Recidivism Essays (Examples)

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Federal Mandatory Minimum Drug Sentences and Their

Words: 2517 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18974474

Federal Mandatory Minimum Drug Sentences and Their Impact on Recidivism

There is much controversy regarding mandatory sentencing and its impact on the American society throughout recent times. In many ways, prisons are used as a means to control crime, to protect society from it, with criminals being deterred from continuing to commit illegalities as a direct result of the time they spend behind bars. Mandatory minimums were generally introduced with the purpose of preventing future recidivism. The authorities considered that the uncomfortable nature of prison life and the social status associated with being in prison were enough to persuade criminals to refrain from ever expressing interest in illegalities once they were set free. Other schools of thought appear to think just the opposite as some believe that prison time actually has a negative impact on convicts, while others believe that criminals experience little to no change consequent to staying in…… [Read More]

Works cited:

Book:

Goldberg, Raymond, "Drugs Across the Spectrum, 7th ed.," (Cengage Learning, 5 Oct 2012)

Kitwana, Bakari, "The Hip-Hop Generation: Young Blacks and the Crisis in African-American Culture," (Basic Civitas Books, 2008)

Lyman, Michael D., "Drugs in Society: Causes, Concepts, and Control," (Newnes, 25 Sep 2013)
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Ex-Offenders and the Re-Entry to the Society

Words: 2212 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32197410

Ex Offenders

The United States is regarded as having the world's highest incarceration rate. It has been estimated that the prisons are holding more than 2.3 million people as of now. Due to this reason, overcrowding is a significant issue in the prison system of the country. It is seen that for every hundred thousand population, there are seven hundred and forty eight inmates and this number is expected to increase. Due to the increased incarceration, the state and the federal prisons are made to release a decent number of ex-offenders every year. The trend of releasing has only been a result of the mass incarceration that the country has experienced. It was seen that during the 1972 till the 1997 period, the number of state and federal prisoners increased from 196,000 to a record of 1,159,000 (Mauer, 1999) In 2000, a total of 600,000 ex-offenders were released to the…… [Read More]

References

Beck, A. And Shipley, J. (1989). Recidivism of Prisoners Released in 1983. Bureau of Justice Statistics special reports. [report] U.S. Department of Justice.

Burton, V., Cullen, F. And Travis III, L. (1987). Collateral Consequences of a Felony Conviction: A National Study of State Statutes, The. Fed. Probation, 51 p. 52.

Chin, G. And Holmes Jr., R. (2001). Effective Assistance of Counsel and the Consequences of Guilty Pleas. Cornell L. Rev., 87 p. 697.

Clear, T., Rose, D. And Ryder, J. (2001). Incarceration and the community: The problem of removing and returning offenders. Crime & Delinquency, 47 (3), pp. 335 -- 351.
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Offender Re-Entry Program Assessing Adequacy

Words: 2315 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37454013

These strategies should focus on parolees' risks and need and conducted in a way that would motivate change. Aware of these realities, States continue to innovate and evolve reentry strategies towards this end (Yahner et al.).

The RI was a particularly ambitious correctional program in that it targeted the most difficult offenders for rehabilitation and incorporation into the community. These are young offenders with violent criminal histories, who are likeliest to be excluded from reentry assistance. The RI develops and implements individual plans to reintegrate chosen offenders back into society. This was the Controlling Violent Offenders Program.

Efforts begin during their incarceration and continue when they are released into the community through a focused approach by a mentor. Case workers and mentors conduct varied programs to support their transition. These include social services in substance abuse and mental health disorders and vocational services for training, education and resume development for…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Braga, A.A. et al. (2008). Controlling violent offenders released to the community.

Rappaport Institute for Greater Boston: Harvard Kennedy School. Retrieved on March 19, 2013 from http://www.hks.harvard.edu/var/ezp_site/storage/fckeditor/file/pdfs/centers-programs/centers/rappaport/workingpapers/braga_BRI_final.pdf

James, N. (2011). Offender reentry: correctional statistics reintegration into the community and recidivism. CRS Report for Congress: Congressional Research

Service. Retrieved on March 19, 2013 from http://www.nationalcia.org/wp-content/uploads/correctional-statistics-Reintegration-into-the-Community.pdf
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Correctional Methods Throughout Most of

Words: 1289 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64755367

For example, offenders without job skills can receive job training, while offenders with emotional problems can be ordered to attend the appropriate counseling. (Native American and Alaskan Technical Assistance Program, 2005). Because such a huge proportion of crimes are drug-related or committed by addicts, completion of in-patient or out-patient substance abuse programs is often an integral part of an offender's alternative sentencing program. Furthermore, alternative sentencing strives to make an offender personally responsible for their crime. Therefore, mediation and restitution play an important part in alternative sentencing, because mediation gives the victim a voice, while restitution can require an offender to repay his victim. (Native American and Alaskan Technical Assistance Program, 2005).

After one has an understanding of the different sentencing alternatives available, the logical step is to question whether alternative sentencing is effective. In order to answer that question, many criminal justice professionals look to recidivism rates. "However, limited…… [Read More]

References

Jones, G. & M. Connelly. (2001) Prison vs. alternative sanctions: trying to compare recidivism rates. Retrieved October 31, 2006, from Maryland State Commission on Criminal Sentencing Policy

Web site: http://www.msccsp.org/publications/altrecid.html

Native American and Alaskan Technical Assistance Program. (2005). Project guide:

alternatives to incarceration of offenders. Washington, D.C.: National Institute of Corrections.
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Convicted Felons Return to the

Words: 2672 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20169695



Productivity-Education/Craft/Trade -- a key to being able to stop the return to the penal system is to provide training necessary to allow the individual to find work after leaving prison. Not only is it extremely tough to get a job as a convicted felon, but the skills necessary to get a job that will afford a decent living are tough to get in prison. Earning a degree either online or through continuing education; earning a trade certificate (automotive, plumbing, wood working, etc.) will provide an occupation for the felon after leaving prison, and a focus for their energy and attention while in prison.

