Dolle (PAGE) emphasizes the influences these cultural histories have on all Americans. He points out that culture is not a static thing but a dynamic entity, constantly changing in response to influences from within and without. While one might think of him or herself as "White," or Lutheran, or male or female, or "second generation Chinese," or osnian, all of those labels tell only part of the truth of an individual. Is the Lutheran the child of immigrants from Germany? From Scandinavia? Is that person who self-describes as "second generation Chinese" a person looking to adopt the larger American culture, or trying hard to hold on to Chinese heritage? Does that person's parents want that individual to assimilate or maintain family traditions? If a person self-describes as osnian, does this mean osnian as a sub-culture of central Europe, or osnian only in legal identity on the individual's passport, technically coming…… [Read More]
Altruism and Acts of Kindness
Random and anonymous acts of kindness are indeed, an excellent way to touch the lives of other people and hence, make the world a better place to live. All it takes to perform such acts is a simple intention. Such acts make you feel good; even contented and satisfied at times. I experienced the feeling last Christmas Eve. It was while standing in my kitchen making coffee that I noticed a lone figure stumbling through the cold, bare streets of the neighbourhood outside. It was an old tramp, a lonely homeless and undoubtedly hungry man.
My heart melted. So, I opened my kitchen window and called out to him for a cup of coffee. Though startled at first, he quickly rushed up to grab the steaming, hot cup of espresso I offered. I watched him as he gulped down cup after cup of coffee and…… [Read More]
Workers' Compensation Case
The primary issue in the case of ita and her termination from employment from the Acme Company was whether or not her termination was based upon her negligence and not her injury that she received on the job. Although ita had been reprimanded on several occasions, her actual termination from the company occurred shortly after she acquired an injury on the job. Therefore, the central issue in the case is whether the company had the right to terminate ita based on her poor performance on the job, or whether the company used her past employee reprimands in an opportunistic way to protect themselves from a worker's compensation case as well as the resulting liability that might have been generated from such a case.
The rule that is most relevant to this case is the Florida Workers' Compensation Law that protects employees from being unduly discharged due…… [Read More]
desirable for the researcher to randomly assign subjects to the treatment and control groups than for the groups to evolve naturally?
The whole purpose behind random assignment is to try to single out a single factor that is changing the experimental results. Narrowing down results to a single variable means otherwise equalizing the experimental groups. Therefore, having two experimental groups that are as similar as possible is an important component in the experimental design. If subject can self-select, there is a possibility that there is something different about the members that self-select to be in different groups that makes their outcomes different.
Instead, an experimental design tries to achieve as much similarity between two groups as is possible. "One group (the program or treatment group) gets the program and the other group (the comparison or control group) does not. In all other respects, the groups are treated the same. They…… [Read More]
andomized controlled trials (CTs) are considered the "gold standard" in research that attempt to identify some type of causal relationship between an independent variable and dependent measure (Kraemer, Wilson, Fairburn, & Agras, 2002). The reason for this is that the process of random assignment to treatment groups or to the groups that receive the independent variable statistically controls for all the individual differences occurring in the participants that could affect the outcome except for the variable of interest (Kraemer et al., 2002). The control condition in an CT allows for comparisons between the different levels of the independent variable and no intervention at all. This is particularly important in medical studies where a particular condition such as depression or some illness may change over time without any type of intervention or treatment. CTs are not a remedy for poorly designed research methodologies and they do not reduce experimenter bias,…… [Read More]
5. Aside from the experimental intervention, were the groups treated equally? (co-intervention, compliance) What was the intervention? What was the difference between the groups?
Aside from the experimental intervention all the groups were treated equally. The intervention consisted of the preferred mobilization group receiving the unilateral PA pressure on the side of the symptoms (ipsilateral). The random mobilization group received 1 of the following 3 mobilization techniques that could be applied in the clinic as a placebo intervention: the central PA, ipsilateral unilateral PA, or contralateral unilateral PA pressure.
6. Overall, are the results of the study valid? Why or why not?
Overall the results of this study were valid because the researchers created a hypothesis that they then tested with a research design that measured whether patients suffering from unilateral mechanical neck pain preferred mobilization or the ipsilateral unilateral PA mobilization technique.
7. Was the treatment effect significant enough…… [Read More]
The first person that I helped was one of my good friends. She was scheduled to take a test in one of her classes when she got a call from her daughter's school that her daughter was sick and needed to go home. I was with her and offered to go pick up her daughter and watch her until she could finish her testing. I did not really feel rewarded by the behavior. I had plans for the afternoon, which I had to rearrange in order to babysit. While I did not resent babysitting, I felt as if I was obligated to watch her child. The reality is that I would be a horrible best friend if I had an afternoon free and did not watch my friend's child under those circumstances. Therefore, I do not even know that I would qualify this helping as a random act of kindness.…… [Read More]
There are sampling methods that are still under the quantitative paradigm but utilize non-random sampling to collect data from samples that are either too expensive or logistically difficult to select if random sampling will be used instead. These sampling methods can be convenience, purposive, quota, and snowball sampling (Babbie, 2003:211).
