Real Estate Essays (Examples)

View Full Essay

How to Enhance CAMA Systems

Words: 1243 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90669914

Method to Improve Municipal Real Estate Valuations, Increase Municipal Revenue Generation and Income Loss Reduction Through Enhanced Computer Assisted Mass Appraisal Systems (CAMA) Methodology
The Computer Assisted Mass Appraisal System (CAMA) is a widely-used system of appraisal found all around the world. As the International Association of Assessing Officers (IAAO, 2014) notes, “mass appraisal (valuation) is required when many properties need to be valued economically and en masse for a purpose such as annual property taxation” (p. 5). CAMA systems are designed to make that appraisal process simple. The Massachusetts Department of Revenue Division of Local Services/Bureau of Assessment (2016) adds that CAMA valuation “involves automated applications of the sales comparison, cost, and income approaches to value. A good system should support all three approaches.” Mass valuation practices are common globally, from North America to Europe to South Africa and to the East. To give the scope of how…… [Read More]

Federal Land Cadastre Service of Russia, 2001. Land (Real Estate) Mass Valuation
Systems for Taxation Purposes in Europe [online]. Available at:  [Accessed 28 Oct 2017].
IAAO, 2014. Guidance on international mass appraisal and related tax policy. Kansas
City, International Association of Assessing Officers.
Massachusetts Department of Revenue Division of Local Services/Bureau of Assessment,
2016. Guidelines on CAMA system acquisitions [online]. Available at:  [Accessed 28 Oct 2017].
SAIV, 2015. South african standard on generally recognised valuation practice:
Municipal valuations for property rating [online]. Available at: [Accessed 28 Oct 2017].
View Full Essay

Blockchain-based Property Ownership Recording System

Words: 640 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72842866

Buying land in Palestine, especially outside the cities, is problematic. In the cities, it is very expensive. Outside the cities, there are few title deeds or evidence of legal ownership, which is a factor that can be utilized by Israeli settlers seizing property on the West Bank. While Palestinians may like to own property, the cities have priced them out, and the outer regions are risky. To address the risk, blockchain technology can be used to verify ownership and the history of ownership so that the threat of settlers seizing the property at a future date is reduced.
What is blockchain technology? Blockchain is a technological revolutionary data chain that essentially tells the history of any asset to which it is attached. It is used in everything from smart contracts to cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin. As Alex Mizrahi notes, “For any kind of a high value property (real estate, cars, art)…… [Read More]

Works Cited
Mizrahi, Alex. “A Blockchain-based Property Ownership Recording System.”
View Full Essay

Real Property Is Often Restricted

Words: 648 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62845853

(California EPA Land Use Regulations and Covenants NP) Without such covenants and restriction there is a clear sense that ignorance would drive selfish decisions about property use that could have lasting effects on the property and the whole region.

Thomas Jefferson, would have been unlikely to have experienced the extreme nature of environmental devastation that can be caused by overuse or poor use of land and property. In Jefferson's time questions regarding individual rights were the questions of the day. Questions regarding how toxic substances leech into groundwater was limited to urban human waste not complicated chemical agents. Additionally, there is a clear sense that individuals and agencies are far more informed today about environmental issues and their long-term impacts on the earth than ever before. This information and the abuse of it has broad implications on the earth as well as future planning and development. One example of the…… [Read More]

Glossary of Real Estate Abbreviations, Terms and Phrases, 

California EPA Department of Toxic Substance Control LAND USE COVENANTS REGULATIONS, 

Property Law for Dummies,
View Full Essay

Real Options Theory in Financial

Words: 2677 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40789768

The reason that the subject lends itself to natural resources or real estate is that there will be some information available in those areas, making the valuation less difficult than in innovative areas.

