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Teaching young people to read isn't the easiest task in the world, but in order to prepare children for their future educational journeys -- and for life as intelligent citizens -- they need to learn to read. And they need to learn to read well because it opens doors, it inspires stories and takes the reader on journeys -- not because schools require reading and it's something they "have to do." For students who do know how to read but are "stalled readers" and don't stay on a page of content for more than a few seconds, there are strategies for them as well.
Have Fun ith Stalled Readers hile Inspiring Them!
hen a teacher creates enthusiasm and stimulates great interest in a subject, children are far more interested in whatever it is the teacher is presenting. Kids crave stories that stir up their emotions, and the teacher…
Backes, Laura. (2012). Best Books for Kids Who (Think They) Hate to Read: 125 Books That
Will Turn Any Child into a Lifelong Reader. New York: Random House Digital, Inc.
Balajthy, Ernest, and Lipa-Wade, Sally. (2003). Struggling Readers: Assessment and Instruction
in Grades K-6.
Special needs and special education students have traditionally had more immediate needs in cooperative learning settings when compared to typical students. To be an effective teacher is not always as easy as telling the students to just sit-down and read. Teachers have to understand that there can be less obvious problems at hand like dyslexia, AD/HD, or English as a second language to name a few. When there are underlying issues, both the teacher and the student have to work more closely together in order to reach some desired outcome. "Teaching effectiveness is inferred from the product that was created; it is the product that is the indicator of scholarship." (Cranton, 2000)
This report aims to provide the general background information about a recently completed clinical case study. The underlying object of this case study was to assess a student with some sort of reading difficulty, set up…
Adams, Marilyn Jager. (1990). "Beginning To Read." Boston: MIT Press.
Bryant, Peter., Bradley, Lynette. (1986). "Children's Reading Problems." Oxford: Oxford Press.
Clark, Diana Brewster. (1990). "Dyslexia: Theory & Practice of Remedial Instruction." Parkton, MD: York Press.
Cranton, Patricia A. (2000). Exploring the Scholarship of Teaching. Journal of Higher Education, July 1.
Issues like self-esteem can impact prognosis. Students who are highly motivated, highly intelligent, and highly confident are the most likely to succeed and excel in spite of their reading disorder or in some cases, because of it. Learning how to maximize strengths in other academic areas can help students with reading disorders build self-esteem. Similarly, students who are able to ask for and receive assistance in subject areas rich in reading comprehension such as history may achieve academic and professional goals with aplomb.
Davidson, T. (2007). eading disorder. Encyclopedia of Mental Disorders. etrieved Feb 6, 2009 at http://www.minddisorders.com/Py-Z/eading-disorder.html
Dyslexia." (nd). Psychnet: Disorder Information Sheet. etrieved Feb 6, 2009 at http://www.psychnet-uk.com/dsm_iv/dyslexia.htm
Encyclopedia of Psychology (nd). Developmental reading disorder. etrieved Feb 6, 2009 at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_g2699/is_0004/ai_2699000441
Hall, S. (2001). Is it a eading Disorder or Developmental Lag? Great Schools.net. etrieved Feb 6, 2009 at http://www.greatschools.net/cgi-bin/showarticle/2349
Miller, J.D. (2008). eading disorder. AtHealth.com. etrieved…
Davidson, T. (2007). Reading disorder. Encyclopedia of Mental Disorders. Retrieved Feb 6, 2009 at http://www.minddisorders.com/Py-Z/Reading-disorder.html
Dyslexia." (nd). Psychnet: Disorder Information Sheet. Retrieved Feb 6, 2009 at http://www.psychnet-uk.com/dsm_iv/dyslexia.htm
Encyclopedia of Psychology (nd). Developmental reading disorder. Retrieved Feb 6, 2009 at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_g2699/is_0004/ai_2699000441
Hall, S. (2001). Is it a Reading Disorder or Developmental Lag? Great Schools.net. Retrieved Feb 6, 2009 at http://www.greatschools.net/cgi-bin/showarticle/2349
This needs to be role modeled by the peers and adults with whom the young child comes in contact. When children observe this strong positive interest in learning, be it through reading books, playing word games, telling stories or many other activities, they will surely follow suit. First, they have an innate desire to learn. Second, they want their actions to receive a positive reaction. Third, more than anything, they want the people they love and respect to return these feelings. From the moment a baby is born, it will be aware of the facial and body language communicated by others with whom it interacts. It is thus never too early to begin the literacy process.
Adams, M.J. (1998). The Three-Cueing System. In F. Lehr and J. Osborn (Eds.), Literacy for All Issues in Teaching and Learning, pp. 73-99. New York Guilford Press.
Brewer,.W.F. 2000. Bartlett's Concept of the…
Adams, M.J. (1998). The Three-Cueing System. In F. Lehr and J. Osborn (Eds.), Literacy for All Issues in Teaching and Learning, pp. 73-99. New York Guilford Press.
Brewer,.W.F. 2000. Bartlett's Concept of the Schema and Its Impact on Theories of Knowledge Representation in Contemporary Cognitive Psychology. In Bartlett, Culture and Cognition, ed. Akiko Saito. Hove, England.: Psychology Press.
Burns, P.C., Roe, B.D., & Ross, E.P. (1999). Teaching reading in today's elementary school Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
Cooper, J., D. (1997). Literacy: Helping children construct meaning Boston: Houghton Mifflin
Reading is an activity that many people take for granted. Here in America it is easy for us to take for granted a fully stocked library, or access to hundreds of classic works through our computers. Yet, I wonder how many people actually take advantage of these rich opportunities that they have? With all of the study guides and assorted methods of getting around reading, why do it? Is something written in a book really more important than getting out and living life?
Henry Thoreau took on that very thought back in 1845 when he began living in Massachusetts in his cabin on Walden Pond. Thoreau was very thoroughly educated before he took this break from city life, yet he speaks often about how this "residence was more favorable, not only to thought, but to serious reading." (65) I can't imagine being as smart as Thoreau, yet feeling like there…
Thoreau, Henry. "Walden; or, Life in the Woods." New York: Dover Publications. 1995
Reading Education: How much is enough?
In general, the conclusions regarding research about current student's reading education are that students do not read enough, either in class or on their own. But given this accepted truism, that students are not reading up to standard, the second question is what must teachers do inside the classrooms to ensure that students are reading adequate amounts of literature. Also, does mere volume ensure that students are meeting grade-level reading proficiency standards?
In the second chapter of his text, hat Really Matters for Struggling Readers: Designing Research-Based Programs Richard Allington emphasizes the need for more in-school reading, noting evidence indicating that increased reading volume raises the level of reading proficiency (Allington, p.24). There is a strong correlation between later academic excellence and sheer reading volume, he states. "The classic study was conducted by Anderson, ilson and Fielding (1988). In this study, fifth-grade students kept…
Allington, Richard L. (2000) What Really Matters for Struggling Readers- Designing Research-Based Programs. First Edition. New York: Allyn & Bacon.
Reading Improvement in Third Grade Students
Applied Dissertation Proposal for the Degree of Doctor of Education
Making resources available to the third grade students and teachers lends itself to the appropriate data, types of instruments, and instructional strategies used to enhance education. ilson School leaders are getting acquainted with reading resources that are beneficial in order to provide teachers with test data, reading instruments, and specific strategies to assist them in raising achievement.
This applied dissertation is designed to equip teachers with current information accessible to the staff and the third grade students to increase their scores in reading. It has been determined that a review of past and recent reading data was needed to find appropriate strategies for improving instruction of teachers to help increase reading scores.
Also, parental involvement has been researched and found to be a valuable asset to increasing academics in their children, as children who…
Alexander, K. & Entwistle, D. (1988). Achievement in the first two years of school: Patterns and processes. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 53(2, Serial No. 218).
