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The most significant economic impact of Reaganomics was the tax cuts, both to personal and corporate income taxes and to the restructuring of the federal income tax brackets. Reaganomics, which was firmly rooted in increasing private capital, stimulated economic growth by offering investment incentives but only during the early years of the administration (Kiskanen). Moreover, deregulation "was clearly the lowest priority among the major elements of the Reagan economic program," (Niskanen).
Reaganomics overall did improve the economy on several indexes relative to the Carter administration. hen Reagan took office, unemployment was high and so was inflation. Both were lowered as a result of Reaganomics. However, the long-term implications of Reaganomics did not revitalize the economy as much as the adminstration predicted or claimed. In general, the cuts to government spending and the reductions in income tax rates remain the lasting legacies of Reaganomics.
Niskanen, illiam a. Reaganomics. The…
Niskanen, William a. Reaganomics. The Concise Encyclopedia of Economics. Retrieved May 19, 2008 at http://www.econlib.org/Library/Enc/Reaganomics.html
In addition, the shifting of the tax burden to the working class had never been administered in such a large-scale way before.
Reaganomics achieved short-term gains, but was overall not a successful approach to the American economy. The emphasis on high defense spending and high foreign debt created an illusory effect. In more recent times, it has become apparent that the economy is now dependent of defense-oriented deficit spending, which unfortunately is not sustainable in the long run. In freeing up the oil supply, an opportunity was missed to reduce American dependence on a cheap and free-flowing oil. In doing so, Reaganomics set the stage for the economic issues we are having today and will likely have for years to come as the oil supply dwindles and demand soars.
Faragher, John Mack et al. Out of Many: a History of the American People. 5th ed. Vol. 2:
Faragher, John Mack et al. Out of Many: a History of the American People. 5th ed. Vol. 2:
Since 1865. Upper Saddle River NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall, 2006.
Reaganomics or voodoo economics helped spur economic growth in America after the Great Depression. The writer's contention that the national debt grew from 907 billion in 1980 to 2.6 trillion in 1988 under Reagan's administration is spot on. In fact, Reagan personally described the new national debt as the biggest disappointment of his presidency. However, I strongly feel that it is not fair to associate Reagan's presidency with the huge national debt only. The writer should have also highlighted Reagan's resolve to broaden tax base that raised revenue equal to 4% of existing tax revenue.
The writer should have also talked of 1981 tax cuts and the Tax Reform Act of 1986 that positively impacted different aspects of the lives of the Americans. It is true that Reagan's administration was opposed to Soviet communism. Other than going for containment, Reagan felt that ommunism could only be fought using the policy…
Conservatism has played critical role in the American political landscape since the 1950's. However, as the writer puts it, it gained much currency during President Ronald Reagan's spell at presidency. The writer's assertion that strong conservative movements existed even before the 1980's and that their strength in absolute numbers was determined by political and economic factors is very true. William F. Buckley, the founder and editor of the National Review, is a clear manifestation to this. He clearly articulated the ideals of conservatives even before the 1980's. The writer's assertion that Reagan's ascendancy to power and presidency made the conservatives to clearly and vocally express their views is very true. President Reagan gave voice to the opinions of the vast majority of Americans with the Bully Pulpit of the American presidency. Reagan was a great communicator. This is evidenced in the way he defined conservatism. He asserted that the heart and soul of conservatism is libertarianism and the basis of conservatism is a desire for less government interference. This made him connect easily with the ordinary citizens.
The goals and values of conservative movement like the rule of law, fiscal conservatism, limited government intervention, individual responsibility, strong family values, and attention to the core values of Judeo-Christian Ethics, as the writer puts, can be summarized into overall reduction of taxation, the policy of rolling back communism, strengthening family values, and enhancing conservative Christian morality.
When Reagan ascended to the presidency, politicians began courting the powerful Christian right for their votes because they were capable of articulating their desires, a departure from the past when they were shouted down by less than shy liberals. This made the conservatives a significant force in the American politics as the writer notes. Issues relating to family values and pro-life positions were openly talked about. It is true that American voters now identify themselves as very conservative, conservative, or moderate.