Convenience sampling is a non-random sampling method used when the goal is just to achieve the target sample size of a specific group for the study. No other criteria are set except for the kind of group being targeted and sample size that needs to be achieved. Purposive sampling, meanwhile, specifies characteristics of units that will be included in the sample. These units could be extreme characteristics of each other, or maybe only units from the extreme end of a characteristic spectrum are needed. The objective of this sampling method is to include units of a specific type or a…… [Read More]
Another instance in which random sampling is not important is when a researcher is conducting a qualitative study. In qualitative studies, depth of information from selected units of analysis is given more importance rather than the number and representativeness of the target group or population. Thus, for a researcher conducting in-depth interviews of household mothers (for example), the characteristics/selection criteria set in identifying the target group (household mothers) are more important than the randomly selecting participants/members of the target group, which could result to household mothers who do not fit the criteria or characteristics set by the researcher. In effect, the type of information that would be generated from randomly sampled household mothers would not be as insightful as it would have been to specifically-selected household mothers fitting the researcher's selection criteria.
Components of a research study such as the objectives, review of literature, framework, methodology and analysis all work…… [Read More]
Reasonable suspicion -- A carefully considered presumption, based on specific facts and circumstances, that a person is probably involved in criminal activity. efore an officer can act on this level of suspicion, he must have enough knowledge to lead any reasonably cautious person to conclude that a crime has been (or is about to be) committed by the suspect.
The 4th amendment dictates that all people are guaranteed against unreasonable searches or seizures of their person or personal effects. Still though a student has less of this right due to court's giving more leeway to schools in the name of student safety and well-being.
Is this an invasion of the student's privacy?
Student privacy or lack of privacy in school, how much privacy should the students have or need? "The main drawback to locker searches is the loss of privacy that students may feel. A locker is the only place…… [Read More]
At the time of the survey, the typical class voter's interests would no doubt involve educational loans, rather than high property taxes, for example, or the quality of education from a student rather than a parent's point-of-view, and other specific interests particular to a younger, student age group, however large or randomly selected the class size.
Demographically, one's class might also be relatively homogeneous ethnically, geographically within the United States, and might be more likely to have liberal social views, in comparison to their parents, by virtue of their youth. A high school or college student would also even be more apt to be exposed to particular forms of media, such as the Internet, than would other voting groups.
Still, this would not mean that to survey young voters within a class would not be of interest -- the youngest tier of voters might be a very coveted demographic group,…… [Read More]
A fishbowl draw (or a similar method of physically randomizing the selection of numbers from the population contained in the table, such as dropping a coin from high above an enlarged version of the table and allowing it to bounce onto selected numbers) would be preferred for this study. This means of selection would fully randomize the selection, ensuring the validity of the sample, while at the same time would be fairly easy to accomplish. The creation or utilization of a computer program to randomly select numbers form this population would also be a highly valid and reliable way of accomplishing the necessary sampling, but this would be much more time-intensive as it would require the inputting of the entire population into the computer before the sample could be created. Analysis would be accomplished much faster by the computer after the data had been input, of course, but the data…… [Read More]
random walk down the streets of central oscow will lead one to adopt a false perspective of the convertibility of the ruble. There are scores of small stores quoting rates for "pokupka" and "prodaja," bid and ask, prices for the U.S. Dollar and the Euro. These spreads generally amount to about.3 rubles; less than a penny. This reflects the relatively stable system of exchange that has predominated since the 1998 Russian bank defaults, steadily depreciating from 28 to the dollar to the current approximate exchange rate of 31.5. The Putin administration, until 2003, had favored a steady fall against the dollar and Central Bank officials had expressed confidence that the exchange rate would reflect only a slight weakening of the Ruble over the course of the next year; the exchange rate was expected to reach 33.7:1. According to the oscow Times, The bank has also had to reverse direction on…… [Read More]
In addition, they could be effective in super high-crime hot spots, such as the bar the authors describe in Minneapolis, which recorded an astounding number of assaults throughout the year; roughly 1 in 4 patrons would suffer an assault during the study (Sherman et al. 44). Thus, random patrols in a hot-spot area like this could help deter crime and apprehend offenders. However, chances are that the very nature of the random patrol would be so random that it would not encounter criminal activity, and so, it would be less effective than other forms of patrol.
Interestingly, most patrol officers disagree with the findings of these studies. Author Kelling and his colleagues write, "Three-fourths of those surveyed in the South Patrol Division [in Kansas City] more than moderately agreed that routine patrol was the most important function of the department" (Kelling, et al. 38). This is not only because they…… [Read More]
While the idea that the mere presence of police in a community cannot deter crime from occurring may be a bit saddening or hard to believe for many, the truth is simply that the Kansas City Preventive Patrol Experiment showed that it couldn't. While patrol may be considered the "backbone" of police work, as it has long been, the theory had not been scientifically tested until 1972 in Kansas.
One of the most significant findings of the experiment was that people -- citizens -- did not realize when there was a difference in the level of patrol deployed. Another finding, there was no change in the number of burglaries, auto thefts or vandalism when there were more or less police patrolling. These crimes were always considered "preventable" -- if only there were more police preventive patrolling going on in the community. The study proved that this just wasn't so.
While…… [Read More]
I don't go hungry, or feel the need to abuse drugs or alcohol, but I can see how this happens in these neighborhoods, where it seems there is little else to do and little else you can do to fit in with your peers. I do not think that is right, but I understand why it occurs. It is an easy way out, and it is readily available to just about everyone in the community, and it is common, and so, just about everyone engages in some kind of addictive behavior.