Barron, R.F. & Schwartz, R.M. (1984). Traditional post organizers: A spatial learning strategy. In C.D. Holley & D.F. Dansereau (Eds.), Spatial learning strategies: Techniques, applications, and related issues. New York: Academic Press.
Chang, K., Sung, Y. & Chen, I. (2002). The effect of concept mapping to enhance text comprehension and summarization. Journal of Experimental Education, 5.
Chmielewski, T. & Dansereau, D.F. (1998). Enhancing the recall of text: Knowledge mapping training promotes implicit transfer. Journal of Educational Psychology, 90, 407-413.
eading is fundament skill necessary for our children to compete in a more globalized world. Evidence has shown strong correlations between education and income. These correlations have endured multiple generations and reflect the need for continual improvement on the part of students. The ability to read and comprehend passages therefore is the first of many building blocks needed to be help students within a more competitive and highly dynamic environment. Children with strong reading skills are better able to learn new and challenging techniques. They are able to learn varying aspects of life and synthesize them in a meaningful manner. They will even be able to expand their horizons by learning concepts that different from the traditional books learned in school.
The National eading Panel eport is the first step in helping to enhance the overall level of reading comprehension among children. The report recognizes that in order to enhance…
1) NAEYC. (2012). NAEYC. Technology and Interactive Media as Tools in Early Childhood Programs Serving Children from Birth through Age 8, 2-15.
2) Copeland, W.D., & Decker, D.L. (1996). Videocases and the development of meaning making in preservice teachers. Teaching and Teacher Education,
3)Duffy, G.G., Roehler, L., Meloth, M.S., Vavrus, L.G., Wesselman, R., Putnam, J., & Bassiri, D. (1986). The relationship between explicit verbal explanations during reading skill instruction and student awareness and achievement: a study of reading teacher effects. Reading Research Quarterly, 21(3), 237-252.
This particular program is designed for grades K-8 and is both a reading and a language arts program. This reading program has as a foundation "literacy instruction that stimulates, teaches, and extends the communication and thinking skills that will allow students to become effective readers, writers, communicators, and lifelong learners." The program also uses themes to instruct students.
In addition to programs that addressed the needs of beginning students, there are reading programs that are specifically designed to assist middle school and high school students. According to an article published in Reading Research Quarterly, many students in Middle School and High School have poor literacy skills. hen high school students have poor literary skills, the possibility of going on to college is extremely limited. In fact the article reports that 49% of high school students that took the ACT in 2004 were not ready for college based on their reading…
Anglin J.M. Miller, G.A. Wakefield P.C. (1993) Vocabulary Development: A Morphological Analysis Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, Vocabulary Development: A Morphological Analysis Vol. 58, No. 10, pp. i-186
Buly M.R. And Valencia S.W. (Autumn, 2002), Below the Bar: Profiles of Students Who Fail State Reading Assessments. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, Vol. 24, No. 3 pp. 219-239
Chua, S.P., "The Effects of the Sustained Silent Reading Program on Cultivating
Students' Habits and Attitudes in Reading Books for Leisure." Vol. 81, No. 4 Sustained Silent Reading. pg 184
The reading let me wondering why the author was so opposed to the idea of care being viewed as work; he seemed dismissive of the value of care if labeled as work.
eading esponse Week 10
In this reading, Fine examines how coordination efforts have impacted the provision of health and social welfare services in Australia. He specifically addresses two different, but related issues: community-based care services for elderly individuals and people with disabilities, and increased coordination between different service providers such as community-based care organizations, residential care services, hospitals, and other healthcare providers. What he attempts to show is how increased coordination has led to clients receiving higher quality services at different levels of care, and should, ideally, result in clients being placed in the appropriate care environments. He also looks at governmental policies and how those policies impact coordination between care-providers, suggesting that when government policies do not…
Brennan, D. (). Government and civil society: Restructuring community services. In P. Smyth & B. Cass (Eds.) Contesting the Australian Way: States, Markets and Civil Society. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.
Challis, D., Darton, R., Johnson, L., Stone, M., & Traske, K. (). The Darlington care management model. In Care Management and Health Care of Older People, pp. 17-34.
Canterbury: The University of Kent at Canterbury.
Fine, M. (1999). Coordinating health, extended care, and community support services:
Motivation and Background Building: Pre-Reading Phase
Appropriate activities may include the following:
Prior knowledge connection
Skill Development (may be done throughout)
Establish purpose for reading
Development of time/historical context
There were four vocabulary words that the students learned during this phase: imperious, treacherous, tenacity and betrothal. They were provided with contextual sentences (three sentences in length) to introduce them to the words, guessed what they meant, received dictionary definitions, and had to use the words in a sentence. The prior knowledge connection included a summary of the first two chapters of The Count of Monte Cristo, in which the children were introduced to the characters and the plot thus far. The development of the time/historical context contained information about the setting / location; I taught the children about the French Revolution and Napoleon's role in it, as well as the dangers of…
reading is how a number of factors expressly related to power can account for quiescence in an exploitative situation in which one may otherwise think there should be revolt. This theme was widely discussed in the first chapter of this book, and contends that the exploitive nature of power can best be understood by its three dimensions. The first dimension relates to changing the behavior of the repressed, the second dimension is a mobility of bias, and the third dimension is a pervasion of power in a variety of cognitive, social and political constructs so that the oppressed cannot even conceive of rebellion. There are also various mechanisms that account for the assertion of power for some and the repression of power of others related to factors such as language, voting, and the inclusion and exclusion of people and ideas in social institutions.
The author's main usage of evidence to…
eading is the most critical skill children learn in the primary grades because it provides the foundation for the remainder of their school years and life in the real world thereafter. Parents, school teachers and administrators have all expressed concerns about how reading is taught in the United States (Alexander, n.d.). An eighteen month study by the National eading Panel focused on specific areas of reading skills, including phonemic awareness, phonics instruction, developing fluency, and vocabulary development. The Panel looked at what teachers need to know to teach and model the use of various strategies in the classroom, and how pre-service and in-service education can better prepare teachers for the important work of reading instruction.
The research found, not surprisingly, that systematic and direct instruction is the most effective way to teach children about phonemes and, later, phonics. There always seem to be children in the classroom who might be…
Early childhood mathematics: Promoting good beginnings. (2002). National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC) and the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM).Retrieved from http://www.naeyc.org/files/naeyc/file
Teaching children to read, 2nd edition. (n.d.). National Reading Panel. Retrieved from http://www.nationalreadingpanel.org/Publications/nrpvideo.htm
Edmark and Reading Matery
One of the greatest challenges for any educator is dealing with a student with reading difficulties. However, a number of different programs exist to deal with the different forms of comprehension difficulties such challenging students may face and present for an educator. hile the Edmark Reading Program is designed to bridge the gap between auditory and visual learning for developmentally disabled students, Reading Matery programs are specifically designed for students with learning disabilities, such as dyslexia. The auditory and picture matching approach of Edmark has been shown to be helpful for students from developmentally and socially disabling backgrounds, with little educational reinforcement or support, while Reading Matery seems be most suitable for students with cognitive impairment of their reading capacity who are otherwise normal.
The Edmark Reading Program was initially developed over a 15-year period between 1960 and 1975, with funding from the National Institute of…
Bijou, S.W., Birnbrauer, J.S., Kidder, J.D., & Tague, C. (1966). "Programmed
Approach to retarded children." Psychological Record. 16, 505 -- 522.