ichard Nixon focused on the economic matters in his initial six months of his tenure with the advice of former president ichard Nixon. The concept of eaganomics was associated with the supply-oriented economic theorem which formed the basis of the economic policies of eagan. (eaganomics Debate: Did eaganomics improve the Economy?) "The consistent and distinct theme of this program, in onald eagan's words was that only by reducing the growth of government can we increase the growth of the economy" (The Future of eaganomics) The Program for Economic ecovery introduced by eagan during 1981 had four major goals such as abatement in the government expenditure, a decline in the marginal tax rates on capital and labor incomes, reduction in economic control and reduction in rate of inflation regulating the growth in the supply of money. Such variations in the policies consequently were anticipated to enhance the saving and investment…
Niskanen, William A. (December 7, 1988) "The Future of Reaganomics" Retrieved from http://www.cato.org/research/articles/niskanen-881207.html Accessed on 7 December, 2004
Niskanen, William A. "Reaganomics" Retrieved from http://www.econlib.org/library/Enc/Reaganomics.html Accessed on 7 December, 2004
"Reaganomics Debate: Did Reaganomics improve the Economy?" Retrieved from http://www.youdebate.com/DEBATES/REAGANOMICS.HTM Accessed on 7 December, 2004
"Reaganomics: The Reagan Years" Retrieved from http://www.cnn.com/SPECIALS/2001/reagan.years/whitehouse/reaganomics.html Accessed on 7 December, 2004
The Great Depression required restructuring of the economy in order to address the causes and effects of that crisis. It was more successful when some of the ill-conceived elements of the New Deal were discarded, but the measures undertaken paved the way for the strong growth of the latter 20th century. Reaganomics itself does not promote strong growth, but it worked in the short run, and some of Reagan's other policies ultimately promoted strong growth.
Thus, it is difficult to determine which of the two worked better. Had Reaganomics been attempted in the Great Depression it may have failed because it was not a wholesale restructuring of the economy. The New Deal would have been largely redundant in Reagan's time and in any event most of its policy prescriptions would not have addressed the specific problems that Reagan faced. Neither policy can be said to have definitively improved its respective…
Aiginger, K. (2010). The Great Recession vs. The Great Depression: Stylized facts on siblings that were given different foster parents. Economics e-Journal. Retrieved November 25, 2010 from http://www.economics-ejournal.org/economics/journalarticles/2010-18
Bandyk, M. (2008). Did the New Deal work? USA Today. Retrieved November 25, 2010 from http://money.usnews.com/money/business-economy/articles/2008/04/11/did-the-new-deal-work.html
Brokaw, T. & Thompson, a. (2004). Ronald Reagan's economic legacy. NBC Universal. Retrieved November 25, 2010 from http://icue.nbcunifiles.com/icue/files/icue/site/pdf/2446.pdf
Cole, H. & Ohanian, L. (2009). How government prolonged the Depression. Wall Street Journal. Retrieved November 25, 2010 from http://online.wsj.com/article/SB123353276749137485.html
When Ronald Reagan was sworn in as the 40th President, he spent his two terms enacting a series of economic policies that were known as Reaganomics. The policies were a response to challenging economic conditions of the time, a strong mandate from voters, and a desire to test certain conservative economic ideas on a large scale. This paper will examine what these policies were, and whether or not they achieved their objectives.
The post-war decades of the 50s and 60s saw steady economic gains, but this run was disrupted in the 1970s, in particular by shocks to oil prices. For an economy built on cheap oil, these price shocks created significant turmoil in all aspects of the economy. When Reagan was sworn in in 1981, the country was suffering through what was known as stagflation, a condition where inflation rates were high, accompanied by persistent high unemployment…
Adams, W. & Brock, J. (1988) Reaganomics and the transmogrification of merger policy. The Antitrust Bulletin. Vol 33 (1988) 309.
Agnew, S. (1991). The US trade and budget deficits in global perspective: An essay in geopolitical economy. Environment and Planning. Vol. 9 (1)
Bergsten, F. (1981) The cost of Reaganomics. Foreign Policy. Vol. 44, (Autumn 1981) 24-36.
Blanchard, O. (1987). Reaganomics. Economic Policy Vol 2 (5) 15-56.
Stimulus Bill Political Communication
Political Communication during the Stimulus Bill Debate
In times of economic uncertainty and national emergency, the government has the capacity to make decisions that it believes will aid the country in its time of need. Such a time of need occurred in 2009 when the country continued to face an existence of dire economic circumstances involving national cash-flow and jobs. In order to set economic recovery into motion, President Obama called for the passing of the American ecovery and einvestment Act of 2009 (AA), otherwise regarded as the stimulus bill. While such a bill was considered pivotal by many government officials in order to get the country back on its feet, crucial differences in policy and bill structure could be viewed in assessing the opinions Democrats and epublicans brought to the floor in terms of the bill's passing. In understanding the basis of the bill itself,…
Alarkon, W. (2009 January 25). Boehner says he will vote no on stimulus. The Hill. Web.
