cerebral cortex, using rats. he researchers noted that there were two beliefs about the areas of the cerebral cortex dedicated to the five senses. Some believed that information came in from each sense separately and was not combined immediately. However, other research suggested that activating one sense area could also activate others. In the research, the scientists mapped the cerebral cortices of rats for sight, sound and touch.
he researchers found that while specific areas were dedicated to one or another sense only, in the areas bordering between two senses, both senses could be stimulated at once. hey suspect that these border areas may explain why one sense may develop more strongly if another sense is lost. For instance, if a person becomes blind, their sense of hearing may become more acute and discriminative. he research also suggests that the brain may combine information from multiple senses much sooner in…… [Read More]
Pulmonary Autopsy Findings of the ats Drowned at Surface and 50 Ft Depth
Critical Appraisal of a esearch Article
Of the following literature that was examined, one of the most useful articles was entitled Pathology of the Lung in Near Drowning, a paper in which the researchers created an experimental model that simulated the changes that actually occurred in a subject which had nearly drowned. The purpose was to study the pathological changes that happen when someone or something is drowned. The methodology involved intubating rabbits in either salt or fresh water, and microscopically examining their lungs and hearts. The results indicated that within the first 30 minutes after being drowned, the vast majority of damage does not occur in the alveolar cells but in the vascular endothelium (Karch, S.B, 1986).
The next piece of literature that was reviewed was called Alveolar Macrophages and the Diagnosis of Drowning, in which…… [Read More]
long-Term habituation of exploration in rats, hamsters, and gerbils by Poucet, Durup, & Thinus-Blanc
Concepts being studied
In this study, the researchers were seeking to study habituation to a novel environment in three species of rodent: rat, hamster, and gerbil. They wanted to see if the animals exhibited habituation behavior each time that they were placed in a new environment, and whether the animals exhibited any between-sessions habituation.
Prior research had revealed that hamsters would actively reinvestigate objects during a test session, if, after two sessions of habituation, the spatial relationship between the two objects had changed. Prior research conflicted about whether rats would react to changes in the spatial relationship between objects in a field. They examined prior research and found what appeared to be a specific lack in rats of between-sessions habituation.
What the experimenters attempt to show
The experimenters attempted to show that there was…… [Read More]
Third Parties in the U.S. National Presidential Elections
For a long time, U.S. elections have been controlled primarily on a two-party system with the two major parties as Democrats and Republicans. The two-party system, although not categorically stated in the constitution was the norm adopted by many America. The inclination to such a party system highly depended on principles and policies promoted by the two parties that often influenced the decisions made by the citizens. Consequently, the two parties received much support, which made them run the American government interchangeably. However, the two-party system did not eliminate the role played by the third parties in the American politics. Several third parties have remained active in the American politics despite the obvious trend of two-party system supported by most Americans. They raised their presidential candidates, who ran for the presidency for many years
Most third parties survived the American politics courtesy…… [Read More]
Ob/ob mouse and Fa/Fa rat (what are they, who discovered them, when they were discovered, how was it discovered
The Ob/ob mouse (i.e. obese mouse model) was first discovered in the Jackson laboratory in Bar Harbor, ME and is popular for studying Type 2 diabetes, food intake, and obesity. A recessive mutation on a certain chromosome in the mouse results in premature termination of leptin and therefore a deficiency of leptin in the mouse.
These ob/ob mice are hypherhagic and already obese at 2 weeks old. They also show other signs indicative of diabetes such as marked hyperglycemia, mildly impaired glucose tolerance, severe hyperinsulinemia, and impaired fertility and wound healing. They are also resistant to insulin. With all the signs of diabetes, the mice become severely and fatally diabetic with pancreatic collapse resulting in death.
The Zucker fa / fa (fatty) rat was discovered in 1961 and is a popular…… [Read More]
Peter tells the King, "Goes back to 1720. Father to son. That's a lot of tradition to try to fight" (pg 244). That tradition of honorable service causes Peter much angst. One example in the book is when Peter is faced with taking money from the King for assisting in the completion of a black market sale. Peter feels that the King should not have sold a phony watch, and he certainly has qualms about accepting a 10% commission for his role in the deal. He remembers his father telling him, "There is such a thing as honor. If you deal with a man, tell him the truth then he must of necessity tell you the truth" (pg. 179). What is ironic is that Peter ends up taking the money because he knew what it could buy him.
That Peter accepted the money gives is similar to the way many…… [Read More]
Phantom; I am a rat.
-Julian Sands as Erik
A child is born, shunned by his own mother. He is brilliant and artistic, possessing skills untouched by even the greatest masters in many areas. Perhaps he is also insane, not relating to the human race. Eventually, he will come to be known as a ghost, haunting the world of normal people as he passes in and out of sight in one of the greatest centers of musical performance in the world. Passionate, he falls in love, and in jealousy he falls even further. This plot line has the potential to be studied in depth by sociologists, psychologists, historians, and artists on so many levels, exploring the child himself and the life and events that build around him. Similar to any number of ancient myths and fairy tales, this love story about an extraordinary outsider was first introduced as "Le Fantome…… [Read More]
I especially liked the transition of the first line. In some ways I found I liked the second version better, sometimes payment is a daydream. One can only wish.