Center for Dyslexia. (2005) http://dyslexia.mtsu.edu/areasofinterest/teachers/computersoftware/instructionalsoftware.html
Edmark Products. (2005) "Edmark Reading Program." Official Riverdeep Product Website. Retrieved 21 Apr 2005 at http://www.riverdeep.net/products/edmark_reading_program/index.jhtml
Question answer strategy (QA) teaches students how and when to use their texts when answering comprehension questions. Collaboration, specifically co-teaching, has been shown to be effective with special education teachers and content-area teachers in the general education classroom. The QA strategy can enhance comprehension across different content areas.
Fenty, N.S., McDuffie-Landrum, K., and Fisher, G. (2012). Using collaboration, co- teaching, and question answer relationships to enhance content area literacy. Teaching Exceptional Children 44(6), pp. 28-37.
QA is taught through five elements of effective instruction: anticipatory set, modeling, guided practice, independent practice, and closure (Duke & Pearson, 2002, and Fisher & Frey, 2007, cited in Fenty et al., 2012).
Although word walls have been used traditionally in primary classrooms, the authors report effective use in the middle school. Over the course of year, a word wall was built by teachers and students in eighth that included vocabulary across content…
Research shows that approximately eight million adolescents struggle with reading (Pitcher et al., 2010, p. 636). Seven case studies of middle schoolers examined students' motivations to read, word identification levels, comprehension levels, and reading strategies employed. All students admitted to struggling with content area reading and said they did not receive direct instruction in this area.
Pitcher, S.M., Martinez, G., Dicembre, E.A., Fewster, D., McCormick, M.K. (2010). The literacy needs of adolescents in their own words. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy 53(8), pp. 636-645.
Intervention programs such as the ones discussed in this study were "canned" programs, such as a phonics program, that did not address the students' skill deficits. Comprehension skills must be targeted specifically to help students with content area reading.
Motivation for Reading:
In one reading survey, as reported by Sharon Pitcher and her associates in the article "Assessing Adolescents' Motivation to Read," the investigators found that children will be more motivated to read if it is material in which they are interested or if the material is introduced to them in a way which makes them feel that they have a stake in it. Students who feel engaged in the material will be more interested in continued reading of the given topic or narrative. hat they provided the students was a series of questions divided into three headings. The survey was labeled the MRP Survey. For the purposes of this investigation, the researchers asked students a series of questions regarding their interests and their technological interactions. They also asked about which subjects in school are of the most interest to the students. The third group of questions on the…
McKenna, Michael G. And Dennis J. Kear (1990). "Measuring Attitude Toward Reading: a New
Tool for Teachers." The Reading Teacher. 43:9. 626-639.
Pitcher, Sharon M. et. al. (2007). "Assessing Adolescents' Motivation to Read." International
Reading Association. 378-396.
eading class grading rubric
The reader cannot alphabetize a series of words to the second letter and cannot recognize the distinguishing features of the sentence such as capitalization of the first word, internal and ending punctuation and quotation marks.
The reader can alphabetize a series of words to the second letter but cannot recognize the distinguishing features of the sentence such as capitalization of the first word, internal and ending punctuation and quotation marks.
The reader can recognize a series of words to the second letter and can recognize some of the distinguishing features of the sentence such as capitalization of the first word, internal and ending punctuation and quotation marks.
The reader can recognize a series of words to the second letter and can recognize all the distinguishing features of the sentence such as capitalization of the first…
Baines, L., & Stanley, G. (2003). Viewpoint: Coaching: Last Bastion of Academic Excellence? The Clearing House, 76(4), 217-220.
Bean, Rita M., Draper, Jason A., Hall, V., Vandermolen, J., & Zigmond, N. (2010). Coaches and Coaching in Reading First Schools: A Reality Check. The Elementary School Journal, 111(1), 87-114.
Berg, R. v. d. (2002). Teachers' Meanings regarding Educational Practice. Review of Educational Research, 72(4), 577-625.
Kenny, D.T., & Faunce, G. (2004). Effects of Academic Coaching on Elementary and Secondary School Students. The Journal of Educational Research, 98(2), 115-126.
people attribute self-defense to using offensive tactics like physical fighting or using a weapon like a gun or a knife against attackers. However, there is much more to self-defense. A big part of self-defense is reading situations and understanding the proper moves so as to avoid problems before they begin rather than unwittingly creating a problem for one's self. This brief essay will discuss examples of this in action and there will be an assessment of how one should generally act and how one should generally not act when it comes to certain situations. While avoiding problems and confrontations is not always possible, it is actually quite easy to mitigate or even avoid bad situations altogether so long as one pays attention and reacts accordingly.
The author of this report saw a viral web video within the last week that shows a man of decent stature (more on that…
The Title I reading instructor will become familiar with the Plato Learning content library.
The Title 1 reading instructor will begin supplementing classroom instruction with the mini classroom lab using software from Plato Learning.
Title I reading instructor will assess classroom performance and modify lab use accordingly.
The STAR Reading test results will be evaluated.
Survey results on student attitudes towards reading and learning will be compared to April 2007 results.
The state standard scores for reading will be evaluated.
The district assessment scores for reading wil be evaluated.
The overall success of the mini classroom lab will be assessed
Lessons learned and suggestions will be incorporated into the use of the mini classroom lab for classes beginning in September 2008.
6) Dissemination of Information
The Title 1 reading instructor will develop a detailed document containing the mini lab's goals and objectives as well as all evaluation results. This document…
Fletcher-Flinn, C.M., & Gravatt, B. (1995). The efficacy of computer assisted instruction (CAI): A meta-analysis. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 219-241.
Kulik, J.A. (1994). Meta-analytic studies of findings on computer-based instruction. In E. Baker & H. O'Neil (Eds.), Technology Assessment in Education and Training. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Kulik, C.C., & Kulik, J.A. (1991). Effectiveness of computer-based instruction: An updated analysis. Computers in Human Behavior, 7, 75-94.
Murphy, R., Penuel, W., Means, B., Korbak, C., Whaley, a. (2001). E-DESK: A Review of Recent Evidence on the Effectiveness of Discrete Educational Software. Menlo Park, CA: SRI International.
Words Correct Per Minute
The process for calculating words correct per minute (WCPM) and reading accuracy begins with the selection of three passages from a grade level basal text. Students are required to read each passage for exactly one minute and the total number of words read for each passage is averaged to produce a score. The total number of errors made while reading each passage is then averaged to produce a second score. The difference between the average number of words read and the average number of errors is then computed to yield the WCPM. This number can then be used to determine if the student is at, below, or above grade level in reading fluency. Furthermore, once a baseline is established at the beginning of the year, additional measurements can be taken to determine individual student progress throughout the year.
Students cannot understand texts if they…
Pressley, M. (2001, September). Reading instruction: What makes sense now, what might make sense soon. Reading Online, 5(2). Retrieved January 7, 2012, from http://www.readingonline.org/articles/art_index.asp?HREF=/articles/handbook/pressley/index.html
Zarrillo, J.J. (2011) Ready for revised RICA: A test prperation guide for california's reading instruction competence assessment, 3rd ed. Boston, MA: Pearson Education Inc.
Augustine, Anselm and Aquinas
Question #1 from "Augustine Confessions 2nd edition. Translated by F.J Sheed: Please explain Augustine's theory that evil is the privation of good, and argue for its relevance to at least one other main theme in the confessions.
Rather than subscribe to the prevailing theory that evil represented the polar opposite of good -- acting as a necessary counterbalance within the realm of human morality -- Augustine proposes a radically divergent viewpoint in his "Confessions," asserting that "evil has no existence except as a privation of good, down to that level which is altogether without being" (VII, [XII], 18). This conclusion is reached after Augustine poses one of the most challenging theological conundrums ever constructed, postulating that if God is both supremely good and omnipotent, evil should have no reason to exist. The fact that evil is so clearly manifested by human behavior suggests that God is…
Anselm of Canterbury, Archbishop of Canterbury. Cur Deus Homo or Why God Was Made Man.