Retrieved from: http://www.thehill.com/leading-the-news/boehner-says-he-will-vote-no-on-stimulus-2009-01-25.html on 19 October 2011.
Associated Press. (2009 February 2). Obama calls Senate stimulus vote a good start.
Web. Retrieved from: http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/29118636 / on 19 October 2011.
Reagan and the 1980s
President Ronal Reagan served two terms, lasting from 1981 to 1989. During his tenure, he is noted for economic policies that favored the wealthy and a conservative agenda that took care of business interests at the expense of social efforts. More than fifteen years after Reagan's tenure, we still see his influence not only in the things he changed in the 1980s, but also in the politics and economic policies of current conservatives, particularly true of current President George W. ush who, like Reagan, will also enjoy eight years to push his supply-side agenda.
In the year before Reagan took office, 1980, the United States economy was stagnant (Reaganomics). Inflation was 13.5% and unemployment was 7.1%. Gross domestic product (GDP) had only grown 2.8% from 1974 to 1981. Americans were anxious for a new agenda and Reagan responded with a different economic approach commonly referred to…
Gumbel, A. (2004, January 6). How the war machine is driving the U.S. economy. Independent. Retrieved November 14, 2005 from Web site: http://www.commondreams.org/views04/0106-12.htm
Kamin, D. And Shapiro, I. (2004, September 13). Studies shed new light on effects of administration's tax cuts. Retrieved November 14, 2005 from Web site: http://www.cbpp.org/8-25-04tax.htm
Niskanen, W.A. And Moore, S. (1996, October 22). Supply tax cuts and the truth about the Reagan economic record. Cato Policy Analysis No. 261. Retrieved November 14, 2005 from Web site: http://www.cato.org/pubs/pas/pa-261.html
Reagan administration. Retrieved November 14, 2005 from Web site: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reagan_administration
Reagan era economics and uses the economic era as a foundational support for the economic boom of the 1990's. The writer explores various published works regarding the Reagan Economic era including discussions about the trickle down theory and voodoo economics to lay the building blocks to explain the boom of the 1990's.
The economic boom of the 1990's brought America to heights it had not seen in many years. People were able to purchase what they wanted, when they wanted and in the quantity they wanted. The housing market soared and the quality standard of life seemed to improve more many Americans. It was a decade of self-discovery, and a decade of exciting stock, housing, auto and other economic avenues to explode. It lasted long enough for residents of this nation to become comfortable spending and that comfort drove the spending up. This in turn drove the economy forward and…
ASK SOMEONE ABOUT THE REAGAN YEARS AND YOU'RE LIABLE TO HEAR A VARIETY OF ANSWERS... (Accessed 10-10-2002). http://members.tripod.com/~BluEyedMan/
Author not available, Reagan economics didn't work in U.S. - or here., The Toronto Star, (1999): May.
Author not available, REAGAN TAX CUTS WERE FAIR TO EVERYONE., The Record (Bergen County, NJ),(1994): February. pp b04.
Author not available, The rising tide. The Washington Times (1999): July. pp B2.
Many young people voted for Reagan as he represented rebellion against the authority figures in society but was a rebellion characterized by valiance and effectuated through skillful communication. The approval rating of Reagan was approximately 42% when 1982 began but dropped to the record low 35% later that same year. The U.S. entered a recession. If one is to set their focus upon obtaining a chance at being the President of the United States, then that individual must take a political stance and hold a view that is somewhat differential from the opposing party. In the case of Ronald Reagan, who had been a democrat for most of his life, it was the democratic party that he must debate against in the attempt to establish a better public platform that the opposing candidate. Ronald Reagan may be viewed as a 'come-lately' at the time he entered the political scene at…
Jordan, C. (2003) Movies and the Reagan Presidency: Success and Ethics. Praeger June, 2003.
McChesney, R.W. And Nichols, J. (2002) Our Media, Not Theirs: The Democratic Struggle against Corporate Media. Seven Stories Press, 2002.
Curry, Tom (2004) Ronald Reagan, 1911-2004: An Indefatibable optimist who set American on a Consdervative Course: MSNBC Online avaialble at http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/3638299/
Kashani, Tony (2004) Hollywood as an Agent of Hegemony: The War Film. Dissendent Voice Online available at http://www.dissidentvoice.org/Aug04/Kashani0807.htm
McLaren and Farahmandpur conceive of the new imperialism as a "combination of old-style military and financial practices as well as recent attempts by developed nations to impose the law of the market on the whole of humanity itself" (2001, 136).