Noble-winning author William Faulkner stated, "The past is never dead. It isn't even past." As this statement pertains to the revision process one can argue that Faulkner is claiming that a written work is a living, growing entity, constantly in a state of flux. These changes are built upon past events: dialogue, scenes, plot twists, and so forth that instigate consequences, so that even portions of a written work that are discarded live on in the portions they inspired.… [Read More]
Marian Diamond addressed the nature vs. nurture issue so long debated by researchers and scientists by actually observing the effects of living in different environments on young rats. The beginnings of her research with Donald Head occurred in the 1960's, a time when the brain was not viewed as plastic. When presenting the results of their early research demonstrating a small but significant thicker cerebral cortex in rats raised in enriched environments vs. rats raised in impoverished environments she was actually told, "Young lady, that brain cannot change" (Diamond and Hobson, 1998-page 8). Nonetheless, Diamond believed the neurological basis that the environment provided for brain enrichment is the spreading of dendritic spines in the neuron as a result of environmental stimulation (Diamond and Hobson, 1998-page 25). In fact, research from her lab along with other researchers found that even honey bees' brains responded to environmental stimulation. Based on the…… [Read More]
Food should be banned from the New York City subway system. There are a few reasons why the food ban should be enacted, chief among them are the health concerns cited by state senators. Proponents of eating food on the subway system generally have weak arguments based around their own personal desire to eat food on the subway, rather than any coherent responses to the central sanitation and public nuisance argument.
According to the text of the bill (S6312), the purpose of the bill is to "mitigate the growing rat infestation in the NYC subway system." The bill would establish fines and other punishments for eating food on the subway system. There are a number of problems with the rat issue in the subway system. In general, people experience a sense of revulsion at the sight of rats, in particular the large, greasy variety found in the subway…… [Read More]
After 13 months, the rats begin to show signs of dementia including reduced cognitive ability and memory impairment (McGill University, 2010).
Amyloid B. immunotherapy
Past research on the effects of active or passive a? immunization on a? buildup and AD progression provided evidence that such immunization "protects against the progressive loss of synaptophysin in the hippocampal molecular layer and frontal neocortex of a transgenic mouse model of AD" (Buttini & al, 2005). This provided further support for the amyloid hypothesis.
Since the discovery of a? immunotherapy effectiveness in the treatment of AD in mice, the AN1792 a? vaccine was developed and tested on humans (Lemere & Masliah, 2010). Unfortunately, clinical trials were discontinued when around 6% of the subjects developed meningoencephalitis (Lemere & Masliah, 2010). However, since some subjects showed improvements in a? plaque clearance, several new a? immunotherapies have been developed and are currently undergoing…… [Read More]
Motivation in Behavior
a) What does Tolman's theory of animal learning tell us about the motivation for human learning?
Unlike John Watson, B.F. Skinner and the other strict behaviorists, or the ussian physiologists like Ivan Pavlov, Edward C. Tolman argued that the behaviorist theory that learning was a matter of stimulus-response (S-) and positive and negative reinforcement was highly simplistic. Although he rejected introspective methods and metaphysics, he increasingly moved away from strict behaviorism into the areas of cognitive psychology. In short, he became a mentalist without actually using that term to describe himself and concluded that all behavior was "purposive" (Hergenhahn, 2009, p. 428). All of his experiments with rats moving through mazes at the University of Berkeley proved to his satisfaction that behavior was actually the dependent variable, with the environment as the independent variable, with mental processes as intervening variables. Tolman summarized this basic theory, which he…… [Read More]
Saw From Where I Stood by Marisa Silver offers a lot to women's literature. Firstly, it is an effectively told story, with the literary techniques of the story making it an important piece of literature, regardless of its themes. Secondly, the themes are important to women. Thirdly, it offers a new perspective as it is told from a man's point-of-view. Finally, we can compare it to another important story, A Sorrowful Woman by Gail Godwin. By comparing the two stories we can see both the similarities between the two stories and also the unique features of What I Saw From Where I Stood.
Firstly, we can look at the story as an example of an excellent short story regardless of its place in women's literature. The literary techniques throughout the story are both effective and powerful. The first noticeable thing is that the real subject of the story is told…… [Read More]
Studies conducted by Doughty et al. (2004) suggest that panic disorders, potentially exacerbated by the panic-inducing qualities of drug usage, are significantly associated with bi-polar disease, and Long finds that panic disorders are generationally related to bi-polar. Therefore, the well-known panic- and anxiety-related effects of drug usage have been shown to be related to bipolar disorder, so that both diseases correlate. Further, chemical responses that drive the bi-polar are complicated by the chemical effects of drug addiction, making treatment difficult to sort out. The associated risk of suicide, already high with sufferers of bi-polar disorder, is heightened. Care and treatment, both physical and mental, must be approached in an integrated fashion.