The pessimistic approach is characterized by the divest/shrink option. When a firm is divesting or shrinking it can first scale down, which means that it can "shrink or shut down a project part way through if new information changes the expected payoffs;" this option lends itself to capital intensive industries or industries dealing with financial services (Mauboussin, 1999). ather than shutting down a project, a company can also choose to switch down, which involves switching "to more cost-effective and flexible assets as new information is obtained," and might be used in smaller companies, where the wholesale shut-down of a project could end a business (Mauboussin, 1999). The scope-down option is the mirror image of the above-mentioned scope-up…… [Read More]


Discounted cash flow- DCF. (2009). Retrieved February 2, 2009, from

Web site: 

Espinoza, R.D. And Luccioni, L.X. (2007). Simplified investment valuation model for projects with technical uncertainty and time to build. Retrieved February 1, 2009, from Web site: 

Giat, Y., Hackman, S., and Subramanian, a. (2007). Risk, uncertainty and optimism in venture capital relationships. (2007). Retrieved February 3, 2009, from Web site:
View Full Essay

Real Costs of 'For Sale

Words: 2495 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83987969

For instance, in a hot market, with a highly desirable home, For Sale By Owner may be the most profitable option, foregoing any realtor fees, and retaining much of the selling price. However, if something goes wrong, this equation could quickly turn to favor the protection of a realtor. The following chart summarizes the advantages and disadvantages of both selling methods. It uses a $300,000 home and several assumptions to explore the feasibility of both selling options. This scenario will assume that the home is already paid off and there is no mortgage. It will also assume that all taxes are paid and that no litigation results from the sale. It will also assume that the home needs no outstanding repairs as a result of the sale.

Fig.1. Sale by Realtor




Asking price of home


Realtor fees (avg. 6%)


Home Inspection


Home Owner's arranty…… [Read More]

Works Cited

KeytLaw. Affordable Fixed Price Legal Services. 2009.

<  >. Accessed May 1, 2009.

ListByOwnerOnMLS.Com. List on MLS, Flat Fee MLS Listing. 2009.

<  >. Accessed May 1, 2009.
View Full Essay

Clients About Estate and Gift

Words: 3229 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99469750

So your wife can renounce the business given to her and then pass it without gift tax to the children. Disclaimers must be made within 9 months of the death of the first decedent if they are to avoid gift tax. An appropriate disclaimer may also be a very effective tool to assist in a poorly written estate plan.


The joint tenancy form of ownership could result in many unintended and unfavorable consequences. For example, the entire property is usually subject to attachment by a creditor of any one of the joint tenants. There are also significant estate, gift, and income tax problems that are created from joint tenancy. If not given attention and consideration as part of a comprehensive estate plan, holding property together as a couple, can create bad results in terms of overpaying taxes.

Explanation: Solely half of the value of property held…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Federal Legislation and Impact to the Real

Words: 811 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71379615

Federal Legislation and Impact to the eal Estate Market

Federal Legislation and Impact to the eal Estate

The Constitution was written to outline the limits of the federal government, to protect the people and to protect the people from government. The government is also obligated to ensure that all people have the opportunity to acquire property by ensuring the housing market is free from discriminatory and predatory practices. For these reasons I support federal government efforts to regulate the housing arena to ensure fairness, accessibility and equity in the market. I also support the federal government role in efforts to restore the market and to provide resources and assistance to help avoid foreclosure. For example, the Fair Housing Act was enacted in 1968 to "remove the walls of discrimination which enclose minority groups" to address the rampant issue of racial segregation in both public and private housing. I believe this…… [Read More]


Collins, Michelle. "Opening Doors to Fair Housing: Enforcing the Affirmatively Further Provision of the Fair Housing Act Through 42 U.S.C § 1983" Columbia Law Review Vol. 110:2135-2010: 2137-2183.