McLaren and Farahmandpur note, too, that the concept of class division is a taboo subject within the "guarded precincts of academic discourse, leaving discussions of class out of discussions of global capitalism, exploitation and oppression linked to capitalism. Certainly, this was true in the Martha Stewart case. The media was at pains to point out how well accepted she was by the other inmates, pointing out that she hadn't even won the Christmas decorating contest. Every once in a while, to use George Orwell's mythology, some of the more equal pigs must appear to be less equal in order to convince the less equal pigs that all pigs are equal.…
Halsall, P. (1997, Aug.) "Olympe de Gouge: Declaration of the Rights of Women, 1791." Modern History Sourcebook. Retrieved March 23, 2005 at http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1791degouge1.html
Krishnan, R. (1996, May). December 1995: "The first revolt against globalization." Monthly Review, 48, 1+. Retrieved March 23, 2005, from Questia database, http://www.questia.com .
McLaren, P., & Farahmandpur, R. (2001). "Teaching against globalization and the new imperialism: Toward a revolutionary pedagogy." Journal of Teacher Education, 52(2), 136. Retrieved March 23, 2005, from Questia database,
Successes of President Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan was America's 40th president. He is among America's most influential presidents. He was able to make several positive contributions to the development of the American Republic. America grew to be a stronger superpower during his tenure as president. Ronald Reagan was also once a governor of California State before being elected president of the United States. Before joining politics, he spent much of his time in Hollywood and came out a polished public relations individual. The Hollywood experience made him fit for public appeal. At Hollywood, he was also able to rise to a leadership level when he was elected the president of the Hollywood Actors Guild. This paper seeks to reveal the successes of Ronald Reagan and their effect on America's destiny.
The successes of Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan contributed to the American nation. One contribution that he is associated with was…
Sibley, Katherine A.S. The Cold War. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood, 2010. Print.
White, John Kenneth. "Ronald Reagan: The Power of Conviction and the Success of His Presidency.(Book Review)." Presidential Studies Quarterly 1 Mar. 2014. Print.
He would sometimes be wheel chaired to the door through which he would enter to make a public appearance, but once at the door, his leg braces would be put on him, and he would rely on his son's arm for support and balance (43-48). Later, with his son's support, he was able to use a cane, and the extent of his disability was successfully downplayed by the force of his political platform and the attention he commanded with powerful words and the presentation of himself in a dignified way with strong posture (43-48).
"Deeply concerned that the image of a 'permanently crippled man' seeking to lead a crippled nation out of the Depression would be damaging to his campaign, oosevelt's aides every effort to portray the Democratic nominee as a man who had conquered polio and who could walk. As he traveled across the country, his leg braces, without…
Bardes, Barbara A., Shelley, Mark C., Schmidt, Steffen W. (2008).
American Government and Politics Today: The Essentials,
Coates, Peter A. (2006). American Perceptions of Immigrant and Invasive
Species: Strangers on the Land,
In many respects, Milk's broad political objectives emphasizing the responsibility of government to solve the problems of its citizens may have been more effective in furthering gay rights than the more militant or at least confrontational approach taken by many of his contemporaries as well as those of others since his assassination (Marcus, 2002).
Specifically, Milk acknowledged but never directly promoted his own homosexuality and in his responsibilities in local government, Milk responded to citizens' complaints about matters such as roads that needed potholes repaired and the need for local ordinances pertaining to the mandatory cleanup of dog droppings. More importantly, in a town with many gay residents who were not parents, Milk opposed the closing of an elementary school under the proposition that the community must be equally welcoming of everybody and not reflect the needs of any groups over those of others, regardless of their respective prominence (Marcus,…
References Marcus, E. (2002). Making Gay History. New York: HarperCollins.
Reeves, R. (2005). President Reagan: The Triumph of Imagination. New York: Simon & Schuster.
S. interests in that part of the world. Then, on January 17, 1991, the U.S. launched the first attack, with more than 4,000 bombing runs. After 100 hours, Bush called off the offensive, saying he wanted to minimize U.S. casualties.
Though Bush was criticized for this withdrawal being premature, the U.S. made a retreat from Kuwait after the successful offensive, and Bush's approval ratings reached new highs.