Consequences -- Many rehabilitation programs fail because the consequences are unrealistic. Allow people to be human, while still requiring that in order to receive the gift from society of living in society, there are consequences if the rules are broken (Clear, et.al., 2011).

How then, can Maslow's…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Facts About the U.S. Prison System." (October 2007). Retrieved from: http://webb.senate.gov/pdf/prisonstwopager.html.

Project Return -- Breaking the Cycle of Crime. (2009). Retrieved from: http://www.projectreturn.com/index.php?name=results_and_impacts

Total U.S. Correctional Population. (2010, December 11). Retrieved from:

Office of Justice Programs: http://bjs.ojp.usdoj.gov/index.cfm?ty=tp&tid=11
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Boot Camp's Program Claim of a 0

Words: 1112 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6388164

Boot Camp's Program Claim of a 0% ecidivism ate

Addressing a Boot Camp's Program's Claim of a 0% ecidivism ate

The Claim: A Boot Camp Program un by a Local Sheriff's Department Claims a ecidivism ate of 0%

My assessment on the accuracy of the above statement and this discussion in general, will make use of a number of fundamental terms: corrective boot camp program, recidivism and shock incarceration. A corrective boot camp program, to begin with, refers to a facility that makes use of the techniques applied during military training sessions, to instill a culture of 'doing what is right' in youthful first-time offenders. ecidivism, according to the Bureau of Justice Statistics (2013), is the tendency to repeat criminal activities, leading to re-arrest, during the three-year duration following release from a correctional facility. Finally, shock incarceration, like the name suggests, is a program used on first time offenders, to…… [Read More]

References

Cole, G.F., Smith, C.E. & DeJong, C. (2012). The American System of Criminal Justice (13th ed.). Belmont: Cengage Learning

Cole, G.F. & Smith, C.E. (2007). The American System of Criminal Justice (5th ed.). Belmont: Cengage Learning

Government Bureau of Justice Statistics (2013). Recidivism. Retrieved from http://www.bjs.gov/index.cfm?ty=tp&tid=17

Jones, J.A. (2012). A Multi-State Analysis of Correctional Boot Camp Outcomes: Identifying Vocational Rehabilitation as a Complement to Shock Incarceration. Student Pulse, 4(9), 1-3. Retrieved from  http://www.studentpulse.com/articles/689/a-multi-state-analysis-of-correctional-boot-camp-outcomes-identifying-vocational-rehabilitation-as-a-complement-to-shock-incarceration
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Second Chance Act of 2008

Words: 660 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11450991

In the United States, recidivism has been identified as one of the most critical concepts in criminal justice. The concept refers to an ability of an individual relapsing into criminal behavior. Typically, the recidivism has been measured by a criminal act, which led to reconviction, re-arrest, or return to prison. According to data released by the National Institution of Justice (2015), approximately 67.8%, which is about two-third of the released prisoners are rearrested within three years of their released. Within five years, 76.6%, three- quarter of the released prisoners are rearrested. Moreover, property offenders and those sentenced for drug crimes are in the top lists of the released prisoners likely to be rearrested. The SCA (Second Chance Act) is the federal government program designed in reducing recidivism as well as improving outcomes of individual returning from jails.
The report carries out the evaluability assessment of the Second Chance Act to…… [Read More]

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Boot Camps Effective Juvenile Justice

Words: 1631 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26922530

In July, 2001, a 14-year-old boy died following the brutal treatment he was subjected to at the Fountain Hills facility in Arizona. The staff had forced him to "stand in the Arizona sun" in 100-degree temperatures, wearing black sweat pants, according to an article in the Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing (Bush, 2001). When he - or any of the other inmates - asked for water or food, he was "forced to eat mud." Also, the staff "stomped on the boys' chests and arms with boots if they did not perform tasks required of them."

In Prince Georges County, Maryland, on May 14 of 2001, a 17-year-old boy died of asphyxia when a teacher cut off his airway "in the act of restraining him." The article's writer, Carol Bush, asks: "Is it not time for the medical and nursing professionals to speak out on behalf of troubled youth…… [Read More]

References

Bush, Carol. (2001). Youth at risk - in facilities that are supposed to help! Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing, 14(4), 200.

Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education (2001). Juvenile Crime,

Juvenile Justice: Executive Summary. Retrieved February 26, 2005, from the National Academies Press. Web site: http://www.nap.edu/openbook/0309068428/html/index.html.

Mackenzie, Doris Layton, Gover, Angela R, Armstrong, Gaylene Styve, & Mitchell,
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Juvenile Behavior

Words: 721 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37124384

Criminal behavior and recidivism has been a very contentious issue over the last decade. esearch continues to garner massive support related to methods to better help offenders matriculate into society. Juvenile behavior is one of the more pressing issues within society. Juvenile behavior is particularly important as habits formed in early years are directly correlated to behavior in later years. esearch has also indicated that children or juveniles influenced by criminal activities at an early age, are more likely to commit crimes in their adolescent stage. Although a litany of methods have been devised to combat juvenile criminal behavior, results have been mixed. ecent incidents with school shootings, robberies, and vandalism indicate that juvenile criminal behavior is still profound. One interesting aspect regarding juvenile behavior is that violent acts committed by juveniles have actually decreased over the past decade. However, many juveniles are often sent to court and prosecuted as…… [Read More]

References:

1) Bazemore, G., & Feder, L. (1997a). Rehabilitation in the new juvenile court: Do judges support the treatment ethic? American Journal of Criminal Justice, 21, 181-212.