Augustine, Confessions, II: [IV] 9
Augustine, Confessions, VI: [I] 1
Augustine, Confessions, VI: [III] 3
Diana Sorensen Goodrich, Facundo and the Construction of Argentine Culture, University of Texas Press, Copyright 1996, 230 pages. ISBN 0292727909.
This paper reviews, analyzes, evaluates and critiques the book Facundo and the Construction of Argentine Culture, by Sorensen Goodrich. This book itself presents an in-depth analysis of the book Facundo or Civilization and Barbarism by Domingo E. Sarmiento, which is a classic text, a book that is said to be the great liberalist text of the 19th century.
Sarmiento's book traces the turbulent personal history of Rosas, which is used as an allegory of the turbulent history of Argentina, all the while arguing from a liberal perspective, of the many and varied benefits of freedom and democracy. Often, throughout Sarmiento's Facundo, this argument for democracy in Argentina is argued most forcibly by letting the barbarism of Facundo speak for itself. Through the quite detailed chronicles of the bloody political…
Peron Came to Power
Publisher: Alfred - A - Knopf
Copyright Date: 1968
The editor of this publication, Joseph . Barager, following his own 38-page introduction, gives way to 21 individual "authors" - all of whom contribute short essays on pivotal periods and events leading up to and into the Peron era. Each of the 21 essayists has his or her own particular area of expertise, and hence, a unique point-of-view. As to the over-riding point-of-view of the editor? Barager clearly wishes to establish at the outset of his book, that the book is going to argue that Juan Domingo Peron was not responsible for "all the ills and misfortunes" that afflicted Argentina following WWII - notwithstanding the contention of some Latin American journalistic observers, and the raging of many hostile and angry Argentineans. Nor, the editor's thesis goes on to assert, was Peron the "champion" of the lower class…
Barager, Joseph R. Why Peron Came to Power: The Background to Peronism in Argentina. New York: Alfred - A - Knopf, 1968.
One counterargument to the practice of teaching vocabulary is that children learn the meanings of many words by experiencing those words in the actual world and in text without explicit instruction. Unfortunately, such incidental learning is filled with possible problems. The definitions learned range from richly contextualized and more than sufficient, to incomplete to wrong. Children do develop knowledge of vocabulary through incidental contact with new words they read. This is one of the many reasons to challenge students to read incessantly.
There is considerable evidence that readers who possess prior knowledge about the topic of a reading often comprehend the reading better than classmates with no, or lower prior knowledge. Nevertheless, even when students have knowledge relevant to the information they are reading they do not always relate their world knowledge to the content of a text. Unless inferences are absolutely necessary to make sense of the…
Armbruster, B.B. & Osborn, J., (2001) Put reading first: The building blocks for teaching chilren to read. National Institute or Literacy, Retrieved May 20, 2010, from: www.nifl.gov
Beck, I.L., Perfetti, C.A., & McKeown, M.G., (1982) Effects of long-term vocabulary instruction on lexical access and reading comprehension. Journal of Educational Psychology, 74, 506-521.
Cordon, L.A., & Day, J.D. (1996) Stategy use on standardized reading comprehension tests. Journal of Educational Psychology, 88, 288-521.
Nation, K. & Snowling, M.J., (1998) Individual differences in contextual facilitation: Evedence from dyslexia and poor reading comprehension. Child Development, V. 69 No. 4, p.996- 1011. Retrieved May 20, 2010, from: http://C:UsersOwnerDesktop
Diagnosing the Problem
As Palardy (2015) shows, first grade is where the achievement gap begins to develop among students. Ferrer et al. (2015) show that the achievement gap begins in first grade and persists well into adolescence: in order to address the achievement gap, the best step is to take preventive measures. This action research study plans to address the problem of the achievement gap by getting first graders to focus on reading and get them interested in reading by following the recommendation of Moses and Kelly (2018), which is to condition young learners to love reading by continuously promoting it in a favorable and positive light. In other words, by socializing reading and using child-centered teaching methods (Kikas, Pakarinen, Soodla, Peets & Lerkkanen, 2017; Moses & Kelly, 2018), first grade teachers can help to close the achievement gap.
The study setting is my first grade classroom. This setting was…
Oral and Written Language Scales, Second Edition: eading Comprehension and Written Expression
eading Comprehension and Written Expression subtests can be used to provide a composite score for Written Language.
Describe the age range: Ages 5-21
State the purpose of the instrument: The purpose is to provision an individual comprehensive measurement of writing and reading language skills for children.
Describe the examiner qualifications: Examiners need experience in "psycho-educational assessments for children" (de Fur, 2014)
List the types of scores (such as standard scores, percentile rank, etc.) that are available:
aw scores are convertible to standard scores for percentile ranks, confidence intervals and grade scores. There are also composite scores.
6. List the instrument's technical data regarding validity, reliability and standardization / normative process: Standardization data was based on 2,123 English speaking students aged 5-21. This data was gleaned from 31 states in all of the regions of the major regions of…
References (provide APA formatted reference based on test review found in the MMY)
Here is a sample of a correct APA reference for a pretend test review in the MMY
Smith. J. & Jones, A. (20xx). Review of the Something Achievement Test. Mental Measurements Yearbook and Tests in Print. Yearbook: #.
De Fur, S. H., Ward, S. (2014). Review of The Oral and Written Language Scales, Second Edition: Reading Comprehension and Written Expression. Mental Measurements Yearbook and Tests in Print. Yearbook: 19.
eading is a fundamental part of a child's education. Many techniques have been utilized in an effort to make learning to read and reading comprehension easier for students (McCray 2001). One such technique is Sustained Silent eading (SS). The purpose of this discussion is to investigate Sustained Silent eading as it relates to reluctant middle school aged children. Let us begin our investigation by discussing the theoretical framework of Sustained Silent eading.
Sustained Silent eading (SS)
Jenson & Jenson (2002) report that The Uninterrupted Sustained Silent eading program (USS) was first implemented by Lyman Hunt at the University of Vermont during the 1960's (Jensen & Jensen 2002). By the 1970's the program was implemented into the American public school system (Jensen & Jensen 2002). Forty years after its initial inception this same program has an array of aliases including: Motivation in Middle Schools (MIMS), High Intensity Practice (HIP), Free Voluntary…
Broughton, M.A., & Fairbanks, C.M. (2003). In the Middle of the Middle: Seventh-Grade Girls' Literacy and Identity Development Here Is a Look at the Ways in Which a Group of Girls Perceived Themselves and How Their Perceptions and Behaviors Changed as They Moved from the Sixth Grade to the Seventh Grade: The Middle of Middle School. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 46(5), 426
Brozo, W.G., & Hargis, C.H. (2003). Taking Seriously the Idea of Reform: One High School's Efforts to Make Reading More Responsive to All Students. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 47(1), 14
Crawford P.C.2004. Using Graphic Novels to Attract Reluctant Readers. Library Media Connection
Graham, S., & Taylor, A.Z. (1998). Exploring Achievement Values Among Ethnic Minority Early Adolescents. Journal of Educational Psychology, 90(4), 606-620.
Reading Profile of a Student
The student I selected is a 10-year-old 4th grade student who is a self-described “lover of books.” She views herself as a great reader and she is always carrying a book with her. I ask her if she thinks everyone should read more, and she says most emphatically, “Yes!” She maintains a very positive attitude toward reading—“Even when you don’t care for what you’re reading?” I ask. She says that she always finds something to like, no matter what she is reading. She says if someone took the time to write it, she can take the time to find something nice about it. “Sometimes I have to stop and think about what I read or I’ll think about a story for days wondering what I just read.” I ask what stories do that for her and she answers, “Poe! That guy is crazy!” I am…
subtests (e.g. learning areas): Fluency, Rate, Accuracy, Oral Reading Index, Comprehension.