Drug and chemical treatments for dual diagnosis patients have attempted to sort out the effects of each disorder. However, because the brain centers that are impacted by drug abuse and addiction are often driven by the same or similar…… [Read More]
Chinese-Americans form one of the most professional and most well educated sections of American population yet they are still portrayed as 'unwanted' ethnic minority by electronic and print media. The stereotyping of Chinese-Americans goes back to the days when trade cards were used for advertising and is still a part of media depiction of this community. Stereotypes may not always be negative in nature, but they are certainly based on generalizations, which may or may not fit every individual of a certain community. However in our media, we notice that some communities are always presented in one fixed way and change is rarely accepted or allowed to creep in which says a great deal about biases prevailing in media circles. James Chan in his article " ough on ats" traces the history of this type of stereotyping of Chinese-Americans and shows that most of the times, media presents…… [Read More]
The human stress response is influenced by a host of personality characteristics and life experiences that cannot be duplicated in animal studies. (Anisman & Merali, 1999, p. 241)
Because stressful stimuli often elicit cortisol secretion, some researchers have proposed the use of cortisol levels as an index of the stress response. (Anisman & Merali, 1999, p. 241)
esearchers have indicated that human and animal anxiety/stress profiles differ along cognitive behavioral lines. These findings are based on the idea that anxiety is understood as an affective (emotional) state in humans (Wall & Messier, 2001). esearch was conducted regarding stress utilizing hesus monkeys. The study uses a hormone Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) which was injected into half of the pregnant hesus monkeys in the study. ACTH is secreted from the anterior pituitary in response to corticotropin-releasing hormone from the hypothalamus. It is secreted in response to various types of stress. Blood samples were…… [Read More]
Charlotte's eb: Field Research, Psycho-Social Research, and a Textual Summary and Analysis
Introduction and Field Research Background
My niece Ariel, age 11, agreed to read Charlotte's eb by E.B. hite with me, and to be my informant on this project (Shapiro, "Personal Interview"). Ariel is extremely bright (IQ over 140), and has already finished the 7th grade, having skipped second grade in elementary school (I bring this up not so much to brag about her, but because she may in fact be more advanced in her thinking and vocabulary skills than some of the other 9-11-year-old informants: arguably somewhere between Piaget's third (ages 7-11) and fourth (ages 11-15) concrete operational and formal operational stages of development). Ariel told me this was actually her second exposure to Charlotte's eb, though her first time reading the book on her own. Her third grade teacher had read it to her class, but Ariel…… [Read More]
psychological work of John B. atson, B.F. Skinner, and Edward C. Tolman, along with the impacts that these three had on society. This paper will also compare and contrast these three iconic psychologists.
Edward C. Tolman is said by author Bernard J. Baars to have been the "…only major figure" in the emerging field of behaviorism "…who advocated the possibility of mental representation" (Baars, 1986, p. 61). Baars writes that more than any other behaviorist Tolman "anticipated…the cognitive point-of-view… [and] thought it necessary to postulate events other than stimuli and responses" (61). Tolman has made significant contributions to psychology, including: a) the use of cognitive maps in rats; b) the "latent learning" he pioneered though the use of rats; c) the concept of "intervening variables"; and d) the discovery that rats don't just learn their movements "…for rewards" but rather they also learn when no rewards are given, backing up…… [Read More]
S. Department of Health and Human Services et al., 2006). This first study will involve limited human exposure and extreme caution.
Most significantly, the study itself has to be based on sound scientific principles with a thorough knowledge of the properties of the chemical, and the potential results on the human subject. Standard clinical safety evaluations will include serial assessment of patient symptoms, physical signs, and clinical laboratory tests amongst other tests monitoring possible adverse effects. These tests will be of sufficient duration in order to catch potential negative effects. Safety hazards for patients and health care workers during and after administration of the radio labeled product will also be identified, evaluated and appropriately managed.
Finally, as prescribed by Section 505(d) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the Act) (21 U.S.C. 355(d)), adequate tests must be taken on the drug first before applying to a human individual. The…… [Read More]
1). Public outcry against subliminal advertising has been sharp; subliminal ads target human beings without them knowing, like the psychic counterpart to a stab in the back. Bargh notes that subliminal messages are "outrageous" and "frightening" because they represent "attempts to control people's actions" and therefore consumers have every right to be concerned (p. 1).
Subliminal advertising is often viewed within the overall context of marketing tactics. Flashing a word over and over again, below conscious awareness, might not make a difference in consumer behavior or political preferences. However, repeated exposure to imagery might induce the changes in consumer behavior that are desired by the ad's sponsor. Advertising, subliminal or not, works on the fundamental principle of priming. At the same time, overt priming mechanisms probably work better than subliminal signals because, as Bargh points out, subliminal cues must by definition be sparse and short. Subliminal messages illegal and unethical…… [Read More]
These inferences can create contrasting conclusions about what different events mean. (Goreham, 2010)
How are scientific experiments conducted today?
Scientific experiments are conducted by looking at prior research. This provides actuaries with a background on the subject and a way to build off of this information. They will then, conduct their own experiment using a control group and independent variables. This will allow them to see what changes are occurring and how it is influencing the outcome. (Goreham, 2010)
Do the Milgram and Zimbardo experiments violate codes of conduct in the scientific community today?
Yes. This is because the code of conduct requires that all humans in experiments be treated humanely. At the same time, they must provide their informed consent and allow the individual the option of not participating. The fact that they were not following these procedures is a clear indication that they were violating these principles. These…… [Read More]
Again, he uses dialect that his fans can relate to instead of being concerned about 'proper English'. This is very effective at making the words identifiable to his audience. The more people can relate to what you are saying, the more likely they are to take it to heart and actually do what you are asking them to do: "It's time for us as a people to start makin' some changes." The most ironic thing about this song is the last few lines. I cannot help but wonder if 2 pac was having some kind of premonition when he wrote: "Cause I always got to worry 'bout the pay backs/some punk that I roughed up way back/comin' back after all these years/rat-tat-tat-tat-tat that's the way it is."
That may be the way it is, but to 2 pac, that did not mean things had to stay that way. "Keep Ya…… [Read More]
The environment, has been a scientific argument since the Victorian Era. The nature vs. nurture and stability vs. change arguments remain quite controversial. In essence, it concerns the importance of an individual's innate qualities (their nature) versus the way they were raised, the interactions they have had, and their personal experiences (nurture). One asks, would we have had a Stalin had he remained in seminary, or not been part of a prison system that spurred ideas of communism, would Van Gogh or Tchaikovsky produced such masterpieces of art had they not had clinical depression and perhaps a host of psychological disorders - or, does history (a general term here for civilization and humanity), produce those individuals that are products of their time and environment, thus perpetuating the idea of change? (Ridley). Likely not, but the basis for their behavior is likely still part of their psyche. However, just because the…… [Read More]
Anti-Aging Medicine? Include Abstract eferences scholarly
This is a review of the article titled "Is There an Antiaging Medicine?" which was written by obert N. Butler, Michael Fossel, S. Mitchell Harman, Christopher B. Heward, S. Jay Olshansky, Thomas T. Perls, David J. othman, Sheila M. othman, Huber . Warner, Michael D. West, and Woodring E. Wright. The article was published in the volume 57A, issue no. 9 of the Journal of Gerontology: Biological Sciences in the year 2002 from pages B333-B338. The journal is published by the Gerontological Society of America.