2) Sickmund, M. (2004). Juveniles in corrections. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.

3) Snyder, H. (2005). Juvenile arrests 2003. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.
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Measuring Crime

Words: 972 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85722559

Measuring Crime

During the latter half of the twentieth century, evidence-based policing became more commonplace, partly as a means to reduce corruption, but also as a means to make crime fighting more effective. Instruments used to measure crime at the federal level include those that fall under the rubric of the Department of Justice, such as Uniform Crime eporting and National Crime Victimization Service. The FBI also operates legal attache offices, the Combined DNA Index System, and other tools used to measure and empirically track crime (Schmalleger, 2015, p. 147). Likewise, the Department of Justice maintains several major crime reporting programs including the National Incident-Based eporting System. These reporting programs serve several core functions. They boost the effectiveness of criminal justice policy, they ensure policing and other aspects of criminal justice are evidence-based, and they inform the judicious allocation of resources throughout the criminal justice system. As Schmalleger (2015) points…… [Read More]

References

"Myth v. Reality: Crime has been Steadily Increasing." [CJi Interactive video].

Schmalleger, F. (2015). Criminal justice today: An introductory text for the 21st century (13th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall.

Silver, S. (2014). CJ in the U.S.A.: An Introduction to Criminal Justice. San Diego, CA: Curriculum Technology.
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Goals of Corrections the Objective

Words: 2380 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19065395

Just as clearly no individual who is logical would consider Charles Manson or Theodore undy as eligible profiles for the restorative justice program or even for rehabilitation program or indeed of any other than imprisonment or death by execution There are however, very potentially productive, useful, and worthy individuals who are shuffled into the correction system due to their inability to hire a lawyer or lack of knowledge concerning their rights to having representation appointed to them that with education and knowledge or skills acquisition can be successfully rehabilitation or restored to society and within the community. Recently there has been documented an additional strategy in criminal justice corrections which is described as a 'transformational' process and is a cognitive-behavioral approach in treatment.

RECOMMENDATIONS for FUTURE CORRECTIONS

Cognitive behavioral approaches are being used in transforming the dysfunctional thinking of the individual. The work of Mahoney and Lyddon (1988) relate approximately…… [Read More]

Bibliography

MacKenzie, DL and Hickman, LJ (1998) What Works in Corrections? An Examination of the Effectiveness of the Type of Rehabilitation Programs Offered by Washington State Department of Corrections. Submitted to: The State of Washington Legislature joint audit and review committee. Crime Prevention effectiveness Program - Dept. Criminology and Criminal Justice. Online available at http://www.ccjs.umd.edu/corrections/What%20Works%20In%20Corrections.htm

Van Ness, DW (nd) Restorative Justice in Prisons. Session 204: The Practice of Restorative Justice in Prison Reform. PFI Centre for Justice and Reconciliation. Prison Fellowship International. Online available at http://www.restorativejustice.org/editions/2005/july05/2005-06-21.9036003387.

Complexity of the Social Contract (2001) Prisoner Life Online available at http://www.prisonerlife.com/s_writings6.cfm.

Erikson, Kai. Wayward Puritans. New York: John Wiley, 1966.
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Norway and Germany Compared to US in Incarceration

Words: 1669 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87948356

Sentencing in the US versus in Germany and the Netherlands

There is one major difference between the sentencing and corrections policies of the US and the sentencing and corrections policies of Germany and the Netherlands. The former bases its policy on the ideas of retribution and incapacitation, whereas the latter base their policies on the ideas of rehabilitation and socialization (Vera Institute of Justice, 2013). This basic philosophical orientation towards the corrections is what distinguishes the two policies. The US views corrections as a punitive measure while Germany and the Netherlands view corrections in a positive light -- a measure that is designed to return the inmate to society. Indeed, recidivism rate in the US is 40% -- meaning that 4 out of every 10 inmates released will return to prison within the first three years (Vera Institute of Justice, 2013). In Germany and the Netherlands, such a rate is…… [Read More]

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Criminal Justice Is the Coordination

Words: 2218 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 395032

Examples of offenses that are based on constitutional endowments of right contain tax evasion, possessing illegal substances and conspiring to violate civil rights. Courts have specified on the whole a wide explanation to the Commerce Clause authority, allowing Congress to create a federal offense of many widespread law crimes such as kidnapping or murder if state outline are fractious during commission of the crime and such as misappropriation and blackmail using instrumentalities of trade such as telephone lines or the U.S. post. Examples of offenses that are based on regions owned by or under the restricted power of the federal government contain crimes committed in the District of Columbia, in U.S. Territories, in U.S. National Parks, in federal courthouses and federal jails plus on board airplanes and ocean going ships. The United States armed force has its own immoral justice system applicable to its members, but civilians might be accused…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Wolfgang, Marvin (1990). Crime and Punishment in Renaissance Florence. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology. Retrieved on January 11, 2008.

Schmalleger, Frank (2001). Criminal Justice: A Brief Introduction. Prentice Hall. Retrieved on January 11, 2008.

Cornell University Law School. Bill of Rights from Cornell University Law School. Retrieved on January 11, 2008.