Washington, DC. Department of Treasury. Reforming America's Housing Finance Market: A Report to Congress. 2011.
View Full Essay

Permanent Elimination of the Estate

Words: 2094 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43853537

It falls on savers, not spenders;

3) Early and naive advocates of death taxes thought that such taxes would not distort behavior because they fell only on wealth that decedents left behind by accident. Now very strong evidence supports the common-sense idea that people are strongly motivated to leave wealth to their heirs. Death taxes distort the behavior and investment decisions of this important class of "intergenerational" savers;

Not only does the income tax not need a "backstop," the income tax is actually a bad tax precisely because it falls on savings, in effect double taxing saving as opposed to immediate consumption. Death taxes compound the error by adding a third tax on savings. A fair tax system should consistently tax spending, not work or savings, and should use progressive rates to meet whatever liberal or redistributive objectives it has;

Death taxes have not contributed to greater equality in America.…… [Read More]


The Effects on Government Revenues from Repealing the Federal Estate Tax and Limiting the Step-up in Basis for Taxing Capital Gains (2003) CONSAD Research Corporation, Pittsburg Pennsylvania. Online available at

Kamin, David (2004) New CBO Study Finds that Estate Tax Repeal would Substantially Reduce Charitable Giving. Center on Budget and Policy Priorities. 3 Aug 2004. Online available at 

Herman, Tom and Silverman, Rachel Emma (2005) Republications Consider Keeping Estate Tax Alive for the Very Rich. Wall Street Journal 19 Jan 2005. Responsible Wealth Project. Online available at

McCaffery, Edward J. (1999) Grave Robbers: The Moral Case Against the Death Tax. CATO Policy Analysis 4 Oct 1999. Online available at
View Full Essay

Finance Real Options Pricing

Words: 1560 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69066812

Financial Analysis

Introduction ( a )

A real option is just that -- the option to do something, if a particular situation arises. The principle is the same as for a financial option. The difference is that real options pertain to physical things -- usually pieces of equipment, real estate or other such assets (Investopedia, 2015). An example of a real option would be when you sign a lease on a piece of equipment, with an option to buy after a year. If the equipment is scarce, that option might have value. Licensing arrangements can also contain real options in them as well. The key to the concept of the real option is that there is a value to such options, and the company should be aware of how to value real options.

Analyzing eal Options (b)

There are only really two methods for analyzing real options -- financial and…… [Read More]


Investopedia (2015). Definition of real option. Investopedia. Retrieved August 18, 2015 from
View Full Essay

Carson Estate Case

Words: 537 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10502239

Carson Estate

This case about the Carson Estate Company, a REIT based in the Los Angeles area that has been in existence since the 18th century. This paper will examine some key questions about the Carson Estate Company.


The Carson Estate Company has been able to survive for 15 generations for a couple of reasons. The first is that the way the company has been organized has held most of the company's assets together. The share structure has allowed for heirs to earn wealth from the estate without having to divide the company. Second, the company has been able to change with the times. Since its inception, the land the company owned was agricultural land, developed for resources like oil and water, and now is commercial and residential real estate in a major urban area. The ability to change with the times has been essential to its survival.

Governance…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

How Real Terrorist Threat Commercial Sector Explain Justify Opinion

Words: 2196 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62234118

Terrorist Threat and the Commercial Sector:

Terrorist threat has emerged as one of the major global threats in the 21st Century that has significant impacts on global security. In the past few centuries, the nature and values of terrorism have slowly shifted and resulted in the emergence of different definitions or descriptions of terrorism. These different descriptions have not only been used by scholars but also by governments to broaden the phenomenon to political, judicial, psychosocial, and moral arenas. The differences in definitions of terrorism is attributed to the fact that these attacks are usually characterized by political motivations towards the use or threat of violence, intentional and pre-meditated actions, fear, psychological effects, and asymmetric warfare. The other aspects of these definitions include immorality, social coercion, and reactions. However, terrorist groups and activities continue to pose significant threats to every facet of the modern society including the commercial sector (aman,…… [Read More]


A Military Guide to Terrorism in the Twenty-First Century 2007, Terrorist Motivations and Behaviors, Chapter 2, viewed 20 April 2013,

Brandt, B 2011, Terrorist Threats to Commercial Aviation: A Contemporary Assessment.