A cope with not having enough money by looking toward the future when I graduate and getting a good job so I can live the lifestyle I want. That is because I have choices. If I could not afford to attend college, or had to drop out to work or have kids, I would look at my future very…… [Read More]
In “An Examination of the Benefits, Limitations, and Challenges of Conducting Randomized Experiments with Principals,” the researchers use a case study method to show why a professional development program for principals failed to achieve its desired outcomes. Focusing on one school district with 48 principals, the authors state, “We developed and understanding of why the program failed to achieve its intended goals,” (p. 188). The District Professional Development (DPD) program was designed to improve leadership capacities among principals with the ultimate goal of improving school outcomes. Based on interviews with district officials, a systematic review of the DPD materials, observations of the actual DPD training sessions, attendance records, and the principals’ personal logs and journals, the researchers collected substantive qualitative evidence that can be used to supplement their quantitative experimental research on the DPD. In other words, this study is a classic mixed-methods research design that uses both qualitative and…… [Read More]
Most pediatricians today agree that it is not something to stir up anxiety other than to deal with it and ensure that the children have a proper language model to speak to early and often in their young lives. Parents who both work long hours should attempt, through their exhaustion, to spend time speaking and reading to their kids. In the case where the idioglossia has already developed, it's important that a parent speak clearly and slowly and pronounce syllables carefully so that the child can repeat them correctly.
It is, after all, important for the child's own self-esteem, that he or she learn proper language skills so that the awkwardness of the "twin-speak" can be overcome before they reach a more "social" stage (even if the twins continue to talk their secret language between them).
akker, P. "Autonomous Languages of Twins." Acta Genet Med Gemellol (English) (1987): 233-238.…… [Read More]
Before discussing a sampling plan, there has to be clear and unambiguous definitions of what a sample and sampling are. Despite diversity in the definition of a sample, the best meaning is that a sample could be considered as a subset of a population, with which a researcher would like to use as participants in a given research study (Landreneau & Creek, 2012). According to Deming (1990), sapling is a science, which specifically guides quantitative studies, materials, behavior and the different causes of difference. In other aspects of research such as the qualitative research, sampling could be considered as the art of selecting a part of a population, in a given research area that is a representation of the entire population.
Both the qualitative and quantitative researchers approach their sampling differently. For the quantitative researchers, samples which are selected are those that will give the researcher easy time…… [Read More]
promoting fuel efficient cars, establishing green spaces or forestry, random emission testing, and encouraging alternative transportation, walking, and bicycle use. The total cost is $15.5 M.
Fuel efficient cars
Fuel efficient cars not only reduces pollution but I chose it due to the fact that it is also a good option given today's rising gas prices.
Fuel efficient cars come in 2 categories -- electric and water. What this means is that these cars substitute gas -- which pollutes the atmosphere -- with either electricity or water or hydroxyl.
Hybrid cars are healthier for the environment since they combine gas and water (or electricity) producing lower emissions. They also reduce dependence on fossil fuel which is the main source of fuel today.(Future-Method.com)
The trade-offs of fuel efficient cars are first and foremost price. That, however, can be overcome by compelling distributors to lower the price by making it a more…… [Read More]
The last decade has been riddled with crisis on the global as well as domestic scale. Crisis on many fronts have been noticed for instance natural calamities, terrorism issues, scandals, technological issues and financial disarray. Even so, most leaders aren't fully up to the task in terms of leading a company or society, in general, out of a crisis successfully. Experts at the start of this decade went hand in hand to eliminate the Y2K bug, which became the first Internet crisis. On September 11, 2001, the terrorist attacks in New York City on World Trade Center threw U.S. off balance. Next, the Katrina Hurricane struck with full vengeance in the gulf region which tore apart communities as we know it. The Tsunami of 2004 was another tragic event which rendered millions of people homeless. Last but the not the least, the recession of 2008 shutdown major corporations…… [Read More]
AM and What it Does
andom Access Memory (AM) Analysis and Overview
The intent of this analysis and overview of andom Access Memory (AM) is to define its various types and how they are used in system configurations. Included in this analysis is an overview of the operational characteristics of AM including how to install and use dual in-line memory modules (DIMMs) and single in-line memory modules (SIMMs). Memory modules of all types also require prescriptive maintenance, and several recommendations are provided in this analysis and overview of how best to keep each form of memory functioning at an optimal level. Troubleshooting tips for managing memory are also included.
Overview of andom Access Memory
The rapid adoption of andom Access Memory (AM) in electronics products historically has been driven by the exponential increase in integrated circuit design-ins for consumer and commercial products and the compounding effects of Moore's Law (Adee,…… [Read More]
For Possible Outcome 2, two groups in a population have been subjected to different treatments. One group served as the control group and was not given the opportunity to engage in an educational program that featured the study of human rights violations. However, the group was given course credit for watching a series of films on nature. he second group watched films that dealt with the Holocaust, Darfur, Rwanda, and the famines in eastern Africa. he groups randomly selected from the prison population, but were not randomly selected for the groups. Both groups had been in the prison facility an average of five years. Both groups were surveyed before watching any films, following each film and at the completion of the courses to measure the effect of the film on the subjects' empathy scores using standardized instruments. Mean scores of empathy ratings were charted below, with the blue…… [Read More]
esearch activities, whether clinical trial based, experimentally designed, or product oriented, must exhibit and command interest, enthusiasm, and passionate commitment. To this end the researcher must catch the essential quality of the excitement of discovery that comes from research well done. The first step in the attainment of the desired research goal is to develop a scientific approach toward that which is being investigated. A requirement within the scientific approach best-fit format that is oftentimes misunderstood, and consequently wrongly applied, is that of sampling.