Describe the age range: Ages 6 through 23.
State the purpose of the instrument: This test is created to denote the strengths and weaknesses for readers, as well as to diagnose any disabilities and to chart the progress of those who have trouble with reading.
Describe the examiner qualifications: There are no explicit requirements for examiners, other than the ability to read and implement the test's instructions. However, experience in scoring, interpretation and testing administration helps.
List the types of scores (such as standard scores, percentile rank, etc.) that are available: There are raw scores, scaled sores, percentages, and an Oral Reading index score.
List the instrument's technical data regarding validity, reliability and standardization/normative process: There is a standard error of measurement that is at 1.00 for the scaled scores for test takers. Additionally, the normative group of 2,556…
Clickers/esponses Phonics Lesson
Phonics Long Vowel - Silent e Lesson Plan for Special Education
Students will recognize and say words that follow the c-v-c-e and v-c-e rule where the first vowel is a long vowel and the final e is silent. By using the Clickers/esponses as a classroom game they will utilize them after hearing the correct sounds.
Students with the will be able to spell and write out some basic long vowel words that have c-v-c-e and v-c-e spelling patterns and will use the Clickers/esponses when they hear the right sound.
About the Concept:
There are several regular long vowel spelling patterns in the English language. The c-v-c-e pattern (consonant-vowel-consonant-final e) is a long vowel spelling pattern which occurs quite frequently in early reading and spelling. Essentially, the phonics rule for this design mentions that when a vowel and final e are separated by a single consonant, the…
Indiana Standards. (2010, March 3). Retrieved from Learniing Connection: https://learningconnection.doe.in.gov/Standards/About.aspx?art=11
Classroom Resources. (2012, September 5). Retrieved from ReadWritethink: http://www.readwritethink.org/classroom-resources/lesson-plans/
Elementary K-5 Writing Curriculum. (2012, September 5). Retrieved from Melrose Public Schools: https://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:aLFi5i1eLl4J:www.melroseschools.com/lincoln/MPS_Writing_Curriculum_K_5.pdf+writing+curriculum+for+elementary&hl=en&gl=us&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEEShGXpwCDU3mdB2rQVO2e3Dav6AgQn-3Ng2vDjsDa_f50Pd5k8wDn4zmQH2cTwV3P7kAA2v9zu
Gates-MacGinitie Reading Tests® Online. (2012, September 5). Retrieved from Online reading test: http://www.riversidepublishing.com/products/gmrtOnline/index.html
Increased vocabulary levels leads to increases in reading comprehension. Students with higher levels of vocabulary can also express themselves in more unique and complex formats, essentially increasing their ability to comment on the reading material in a way that better correlates with their exact emotions or experiences associated with that reading material.
Writing summaries for reading material is another method of using writing exercises to increase literacy levels. Teachers should implement lessons were students write hierarchal summaries that help organize the structure of reading material in a shape that is more familiar and understandable to students (Meltzer, Cook, & Clark, 2011). Writing summaries force students to internalize the material and reassert it in a different way. This further engages them with the texts, as they are forced to put the material in their own words.
Thirdly, using student-generated content to expose weaknesses in understanding can play a key role. Having…
Guthrie, John T. (2001). Contexts for engagement and motivation in reading. Reading Online. 4(8). Retrieved September 21, 2012 from http://www.readingonline.org/articles/art_index.asp?HREF=/articles/handbook/guthrie/index.html
Guthrie, John T. (2012). Adolescent literacy: Issues, knowledge base, design principles, and challenges. Center on Instruction. Web. Retrieved September 21, 2012 from http://centeroninstruction.org/
Melzter, Julie, Cook, Nancy, & Clark, Holly. (2011). Adolescent Literary Resources: Linking Research and Practice. Center for Resource Management. Brown University. Web. Retrieved September 20, 2012 from www.alliance.brown.edu/pubs/adlit/alr_lrp.pdf
This is the goal of struggling readers. A dependent reader takes only a peripheral interest in the text. He gives it the minimum of his attention and approaches it only because he is forced. It is as though he is reading against his will and fighting all the way.
Beers provides an anticipation guide, but I don't necessarily agree that such a guide is very constructive or helpful. It deals solely with crass generalizations, and whether attitudes held before reading the text are still ascribed to after reading the text. For the most part, students' attitudes are going to be superficial and having them partake in an exercise of superficiality is likely to be counterproductive.
Beers argues that performing such activities will help to encourage students to become more involved with the reading. It will help them to engage their prior knowledge and challenge them to think. Beers recommends making…
The curriculum should be research-based. They can collaborate and share viewpoints with stakeholders to diversify their knowledge. They should pose as leaders in designing, implementing and assessing professional advancement programs.
eading specialists can uptake numerous responsibilities in schools, depending on the requirements of the student populace and instructors in any dispensation. The reading specialist's role is on a continuum, with various specialists operating in a teaching position with learners while others utilize the bulk of their working time in practicing expert development with classroom instructors in an official leadership position. Specialists despite their roles should involve themselves in boosting the work of the class instructor. eading specialists ought to enhance the reading plan so that it is effectual for every student. The main responsibilities of reading specialists, each of which adds to the development of student reading, are instructive, evaluation, and leadership (Bean, 2009). They all add on to improved…
Bean, R.M. (2009). The Reading Specialist, Second Edition: Leadership for the Classroom, School, and Community. New York, NY: Guilford Press.
Carlson, C.L. (2007). An Examination of Secondary Reading Specialists: Demographic, Training, and Employment Characteristics. Ann Arbor, MI: ProQuest.
Dagen, S., & Bean, R.M. (2011). Best Practices of Literacy Leaders: Keys to School Improvement. New York, NY: Guilford Press.
Gambrell, L.B., & Morrow, L.M. (2011). Best Practices in Literacy Instruction, Fourth Edition. New York, NY: Guilford Press.
Learning to read and write in English has been one of my most treasured accomplishments in the recent past. To begin with, learning to read and write in English is in my opinion the very first step towards becoming a fluent speaker of one of the most widely spoken languages in the world. In that regard therefore, I am convinced that fluency in English is a plus as I pursue my career of choice. Given that English is one of the most common languages, corporations and most organizations would ordinarily hire individuals who can relate well with their customers and clients. Being able to read, write, and speak English will therefore give me a distinct advantage in my future job seeking endeavors. It is also important to note that fully aware that the world is increasingly becoming interconnected; the relevance of learning an additional language cannot be overstated. It is…
Baldwin, James. Sonny's Blues. Stuttgart: Klett Sprachen, 2009. Print.
Brinton, Margaret. 100 Little Reading Comprehension Lessons. New York: Lorenz Educational Press, 2004. Print.
Cusipag, Maria, et al. Critical Thinking through Reading and Writing. Philippines: De La Salle University Press, 2007. Print.
As such, she fails to address the central problem of feminism in the Pontellier perspective, namely the impossibility of female individuality and independence in a patriarchal world. It is only in isolation that Edna can find any happiness, and she must make this isolation more and more complete in order to maintain her happiness, as the patriarchy has a means of encroaching on all populated areas, and Wollstonecraft's feminism does not offer an alternative to this need to escape humanity.