Combating Terrorism Center -- United States Military Academy, viewed 20 April 2013,

Catlin Group Limited 2012, A Business Approach to Terrorism, Catlin Group Limited Report,
View Full Essay

Future and Global Population Growth

Words: 1321 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56850921

Real Estate Ethics and Fraud
Good ethics is a key necessity in any given profession. Ethics takes into account a system of moral guidelines governing the suitable conduct and actions of an individual or a group. Notably, ethical standards are centered on an individual’s belief of what is right and what is wrong versus the legal benchmark, which is basically, what is written down in law. In essence, ethics can be explained as the moral principles and criteria that steer individuals on what they ought to do and ought not to do. Chiefly, the law orders what persons is and is not permitted to do. Sustaining good ethics is being in line with the principles of correct moral conduct in an incessant manner (Walker and Ivanhoe, 2007).
In spite of the requirement for all real estate professionals to be ethical, real estate fraud is a reality. Real estate fraud…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Employing EMV Analysis for Options

Words: 1160 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71345101

Real Estate Proposal

Making Decisions Involving Uncertainty

The following questions should be submitted using the Real Estate Division's website See "How to Submit Multiple Choice Assignments" in the Real Estate Division Student Handbook for more information.

Marks: 1 mark per question.

Assume your client is planning a new housing project, but faces several uncertain events that may impact the decision, including the City's response to re-zoning, availability of competing properties, market demand, and behaviour of potential competitors. Considering the four levels of uncertainty defined in the lesson, which decision analysis method should you recommend to your client?

(1) Pro-con reasoning

(2) Scenario planning

(3) Confidence Range Estimates

(4) Prospective Hindsight

Your boss wants you to provide a pro-con analysis regarding his potential investment in a real estate software analysis package. He feels this tool is necessary for the more sophisticated analysis demanded by clients. However, the package is extremely…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Macroecnomic Situation in the Year 2007 the

Words: 1367 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10636538

Macroecnomic Situation

In the year 2007 the real estate pricing in the United States plummet from its peak causing securities attached to it to also plummet, hence, damaging the financial institutions in America. As a result securities suffered large losses in 2008 and part of 2009. This triggered a series of problem as the financial institutions tried to regain the hold of the situation. In the long run some major financial institutions collapsed. Most governments responded with rescue packages to bail out their financial institutions. During the period global economies slowed down due to inadequate credit and reduced international trade leading to a global financial crisis (United Nations Conference on Trade and Development 2009).

The global economy is currently trying to recover but it is unclear whether it will be able to fully recover in time. y 2011 fisical support measures had faded away, being that they were not fully…… [Read More]


Arieff, A Weiss, M.A. & Jones, V.C. (Eds) 2009, The global economic crisis impact on Sub-Saharan Africa and global policy responses, Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress, Washington, DC.

Baldwin, B.G. 2002, The new life insurance investment advisor, McGraw-Hill, New York.

Fabrizio, S 2010, Emerging from the global crisis: macroeconomic challenges facing low-income countries., International Monetary Fund, Washington, D.C..

Global Economics Crisis Resource Center 2010, Global economic crisis: impact on international business, South-Western Cengage Learning, Mason.
View Full Essay

Private Property and the Commons of 16th Century Spain

Words: 1974 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75365249

Private Property & the Commons of 16th Century Spain

Private Property in 16th Century Spain

Historically, 16th-century Castile was considered to be fundamentally an urban society that depended on cities and towns for the articulation of its local and centralized administration (Elliott, 1991). Privilege was considered to be a matter of a priori rights founded on traditions associated with nobility and wealth. The lower social stratum was maintained in order to provide fiscal and military support for the crown. The qualities of separateness -- both cultural and logistical -- between the urban central and diffuse local jurisdictions engendered very different perspectives regarding authority. ather than arbitrating reasonable agreements, local authority worked to undermine what was considered to be overreaching by the crown. I contend that the autonomy of local jurisdictions worked against the crown's insistence on absolutism and a monarchy of estates that were grounded in medieval social concepts, however,…… [Read More]


Abercrombie, T.A. (). Colonial relandscaping of Andean social memory.. In Pathways of memory and power: Ethnography and history among an Andean people (pp. ). University of Wisconsin Press.