In a rather philosophical approach to sampling Ohlson (1998) states that sampling is " ... But part of the whole. Check to make sure I fairly represent my larger connection " (p. 27). With these words Ohlson is informing the research enthusiast that sampling alone can skew testing results, infuse uncontrollable error into statistical processes, and violate the empirical premise under which the research investigation…… [Read More]
However, due to the lack of a pre-test procedure, it is impossible to assess whether the treatment had any effect in the sample at all. In the one group pretest posttest study the variable under study is measured among the sample prior to the treatment, to get the baseline figures, and then measured again among the same sample after the treatment to be compared with the baseline figures. Nevertheless, the results may not be conclusive that the change was effected by the treatment or some other unknown variable. Meanwhile, the static group comparison study compares the post-test results of two samples (one with treatment and one without treatment). However, just like in the one shot case study, the lack of a pre-test for both samples makes it impossible to conclude whether a change has occurred or not within the groups.
In everyday life, people make conclusions using pre-experimental research all…… [Read More]
As random noise is introduced in the study which would help estimate the responses in the sample, the result is more error will be accounted in the study. In effect, some modifications of the true responses may not estimate statistical values accordingly, which then, as explicated earlier, leads to erroneous development of findings/conclusions in the study.
And since we are just estimating the actual responses, the results become less efficient and less reliable. It becomes less efficient because the difference to the true effect of being studied will be greater (greater standard error), and data results become less reliable that the results generated using the random noise will not have a truthful description of the population.
The data will still be useful for the public health purposes. Identifying this white noise would help the researcher control these variables in such a way the true effects of the relationship will be…… [Read More]
First, can the research be performed safely on the subject? In some cases, the answer to this question may be no, but the research still be justified, if the possible benefits of the research outweigh the risks to the subjects. In this study, there is no safety danger to the subjects. Second, the researcher must attain informed consent from the research participants. It will be easy to obtain this consent, which can be done in writing, prior to having the subjects participate in the study. Informed consent does not have to describe the nature or purpose of the research, but it does need to inform the subjects of the risks and benefits of the research, any possible dangers, and the subject's ability to opt-out of the research. There are no inherent risks in this project, therefore the subjects will be informed that there are no inherent risks in this project.…… [Read More]
In short, the left prefrontal cortex is intimately connected to the cingulate cortex, the source of attentional ability (e.g. Kalish, Wiech, Hermann, & Dolan, 2006), whilst simultaneously serving as site for happiness. The hypothesis of this essay, therefore is, that the greater the span of attention accorded an activity, the more positive and more intense the level of serenity experienced.
Although Csikszentmihalyi has conducted research on 'flow' and shown that the experience of flow associated with mindfulness and attentionality has been identified as the highest level of well being (Csikszentmihalyi, 2000), little if any research seems to exist on the connection between hobbies and serenity. It may be assumed that hobbies indicate a sense of flow, implicating mindfulness or attentioanlity, therefore, as per the left prefrontal cortex, sense of pleasure and serenity should be sharpened and participants should feel more serenity. Hobbies, however, are a huge field and their spectrum…… [Read More]
5. No. No. (i.e. this is neither a random sample nor simple random sample), because the females who attended the meeting were not selected and not all females in the company had an equal chance of talking to the personnel manager.
1. George W. Snedecor, & Cochran, William G. (1989). Statistical Methods (8th ed.): Blackwell Publishing Professional.
2. William G. Zikmund, & Babin, Barry J. (2007). Exploring Market Research 9th.
3. Graham Upton, & Cook, Ian (1996). Understanding Statistics: Oxford University Press.
Restaurant A Restaurant B
Range 44 46
Salary Mid interval salary, x x2 Employees, f f.x f. x2
5001-10000 7500.5 56257500.25-14 105007 787605003.50
10001-15000 12500.5 156262500.25-13 162506.5 2031412503.25
15001-20000 17500.5 306267500.25-18 315009 5512815004.50
20001-25000 22500.5 506272500.25-18 405009 9112905004.50
25001-30000 27500.5 756277500.25-17 467508.5 12856717504.25
Sum ?f ?fx ?fx2
80 1455040 30301455020.00
Sheet1…… [Read More]
The searches take about fifteen minutes each, and added up, number millions of hours of police time spent conducting these Stop and Frisk searches, making the practice a core part of NYPD police training and street policy, and not simply a seldom used law. Another startling fact is that 88% of those who are stopped are not at all guilty of any crime, but are still forced to submit to the police officers conducting the search for the duration of the search, and cannot bypass the search under any circumstances. This means that the police are spending the vast majority of their time not catching criminals, which may seem like an inefficient method.
The NAACP, a political group representing African-Americans, has come out against the Stop and Frisk law because of statistics published by the NYPD that show that young black men are targeted at much higher rates for random…… [Read More]
Communications -- Personal Statement
Say the word 'communications,' and immediately people think of the written or the spoken word. They think of a page of newspaper, a conversation with a friend. But corporate communications encompasses so much more than merely the verbal exchange of ideas.