Nicholas J. Szabo. (2006). Jurisdiction as Property: Franchise Jurisdiction from Henry III to James I. Retrieved on January 11, 2008 at http://szabo.best.vwh.net/JurisdictionAsProperty.pdf
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Corrections in Community-Based Settings

Words: 906 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2982626

Juvenile Community Corrections

Corrections in Community-Based Settings

Community-based corrections: Factors to consider when dealing with juvenile offenders

One seemingly self-evident truth regarding juvenile offenders might seem to be that socio-economic status will have a significant impact upon the individual's ability to find adequate treatment. The research does support the idea that individuals of higher socioeconomic status (SES) are less likely commit juvenile crimes. Also, it would seem that a wealthy, well-connected suburban family who is able to offer private counseling to their child is more likely to see the teen transition out of juvenile corrections than one who does not. An overall literature review suggests that lower SES is linked with the likelihood of perpetuating juvenile crimes. In another study of 420 urban youth comparing those from high SES neighborhoods vs. low SES neighborhoods, the high SES youth were half as likely to engage in serious delinquency (Atkins et al.…… [Read More]

References

Atkins, T., Bullis, M., & Yovanoff, P. (2007). Wealthy and wise? influence of socioeconomic status on the community adjustment of previously incarcerated youth. Behavioral Disorders, 32(4), 254-266. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/219677853?accountid=14872

Mincey, Barrett, Maldonado, Nancy, Lacey, Candace H. & Thompson, Steve D. (2008).

Perceptions of successful graduates of juvenile residential programs: Reflections and suggestions for success The Journal of Correctional Education 59(1).

Woolard, Jennifer L., Harvell, Samantha, Graham, Sandra. (2008). Anticipatory injustice among adolescents: Age and racial/ethnic differences in perceived unfairness of the justice system. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 26: 207 -- 226. Retrieved:
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Juvenile Corrections

Words: 1407 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10711731

Juvenile Corrections

Juvenile delinquency is a common phenomenon in the globe today. Owing to the severe crimes, committed, different states handle the matter differently. On one hand, some states utilize the "punitive approach" that prioritizes crime control, punishment, and incarceration; on another, the restorative model, which stresses human rights, youth development research, and restoring the community. In the United States, the law does not tolerate juvenile delinquency; this explains the utilization of the "punitive approach" when handling juveniles. In addition, policies in the U.S. are becoming more punitive; therefore, juveniles have found themselves tried in the adult legal system. However, in the recent past, the U.S. has re-considered the death and life without parole sentences for juveniles, which it has termed as unconstitutional. Apparently, the state is gradually applying some human rights principles in relation to juvenile justice policy, a positive move, indeed (Caldwell, 2011).

Background

During the 19th century,…… [Read More]

References

Abrams, L.S., Kim, K., & Anderson-Nathe, B. (2005). Paradoxes of treatment in the juvenile corrections. Child and youth car form, 34(1), 7-25.

Caldwell, B. (2011). Punishment vs. restoration: A comparative analysis of juvenile delinquency law in the United States and Mexico.

Hirth, D. (2001). Early intensive help for high-risk juveniles. Corrections today, 80-83.

Perlin, M. (2013). Collaborative justice. Criminology and Law Enforcement, 1-3.
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Personalizing Punishment-Based on Brain Psychology

Words: 1884 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2325030

Psychopathology Criminal Behavior Part

What might be some of the implications for the forensic field of the differences between the "low-fear hypothesis" and the "high-impulsive" subtypes of psychopathy? In other words, how might the differences in the models help inform us about best practices for such activities as police work on the streets, interrogation methods, trial and sentencing practices, providing treatment, or evaluating recidivism risks?

In retrospect, theorists view Lykken's conceptual framework as a first step toward distinguishing between primary and secondary psychopathy (Baskins-Sommers, 2010). As theory building continues in this decade, the typology is supported by the notion of trait-like sensitivities and trait-like cognitive capacities that suggest the following implications for criminal justice procedures. Primary psychopathy is characterized by disinhibition, which is an inability to abort a dominant response, integrate socialization, or adopt alternative objectives. An individual who is considered to have primary psychopathy will fail to consider emotional…… [Read More]

References

Baskin-Sommers, A.R., Wallace, J.F., MacCoon, D.G., Curtin, J.J., and Newman, J.P. (2010, October 1). Clarifying the Factors that Undermine Behavioral Inhibition System Functioning in Psychopathy. Personal Disorders, 1(4), 203 -- 217. doi: 10.1037/a0018950. PMCID: PMC2992384. NIHMSID: NIHMS211679. Retrieved  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2992384/#!po=74.5614 

Baskin-Sommers, A.R., Curtin, J.J. And Newman, J.P. (2013, May). Emotion-modulated startle in psychopathy: clarifying familiar effects. Journal of Abnormal Pychology, 122(2), 458-468. 10.1037/a0030958. Epub 2013 Jan 28. Retrieved  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23356218 

Blonigen, D.M., Hicks, B.M., Krueger, R.F., Patrick, C.J. & Iacono, W.G. (2005, May). Psychopathic personality traits: heritability and genetic overlap with internalizing and externalizing psychopathology. Psychological Medicine, 35(5): 637 -- 648. doi: 10.1017/S0033291704004180. PMCID: PMC2242349. NIHMSID: NIHMS38985. Retreived  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2242349/#__ffn_sectitle 

Franklin, K. (2010, May 30). Psychopathy guru blocks critical article. Will case affect credibility of PCL-R test in court? In the News: Forensic psychology, criminology, and psychology-law. Retrieved  http://forensicpsychologist.blogspot.com/2010/05/psychopath-guru-blocks-critical-article.html
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Politics Trumps Policy How Would You Respond

Words: 1035 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99086110

Politics Trumps Policy

How would you respond? Would you just capitulate and end some or all of these programs?