Abercrombie, T.A. (1996). Q'aqchas and la plebe in "rebellion" -- carnival vs. lent in 18th-century potosi. Journal of Latin American, 2(1), 62-111.

Alban, J.P.V. (1999). Introduction: The decline of propriety. In Propriety and permissiveness in Bourbon Mexico (pp. ). Wilmington, DE: Scholarly Resources, Inc.

Elliott, J.H. (1991, Autumn). Renaissance Quarterly, 44(3) A Review: Nader, H. (1990). Liberty in Absolutist Spain: The Habsburg Sale of Towns, 1516-1700. Baltimore and London, The Johns Hopkins University Press.
View Full Essay

Demand for Money the International Community Is

Words: 2898 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63889892

Demand for Money

The international community is currently facing the most severe crisis since the Great Depression of 1929 -- 1933. It started within the American real estate sector and soon expanded to the rest of the sectors, as well as to the rest of the global economies.

The causes and impacts of the crisis have often been discussed in the media and within the specialized literature, and the discussion is far from over. Still, this approach to the crisis is more descriptive and reflective. At this stage nonetheless, it is necessary to implement a proactive approach through which to promote solutions to overcoming the crisis.

Governments across the globe have each developed and implemented their own solutions to the crisis, ranging primarily from injecting capitals in the troubled industry sectors and companies, to efforts aimed at reducing federal costs. In the completion of these efforts, a crucial role is…… [Read More]


Bae, Y., De Jong, R.M., 2005, Money demand function estimation by non-linear conintegration, Ohio State University,  last accessed on January 17, 2012

Balnaves, M., Caputi, P., 2001, Introduction to quantitative research methods: an investigative approach, SAGE

Barth, R.C., Hemphill, W.L., Aganina, I., 2000, Financial programming and policy: the case of Turkey, Vol. 1, International Monetary Fund

Canova, L., 2006, Estimating demand for money in Jamaica, Munich Personal RePEc Archive,  last accessed on January 17, 2012
View Full Essay

En Speak Write Words Created What Thoughts

Words: 760 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34120450

en speak write, words created? What thoughts preceded words? These questions heart referencing citation

Cultural attitudes towards the notion of intellectual property vary by region. Throughout western civilization, for the most part, people do believe that certain words and expression are proprietorial. One can see this in the trademarking and licensing of certain names, terms, and other ideas associated with words. The notion may be slightly absurd, but people in western culture frequently believe that ideas and their wording can belong to either an individual or an organization, and that for people to utilize them they need to be monetarily compensated.

Of course, contemporary trends towards globalization and the ease of access facilitated by mobile devices, the internet, cloud computing, big data, and other technological advancements have certainly had an effect on this line of thought. People still seek to license and protect what they believe to be their rightful…… [Read More]


Bowden, D. (1996). "Coming to terms: plagiarism." English Journal. 85(4): 82-84.

D. Gotterbarn, K. Miller, J. Impagliazzo. (2006). "Plagiarism and scholarly publications: an ethical analysis." 36th Annual Conference on Frontiers in Education. 22-27.

Stolley, K., Brizee, A. Paiz, J.M. (2013). "Safe practices." Purdue Online Writing Lab. Retrieved from 

Weida, S., Stolley, K. (2013). "Developing strong thesis statements." Purdue Online Writing Lab. Retrieved from
View Full Essay

How to buy and flip a house

Words: 725 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96305740

The document that follows in this report is data assembled for Triple O Corporation. The financial project in question is a home renovation for a purchased property in the Gwinnet County area. That area is just south and east of Alpharetta, Georgia in the Atlanta Metropolitan area. The data points that shall be covered in this report include the average home price in Gwinnett County, the renovation cost involved for the home that is being purchased, the contingency cost and other operating costs that exist, the sales price and the overall net profit from the sale.

According to real estate site Zillow, the median price of a home in Gwinnett County is about $186,300. Note that this is the median home price and not the average home price as they are not the same thing. Basically, median home price means that all of the prices in the county are ranked…… [Read More]