Corporate communications is kinesthetic. Through my work at my current place of business, Alcoa I communicate by email to all Alcoans worldwide, regarding the Earthwatch program, including its guidelines and the application process. Earthwatch expeditions are hands-on efforts designed to add to the knowledge of Alocan personnel to give them personal knowledge of the different needs that must be met to build a sustainable future. My communication efforts for this program are personal as well as technical, and facilitate the communications process between employees on a personal level, and for the fifteen individuals ultimately chosen to become a part of the program, on a physical…… [Read More]
In other words, when the total number of people characterized by each variable (or stratum) oscillates within the population, to the researcher would choose the size of each sample for each stratum according to the research requirements. uch a choice is prejudiced by the probability of obtaining an adequate number of sampling units from each stratum within the final sample. As a rule, disproportionate stratified samples are used either to compare two or more particular strata or to analyze one stratum intensively (Creswell, 1994). Therefore, when researchers use a disproportionate stratified sample, we have to weight the estimates of the population's parameters by the number of units belonging to each stratum. In this sample, weighting strategies were not performed in the original data.
Once researchers have defined the population of interest, they draw a sample that adequately represents that population. The actual procedure involves selecting a sample from a sampling…… [Read More]
This is because the choice of specific buildings is not adequately randomized. Without full randomization, even the overall vacancy rate is not entirely reliable. Thus, the sampling method can be improved by randomizing every aspect of the study.
c. The population in this study is welfare clients. The sampling frame is national. While the randomization draws from multiple states, the end figure in the study is not going to have this state breakdown. However, if average welfare assistance by state is derived, then the state would also be a sampling frame for this study. The unit of analysis is the individual, since at the end of the study a per individual dollar figure will be derived. The type of sample is random, because the individuals are chosen simply on the basis of their walking through the door, and the individuals did not know that the time they walked through the…… [Read More]
Please make sure to show all work for each problem requiring calculations. Please highlight final answer.
What is the level of measurement for each of the following:
a) Final grades in this class ____Ordinal
b) Weights of newborn babies ____Nominal
c) Seasons of the year ____Interval
d) Boiling temperatures of different liquids ____Ratio
Types of sampling used:
a) I collect data from my class ____Simple
b) Data from every fourth patient in the hospital ____Stratified
c) Data from 400 randomly selected students from those majoring in business, 763 randomly selected students from those majoring in education, and 392 randomly selected students from those majoring in criminal justice. ____Cluster
d) Data from 4230 adults after phone numbers were randomly generated ____Quota
3. The following data were collected on amounts of lawn debris after the major storm this past summer:
a)…… [Read More]
We have a random sample of n from the population. We can find the mean and standard deviation of the proportion of that sample that has the characteristic. X 1, X2, ..., Xn are n random variables that are independent and identically distributed with mean ? And standard deviation ?. Sn= X1+X2+...+Xn is the sample sum. We can show E (Sn)=n? And SD (Sn)=?
n. CLT states: Sn-n?
/0,1: as n
Point estimates summarize the sample by a single number that is an estimate of the population parameter. An interval estimate is a range of values within which the true parameter lies with higher probability. In any estimation problem, we need to obtain both a point estimate and an interval estimate. The point estimate is our best guess of the true value of the parameter, while the interval estimate gives a measure of accuracy of that point estimate…… [Read More]
This means that the questionnaire may be designed with a thorough understanding of the processes within the company and the experience to which the customers of the company should be ideally exposed.
The studio presently collects some information on the experience of their customers but this focuses predominantly on the customer's experiences on the day of their shoot. For example the questionnaire which is currently distributed to all customers asks questions such as 'hich parts of your photo shoot did you like the best?' The current questionnaire is also very simple with only three options given for the multiple choice questions and a number of questions such as that above which are open ended questions. The company is however concerned that sufficient information is not available to guide them specifically on customer satisfaction with the service provided from initial contact with the company to receipt of the photographic products ordered.…… [Read More]
Release of Information
A Quality Assurance Indicator and Process for Measuring the Accuracy of Release of Information Requests
According to James F. Keenan (1993), questions about the accuracy of releases of information have assumed increasing prominence in several areas recently, such as the Persian Gulf war, the physical- and mental-health histories of public individuals, the identification of rape victims, and the threat of AIDS. The debates that have resulted have largely been guided by an important insight: the responsibilities that have been entrusted to particular professions contribute to the determination of whether release of information is considered right and proper. Ensuring such "right and proper" releases of information means having in place a system whereby quantifiable aspects of the underlying processes can be periodically reviewed to determine how well it is working. hile the function goes by many names such as quality control, total quality management, and others, the healthcare…… [Read More]
The probability that both a and B. will occur is different from the probabilities that a will occur and that B. will occur.
Refer to the following data to answer questions 7 and 8. Just the answer
A random sample of song playing times in seconds is as follows:
7. Find the standard deviation. 28.65
8. Are any of these playing times considered unusual in the sense of our textbook? Explain. Does this differ with your intuition? Explain. The longest playing time, 293 seconds, could be considered somewhat unusual in that it is more than 1.5 standard deviations away from the mean, meaning more than 93% of data in the population (if normally distributed) would fall below this level -- 93% of songs would be shorter. Intuition says that this is not the case, and that though the song is longer this is simply part of the variation that exists…… [Read More]
The NY Police department has a regular CompStat meeting so that policing actions are relevant and make use of the most current data (What is CompStat, 2013, University of Maryland). "Contrary to the reactive policing model, the CompStat model strives to deploy resources to where there is a crime problem now, as a means of heading off the problem before it continues or escalates. As such, the tactics should be deployed in a timely manner" (What is CompStat, 2013, University of Maryland).