A final snort of disgust might be distinctly heard from Edna Pontellier upon her reading of this line of Wollstonecraft's, afterwards she might likely have flung the text aside (or into the fireplace, depending on the season): "Pleasure is the business of woman's life, according to the present modification of society" (ch. 4, par. 10). What Wollstonecraft means is that women are thought to be so fragile, so emotional, and…
Chopin, Kate. The Awakening. 1899. University of Virginia E-Text Center. Accessed 28 May 2012. http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/toc/modeng/public/ChoAwak.html
Hammer, Colleen. To Be Equal or Not to Be Equal: The Struggle for Women's Rights as Argued by Mary Wollstonecraft and Christina Rossetti. UCC [working paper].
Heilmann, Ann. The Awakening and New Woman cition.
Horner, Avril. Kate Chopin, choice and modernism.
When these children see that they can use the computer in the classroom to learn their phonetics and other reading issues during their free time, they begin to realize that they can do something on their own, which helps their self-esteem levels and also makes them more interested in the joys of learning, which can open up a whole new world for these children. This is especially true if these children are disadvantaged in many ways and do not have books in the home that they can use to continue their learning, as this is often the reason that these children are behind in reading ability when they get into school. If a simple computer program that teaches the alphabet, phonetics, pronunciation, and other reading issues can help with remedial reading education, it seems that it should be used in more schools and classrooms across the country.
Torgesen, J.K. & Barker, T.A. (1995). Computers as aids in the prevention and remediation of reading disabilities. Learning Disabilities Quarterly, 18(2), 76-87.
Next door to where we live is a family with an 8-year-old boy who is in the third grade. He says that he does not like to read but that he has to for school and he hates it. “I don’t like reading in class. It’s hard to say the words and everybody laughs at me.” I asked him if there was anything he enjoyed about reading and he said, “Yeah, when we can stop.” I decided to try a different route to see if I could get his participation any better and introduced the topic of comic books. “Do you like Batman or Spiderman?” I asked. “Oh yeah!” So I offered him a few comic books to look at and he enjoyed them, but there was still the question of whether or not he was enjoying them because of the pictures or whether he was able to actually…
In order to build an age-appropriate vocabulary in the English language, ESL students must learn words at a faster rate than normal (Lipka, Siegel, & Vukovic, 2005; Drucker 2003). This results in a widening gap between the reading and comprehension levels of ESL and non-ESL students if the needs of ESL students are not addressed (Lipka, Siegel, & Vukovic, 2005).
Some ESL students come from a native language that poses more difficulties than others. For example, ussian and Arabic have alphabets that look very different from the English alphabet. Children must learn an entirely new coding system in order to proceed (Lipka, Siegel, & Vukovic, 2005). Even when the alphabet is similar, the English language is difficult to learn due to the many inconsistencies in tense and individual word use. Because they may not be conversationally fluent, subtleties of the English language may take some time to master (Palmer, El_Ashry,…
Abu-Rabia, a., and Maroun, L. (2005). The effect of consanguineous marriage on reading disability in the Arab community. Dyslexia, 11, 1-21.
Davis, G.N., Lindo, E.J., and Compton, D.L. (2007). Children at risk for reading failureL Constructing an early screening measure. Teaching Exceptional Children, 39(5), 32-37.
Drucker, M.J. (2003). What reading teachers should know about ESL learners. The Reading Teacher, 57, 22-29.
Hudson, R.F., High, L., and Al Otaiba, S. (2007). Dyslexia and the brain: What does current research tell us? The Reading Teacher, 60, 506-515.
If anything, Jessica's apparent equating of reading speed as an indication of reading well undermines her comprehension more than technical difficulty.
Jessica understood the main idea, in general but possibility too literally: she retitled the story "What Comes Around Goes Around," and incorrectly attributed a direct cause-and- effect relationship to Leonard's charity and Riley's fate. Instead of characterizing events as an unfortunate but coincidental relationship between a genuine act of charity and an accident,
Jessica apparently assumed that Riley's misfortune might have been related to Leonard's revenge.
Jessica reads and comprehends well above her grade level. This is likely a function of her enjoyment of reading. Jessica clearly enjoys reading about subjects of interest but is comparatively easily frustrated by assigned reading outside her intrinsic interests. Jessica possesses good reading mechanics that enable her to deduce pronunciation and contextual meaning of unfamiliar words, but her ability to make…
While motivated students may exceed expectations based on their IQ, the greater relevance of the relationship between motivation and reading development is that poor motivation often results in unexpectedly low reading skill development relative to higher IQ scores.
To isolate instances of motivation-based poor reading performance in the study group, I intend to design an investigation using elements of hands-on, active learning study programs, such as the Full Option Science System (FOSS). While FOSS is not specifically designed as a diagnostic reading program, incorporating one or more of the learning exercises will help identify students whose unsatisfactory reading performance scores relate to motivational issues, rather than issues addressable by merely providing intensified reading instruction. Though science-based, the FOSS teaching materials use post-lesson tests that also measure module subject matter comprehension and lesson retention. I intend to administer grade-appropriate science lessons, because the nature of the FOSS materials relies more on…
You might not even understand many of these words that I am using for, lacking education, and bound in a corrupt system, slaves, indeed, do seem mired in a 'kismet-type of situation where on the one hand one seems fated to remain in enslavement to capricious rulers for life, whilst lacking the rudiments to shake those gates of slavery and attempt freedom.
Democracy, therefore, it would seem may be more important than paving the pyramid with basic needs, such as healthy drinking water and progressing to democracy. With democratic rights, at least, one can be in a situation where all of life is open to oneself and one can battle for the fundamentals of economic development that include sewage pipes and drinking water. Your predicament, Balram, is tough and there are merits to each side of the problem.
I may, if you do not mind, compare your situation to the…
The Empire was really a large number of conquests, held together based on military alliances. This fact would actually come to be one of the reasons for the Incan downfall. The Incans had a rather sophisticated government, broken up into govered territories and an orderly kingdom, a system of mathematics, advanced pottery and textile expertise, and stone temples that were so expertly constructed that even today (without mortar) many are still standing.
Part 3 -- Challenges of the landscape of the Incan territory -- the basic challenge of the Incan landscape was that they settled in a mountainous terrain, not really very good for farming. They created terraces that took advantage of what little good soil their was, used irrigation, and developed the potato as their basic food crop. In addition, they had a vast transportation network based on human runners. This helped keep the empire more cohesive.
The connection between the physical world and the metaphysical world was a topic that has fascinated humans for hundreds of years. Aristotle suggested the soul was the seat of psychic activities. He also felt that activities in the physical world first have to occur in the spiritual world (Elders, 2006). This connection is the basis of modern metaphysics and the ideals that are embodied in the psychic's work. Many, such as Aristotle presented actions in the physical world as evidence of what has happened on the metaphysical plane. Since the time of Aristotle, science has abandoned the idea of self-evidence (Dougherty, 2006).
Now a new interest in the study of metaphysics has arisen. This new interest is the result of new information into the study of quantum physics. Quantum theory and cosmology are only beginning to be explored as possible explanations for psychic ability, ghosts and other manifestations of sub-atomic…
Briggs, E. & Grisaffe, D. (2010). Service Performance -- Loyalty Intentions Link in a Business-to-
Business Context: The Role of Relational Exchange Outcomes and Customer
Characteristics. Journal of Service Research, February 1, 2010; 13(1): 37-51.
Coale, S. (2006). Psychic Visions and Quantum Physics: Oates's Big Bang and the Limits of Language. Studies in the Novel. 38 (4): 427.
Students then move to advisory to discuss what they learned from the principal, then begins first period science class.
Science is tutorial based, but often broken up into groups of four for lab and experimentation work. Math lab includes a number of different activities that change out regularly.
Following math, the students meet for Art class, which varies daily in activities, social and spatial development.
Lunch and a brief recess follows.
