduism is characterized by the shared concepts…
Basham, a.L. "Hinduism." In the Concise Encyclopedia of Living Faiths, R.C. Zaehner (Ed.). Boston: Beacon Press, 1989.
Beck, Richard. (2006). "Defensive vs. Existential Religion: Is Religious Defensiveness Predictive of Worldview Defense?" Journal of Psychology and Theology 34(2): 142.
Carmody. Denise Lardner and John Tully Carmody. Mysticism: Holiness East and West. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996.
Findly, Ellison Banks. (2002). "Hinduism and Ecology: The Intersection of Earth, Sky, and Water." The Journal of the American Oriental Society 122(4): 925.
Laterite is a soft stone, easily cut, which dries to a very hard material. It was not easily carved, so it was used for foundations and walls.
During the 7th and 8th centuries, larger temples were built of sandstone, which was available from the Kingdom of Chenla, quarries. Sandstone is easily carved, so by the 7th century carvings of good quality and detail were found on the lintels of the doors of the temples. Towards the end of this century, some temples were made entirely of stone, some of these tall, single tower temples still survive in Indo-China and Cambodia.
Unfortunately, there were significant problems that the architects were not able to overcome when designing the great pyramids of Angkor at and Bayon. Sandstone may fit together very well, but vertical joints, running on top of one another, makes a wall very unstable. A whole wall would fall down if…
Angkor.com, The Angkor Wat Portal. 2006. http://www.angkor-planet.com/UK-hase.html .
Facts and Figures. Angkor Wat.com. 2006. (Website) http://www.angkorwat.org/.
Gilbert, Richard and Hang, Sovandy. Cambodian for Beginners. Bangkok: Paiboon Poomsan Publishing, 2004.
Jacobson, Matt. Adventure Cambodia: An Explorer's Travel Guide. London: Silkworm Books, 2005.
Historical Themes in Chhau dances
The themes behind the Chhau dances have very strong political ties. "Formerly there were 26 (twenty six) Feudatory states in Orissa Province, Sareikala a former 'A' class legendary princely State was one of them, now a District named Sareikala-Kharswan of Jharkhand state is situated to the north of Orissa on the bank of river Kharkai and surrounded by the big hills and rivers have given as much more protection to the former state barely 45 KM from the Iron and Steel city of Jamshedpur." (Chhaudance, 2004)
Singhbhumi, known as the land of the Lion was unconquered and therefore as close to a free state for many centuries. This is most likely the true origin for the principles of the classical style of tribal folk dances. "The Chhau Dance has been nurtured under an atmosphere of independence, undisturbed by outside influences. It represented a…
Chhaudance. (n.d.). History of Chhau Dance. Retrieved on November 30, 2004, at http://www.chhau.com/homehistory.htm
Kamat. (n.d.). Masked Chhau Folk Dancer from West Bengal. Retrieved on November 30, 2004, at http://www.kamat.com/kalranga/dances/4595.htm
Red Herring Argument / Petition Principi:
Heard from friend who is supporter of the ancient astronaut theory. She seemed to believe it telling me that that intelligent extraterrestrial beings had almost certainly visited Earth in antiquity and made contact with humans in certain points of our history. his she argued was indicated from certain ancient texts such as the Ramayana that, for instance, has gods and avatars who travel from place to place in flying vehicles, whilst the Book of Genesis, (chapter 6 verses 1 -- 4) mentions "sons of God [who] went to the daughters of humans and had children by them" -- which she, along with others, maintains refers to extra-terrestrials. he Book of Ezekiel too has a description of winged creatures flying in the Chariot of God who looked like humans which indicates that that Ezekiel had seen spaceships.
hese arguments -- all spurious -- not resting…
This perpetrates a number of fallacies since: (a) has nothing to do with the argument (b) is abusing the other (c) is confusing one with many (Islam is composed of many sects aside of which many Muslims have different ways of practicing their faith.