Explain your answer.

A written response would be provided to the new governor that would include an outline of all current programs supplemented with reasoning and statistical effectiveness of each. A break even analysis for each program will also be provided where the actual program outcome statistics with the inclusion of the 30% reduction in recidivism over two years and the cost savings of such a rate reduction in both the short- and long-term to the state and the community. The programs themselves were thoroughly researched and required significant defense for development and implementation, some of the material used to allow support for implementation will clearly need to be used to demonstrate to the new governor the importance and potential of these programs. To respond to the concerns associated with the…… [Read More]

Resources

Azzolino, S., Johnson, C., Thornton, T., & Turley, A. (2004, December). Jail drug and alcohol treatment program reduces recidivism in nonviolent offenders: A longitudinal study of Monroe County, New York's, jail treatment drug and alcohol program. International Journal of Offender Therapy & Comparative Criminology, 48(6), 721-728.

Carter, F.C. (2008). Offender employment is the key. Corrections Today, 70(4), 108.

Jensen, E.L., & Reed, G.E. (2006). Adult correctional education programs: an update on current status based on recent studies. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, 44(1), 81-89.

Rion, J. (2009)Professional development: the key to retention. Corrections Today 71 (2), 8-12.
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Traffic Violation Systems The United

Words: 6323 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9988894

The mechanisms that have been put forth to handle issues of day amercement are rudimentary to the knowledge of many people in the U.S. For instance, day Fines is subject to the capabilities of the offenders. It is not a subject imposed to all offenders no with no consideration of their financial stabilities. Nonetheless, offenders who are judged to be within the bracket of paying day charge make it an obligation. The U.S. has state and federal strategies on imprisonment of offenders have received an enormous boost with involvement of the day Fines services.

The federal government of the U.S. has found a more equitable and distributive way of punishing offenders with day fines. Traffic offenders are rampant and active most of the day times. Since they are individuals who operate most of their activities during the daytime, the federal state perceives day fines as a more eloquent way of…… [Read More]

References

Alarid, L.F., & Del, C.R.V. (2011). Community-based corrections. Belmont, CA:

Wadsworth.

Born, G. (1996). International civil litigation in United States courts: Commentary and materials. The Hague: Kluwer Law International.

Cole, G.F., & Smith, C.E. (2006). The American system of criminal justice. Belmont, CA:
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Gender and Crime

Words: 881 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31654235

Gender and Crime

How would each of the three critical feminist perspectives -- adical, Marxist, and Socialist -- explain this phenomenon? Do different life experiences by men and women impact the overrepresentation of men in the criminal justice system? How do gender differences impact sentencing? Provide examples to support your answer. How does allowing citizens to carry guns prevent crimes? Give relevant examples.

The radical feminist would look at the attacks on women based upon the fact that they have been ignored throughout history. This makes them an easier target for men to overpower them and conduct these activities. Marxists believe that crime occurs because of social inequalities. This is from them being pushed into the lower classes of society. To lash out, they will directly target and attack women in order to take advantage of those who have the perceptions of power and influence. Socialists believe that the ultimate…… [Read More]

References

Feminist Perspective on Work and Class. (2010). Stanford University. Retrieved from:  http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/feminism-class/ 

Ellwood, C. (2004). Sociology and Modern Social Problems. Whitefish, MT: Kessinger Publishing.

Ryder, E. (2011). Financial Crime in the 21st Century. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing.
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Substance Abuse Continued Use of Research Continued

Words: 939 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18191151

Substance Abuse

Continued use of research

Continued use of research in professional life:

Stable housing for substance abusers

Substance abuse is strongly correlated with a wide array of risky behaviors, including a failure to live in some form of stable housing, as well as high-risk sexual behaviors. This is significant, because stable housing situations in the form of rehabilitation centers or 'halfway' homes are often used as bases of treatment for addicts. However, a review of the existing literature indicates that simply providing housing for addicts should not be regarded as a panacea or as an automatic form of treatment for addiction. In fact, the results are mixed regarding a correlation between substance abuse and the ability to obtain stable housing. For the purposes of this review, a definition of 'stable housing' will be defined as "not having lived on the street" versus "living in a shelter or single room…… [Read More]

References

Des Jarlais, D., C., Braine, N., & Friedmann, P. (2007). Unstable housing as a factor for increased injection risk behavior at U.S. syringe exchange programs. AIDS and Behavior, 11, 78-84.

Elifson, K.W., Sterk, C.E., & Theall, K.P. (2007). Safe living: The impact of unstable housing conditions on HIV risk reduction among female drug users. AIDS and Behavior, 11, 45-55. Retrieved: doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10461-007-9306-8

Palepu A, Marshall BD, Lai C, Wood E, Kerr T. (2010). Addiction treatment and stable housing among a cohort of injection drug users. PLoS One. 5(7):e11697. Retrieved:

http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0011697
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Domestic Violence

Words: 1180 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85995013

theories listed, the relative deprivation theory and the general strain theory best explain domestic violence, as well as the high rate of recidivism, despite punishment. However, we should mention in the very beginning that each theory listed best explains a certain category of people, generally divided by income and level of education. The two I have selected are a match for the highest percentage of women batterers.

The relative deprivation theory believes that domestic violence occurs when there is a significant difference in the achievements of each of the members of the couple. In general, in my opinion, these tend to be professional achievements and the theory is best exemplified by those couples where the husband is unemployed or having a job that is not satisfying, while the wife is earning much more than him and is the one contributing most to the family budget.