Feedback: Another important reason for frequent meetings is that they provide consistent feedback as to whether the tactics have been effective. CompStat is a self-critical, not a self-congratulatory model. "Problem-focused strategies are normally judged a success by a reduction in or absence of the initial crime problem. This success or lack thereof, provides knowledge of how to improve current and future planning and deployment of resources" (What is…… [Read More]
limitations of an evaluation are that the evaluation is biased in one way or another. Researchers guard against this by using reliability estimators. Each of the possible four reliability estimators has certain advantages and disadvantages. For example, inter-rater reliability is one of the better methods to estimate reliability when measuring an observation. For an evaluation it is better to use the reliability estimator of test-retest. This reliability estimator can be administered to the same test or a similar sample from different occasions. This approach assumes that there is no substantial change in the construct being measured between the two occasions. The amount of time allowed between measures is obviously critical. Measuring the same thing twice so that the correlations between the two observations are compatible depends partly on elapsed time between measurement occasions. The shorter the time gap, the higher the correlation; the longer the time gap, the lower the…… [Read More]
In addition, after the Kansas City Patrol Experiment, the police department noted that it was going to develop a directed patrol system to help control and prevent crime in the city. This was a direct result of what the study found, that routine patrols did not help deter and prevent crime, and that other patrol methods, such as random or direct patrols, were better at deterring crimes, especially in certain hot spots in the city. Thus, the study showed that policing can have a positive affect on a city's crime rate, and it also showed that effective community involvement, combined with direct patrol, can be a serious deterrent to crime, especially in areas of known and continued criminal activity.
Kelling, George L., Pate, Tony, Dieckman, Duane, and Brown, Charles E. The Kansas City
Preventive Patrol Experiment: A Summary eport. Washington DC: Police Foundation, 1974.
Sherman, Lawrence W., Gartin, Patrick…… [Read More]
The ordering is based on an arbitrary scale that holds no significance besides describing it's obvious qualities.
Nominal Data: Nominal data is information that is organized by name. There is no value in this type of data other than its descriptive use.
Discrete Data: Discrete data is information that needs specific beginning and ending points. Certainty is a required quality of this type of data. Discrete data is information that can be counted.
Continuous Data: Continuous data is information that can be taken from a scalar measurement. Continuous data can be recorded at many different points and can hold any numeric value.
2. Following are several variables. Which, if any, yield ordinal data? Explain your answer.
(e) number of siblings
(g) place of birth
(h) high-school class rank
3. Identify which type of sampling is used:
To avoid working late,…… [Read More]
Restraining the Elderly
The Project Management path for this research proposal will follow the path of quantitative research in a 'quasi-experimental' environment. Adhering as closely as possible to quantitative experiments designed to establish the causal factors or interdependent links between grouped variables, the researcher will follow a natural course of progression in administering dependent and independent variables, designing the sampling set, determining the optimal time(s) and location(s) for conducting the research, developing the measures and instruments necessary for evaluation of non-empirical evidentiary conclusion (i.e., the thought processes and reasoning of medical staff), measuring the response to education and procedural methodology, documentation to include evaluation materials, response forms, and restraint logs, preparing the education program, delivering the lectures, and evaluating the results in change or lack of change in care providers attitudes toward patient restraint.
Any project that measures the process of learning, comprehension, acceptance or denial,…… [Read More]
Non-discretionary controls means than there is mandatory access control. In this type of system, security is enforced by a strict set of rules that creates a hierarchy of permissions that users cannot override. Essentially, this type of system is meant to hinder insider users from actually working against the system. Users cannot access crucial internal information as to become spies, thus they cannot see the internal designs of the system to stop leaks such as selling internal designs to competitors, implanting spyware or other malicious software, making critical errors that would injure the system, or access sensitive records that can be leaked to outside sources.
According to the research traditional UNIX is not non-discretionary, but rather a version of a discretionary ACL. In this, there are options as to what users have access to sensitive security information from within the system design. Unlike non-discretionary systems, typical UNIX systems categorize users…… [Read More]
You need to find the real value and bargains. This will not happen over night. Do not worry if something passes you by in the meantime. Something else will come along. Promise.
Be "humble" like Wilbur the Pig. Even though you are doing well, do not get cocky. Keep it slow and easy. You do not want to lose everything you have to gain. emember Wilbur almost lost it all with the axe after he got good and plump.
Going back to Wilbur...there was also Charlotte, who was very patient. Charlotte had a lot of patience, and it was well worth the outcome. Do not panic when the markets dips. If it is a serious dip, then still take your time. A few more days will not make a difference. Timing is very important.
Just like with everything else in life. Moderation is best. Putting all your eggs in one…… [Read More]
How variations arise within a phenotype?