Anti-aging medicine refers to any form of intervention that is given to delay the development of pathology that depends on the person's age and any other changes that are related to age that are not necessarily diseases. All what are there is false claims and bogus remedies which are not known to work. Slowing down the process of aging…… [Read More]
validity, and for school administrators Goldstein's points should be discussed and debated. Goldstein suggests that without violating students' privacy rights, instructors / teachers nationwide need to be far more alert to weirdness, aggressiveness, "creepiness," Nazi-related hatefulness, "Fierce racism" and homophobia.
Students that have obsessive video game habits -- with a daily dose of violent games like "Grand Theft Auto" -- are potentially antisocial individuals that need to be watched (hiteman, 2013). There is ample evidence in the literature that impressionable young men and boys that play the most violent video games are living in a violent world of their own (Jaslow, 2013). Those working towards the prevention of homicidal violence in Germany's schools have employed anti-bullying programs and the "Leaking Project," which mirrors what Goldstein proposals; this should be studied by American school leaders (Leuschner, 2011). Also, those troubled students, known to be suffering from depression -- such as the…… [Read More]
Gonadectomy alters the magnitude of CCS and ICS analgesia and alters the relationship between the gender-specific effects observed in sham-treated rats. Castration significantly decreased the magnitude of CCS analgesia on the tail-flick and jump tests, and the magnitude of ICS analgesia on the jump test. Indeed castration reduced the magnitude of CCS and ICS analgesia in males to that observed for sham-treated female rats.
Given the multitude of CNS substrates and systems underlying both opioid and stress analgesia, and the likelihood that only a little differ amid sexes, we could rationally expect to come across sex differences in opioid analgesic efficacy in some occasions, depending solely on the nature of the ache incentive and opioid involved, as outlined earlier. It is important to also note that sex differences are no defined to opioid drugs in analgesia. Furthermore, commencement of endogenous pain inhibitory mechanisms in reaction to stress also produces…… [Read More]
The Role of the Hippocampus in Instrumental Conditioning
Laura H. Corbit and Bernard W. Balleine
The rational for the study is to shed light on a fundamental process occurring in instrumental learning that has not been well-researched. The authors hypothesize that instrumental learning consists of stimulus response (SR) processes and action-outcome (AO) processes. SR associations are encoded into procedural memory, whereas AO associations are encoded into declarative memory. The authors cite research that has stated that declarative memory is hippocampal dependent. Thus, the authors hypothesize that damage to the hippocampus should interfere with AO associations while not interfering with SR associations. In experiment 1A rats with dorsal hippocampal lesions and sham lesions (the IV) are tested for their sensitivity to outcome devaluation with a satiety treatment protocol (the DV) after being trained to press levers for two types of reinforces. The hypothesis was that lesioned rats would demonstrate a…… [Read More]
SWEET BUT DEADLY?
Health Concerns and isks of Using Sugar Substitutes
Sweets and sugar-sweetened pop or soft drinks have recently been blamed for an increasing number of negative health conditions, such as overweight and diabetes. This has led solid soft drink consumers to turn to artificially sweetened soft drinks as substitutes. The safety of artificial sweeteners or sugar substitutes has been questioned but the impact of high intakes of artificial sweeteners on pregnant women has hardly been addressed.
The association between intakes of sugar-sweetened and artificially sweetened soft drinks and preterm delivery will be investigated.
Prospective cohort analyses of 20,000 women from the Buenos Aires national birth cohort (2012-2014) will be conducted. Their soft drink intake for more than 10 years will be assessed in mid-pregnancy through the use of a food-frequency questionnaire. The primary outcome measure will be preterm delivery at less than 37 weeks. Other information…… [Read More]
Animal models of addiction do not generalize well to substance dependence in humans as there are different criteria involved. For example, in animals "addiction" has been traditionally defined by a caged laboratory animal's tendency to press a lever for a reinforcing substance, whereas in humans the criteria for dependence (the clinical term for addiction) include a number of behavioral criteria and consequences that could never exist in laboratory animals (American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2000). These criteria include: tolerance, withdrawal, taking more of a substance than originally intended, a history of unsuccessful attempts to quit, inordinate amounts of time spent in using and seeking the substance, a reduction in activities (occupational, social, or education) due to use, continued usage despite adverse consequences (APA, 2000). Interestingly, only three of these criteria need to be met in a year, so one need not demonstrate significant physical signs such as tolerance and…… [Read More]
This foolishness becomes emblematic of the entire Vietnam experience -- situations are created to display violence and bravery that have tremendous significance to the soldiers, but serve no real purpose. Just as Rat mythologizes Kurt's willingness to face death, and uses the body of an animal to vent his fury as a kind of sacrifice, Kurt himself tried to live up to a foolish ideal of what it meant to be a solider.