The relative deprivation theory was…… [Read More]

Bibliography

1. Harmon, Patricia Anne. Why do men batter women? Assessing empathy, self-regard and narcissism levels, and attitudes toward women, men's roles and family of origin experiences among middle to upper class male batterers. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences & Engineering, Vol 62(12-B), 2002. pp. 6023. U.S.: Univ Microfilms International

2. Chapter 5: Social Structure Theory: Because they are poor

Chapter 5: Social Structure Theory: Because they are poor. Page 143

Ibid.
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Record Medical Administration Service for File Rationale

Words: 773 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32324816

ecord

Medical Administration Service for File

ationale in Support of Selection of Heart Transplant ecipient

Because time was of the essence in formulating this decision, this memorandum for the record sets forth the decision-making process and that was used to select the most appropriate candidate for a heart transplantation procedure. It was my responsibility as lead surgeon to select the most appropriate heart transplant recipient from a pool of three candidates, each of whom had suffered from several health-related issues that adversely affected their suitability for the transplant procedure. Therefore, in order to formulate as subjective an analysis as possible in a timely fashion, a utilitarian ethical analytical approach was used to identify the candidate that held the most promise of using the gift of additional life from the heart donor to its maximum advantage. The utilitarian ethical analysis showed that of the three potential heart transplant candidates, the 12-year-old…… [Read More]

References

Andre, C. & Velasquez, M. (1989, Winter). Calculating consequences: The utilitarian approach to ethics. Issues in Ethics, 2(1), 37.

Hollingsworth, J.A., Hall, E.H. & Trinkaus, R.J. (1991). Utilitarianism: An ethical framework for compensation decision making. Review of Business, 13(3), 17-19.

Rosen, F. (2003). Classical utilitarianism from Hume to Mill. London: Routledge.
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Juvenile Offenders and Reoffending

Words: 11154 Length: 37 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46175369

elevance

Juvenile offenders and reoffenders are an important problem facing the United States criminal justice system. For more than one hundred years, states held the belief that the juvenile justice system acted as a vehicle to safeguard the public via offering a structure that enables the rehabilitation of children growing into adulthood. States identified the difference of children committing crimes versus adult offenders (Loeber & Farrington, 2012). For example, the states saw them as less blameworthy with a higher capacity for longstanding, true change. Therefore, states have founded a distinct court system especially for the handling and rehabilitation of juvenile offenders along with a separate and different youth-based service delivery system that offers additional aid not found in the adult justice system.

The juvenile justice system offers the study of criminal justice an important area to develop proper rehabilitation techniques that will help juvenile offenders and reoffenders find a means…… [Read More]

References

Baglivio, M. & Jackowski, K. (2012). Examining the Validity of a Juvenile Offending Risk Assessment Instrument Across Gender and Race/Ethnicity. Youth Violence And Juvenile Justice, 11(1), 26-43. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1541204012440107

Baglivio, M., Wolff, K., Piquero, A., & Epps, N. (2015). The Relationship between Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) and Juvenile Offending Trajectories in a Juvenile Offender Sample. Journal Of Criminal Justice, 43(3), 229-241. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcrimjus.2015.04.012

Burfeind, J. & Bartusch, D. (2015). Juvenile delinquency (p. 158). Routledge.

Cale, J., Smallbone, S., Rayment-Mchugh, S., & Dowling, C. (2015). Offense Trajectories, the Unfolding of Sexual and Non-Sexual Criminal Activity, and Sex Offense Characteristics of Adolescent Sex Offenders. Sexual Abuse: A Journal Of Research And Treatment. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1079063215580968
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Criminal Justice Bootcamp Programs for

Words: 5841 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21697054

The sources provided background and reviews of published literature: Holmstrom (1996); Marcus-Mendoza (1995); and Osler (1991). Finally, three reports took on a narrower focus in investigating boot camps: Clark and Kellam (2001); Mueller (1996); and Souryal, Layton & MacKenzie (1994).

Burns and Vito (1995) examined the effectiveness of Alabama boot camps. In Alabama, overcrowded prisons brought on interest at the state level for prison boot camps. State prison boot camps incorporated marching, discipline, physical training, work, classes, and drug and alcohol abuse treatment in three phases. In the first phase, inmates confront their crime and take responsibility for it, ridding themselves of excuses. In the second phase, inmates focus on "self-discovery" by learning about themselves, goal planning, and improving themselves for future release. In the third phase, pre-release, inmates focus on problem solving as the key to their own future success as a lawful citizen upon release. Entry and participation…… [Read More]

References

Ashcroft, J., Daniels, D.J., & Hart, S.V. (2003, June). Correctional boot camps: Lessons from a decade of research. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Justice: National Institute of Justice, Office of Justice Programs.

Burns, J.C., & Vito, G.F. (1995, March). An impact analysis of the Alabama boot camp program. Federal Probation, 59(1), 63-67.

Burton Jr., V.S., & Marquart, J.W. (1993, September). A study of attitudinal change among boot camp participants. Federal Probation, 57(3), 46-52.

Christenberry, N.J., Burns, J.L., & Dickinson, G.B. (1994, September). Gains in educational achievement by inmates during the Arkansas Prison Boot Camp program. Journal of Correvtional Education, 45(3), 128-132.
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Reform and Rehabilitation Program to

Words: 6267 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71084368

These facts do not even address the personal bias that may exist among employers who are more likely to hire welfare recipients than ex-offenders (Western, 2003).