Bush announced in early 1992, that he would run again for President, and his reelection looked probable. However, higher taxes and uncontrolled economic problems brought his term to an end in 1992, and Bush lost to Bill Clinton. Bush was running as a conservative, but so were oss Perot and Pat Buchanan (who ran against him for the epublican nomination).
In order to defeat Pat Buchanan's bid for the epublican nomination, Bush declared even more conservative stances. Though he defeated Pat Buchanan, oss…
Farnsworth, S.J. And Lichter, S.R. (2004), New presidents and network news: covering the first year in office of Ronald Reagan, Bill Clinton, and George W. Bush, Presidential Studies Quarterly, Vol. 34:3, 29 Jul 2004, 674.
Frye, T. (1999). Changes in Post-Communist Presidential Power: Political Economy Explanation. A paper prepared for Ohio State University. Retrieved November 19, 2008 at http://kellogg.nd.edu/events/pdfs/Frye.pdf
Kelley, C.S., and Marshall, B.W. (2006). The Last Mover Advantage: Presidential Powers and the Role of Signing Statements, Chicago, IL. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Midwest Political Science Association, Palmer House Hilton, Chicago, Illinois. Retrieved November 19, 2008 at http://www.allacademic.com/meta/p139737_index.html.
Mann, J. (2002). The ghost of the oval office, New York Times, October 4, 2002.
It was a poor policy at best, and the President's Cabinet approved the plan, even if he did not. In fact, Congress specifically denied the request to send money to the Contras, so it was done in secret, and this violated the law and the trust of the nation. It was dishonest, it was covert, and it cast a dark cloud over the presidency and eagan's own motives.
In comparison, oosevelt has his own legacy of poor judgement, too. oosevelt tried to pack the Supreme Court by proposing to add new justices, and many believe he pointed the country toward socialism.
oosevelt felt the Supreme Court was too conservative when they overthrew many of the social changes he had created in the New Deal. He felt they were not following the Constitution in their decisions, but were following their own feelings. He wanted to bring the number of Supreme Court…
Felzenberg, Alvin S. "There You Go Again:" Liberal Historians and the 'New York Times' Deny Ronald Reagan His Due." Policy Review, no. 82 (1997): 51+.
McKenna, Marian C. Franklin Roosevelt and the Great Constitutional War: The Court-Packing Crisis of 1937. New York: Fordham University Press, 2002.
Reagan, Ronald. 2008. Inaugural Address. [Online] available from the Internet at http://www.americanpresidents.org/inaugural/39a.aspaccessed 3 May 2008.
Siracusa, Joseph M., and David G. Coleman. Depression to Cold War: A History of America from Herbert Hoover to Ronald Reagan. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2002.
urrently the United States consumes more than 19.6 million barrels of oil per day, which is more than 25% of the world's total oil consumption. Through its isolationist policy agenda, the U.S. government has been able to leverage its military and economic might to control most of oil production in South America. Instead of attempting to restructure the financial infrastructure of South American oil producers such as Panama, Ecuador and Peru, the United States has promoted a policy of singular reliance on U.S. aid. As a result, the United States receives the majority of advantages conferred by these country's vast oil supplies. Similarly, the United States has used its military might to create strong unilateral connections with OPE nations as well. Subtly, the United States has reached secret agreements with the Saud family of Saudi Arabia to maintain their current royal hierarchy with U.S. military protection as long as they…
Cole, Wayne S. (1981). "Gerald P. Nye and Agrarian Bases for the Rise and Fall of American Isolationism." In John N. Schacht (Ed.), Three Faces of Midwestern Isolationism: Gerald P. Nye, Robert P. Wood, John L. Lewis (pp. 1-10). Iowa City: The Center for the Study of the Recent History of the United States.
Schacht, John N. (Ed.). (1981). Three Faces of Midwestern Isolationism: Gerald P. Nye, Robert P. Wood, John L. Lewis. Iowa City: The Center for the Study of the Recent History of the United States.
Hanks, Richard K. "Hamilton Fish and the American Isolationism, 1920-1944." Ph.D. dissertation, University of California, Riverside, 1971.
Corporate executive pay needs to be reconsidered. Proponents of corporate greed will claim all sorts of outlandish reasons why their mansion on the iviera is benefitting the worker making $7 per hour in the fields. Companies will even use spurious research methods to justify corporate executive pay. The Institute for Policy Studies and the Center for Corporate Policy (2007) notes that "amounts for restricted stock, pension benefits, deferred compensation, and severance pay" are rarely factored into the evaluations of corporate executive pay to make it look like chief executives are not making as much as they actually are. Hiding money, misreporting money, and misreporting data are just a few of the ways corporate America is ruining America. It is high time the people of the United States took back their nation from the greedy corporate executives. A score of executives are laughing all the way to the bank while millions…
AFL-CIO (2011). 2011 Executive Paywatch. Retrieved online: http://www.aflcio.org/corporatewatch/paywatch/
Anderson, S., Pizzigati, S. Collins, C. & Cavanagh, J. (2007). Selfish interest. Center for Corporate Policy.