(Source: Associated Press -- Wed, Dec 5, 2012
Palestinians to UN: Stop 2 big Israeli settlements)
Homer's Odyssey is a classic epic poem, demonstrating all the hallmarks of epic poem structure and the epic journey cycle. The narrative of the Odyssey follows the return on Odysseus from Troy, a journey that takes ten years and spans many locations and setbacks, until he finally reaches his home in Ithaca. Even then, Homer must deal with one final setback before being successfully reunited with his family. This paper will focus on three central themes that define the epic poetry genre -- an epic hero
There are several elements of an epic poem. An epic poem should have an epic hero and in this case that is Odysseus. He is the focal point of the action (no author, 2012). His journey is entirely about him, to the point where his actions dictate the fate of all those around him. The key supporting characters are in his and his…
Downes, J. (2005). Epic, epic formula, epic smile. Auburn University. Retrieved February 15, 2012 from http://www.auburn.edu/~downejm/epicbasics.html
No author. (2012). A story of epic proportions: What makes a poem an epic? National Endowment for the Humanities. Retrieved February 15, 2012 from http://edsitement.neh.gov/lesson-plan/story-epic-proportions-what-makes-poem-epic
Nobel Prize laureate Derek Walcott begins his oration with an anecdote about the village of Felicity in Trinidad, which is predominantly East Indian. The story begins as the local towns prepare for a Saturday performance of the amleela, which is a stage version of the Hindu epic amayana. Walcott describes vividly with rich detail the cane fields, reminding listeners that the Indians are here because they were brought here during colonial times to be indentured laborers. Now a vibrant Indian community is entrenched, adding richness and color to the tropical landscapes of Trinidad and Tobago. As Walcott and his American friends arrive, the amleela cast and crew are setting up their multiplicity of deities, one of which is a huge effigy constructed of local materials like bamboo.
Briefly Walcott draws a parallel between the amleela and his own stage production, or reinvention and reconstruction, of Homer's Odyssey, the screenplay…
British and Commonwealth History Collections. Retrieved online: http://www-sul.stanford.edu/depts/hasrg/abhist/brithist/caribbean.html
"Caribbean Histories Revealed." The National Archives. Retrieved online: http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/caribbeanhistory/
Higman, B.W. A Concise History of the Caribbean. Cambridge University Press, 2010.
Palmie, Stephan. The Caribbean: A History of the Region and its Peoples. University of Chicago Press, 2011.
oldest and most widely practiced religions in the world, Hinduism is an attractive and flexible tradition. ith its colorful pantheon of deities, Hinduism has evolved over millennia, and has survived vast transformations in Indian culture. The fundamental teachings of the religion are contained within its sacred texts, namely the Vedas and the Upanishads. Hindu deities like Krishna, Ganesha, and Shiva have become well-known around the world, and Hindu practices like yoga are also renowned.
The Vedas are considered to be divine teachings containing immutable knowledge. However, their scope is wide and diverse. A supreme being is espoused, one who is personal and impersonal, immanent and transcendent. The Supreme Being is viewed as creator of the universe of both seen and unseen realities. The existence of other realms of existence, including deities, is central to Hindu cosmology. Communion with the gods is made possible by spiritual practice, devotion, ritual, sacrifice, and…
Aiyar, C.P.Ramaswami; Dutt, Nalinaksha; Wadia, A.R.; Mujeeb, Pal; Dharm M., and D'Souza, Jerome. "An Introduction to Hinduism." Hindusim. The Gazetteer of India, Volume 1: Country and people. Delhi, Publications Division, Government of India, 1965. 11 June 1997. 3 July 2003. http://www.uni-giessen.de/~gk1415/hinduism.htm#intro .
Hinduism: The World's Third Largest Religion." About.com. 3 July 2003. http://www.religioustolerance.org/hinduism.htm .
Yet, Odysseus is also rewarded for his loyalty and survives the Trojan War. His wit and intelligence provide a much different vision of an excellent hero than presented by Achilles. However, it is he who figures out how to end the lengthy war with the trick of the wooden horse. In the case of both heroes, it is not divine or monstrous adversaries that they face. Instead they fight a similar battle that Osiris did -- they must fight the greed and lust of mortal men. Although Agamemnon is their king, he is an adversary in that he forces them from their homes and places them and their men in danger for selfish greed and lust. However Agamemnon is later punished when he his murdered by his deceitful wife upon his return. Another human adversary faced by the heroes of the Iliad is Paris and his uncontrollable lust for Helen.…
Homer. The Iliad. Trans. Robert Eagles. New York. Penguin. 1998.
Rosenberg, Donna. World Mythology. 3rd ed. Lincolnwood, IL. NTC Publishing. 1999.
Role of Free ill and Fate in Oedipus Rex and Othello, the Moor of Venice
Free will and fate play a major role in determining the outcome the hero experiences in Sophocles' Oedipus Rex and illiam Shakespeare's Othello, the Moor of Venice. In Oedipus Rex, Oedipus's destiny has been predetermined and despite his many efforts, he cannot escape the future the gods have planned for him. Oedipus Rex's form relies on a chorus to serve as an emissary between the gods and the audience and ultimately aims at allowing the audience to achieve catharsis. On the contrary, in Othello, the Moor of Venice, Othello's future is determined through a series of actions that were not influenced by the gods, but rather through free will. Othello, the Moor of Venice's form breaks up the action into separate "vignettes" that ultimately highlight the depravity of man and aims to serve as a…
Brown, Larry."Aristotle on Greek Tragedy." Web. 26 September 2012.
Shakespeare, William. Othello, the Moor of Venice. Web. 26 September 2012.
Sophocles. Oedipus Rex. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Web. 26 September 2012.