The problems ex-offenders face do not stop with employment. Male ex-offenders unable to hold steady or appealing jobs are often less appealing to potential partners as they are perceived as unable to "Contribute economically" and many carry a stigma associated with a past conviction (Western, 54).

All of these facts support the need for better rehabilitation programs to prevent increased recidivism among ex-offenders (Western, 2003). May have likened parole to law enforcement processes than social work, suggesting that parole officers are more surveillance oriented than supportive in their roles toward ex-offenders (Western, 2003).

Many groups that do support the needs of ex-offenders including nonprofit agencies often lack the resources necessary to help ex-offenders (Western, 2003).

Significance of the Study

Every year more than 600,000…… [Read More]

References

Etters, K. (2002 - Dec). "Job-readiness training program at the Wayne County Jail prepares offenders for success." Corrections Today, 64(7): 112.

Fischer, M., Geiger, B. & Toch, H. (1991). "Reform through community: Resocializing offenders in the Kibbutz." New York: Greenwood Press.

Lattimore, P. & Witte, A.D. (1985). "Programs to aid ex-offenders: We don't know nothing works." Monthly Labor Review, 108(4): 46.

Lemieux, C.M. (2002). "Social support among offenders with substance abuse problems:
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Alternative Punishment for a Population of Inmates

Words: 2417 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36944639

Alternate Corrections Proposal

Alternative Punishment for a Population of Inmates

Alternate Corrections Program Proposal

The need for a major overhaul of the U.S. prison system, and its purpose, is becoming increasingly recognized by human rights organizations around the world (for example, see Bewley-Taylor, Hallam, and Allen, 2009; Pew Center on the States [Pew Center], 2010). Prior to 1972, the size of the prison population in the United States predictably tracked the growth rate in the general population, but during the past 38 years has grown by 705% (ibid., p. 1). In contrast, the U.S. population grew by less than 44% during the same period (U.S. Census Bureau, 2011, p. 1). If we include the number of Americans currently under community supervision, then about 1 in 31 Americans is under some form of correctional control today (Pew Charitable Trusts, 2009, p. 1; U.S. Department of Justice [U.S. DOJ], 2010, p. 2).…… [Read More]

References

Bewley-Taylor, Dave, Hallam, Chris, and Allen, Rob. (2009). The incarceration of drug offenders: An Overview, Report Sixteen. The Beckley Foundation Drug Policy Programme, International Centre for Prison Studies, Kings College of London, University of London. Retrieved June 12, 2011 from http://www.idpc.net/php-bin/documents/Beckley_Report_16_2_FINAL_EN.pdf

Blumstein, Alfred and Wallman, Joel (Eds.). (2002). The crime drop in America. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Boxer, Paul, Middlemass, Keesha, and Delorenzo, Tahlia. (2009). Effects on psychological adjustment following release. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 36(8), 793-807.

Cusac, Anne-Marie (2009). Cruel and Unusual: The Culture of Punishment in America. New Haven: Yale University Press.
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Juvenile Offenders and Recividism

Words: 1280 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45219755

Juvenile delinquency has been an ever-evolving issue in the United States. From aims focused on prevention and rehabilitation that resulted in the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act of 1974; to a reverse trend beginning in the mid-1970's, the present has brought on a more prevalent tendency to try juveniles as adults. No more have courts taken to giving juveniles delinquents a second chance through rehabilitation (Schmalleger, 2016). In recent years, juveniles have faced life sentences without parole like an adult would. If the trend continues, will the number of juveniles tried as adults grow? Is it the responsibility of the juvenile justice system to prevent crime by enacting harsh penalties on the troubled youth of the country? From a Judeo-Christian perspective, everyone in one way or another, sins. It is up to the government and the community to help sinners see their wrongs and allow them a chance for…… [Read More]

References

Casey, S., & Day, A. (2015). Accountability in Juvenile Justice: A Framework to Assess Client Outcomes. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 60(14), 1645-1668. doi:10.1177/0306624x15586767

Kretschmar, J. M., Butcher, F., Flannery, D. J., & Singer, M. I. (2016). Diverting Juvenile Justice-Involved Youth With Behavioral Health Issues From Detention. Criminal Justice Policy Review, 27(3), 302-325. doi:10.1177/0887403414560885

Mody, S. (2008). Juvenile Justice. Childhood Education, 1-3.

Schmalleger, F. (2016). Criminal justice today: An introductory text for the twenty-first century (14th ed.). NJ: Pearson Education.
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Restorative Justice

Words: 1033 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60225667

Does Restorative Justice Reduce Recidivism?

Though restorative justice has become an increasingly popular practice in the criminal justice field, there is still no concise, universally acceptable definition of the concept. There is often confusion over what actually constitutes restorative justice, with the concept usually being used interchangeably with terms such as relational justice, peacemaking criminology, transformative justice, and community justice (Latimer, Dowden & Muise, 2005). Even so, restorative justice is essentially an approach to offender rehabilitation where the offender is reconciled with victim(s) and/or the larger community (Wenzel et al., 2008). In other words, all stakeholders in a certain offense jointly resolve how to deal with the consequences of the offense.

The fundamental idea behind restorative justice is that an offense constitutes a violation of not only the law, but also individuals and relationships (Stamatakis & Vandeviver, 2013). Restorative justice, therefore, seeks to mend this violation. It provides an opportunity…… [Read More]

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Juvenile Delinquency Drug Crimes

Words: 9197 Length: 33 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69293543

Intervening With Juvenile Drug Crimes

Researchers are now focused on developing and evaluating programs designed to break the drug-crime cycle that is common in juvenile delinquents. This paper will summarize existing literature about programs designed to prevent the juvenile drug-crime cycle and, based on that literature, identify interventions that offer the best chances for success. This paper will also provide guidelines and recommendations for developing a comprehensive juvenile justice system that can best address the needs of juvenile offenders involved with drug crimes.