DeCarlo, S. & Zajac, B. (2009). CEO Compensation. Forbes. Retrieved online: http://www.forbes.com/2009/04/22/executive-pay-ceo-leadership-compensation-best-boss-09-ceo_land.html
Domhoff, G.W. (2005). Welath, income, and power. Who Rules America. Retrieved online: http://sociology.ucsc.edu/whorulesamerica/power/wealth.html
So, the rightness of the claim that the CIA needed more money cannot be supported by the fruition of terrorist attacks.
Hannity moves on into a discussion regarding immigration and the U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service -- or INS. Essentially, Hannity feels that the Immigration Act of 1965 makes it entirely too easy for illegal immigrants to exploit loopholes in the present legislation. In particular, he mentions how illegal immigrants are able to overstay their visits here in the United States and to obtain legal certifications like drivers' licenses in the process. Hannity believes that the INS is altogether too soft on illegal immigration and that this softness, created by the Clinton administration, has resulted in numerous social problems and contributed to the terrorist threat. He states:
This system that absolutely must be fixed before terrorists use such loopholes to strike us again. Illegal aliens must be incarcerated, not allowed…
Hannity, Sean. Let Freedom Ring. New York: HarperCollins Publishers, 2002.
Ever since Adam Smith demonstrated in The Wealth of Nations (1776) that individuals would be better off if they specialize, instead of trying to be economically self-sufficient, countries across the world have tried to apply the same principle to international trade. It is argued that all countries would be better off if they exchange the products and services that they are relatively good at producing for those things that other countries are relatively better at producing. David icardo (1772-1823), British economist and businessman, through his theory of Comparative Advantage went on to "prove" that it can be beneficial for two countries to trade, even if one of them is able to produce each item more cheaply than the other.
The colonialist powers, particularly Britain, had realized the benefits of international trade after its industrial revolution although it is highly debatable whether such trade was beneficial for the colonies…
Dollar, D. And Kraay, A. (2001). "Trade, Growth, and Poverty." Development Research Group: The World Bank. [Available online] Accessed on November 05, 2004 from http://econ.worldbank.org/files/2207_wps2615.pdf
Moore, Richard K. (1999). "Achieving a Livable, Peaceful World." Part I - Corporate rule and global ruin. Introduction. [Available online] Accessed on November 05, 2004 from http://cyberjournal.org/cj/rkm/alpw/p1.intro.html
Nordstrom, H. And Vaughan, S. (1999) "Trade and Environment." Special Study: World Trade Organization. [Available online] Accessed on November 05, 2004 from http://www.wto.org/english/tratop_e/envir_e/environment.pdf
'The Rural Poverty Trap." (2004). Oxfam Briefing Paper # 59. [Available online] Accessed on November 05, 2004 from http://www.maketradefair.com/en/assets/bp59_The_Rural_Poverty_Trap.pdf
discrimination in U.S.
There are people still alive today who remember Jim Crow laws. Half a century ago, segregation of drinking fountains, public restrooms, public buses, and public schools was still legal. Fifty years ago blacks in many states could not make a living except to work in jobs that resembled slavery in their wages and work conditions. The Civil Rights movement ostensibly changed everything. Yet decades of political correctness and affirmative action have all but glossed over the deeply rooted problems of racism and other forms of injustice evident in the daily lives of many Americans. African-Americans are also not the only minority group to suffer from systematic discrimination. Half of all Americans -- black, white, rich poor -- experience daily discrimination at home and in the workplace. Less than a hundred years ago, women could not even vote. Suffrage created twice as many voters and like the Civil…
U.S. Economy Since orld ar II
economy is the largest in the world but has the most unequal distribution of wealth among all the developed countries of the world. The major reason for this inequality is that since the Second orld ar most U.S. governments have tended to favor the wealthy and the corporate sector while formulating their economic policies. Such "rich friendly" policies have become more pronounced since the early 1980s and continue to this day to the detriment of the society and the economy. This essay gives an overview of the post-orld ar II U.S. economy and outlines the ways in which various U.S. administrations have enacted policies favoring the corporate sector and the wealthy.