Phenotype is the specific characteristics that are displayed by the organism. Phenotypic variation is a prerequisite for evolution due to natural selection, thus without the former, there is no latter. Qualitative traits are traits that show a difference between phenotypes like skin color, sex, and eye color. However, such descriptions are controlled by a small number of genes so environmental influence on these traits is low since it involves the genetics of individuals. Quantitative traits are traits that exhibit a continuous range from one phenotype to another. Therefore, there is no difference between phenotypes and are usually influenced by several gene pairs while the environment has a significant influence on the trait. This type of trait involves the genetics of populations. It is a combination of genetic and environmental factors to produce phenotypes that blend into each other. Phenotypic variance or VP is…… [Read More]
Nokes and Nwakeze (2007) was to test the effectiveness of health outcomes on health outcomes of HIV and people aged 50+ and older. This was a quasi-experimental designs and random sampling was used. The study setting was a community-based organization that served resource-challenged people living with HIV / AIDS and many of these were black with minimal education. There were potentially 639 eligible clients, but despite repeated attempts many could not be reached. In the end, 43 people participated in the research.
Identify the reliability and validity of the data collection instrument.
If the data collection instrument has been newly developed, has the appropriate pretesting for reliability and validity been conducted?
If that data collection instrument is an established one, has sufficient evidence been provided from prior studies to allow evaluation of the instrument's reliability and validity?
No data collection instrument was used in this case. Rather the premise of…… [Read More]
One of the additional oversights in the Proposed Consent Decree is that it does not address the sensitive matter of cell searches of two-person cells that are focused on one inmate. The cell search conducted by Officer Anderson and Sgt. Belker was conducted in an attempt to locate contraband cigarettes that had been sold by Joe Johnson; however, they were still able to search all of Jack Jones' materials. The Proposed Consent Decree is under-inclusive in that it does not make any mention of protecting the inmate who is not the target of the cell search. As it stands, it is still possible for the cell search to be conducted under the premise of implicating one of the inmates while instead focusing on a separate inmate.
Ultimately, the Proposed Consent Decree fails to squarely address the situation, since it fails to protect the sheet of paper from being confiscated from…… [Read More]
Security Plan Target Environment
Amron International Inc.
Amron International Inc. is a division of Amtec and manufactures ammunition for the U.S. military. Amron is located in Antigo, Wisconsin. Amron also manufacturer's mechanical subsystems including fuses for rockets and other military ammunitions as well as producing TNT, a highly explosive substance used in bombs.
Floor Plan Target Environment
The target environment in this security plan is the manufacturing operation located in Antigo, Wisconsin, a manufacturing plant with personnel offices adjacent to the facility. The work of Philpott and Einstein (nd) reports the fact that more than 50% of U.S. businesses do not have a crisis management plan and for those who do have a plan, it is generally not kept up-to-date. Philpott and Einstein states that even fewer businesses and organizations "have integrated physical security plans to protect the facility and the people who work in it.
The challenge is reported…… [Read More]
For example, using predictive policing will likely be at odds with many of the organizational cultures found in traditional police forces in many cities. Furthermore, different objectives may also take precedence over the use of COMPSTAT systems such as political goals as well as the ability for policing organizations to provide the needed resources to take advantage of a COMPSTAT system.
The various COMPSTAT systems can take various inputs, such as historical data, weather, or political events, and process these inputs to generate various sets of "hotspots." These hotspots can be updated daily and reflect the most likely time and space estimates of where crime is more likely to occur given the various factors that are presented to the algorithm. The outputs may represent a location and a time in which police officers should patrol given the likelihood of a crime occurring at this output. The system then can keep…… [Read More]
Validity and Reliability
Types of Validity
According to Trochim (2007), there are six different types of construct validity. Construct validity pertains to the accurate reflection of the operationalization's construct within the conclusion. Of the six types, Trochim (2007) divides them up to translation validity -- which depends on the definition of the construct and the checks against it -- and criterion-related validity -- which applies one's theory of construct and examines the proper behavior of the operationalization. The two translation validity types are thus: face validity, which views an operationalization solely on its face value; and content validity, which juxtaposes operationalization with the content domain of the construct. The four criterion-related validity types are thus: predictive validity, which uses prediction to evaluate operationalization; concurrent validity, where operationalization is gauged in its being able to distinguish between two similar groups; convergent validity, a gauging of how similar an operationalization is to…… [Read More]
Personal Income Probabilities
Based on this sample, and clearly showing workings, appropriate graphics and your response to blank values in the data, calculate the following:
(a) the probability of randomly picking two men over 35 from the sample
The sample consists of both men and women, however the question does not delineate segmentation by gender in regard to men vs. women, but solely requests "from the sample" the possibility of selecting men over 35 years of age each draw. Therefore the equation is:
Men over 35 years of age total in the sample.
121 participants total in the sample
239 = P of men in sample
Percentage of men over 35 in the sample 23.9%
Each draw is discreet with a 23.9% chance that a man over 35 years of age will be selected on random selection each time.