The lies, or the myths and symbols these individuals created about themselves almost have a stronger force than the truth. Rat believes really angry with Kurt's sister, not the war. Tim suggests that Rat is angry with Kurt's sister because she refused to believe Rat's version of her brother's character, not about how he died. At the end of the novel, Rat attempts to recapitulate Kurt's violence against himself with his tooth by blowing off his own…… [Read More]
In retrospect it is incredible how much time and energy went into this endeavor and how little came out of it.. Hull perhaps added somewhat more to our knowledge of the behavior of the rat than Titchener did to our understanding
Clark Hull 7 of human consciousness, but not much. His basic approach turned out to be, to use a precisely appropriate metaphor in his world of rats and mazes, a blind alley.
One of Hull's starting points was in noting that conditioning theory failed to deal convincingly with motivation. He was astute enough to recognize that motivation may be viewed as either a learned aspect of behavior (as Guthrie viewed it) or as a behavioral determinant independent of learning (as Tolman viewed it). Either way, it needed to be given greater importance. Hull drew on Freud's "instincts" as motivating forces, but changed the word to "drives" in his own…… [Read More]
This was different from the Pavlovian theory since the rat's response was not a respondent behavior but an operant behavior.
Skinner does not reject that the subjects learn the behavior. In Skinner's box, rats learn that pressing the bar gets them food. However, this is different from Pavlov's classical conditioning where the dog salivates for food by associating the stimuli (the bell, the sight of food, or the sound of the attendant) with the actual eating. Skinner's operant conditioning occurs because rats are rewarded for pressing the bar. In Skinner's experiment, there is no stimulus associated with the bar in the box. The rat's behavior is spontaneous. By spontaneously pressing the bar and getting the food, however, the rat learns the consequences of it. In this experiment, the consequence is the delivery of food which serves as reinforcement. In Pavlov's theory, the external environment exerts little influence on the reflexive…… [Read More]
Telemakhos development into manhood with the maturing of a young male character portrayed in a film
The Odyssey is recognized as the epitome of epics in literature and mythology by which all other epics are judged. Odysseus' journey home to Ithaca after the Trojan war takes many twists and turns and has all of the elements of an action-packed and epic adventure. However, there is another story developing parallel to that of Odysseus and his crew. ack home in Ithaca, Odysseus has left behind a wife, son, and kingdom that suffer in his absence. Telemakhos has a journey of his own while his father travels the world. "The first four books of the Odyssey are often referred to as the 'Telemachiad, or the song of Telemechus as they focus on the difficulties of a young hero coming of age in a hostile environment." (Lucas) In much the same way that…… [Read More]
The science of Psychology has evolved over time and certain studies have been instrumental in that evolution. Two of the more famous studies that have revolutionized the field were the orschach inkblot study of 1942, and the study in 1962 by Calhoun on the effects of overcrowding. These two scientific studies changed the field of psychology and our understanding of human behavior.
The orschach inkblot test is one of the most famous studies in the history of Psychology. As stated in the published study, "the experiment consists in the interpretation of accidental forms, that is, of non-specific forms." (orschach, 1951, p. 15) Inkblots are created by dripping ink on a piece of paper and then folding the paper. The researchers maintain that it is important that the resulting inkblot fulfill certain requirements, but most importantly the inkblot must be symmetrical. The inkblots are then shown to the subject…… [Read More]
Question 4. If I was the second researcher, I would first make the study blind. I would have more than one researcher run the rats through the maze (and compare findings by researcher). In addition, I would use several different mazes (in case an extraneous variable is maze-dependent).
Design the study, including determining numbers needed for statistical significance, and choose participants.
Offer a low carbohydrate diet to one study group, and a normal (average carbohydrate diet) to another group.
Test mental performance using several different tests (be sure to do the studies blind).
Perform statistical tests to determine if the results are statistically significant.
Question 77. Scientific research will continue to play a crucial role in the social sciences in the next five years. As research funding becomes increasingly competitive, well-designed, scientifically sound experiments will become even more important. Good methodology must continue to be applied. If researchers…… [Read More]
Productivity can also be influenced by tax cuts. Cutting taxes can enable consumers to buy more goods and services, and enable companies to produce more and to invest more in their enterprises. Productivity can also be limited or enhanced by regulation. In the short-term, less regulation tends to increase productivity but makes prices and wages less stable. In the long run, not enough regulation can have a counter-productive effect, as occurred with the lack of regulation over the banking industry and the subsequent credit crisis of 2008. Deregulation and a failure of oversight can also incentivize corruption
Productivity can be formally regulated through price ceilings and floors. Price ceilings tend to discourage production, given that prices that are artificially too low can make it impossible for sellers to meet demand. Price floors can encourage too production, given that producers are guaranteed a specific minimum price for their output, but can…… [Read More]
Imagery Helps Communicate Its General Theme
Imagery in Jean Toomer's "Reapers"
Jean Toomer's poem, "Reapers" (1923) contains many darkly powerful images, physically and metaphorically, based largely (although not entirely) on the poem's repeated use of the word "black," in reference to both men doing harvesting work in the fields, and the beasts of burden that help them. ithin this poem, Jean Toomer effectively employs repetitions of key words, phrases, and ideas, thus evoking within the reader feelings of both monotony and starkness, as the "Reapers" of the title go about their work. Toomer also creates, through the poem's images, a sense of unceasing mechanical motions (i.e., motions by human beings as well as by the sharp harvesting machinery itself), and equally mechanical, unfeeling scenes of death, such as when a field rat is chopped up by a mower drawn by black horses. The rhythmic, monotonous feeling of the poem is…… [Read More]
Previous to Darwin, it has been considered that animals had nothing in connection with humans, since their brutish behavior had been very different from the sociable and civilized one displayed by people. French philosopher Rene Descartes apparently thought of animals to be nothing but machines that acted in conformity to the same laws to which inanimate matter had functioned. Quite the reverse happened when concerning humans, as, in spite of the fact that their bodies reacted similar to those of animals, they possessed a soul given to them by a divine being.