The 18th century British economist Adam Smith advocated the benefits of a Laissez faire economy in his The ealth of Nations (1776) by proclaiming that a "free economy" in which every individual…
'Eisenhower, Dwight David." Encarta Online Encyclopedia 2004. December 17, 2004.
"Harry S. Truman (1945-1953)" American President.org. 8/26/2004. December 17, 2004. http://www.americanpresident.org/history/harrytruman/
"How Unequal Are We, Anyway?." A Statistical Briefing Book. Inequality.org. July, 2004. December 17, 2004. http://www.inequality.org/facts.html
Another lesson to be learned is the importance of reflective thinking, in which teachers and students reflect on their actions (Griffin, 2003). eflective thinking is particularly important as it ensures that people learn from their behavior, and it endows them with heightened self-awareness. For example, through reflective thinking the teachers in each of the critical incidents would understand the importance of using positive reinforcement, which has been shown to alleviate many disciplinary issues (Tulley and Chu, 1995).
Another lesson is that in addition to open communication, there must be collaborative interaction between students and teachers whereby they engage in a continuous and mutually supportive dialogue (Neale et al., 2000). Collaborative interaction resembles open communication, but is grounded in action rather than just dialogue. Implementing collaborative action would ensure that the needs of the intellectually curious students (the student in the United States history class and the one in the 8th…
Griffin, M.L. (2003). Using critical incidents to promote and assess reflective thinking in preservice teachers. Reflective Practice: International and Multidisciplinary Perspectives, 4(2), 207-220.
Neale, D.C., et al. (2000). Collaborative critical incident development. Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Annual Meeting, 44(37), 598-601.
Tulley, M., & Chu, L.H. (1995). Student teachers and classroom discipline. The Journal of Education Research, 88(3), 164-171.
Watts, M., et al. (1997). Prompting teachers' constructive reflection: Pupils' questions as critical incidents. International Journal of Science Education, 19(9), 1025-1037.
Economic Events: 1980-1989
the decade of greed. The era of onald eagan when the rich got richer and the poor got poorer. Despite this common wisdom, 1980 started off auspiciously. On May 8, 1980 the World Health Organization hailed "one of the century's greatest medical accomplishments," the final and total eradication of smallpox (Dickson 247). But how quickly times change - barely a quarter century has passed and this same disease is making headlines once again.
Attitudes change also. While many in this day and age would still agree that the 1980's was a selfish period in American history, a sea-change has occurred in the rhetoric issuing forth from Washington D.C. In a very fundamental way, party politics has been thrust aside as concerns for homeland security take precedence over petty partisanship. Michael Barone notes this in his analysis of a speech made by Democrat ichard Gephardt in the Summer…
Barone, Michael. "The loyal opposition." U.S. News and World Report. 13 June 2003. 14
March 2003 http://www.usnews.com/usnews/opinion/baroneweb/mb_020613.htm.
Case, Karl E., and Ray C. Fair. "Principles of Economics." Prentice Hall, Inc. Englewood
Cliffs, NJ 1992.
The workforce in America is rapidly aging. This rapidly aging workforce creates challengers for organizations that must manage an aging workforce. The purpose of this discussion is to explore the challenges of managing an aging workforce within any given organization. This topic is of particular interest because many older baby boomers are retiring while other are choosing to work well passed the retirement age and managers must devise ways to manage such a workforce.
Employers must understand the challenges that may arise, as an aging workforce becomes part of the fabric of the organization. If employers do not attempt to understand and implement solutions for managing an aging workforce their organizations will suffer greatly. Let us begin our discussion be explaining why the aging workforce is such an issue in the current workforce.
Description of the organization and problem
The organization that we will focus on during the…
Dohm, A. (2000). Gauging the Labor Force Effects of Retiring Baby-Boomers. Monthly Labor Review, 123(7), 17.
The Relationship between Luxury Purchase as Conspicuous Consumption and Y Generation -Take Designer rands for Example
Conspicuous consumption is a complex concept that requires a great deal of quandary. Conspicuous consumption is often thought of as unnecessary spending or the purchasing of products that are not necessities. Increases in upward mobility have increased conspicuous consumption patterns in nations around the world.
Marketing professionals are eager to find the target markets that engage in conspicuous consumption. The purpose of this thesis was to examine the conspicuous consumption of the Y Generation in Taiwan.