For example of work in excel: Appendix
(b) given that we…… [Read More]
Brady-Amoon's and Fuertes' "Self-efficacy, self-rated abilities, adjustment, and academic performance." This research study had five different hypotheses, all of which were interrelated. All of these hypotheses were fundamentally related to the research question of the study. However, there was a degree of ambiguity in the phrasing of hypotheses five, which states "Self-efficacy, self-rated abilities, and adjustments will be positively associated with college students' academic performance, above and beyond prior academic performance" (Brady-Amoon and Fuertes, 2011, p. 432). The reader is able to discern the meaning of this hypothesis. However, the reference to "above and beyond" is not a clear way of stating that the effects of the constructs of self-efficacy and self-rated ability on adjustment will contribute to improved grades from previous academic efforts. If the authors intended some other meaning aside from an improvement in academics, then they should have stated this fact in some other way. The first…… [Read More]
The exam though it's validity as a barometer for academic preparedness for higher learning is contested, is a means of examining the factors which have been shown to be directly related to the outcomes seen with this strategy. Block scheduling has been shown to correlate directly to mathematics, language, and critical thinking in terms of improving scores. Also, the application of this evaluative comparison across a variety of students and academic settings may resolve the existing questions regarding the relative failure of an otherwise successful technique to raise writing skills. The test will be administered at the conclusion of each trial period in the fashion it would be administered in its intended use. The scores of each student will be compared with their previous score. The overall bell curve of scores between conditions will also be compared as a means of determining both specific and general efficacy.
Description of esearch…… [Read More]
This may color their judgment I regards to any negative assertions. However, it must be remembered that as teachers their bias should always be towards the student, which in this case will be a positive impact on results.
5. How could validity and reliability be established for this kind of survey?
Certainly an alternate control group could be established with a random selection of teachers who are outside of the criteria used for this survey. This would help to further understand and deviance between norms and establish more validity and reliability for the final outcome. Number and blind referencing would have also added some validity to the results
6. What could the authors do, if anything, with the percentages presented to make a stronger case for practical significance?
One technique for creating a more forceful percentage would be o take the overall total from responses 5, 4 and 3 and…… [Read More]
Criminal Justice Career
How will this new terminology and knowledge apply to a career in criminal justice?
Criminal justice is seen as the practices, system and the concerned government institutions that are focused on implementing social control, participating in crime mitigation and sanctioning the law violator by imposing penalties and rehabilitation programs. It covers the private sector, the pubic sector, NGOs, state and the local governments as well (Oregon Laws, 2007). To handle effectively such a wide spectrum of departments with professionals without a chance foe making the wrong interpretation of the law once needs to be well equipped with the legal terms.
How can not knowing the proper terminology affect you as you conduct criminal justice research?
When one lacks the proper terminology in the criminal justice, this can be a fundamental barrier in the execution of duty and definition of the offences committed as well as interpretation of…… [Read More]
Natural selection is the very efficient and predictable means of evolution by which a species adapts to its environment, that results in evolutionary change as individuals with particular characteristics have a greater survival or reproductive rate than others in a population, and these genetic characteristics are then passed on to their offspring (Natural pp). In other words, natural selection is a consistent difference in survival and reproduction between different genotypes in what is referred to as reproductive success (Natural pp).
Although Charles Darwin's book, On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection caused much ado when it was published in 1859, science now accepts that evolution is indeed a fact, and that natural selection effectively explains how adaptive evolution takes place (Natural pp).
There are two requirements that are essential in order for natural selection to occur (Evolution pp). One is that there must be heritable variation for…… [Read More]
Robert L. O'Connell. The Ghosts of Cannae: Hannibal and the Darkest Hour of the Roman Republic (Random House, 2010).
Robert O'Connell's The Ghosts of Cannae is a narrative history for a general audience, based on ancient sources like the historians Polybius and Livy. It describes the invasion of Italy by the Carthaginian armies of Hannibal during the Second Punic War and the battle of Cannae on August 2, 216 C in which the Roman armies were surrounded and annihilated. One of the bloodiest battles in history, nearly 50,000 Romans died that day and 20,000 were captured and sold into slavery, compared to Hannibal's losses of 6-8,000.[footnoteRef:1] Although the Romans were temporarily demoralized by this immense defeat, they rebounded and eventually pushed Hannibal out of Italy by using a guerilla warfare strategy under Fabius Maximus. In the end, Hannibal went down in history as the type of commander who "won…… [Read More]
Queues v System Dynamics
In a system there are different entities that are flowing into and accumulate in stocks then they flow out sometimes into another stock. This is just the same as items in a queue or waiting line. However there are some aspects which are different from queue when compare to systems dynamics. Queues are different from the items that are flowing in and out of stocks as characterized by system dynamics.
System dynamics construct normally allows for modeling of continuous events and bringing in system feedback. System dynamics is thus a methodology that is used in the understanding of how systems work over time. There are two types of systems the open and feedback systems. An open system is one that takes inputs and produces an output from them which does not have any impact on future inputs. On the other hand a feedback system is one…… [Read More]
Six Questions & Discussion on American Politics
During the U.S. Constitutional Convention of 1787, two primary plans were forwarded that shaped the development and discussion at the convention that would forever impact the shape of American politics. The first plan, the Virginia Plan, introduced by Governor Randolph, was an effort to simply revise the existing Articles of Confederation. It was characterized by three major points: the structural exclusion of states from elections and representation at the national level, reductions of powers to individual states, and the abandonment of the some national features of republicanism like institutional separation of powers. The Virginia Plan was countered by two alternative plans, and a division at the Convention: the New Jersey Plan that believed the Virginia Plan went too far in affording power to the national government, and the Hamilton Plan that argued the Virginia Plan didn't go far enough (Lloyd).…… [Read More]