Darwin believed that there had been several similarities between the thinking of an ape and that of man. However, even he accentuated the fact that there had been great differences in cerebral power between the most primitive man and the most intelligent ape. It seems that Bambification firstly appeared as a result of people being inclined to anthropomorphize,…… [Read More]
Psychology -- Contribution of Psychological Experiments
Philip anyard explains how Stanley Milgram came to be involved with research regarding the Nazi slaughter of millions of people in Europe during World War II. Milgram's obedience study of course had emotional and cultural meaning for him because he is Jewish. In fact he feels blessed that even though his family roots were in Europe in proximity to where the Holocaust took place, he was born in the U.S. And hence avoided the Nazi madness. What is the value of Milgram's research experiments? That is the crux of this section -- the value of Milgram's research into why people are obedient at pivotal moments -- including moments when human lives are at stake.
What does this particular method allow psychologists to study? In the first place, having someone in a room by himself giving shocks to a person he cannot see, a person…… [Read More]
Edward C. Tolman was a man whose research focused on trying to understand how animals acquire knowledge. As a psychologist, he also tried to determine how the mind of the human being paralleled what he saw in lower life forms. What he found was that motivation was a primary factor in how people learn. A rat in a maze would find the hidden pieces of tasty cheese far more quickly if the animal had been left hungry than if he or she had been fed before the test had been administered. Subsequently, the rats learned to equate their examinations with the obtaining of food stuffs (Tolman 1948). Similarly, human beings learn to equate knowledge with acquisition of things that they desire. Students from the youngest of ages are told that good grades will be rewarded, not merely in the abstract but with physical reward such as money or…… [Read More]
Amidation of Peptides in Humans
Modern biotechnology has experienced dramatic leaps in the body of knowledge concerning molecular processes in peptides and how they work. Many of these processes rely on amidation of peptides to achieve increasingly important medical and commercial applications. Peptides are created when two or more amino acids are covalently joined by peptide bonds, a process termed post-translational modification. One increasingly valuable application of post-translational modification is amidation. This paper provides an overview of peptides and their role in biological processes, how amidation of peptides works and its importance, and a description of the two functional domains of the PAM enzyme (PHM and PAL) and the roles they play in amidation. An assessment of whether amidation prevents C-terminal degradation is followed by a discussion of which peptides/proteins are susceptible to C-terminal degredation by carboxypeptidase. An analysis of whether E. coli can be modified to perform amidation will…… [Read More]
There are some indications that observational learning might be genetic; animals teaching their young to hunt and the discovery of mirror neurons -- brain cells that fire when emotions/behaviors are observed in others -- both point to a biological basis for this type of learning. This learning is far more likely to occur if observed behaviors are met with rewards, however. Observational learning is also at the heart of the controversy concerning violence in the media, which some believe leads to more violent behavior in real life as individuals observe and learn from "fake" violent depictions.
There is growing evidence that violent media does in fact lead to increased real-world violence, both with "copy-cat" crimes and simply with violence generally. Exposure to violence lowers inhibitions against violence and possibly alters perceptions about the meanings and intentions behind others' behaviors, as well, causing nonviolent acts to be perceived as…… [Read More]
This was finding of a research conducted on rats at the University of Rochester Medical Center in 2004. The research team, led by Dr. Maiken Nedergaard, worked on the premise that inflammation causes more irreversible and inevitable damage than the initial trauma (Henrich, Kelly, Reinhardt et al.).
The team injected the blue food dye into some of the experimental rats with spinal cord injuries (Reuters 2009, Takahiro 2009, Michaud 2009, Ehrenberg 2009). The rats at first began to move, hobbled about and turned blue. Rats, which did not receive the injection, did not walk or move at all. A substance, called ATP, is the source that keeps cells alive. The research showed that ATP runs out of control in spinal cord injury, activates an inflammation-causing molecule and kills spinal neuron cells. Treatment must be administered immediately after the injury. The experiment showed that rilliant lue G. blocks the action of…… [Read More]
The female wolverine delays implantation; the egg cells float in the uterus for some time attaching to the uterus wall. Delayed implantation means that the young can be born at the right time, from January to April, regardless of when mating takes place. The female produces one litter every two or three years. She digs out a den in a snowdrift, in a tree hollow, or under a rock, where she has her young, called kittens. Two or three kittens are born each year. The kits are born furry and their eyes are closed. The kittens feed only from their mother for two or three weeks. During this time she rarely leaves them, feeding on food she has stored. Later the mother brings food to the den, but the kittens are eight to ten weeks old before they are weaned. They reach adult size by early winter but may stay…… [Read More]
Jungle, Upton Sinclair describes horrific conditions within the meatpacking plants, and writes of men falling into tanks and being ground up with animal parts and then made into lard (Sinclair pp). He writes that it was Jurgis's job to slide the cows into the trap, calves and all, and on the floor below they took out these slunk calves and butchered them for meat and even used the skins (Sinclair pp). Sinclair describes that cattle that came in hurt, with broken legs, or had died from causes no one knew, were called 'downers,' and the packing house had a special elevator upon which they were raised to the killing beds, where they were handled with businesslike nonchalance and eventually scattered here and there with the rest of the meat so that they could not be identified (Sinclair pp). The author also described that there was never any washing of the…… [Read More]
" (Eugenia Costa-Giomi 2004, 141) Among the academic benefits associated with three years of piano lessons, the children tended to have higher math computation scores, higher language scores, and higher self-esteem than children not involved in music.