First class after lunch focuses on learning tools combined with independent reading; teacher uses only worksheets as student activity after reading; question worksheet designed to uncover comprehension and vocabulary development
Next class is social studies, work in pairs, teacher uses a number of different strategies and course outlines for variety.
Final period of the day focuses on English, or ESL for international students.
Reviewing a typical day for Ahmad, however, shows some serious disconnects in terms of his continual…
What do Tom and Mary have in common?
Outside of the purview of this essay, but nevertheless vital to the arguments presented when dealing with multicultural education, one must understand that there is a rather hierarchical taxonomy regarding the topic: Conservative multiculturalism, which assumes that unsuccessful minorities come from culturally deprived backgrounds and require ethnicity "stripping" for economic success of the child; Liberal multiculturalism which formats the sameness of all groups and requires manifesting language, but remaining culturally aware of the base culture; Pluralistic multiculturalism that shares features with the liberal view but focuses more on learning about differences and integration of race into simply being part of the individual; Left-Essentialist multicultural that holds that the conservative element uses language and other educational means as a way to control a minority and that essential traits may be romanticized for effect; and Critical multiculturalism that takes race, class, gender and even sexuality and transcends to a larger, more complex, social struggle. See: Kincheloe, J. And S. Steinberg. (1997). Changing Multiculturalism. Open University Press; and D. Campbell (2008). Choosing Democracy, a practical guide to Multicultural education. Allyn/Bacon.
hat can be done about this, Newkirk wonders in this article, published in 2004. Boys see libraries as a place for girls to go; boys go home and their dads are reading the sports page in newspapers while mom may be reading a novel. And boys are not encouraged to read action and adventure books (even though it is usually their preference), but they are urged to read novels with deep plots and sophisticated character development. Boys spend more time on video games and in computers than girls, and much of what they experience in those genres is action-oriented, and yet in school, they are asked to change, and be quiet, and be serious, like the girls.
These traditions lead to cynicism on the part of boys, Newkirk explains. hat can a teacher try to do about this problem? One thing Newkirk did was to stop trying to get boys…
Folks, Victoria. (2004). Middle School Masculinity: The Rejection of Reading. California English, 9(3), 24-25.
Moss, Gemma. (2000). Raising Boys' Attainment in Reading: some principles for intervention.
Reading, 34(3), 101-106.
Newkirk, Thomas. (2004). The Quiet Crisis in Boys' Literacy. California English, 9(3), 13-16.
Attitude-Influence model of reading involves teaching good attitudes about reading in an effort to influence how children feel about the reading experience. Attitude was chosen as the most important component of the model because it plays such a strong role in research done on a psychological level. However, attitude can be hard to measure, because it is very subjective and can fluctuate wildly. That is one of the cons of the attitude-influence model, and one of the cons of attempting to address attitude in general when it comes to research. However, in this model, attitude is not all that is considered. Influence is also very important. Influence means how a person is influenced to read and how he or she sees reading. If a person's attitude is good but there is no influence, reading might not take place. The same is true if the attitude is bad but there is…
Solutions to incorporating fluency instruction in the classroom include repeated reading, auditory modeling, direct instruction, text segmenting, supported reading, and use of easy reading materials. Young readers may not always know what fluent reading should be like. Despite the awareness, oral reading fluency is a neglected aspect of the classroom (Allington, 1983). Therefore, according to Fluency for Everyone, written by asinski, "It seems clear that students need frequent opportunities to see and hear fluent reading. Since the most fluent reader in the classroom is the teacher, the teacher should be the primary model" (1989).
The method of auditory modeling can be used in several ways. Auditory modeling can dramatically improve fluency among readers (Dowhower, 1986). She says, "Auditory or oral modeling may be the most powerful of all techniques in encouraging prosodic reading." Prosodic reading can be described as reading with voice inflection and expression. Dowhower believes that modeling oral…
Abram, S. (nd) The Effects of Fluency Instruction Incorporating Readers Theatre on Oral Reading Fluency in an Eighth-Grade Classroom. Retrieved from: http://arareading.org/doc/Susan_Abram_Reading_Fluency_Action_Research.pdf
Anderson, R., Hiebert, E., Scott, J & Wilkinson, I. (1985). Becoming a Nation of Readers, Urbana, IL: The Center for the Study of Reading.
Cooper, D. (2000). Literacy: Understanding Literacy Learning and Constructing Meaning. Massachusetts: Houghton Muffin Company.
Fluency (nd) National Institutes of Health. Chapter 3. Retrieved from: https://www.nichd.nih.gov/publications/pubs/nrp/Documents/ch3.pdf
epeated eading Instruction a Powerful and Effective Alternative Teaching Strategy for Students with Learning Disabilities?
This paper discusses how repeated reading instruction is a powerful and effective alternative for teaching reading to students with learning disabilities. When asked about reasonable adaptations that teachers can make to support learning from instructional materials, some of the most frequently cited adaptations are those involving peer support such as cooperative learning groups, student pairing. Studies show that students like working in small groups or being paired with a partner and appreciate it when teachers provide structure in teaching students how to work together and learn from each other. Teachers have utilized the phonics reading method and incorporated the Whole Language technique, but there are many educators in support of using the repeated reading technique as the favored instruction for students who have various learning disabilities.
It is the function of reading instruction to teach…
Boudah, D. & Weiss, M. (2002). Learning disabilities overview. (ERIC Document (Reproduction Service No. ED. 462808).
Cromwell, S. (1997). Whole language and phonics: Can they work together? Education World.
Accessed March 2, 2003 at www.educationworld.com.
Fitzsimmons, M. (1998). Beginning reading. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED.
What types of equipment, support, training, and resources are currently available to teachers of special-needs students at the site school to assist them in effectively using technology to help their students increase their academic skills; especially in reading and writing?
RQ5. What components (equipment, curriculum, resources, etc.) should be included in a technology plan to be recommended for implementation at the site school to increase the reading skills of the special-needs students?
RQ6. What impact does the implementation of the plan have on the reading skills of the special-needs students at the site school?
Procedures, Practices and Expectations
In addition to an extensive literature review using academic databases, the researcher will conduct a pre-test/post-test quantitative methodology to measure improvement levels in reading of an ESE class of middle school students at the selected site. This will be an experimental design in which one half of the class, selected randomly, will…
I made standard cooing and crying noises as the situation warranted, but I never even appeared to be trying to sound out words even under encouragement (again, I have to take the word of my parents and siblings on this, as I was far too young to remember any of it). Urgings of "Say Mommy!" were rewarded, I am told, with smiles and coos, but no apparent understanding of what was being asked of me or any indication that I knew how to consciously produce sounds vocally that had any meaning to anyone else.
Then, pretty much overnight (as my mother tells it), I began speaking in complete sentences. I went from appearing developmentally challenged to speaking as well as or better than an average toddler without really going through any of the preliminary steps. One day, I couldn't be pressed into saying "mama," and the next I was lucidly…
Overall, this type of reading lesson on the part of the teacher may inspire students to explore other types of reading material, thus expanding their reading horizons and their ability to think creatively.
esides having the teacher read aloud passages from a text, one reading project which undoubtedly would benefit everyone involved would be to have the class read the text aloud, either as individuals or as Zullo suggests, as a whole class reading with the text enlarged to poster size on a screen which would enable the teacher to include comments on the text by the students. In this way, all of the students would be encouraged to verbalize their thoughts on the text, make new connections between one passage and another, listen and appreciate different perspectives on certain passages and come to a more fuller understanding of the text. In addition, this method would benefit those…
Zullo, Rebecca L. (2004). Literacy for Learning: Reading and Writing Across the Curriculum. Canton, OH: Communicate Institute.