Our research found that there are clear differences between luxuries and necessities and that the characteristics that distinguish each can differ from country to country. The discussion also discovered that conspicuous consumption is defined as "the consumption of goods and services on a grand scale for the purpose of demonstrating pecuniary power rather than that of…
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Golden boys and girls." 2004. The Economist. 27 June 2004. http://kd.mysearch.myway.com/jsp/LSmain.jsp?st=bar&ptnrS=KD&searchfor= www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000562893
Ackerman, Frank. "Consumed in Theory: Alternative Perspectives on the Economics of Consumption." Journal of Economic Issues 31.3 (1997): 651+. http://www.questia.com /PM.qst?a=o&d=5000812153
Bao, Yeqing, and Alan T. Shao. "Nonconformity Advertising to Teens." Journal of Advertising Research 42.3 (2002): 56+.
The Rooseveltian Nation was initially envisioned by Theodore Roosevelt during the epoch in which the U.S. triumphed in the Spanish American war and heralded its largely Anglo-Saxon nation of limited diversity as the most dominant race of a particular nation on the face of the earth. This concept was further solidified by the efforts of Franklin Delano Roosevelt, who strove to reinforce the notion of such a national consciousness, character, and racial makeup with his New Deal efforts. However, the Rooseveltian Nation ultimately crumbled due to a plethora of developments near the midway point of the 20th century. A close examination of those factors reveals that they were ultimately linked to the Cold War and to what many Americans believed was an inherent hypocrisy evinced by their country -- which left a number of new ideologies among them in their wake.
The Rooseveltian Nation was able to withstand…
1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights
Rousseau stated in his Social Contract that “Man is born free—and everywhere he is in chains.”[footnoteRef:2] The insistence on man’s nature right of freedom from the Enlightenment Era philosopher helped pave the way for the French Revolution with its insistence on liberty, fraternity and equality. A century and a half later, those same ideals would still hold significant appeal for the Western nations, especially following two World Wars in the 20th century that decimated Europe and parts of Asia. Liberalism was the main driver of the UN’s declaration of human rights—but the coming Cold War, the onset of which was very much in the minds of world leaders immediately following the carve-up of Europe between the unlikely Allies (capitalists in the West, Communists in the East), also played a part in the declaration: the West was anxious to promote itself as the standard bearer…
One of the most interesting ethical dilemmas that continues to plague ethicists and policymakers is the struggle to reconcile the need for free enterprise with the need for social justice. Another ongoing ethical issue is related to organizational culture, shifting social norms, and whether individual actors in organizations define the tenor of the organization as a whole. Neither of these genuine ethical dilemmas can be resolved simply. The first bears itself out in what often appear to be glaring violations of every ethical principle and logical construct. Free enterprise has helped to bolster economic growth and development, as well as to empower individuals to innovate and contribute to society. Yet free enterprise has not been truly free, with access to power and resources constrained by factors like race (Kerr & Walsh, 2014), gender (Tufarolo, 2015), and class (Shin, 2014). Of these variables, race and gender remain salient barriers to achieving…
PESIDENT EAGAN'S HUMAN IGHTS ECOD
Was onald eagan a Good President?
President eagan's International Human ights ecord
President eagan's International Human ights ecord
The Cold War and Apartheid
On September 26, 1986, President onald eagan (1986) sent a message to the House of epresentatives that he would not sign into law H.. 4868 because it imposed punitive economic sanctions against South Africa as a whole. His stated rationale was that the people most affected by the sanctions would be the Black workers, not the ruling White elite. eagan agreed that apartheid needed to end, but not at the expense of those already suffering the most under White rule. On the surface this logic seems admirable, even honorable, but others have questioned eagan's motives. Although eagan did not use the exact phrase "constructive engagement," this term would come to represent his policy stance towards apartheid. eagan's message to the House followed…
Bruce, D. (2005). Interpreting the body count: South African statistics on lethal police violence. South African Review of Sociology, 36(2), 141-59.
Bush, R. (1985). Reagan and state terrorism in Southern Africa. Crime and Social Justice, 0 (24), i-x.
Reagan, R.W. (1986, Sep. 26). Message to the House of Representatives returning without approval a Bill concerning apartheid in South Africa. Ronald Reagan Presidential Library. Accessed 6 Feb. 2014 at http://www.reagan.utexas.edu/search/speeches/speech_srch.html.
Reagan, R.W. (1987, Jun. 12). Remarks on East-West relations at the Brandenburg Gate in West Berlin. Accessed 6 Feb. 2014 at http://www.reagan.utexas.edu/search/speeches/speech_srch.html.