Many studies and a wide array of empirical evidence supports the hypothesis that music improves the academic performance and test scores of children, including those in Middle and High School, but certainly also including Elementary and College students. These benefits may occur because of the increased activity in the temporal and left-frontal areas of the brain that have been observed during exposure to music, or because music brings "cohesion" to already existing background noise. (Geake & Ivanov 2003) Or perhaps the link between music and academic success may trace back to the Ancient ideas of how the arts affect the essence of the soul. (Costa-Giomi 2004) Regardless of the root cause of why…… [Read More]
They inserted a small electrode in the brain of the rat. The rat had access to a lever that was connected to the electric supply of the electrode. Every time the rat pressed on the lever, there was a low voltage current that would stimulate the reward center and therefore the rat was reinforced to press the lever again and again. This is the way through which the researchers got to know more about the neuromechanics of reinforcement.
When neuromechanics were studied specifically with respect to the learning curves in animals, like monkeys, it was noted that at the beginning of learning the release of dopamine is greater. As the period of learning proceeds, the learning curve declines along with the decline in the production of dopamine. The researchers, during this experiment, also suggested that different reinforces should be given to the animals in which one wants to improve learning.…… [Read More]
Watson really created the field of behavioral psychology with his speech and his first book, and while it refined over the years with input from others, such as B.F. Skinner, it is essentially based on Watson's original ideas and studies, so he is the father of this type of psychology. His personal life derailed his career (the woman he had an affair with while he worked at Johns Hopkins was his lab assistant.) They later wrote a book together, and they conducted the Little Albert study together. He married her, but they divorced after having two children together. If his personal life had not interfered with his studies and work, he might have created even more foundations for behavioral psychology to build on. Before his problems, he was a respected member of the psychological community, and even became president of the American Psychological Association in 1915. His work was very…… [Read More]
Response to Imagery in Jean Toomer's Poem "Reapers"
In the "Reapers" (p. 737), the poet Jean Toomer describes many image that affected me strongly, and that disturb me. These involve cutting, chopping, death, and monotony.
First is cutting. The whole poem has strong images, but for me field rat that is killed in blades of mower was worst one. The field rat "startled, squealing bleeds (Line 6). This is very cruel and stark image, and this emphasizes the impersonal way mower is just for working and not stopping, no matter what, or no matter if something lives or die.
Other images remind me strongly of death and monotony, and make me feel depressed. For example, black horses (line 5) often are use at funeral, for transporting casket of deceased persons. In the poem, these black horses pull along a mowing machine with sharp blades that killed the field…… [Read More]
Gingko Biloba -- Part I
What are the author's general conclusions (summarized) on the effectiveness of Gingko Biloba as a cognitive enhancer?
According to the author, effects of Gingko on cognition are perplexing because of its dual actions as following. It's seen improving short-term memory but at the same time it impairs digit recall ability. It slows down mental decline in patients with Alzheimer's disease but has lower dose response curve than acetyl cholinesterase inhibitors. Gingko slows mental decline during dementia owing to its action as an anti-oxidant and ability to combat stress. This action is of short-term and isn't seen chronically. Gingko has more scores for improvement seen in patients when compared to acetyl cholinesterase inhibitors like Donepezil but has fewer efficacies than the later. Effects of Gingko are mainly attributable not to its direct action on improving memory but to its indirect action of improving attention…… [Read More]
THE CACAO TREE (THEOBROMA CACAO)
WHAT IS IN THE COCOA BEAN?
MAKING AND EATING CHOCOLATE
State of the At of Cocoa
Is Cocoa good fo you?
Buden of Poof
CHOCOLATE AS A FAT
EFFECTS ON BLOOD LIPIDS
WHAT IS OK
CHOCOLATE AND HEALTH AND DISEASE
H. Immune Function
J. Othe Disodes
N. Dental Caies
K. Heat Health
Pacemakes and vitamin pills ae just among a few of millions of health poducts that ae sold daily aound the wold. But one of the most easily accessible of all is ight beneath ou noses: chocolate. Cocoa, the plant fom which chocolate is deived, has had a positive effect on today's society because of its active ole in daily health. The development and distibution of cocoa has had a positive effect on today's…… [Read More]
Trench Warfare in World War I (WWI)
Trench warfare was used in World War I and they were forced to live in muddy, isolated conditions for months exposed to horrific elements, and inviting diseases like gangrene. During World War I many things changed, as lives were destroyed, dreams shattered, and many soldiers died or suffering immeasurable psychological and physical conditions.
WWI was the first time in history that war involved the use of new technology such as airplanes, tanks and submarines. However, for many WWI soldiers, trench warfare presents the most lasting image of World War I. Trench warfare caused many horrific deaths. In addition, many soldiers who participated in trench warfare had serious psychological and health problems by the time they returned home.
About Trench Warfare
Trench warfare is a type of warfare in which opponents of war "attack, counterattack, and defend from relatively permanent systems of trenches dug…… [Read More]
St. Croix Ground Lizard
As happens with some anoles and other reptiles in the Caribbean, the St. Croix ground lizard is seriously endangered because of human encroachment and exotic predators. For all their speed and quick reflexes, a number of ameivas are easy prey to mongooses. On June 03, 1977, the St. Croix ground lizard was designated as endangered in the St. Croix area. There are currently only two islands where the St. Croix ground lizard, now extinct on St. Croix and listed as an endangered species, still exists -- Green Cay and Protestant Cay.