Having guided oral reading instruction by using reading centers where students can listen and use aural media, creating echoed reading exercises, and allowing students to work in pairs as silent readers on the same text and then ask questions of one another reinforces critical concepts, the process of reading, and can act as vocabulary-building exercises (Busy Teacher's Cafe, 2007, "Improving reading fluency in young readers"). If available, resource aids can act as support for uncertain readers and help them make the critical transition to fluency: "Provide support for your nonfluent readers by asking tutors -- instructional aides, parent volunteers, or older students -- to help. The tutor and the student can read a preselected text aloud simultaneously" (Blau 2007).
Giving students opportunities to practice and perform is also critical, through activities like combining whole group and small group activities and independent silent reading followed by question and answer sessions aloud.…
Blau, Lisa. (2007). "5 Surefire strategies for developing reading fluency." Scholastic.com Retrieved 1 May 2008 at http://content.scholastic.com/browse/article.jsp?id=4367
Busy Teacher's Cafe (2007). "Improving reading fluency in young readers." Retrieved May 2008 at http://www.busyteacherscafe.com/units/fluency.htm
However, it is possible to write in a way that reveals an understanding of what a person reads or what they hear during lecture. Lecture in the classroom provides an ideal opportunity for learners to reflect on what they have learned in previous sessions and to decide how they will use that knowledge to further their understanding, or to help them make decisions related to the content they have learned.
As I plan to become a history teacher I now realize how important reading and writing skills are to the student's comprehension of the content covered in lecture and in class. Students learn in many different ways. One reason that Nathan may not be doing well in both reading and in writing is because he simply does not understand the content or the context in which information is presented in the classroom. While he may not understand much from lectures,…
Freeman, F., Ghiso, M.P. & Hamayan, E. (2006). Authentic Accountability for ELL's Reading and Writing Development. Available: http://www.ncela.gwu.edu/resabout/research/ira06_freeman.pdf
Is the author clear in her objective? I would say she is absolutely certain of what she is talking about. Her intended audience is the average American who has recently been bombarded with threats of intrusion. The average American however is not living in constant fear, as government wants us to believe. Citizens are intelligent and aware enough to understand the limits of fear, the scope of government's authority and the impact of unnecessary intrusion.
What makes the essay better than other similar opinion pieces is author's dispassionate stance on the issue. She has the same concerns as everyone else but has presented them very objectively as to make the argument based more on logic than passion alone. The government has lately become very intrusive and not everyone welcomes this unwanted monitoring. In fact, most people resent it deeply because not only does it violate their constitutional rights, it…
Gelsey, Zara, Humanist, WHO'S READING OVER YOUR SHOULDER
Sep/Oct2002, Vol. 62 Issue
Even if these students were special education students, Iowa regularly places at the top of the national average for student scores and abilities. Thus, using Iowa students may bias the results by increasing the benefits in a way not reflective of the national average, which is typically much lower than Iowa's averages.
Unfortunately, there is little if any independent data available on the benefit of Read 180 for low level reading students with special needs. Therefore, to come to a sound conclusion on the programs overall benefits, one will need to conduct an independent study. This will best be done by following the example used in the Des Moines Independent School District study, following and tracking test scores for a five-year period of 180 Read's use. However, to get a better sample the studies should be conducted at schools located at various income levels, minority backgrounds and overall school achievement…
Hewes, Gina M., Nancy Palmer, M. Bruce Haslam, and Monica B. Mielke. (2006): Five Years of Read 180 in Des Moines: Improving Literacy Among Middle School and High School Special Education Students. Scholastic, Inc.
Scholastic Homepage. Read 180 Product Information. www.scholastic.com.
However, forty percent, or 2.4 million of these students are enrolled in special education programs for the sole reason that they have not learned to read. According to Scholastic, "Read 180 is proven effective in accelerating reading achievement for all students- including those in Special Education."
Read 180 takes an approach to special needs students that focus on providing multi-functional support. These support systems include universal access provisions, multi-model approaches, individualized software and reports, pre-teaching methods in order to improve understanding, instructional routines that promote active participation of special education students, and an instructional model that sets a routine and repetitive structure for learning.
The question thus becomes whether this approach actually works for students with special needs? Although Scholastic argues that there is data that proves it does, this data has to be questioned in that it is provided by the company selling the product. Therefore, it is unknown…
Scholastic Homepage. Read 180 Product Information. www.scholastic.com.
Taberski, Sharon. On Solid Ground: Strategies for Teaching Reading K-3. New York: Heinemann, 2000.
By attaching visual elements to specific words and even to specific sounds within those words, many learners that might struggle with simple auditory approaches attached only to visuals of the letter might be better able to commit letter/phoneme associations to memory (Fox, 2011). The use of pictures also seems more interactive and engaging with the learners than simply showing visuals of letters associated with sounds, as it speaks to the imagination of the learners and gives them something to respond to in addition to the simple reading facts being presented. In this way, both the educator and the learners can be drawn into the lesson more fully, it would seem, and there is definite evidence that pictures make both the lessons and the material more memorable when they are properly used (Fox, 2003).
Other issues raised on these two DVDs such as synthetic phonics are also fairly controversial, and seem…
Elam, S. (2010). Phonics primer. Accessed 19 March 2012.
Fox, B. (2011). Word identification strategies. Toronto: Lavoisier.
" The differences in these two lines seem to be only a matter of syntax but in actuality, it also differs in the meaning. The King James Bible version makes it seem like the Lord is making the individual do something, as if by force or obligation, while the Puritan version states that the Lord causes the individual to do something, as if out of their own will. This alone relays the message that faith itself is driving the action, not a perceived obligation.
Another distinction between the two translations can be found with the lines "Surely goodness and mercy shall follow me all the days of my life: / and I will dwell in the house of the Lord forever" (King James Bible) and "Goodness and mercy surely shall / all my days follow me. / and in the Lord's house I shall / dwell so long as days…
standardized tests and there is math association with the results. On the other hand informal reading assessments do not have the same formal data requirements and is based more on performance. These two kinds of assessments will be critiqued in this paper.
Formal Reading Assessments
Parents should know and understand not only why their children are being accessed, but through which process the assessment is being conducted. The more parents are involved in the education of their children, the closer parents will be to opportunities to participate and contribute to those important years of education. Brenda eaver writes in Scholastic magazine that first of all, whether it is informal or formal, assessments need to match up with the purpose of assessing any particular student. Formal assessments are generally used to assess "overall achievement" and to "compare a student's performance with others at their age or grade."
Parents should be informed…
Nilsson, Nina L. (2008). A Critical Analysis of Eight Informal Reading Inventories. The Reading Teacher, 61(7), 526-536.
Ogle, Laurence T. (2007). The Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS): a description. Center for Public Education. Retrieved June 13, 2012, from http://www.centerforpubliceducation.org.
Rosado, Luis A. (2006). TExES (103) Bilingual Generalist, EC-4 (REA) -- The Best Test Prep /
Best Test Preparation and Review Course Series. Piscataway, NJ: Research & Education
Listen to Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God preached. Discuss in the discussion group.
Jonathan Edwards gives us a perfect example of the Calvinist beliefs of the Puritan settlers in early New England. Edwards studied theology at Yale University -- where today there is still a dormitory named after him -- but then became a noteworthy preacher in the Great Awakening, which exhorted an entire generation to renew their Christian faith. Edwards' skill in preaching lies in using literary imagery to get across abstract theological concepts. Calvinist theology believes in "total depravity" -- in other words, because of Adam and Eve eating the apple, human beings are fallen, and stained with "original sin." The most memorable image in Edwards' sermon -- the image of the spider being held over a fiery pit -- is meant to be a metaphor to enable the listener to imagine how…