About the St. Croix Ground Lizard
Croix Ground Lizard is a small species of Ameiva that measures approximately 35 to 77 millimeters in snout-vent length (UFWA, 1992). The lizard is easily distinguished by its parallel longitudinal black, white, and light-brown stripes. Its belly is light gray with lateral blue margins, and pinkish undersides of legs,…… [Read More]
hormones in our agricultural food and the adverse effects it has on the animals and the human consumers. The writer provides an outline of the effect the hormones have both physically and politically on the consumer and the nation's that support the use of hormones. The writer also presents evidence of the health problems hormones are thought to cause as well. There were four sources used to complete this paper.
As the world becomes more crowded the demand for fast growing resources including food increase. The use of growth hormone in cattle has sparked a worldwide controversy as several nation's wrestle with trade organizations mandates against what they believe the hormone treated cows can cause by way of health problems.
The most common hormone used today in the cow industry is Bovine Growth Hormone, which is also referred to as BGH. This hormone is a genetically engineered hormone. It is…… [Read More]
dosage levels of Cholestease on Serum Cholesterol levels and the side effects associated with them in human beings.
Cholesterol has been a major media issue in recent years, especially the negative effects on the heart and its role in the development of heart disease. There have been many studies that indicate a connection between serum cholesterol heart disease and depression (1-3). Developing new methods to lower serum cholesterol has become a major industry in recent years. Currently the leaders in the industry are American Pharmaceutical giants, Pfizer, Merck, and Warner-Lambert (1), who have developed medications that lower cholesterol.
The Endicon corporation recognizes the potential market in developing a drug that will significantly lower serum cholesterol without the side effects associated with long-term use of the drugs currently on the market. In addition, we recognize the potential of developing a ritish Product, primarily marketed in Great ritain. Endicon has been conducting…… [Read More]
iopsychology is the scientific study of behavior and mental processes through a biological approach (Cooper 2000). Practitioners in this field believe that biological processes may explain certain psychological phenomena, such as learning, memory, perception, attention, motivation, emotion, and cognition, particularly problems and issues connected with these phenomena. iopsychology is also called biological psychology, psychobiology, behavioral biology or behavioral neuroscience (Cooper).
Practitioners in this new field use varied and overlapping fields of study: cognitive neuroscience, which primarily examines the brain to understand the neural workings of mental processes; psychopharmacology, which deals with the effects of drugs on psychological functions; neuro-psychology, which is concerned with the psychological effects of brain damage in humans; behavioral genetics, which deals with behavior and psychological traits; evolutionary psychology, which is involved with how psychological processes have evolved; and comparative psychology, which compares findings among different species (Cooper). The last science centers on ethology, which…… [Read More]
Canine Behavior: Genetics vs. Environment
The debate over nature vs. nurture as it applies to learning dates back over a hundred years. Certainly, during much of the 20th century, the distinction between learned and inherited behavior appeared much clearer than it does today. The concept that any type of behavior was either learned or merely developed without learning seemed a rationale and straightforward belief. esearch based on these expectations caused some scientists to conclude that rat-killing behavior among cats, for example, is a learned behavior rather than an instinctive one, that human fears are all acquired, or that intelligence is completely the result of experience. Learning theorists were arguing at this point that most behavior is learned and that biological factors are of little or no importance. The behaviorist position that human behavior could be explained entirely in terms of reflexes, stimulus-response associations, and the effects of reinforcers upon them…… [Read More]
Welfae in Captive Wild Animals
The Holy Bible gets the elationship between humankind and wild animals out of the way ealy on in Genesis 1:26 when God said, "Let us make mankind in ou image, in ou likeness, so that they may ule ove the fish in the sea and the bids in the sky, ove the livestock and all the wild animals, and ove all the ceatues that move along the gound." Humanity clealy took this divine gift seiously, and the elationship between humankind and wild animals has been lagely one-sided since people climbed to the top of the food chain. Since the second half of the 20th centuy, though, thee have been gowing calls fo impoving the manne in which humans teat animals in geneal and wild animals maintained in captivity in paticula. The ecent closue of Ringling and Banum and Bailey's "Geatest Show on Eath" due to…… [Read More]
Therefore, it is necessary to account for the acquisition of habits.
Due to certain limitations of the behaviorism approach, there have been revisions to the theory over the century. For example, although behaviorism helped people to forecast, alter, and change behavior over time, it did not attempt nor intend to understand how or why the theory worked. The present-day social cognitive approach asserts that behavior is results from an ongoing reciprocal three-way relationship among the individual (cognition), the environment (physical context, which consists of the organizational structure and design, social context or other people), and the person's past behavior. This broader view, called cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) incorporates the cognitive in addition to the behavioral approaches to therapy and view people "as active seekers and interpreters of information, not just responders to environmental influences" (Nevid, 2007, p. 484). Many psychologists now believe that behavior is understood best by studying the…… [Read More]
During their inspection, they recovered over forty pounds of documents and maps, including maps that showed the locations of U.S. billets in Saigon, indicating heavy surveillance by the Vietcong. They encountered few Vietcong throughout the operation, and only small numbers of soldiers were killed. Ultimately, the tunnel rats who scoured these tunnels helped form a band of tunnel rats that were used throughout the country to infiltrate and destroy Vietcong tunnels throughout the war.
There were some Vietcong left inside the tunnels, and those that did not give up were shot on sight. There are some accounts that there were people in the hospital too, including nurses, when the tunnels were destroyed, but that has not been verified. Before entering the tunnels, the tunnel rats would spray them with machine gun fire, and usually the Vietcong left to guard them were killed in the barrage.
B-52 bombers and other aircraft…… [Read More]