This thesis is expected to make a contribution to the selection of successful interventions and the development of collaborative partnerships in the juvenile justice system, drug treatment programs, and other agencies as they attempt to break the cycle of drugs and crime afflicting U.S. juveniles.

Introduction

With the prevalence of drug crimes among juveniles and the complexity involved in their treatment, which must involve both the child…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Abuse and Dependence. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America 5 (1): 201-211.

Allison, M., and Hubbard, R.L. (1985). Drug abuse treatment process: A review of the literature. International Journal of the Addictions 20:13211345.

Anglin, M.D., and Hser, Y. (1990). Treatment of drug abuse. In Drugs and Crime, vol. 13, edited by M. Tonry and J.Q. Wilson. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Ball, J.C., Rosen, J.A., Flueck, J.A., and Nurco, D.N. (1981). The criminality of heroin addicts: When addicted and when off opiates. In The Drugs-Crime Connection, edited by J.A. Inciardi. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.
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Educational Programs for Adult Offenders

Words: 1227 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80818531

Among the study subjects, those who were under 21 at the time of release and did not have GED programmes, receidivism rate at 3 years post release was 54% compared to those who had GED while at prison. (40%). This study proved that educational programs are a more effective deterrent for young adults keeping them from falling back into criminal ways. [John et.al, 2003]

Studies have also focussed on other programs besides education that could aid in reducing recidivism rates. A recent study by Marylin and Cindy (2007) found that the Prison Industry Enhancement Certification Program (PIECP) which allows a prisoner to work for a private employer and earn real wages is also very effective in reducing recidivism rates. It was found that the PIECP program was better than both employment in TI (traditional industries paying modest wages) and OTW (other than work) activities in reducing recidivism rates and in…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Released and Restored, 'Released and Restored: Statistics', Accessed Dec 14th available at  http://releasedandrestored.org/statistics.html 

Marylin C.Mosses & Cindy J.Smith (June 2007), 'Factories Behind Fences: Do Prison 'Real Work' Programs Work?, NIJ journal No 257

Nuttall, John et.al (Sep 2003), 'The effect of earning a GED on recidivism rates'

Journal of Correctional Education
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Treatment of Sex Offenders the

Words: 1625 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9504329

When one looks at the occurrence of recidivism in offenders who have partaken in treatment programs varying from organic programs to those geared to more social and emotional support programs, it becomes clear that recidivism of sexual re-offense is relatively low, compared to those who undergo no treatment program. However, there is still an issue with non-sexual re-offense. In addition, there is evidence that the contributing factors for adult and juvenile offenders are different.

As such, it is suggested that not all offenders should receive the same treatment. Correctional literature indicates that high-risk offender require the greatest use of resource, while lower risk offenders require the lowest level of resources (Andrews & Bonta, 2003).

As such, blanket policies that deem all offenders as 'high risk' are neither effective nor efficient. In addition, it may take away resources from those who truly need it, such as juvenile offenders who require longterm…… [Read More]

References

Abracen, J., Looman, J., DiFazio, R., Kelly, T., & Stirpe, T. (Mar 2006). Patterns of attachment and alcohol abuse in sexual and violent non-sexual offenders. Journal of Sexual Aggression, 12(1). Retrieved December 17, 2007, from Academic Search Premier database.

Andrews, D. & Bonta, J. (2003). The psychology of criminal conduct. Cincinnati, OH: Anderson Publishing.

Bates, a., Saunders, R., & Wilson, C. (Spring 2007). Doing something about it: A follow-up study of sex offenders participating in Thames Valley Circles of Support and Accountability. British Journal of Community Justice, 5(1). Retrieved December 17, 2007, from SocINDEX database.

Calley, N. (Spring 2007). Integrating theory and research: The development of a research-based treatment program for juvenile male sex offenders. Counseling & Development, 85(2). Retrieved December 17, 2007, from Academic Search Premier database.
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Mental Health Court Study the

Words: 2549 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1040849



Nonetheless, people who received some level of ACRP intervention had a lower rate of criminal recidivism than people who received no intervention at all.

System Flow

The study found that the case flow through the ACRP was a little slow. The amount of time between the Initial Opt-In Hearing and the Formal Opt-In Hearing averaged 74 days. While there are no hard and fast rules governing how long this process should take, the study found that that "the ACRP is performing rather well on the front-end of the admissions process (up to the initial opt-in stage) but that more could be done to work on the back end (time between the Initial Opt-In Hearing and the Formal Opt-In Hearing)."

Status Hearings

The study found that the incentives and sanctions used by ACRP judges to promote compliance at status hearings, though standardized, were not tailored to correspond to participant progress.

Also,…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Outcomes from the Last Frontier: An Evaluation of the Anchorage Mental Health Court (Alaska Mental Health Trust Authority, Ferguson-Hornby-Zeller, 2008).

Improving Responses to People with Mental Illnesses: The Essential Elements of a Mental Health Court (Thompson, Osher, Tomasini-Joshi, 2008).

Mental Health Courts: Decriminalizing the Mentally Ill. (Irwin Law, Schneider-Hyman-Bloom, 2007).

Mental Health Courts. (Wiley Encyclopedia of Forensic Science, Schneider, 2009).
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Felons and the Community Analysis

Words: 2941 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70941405

, et al., 2012).

Systems approaches look towards the functional integration of different stakeholders and their goals towards a specific issue or path. What implications might a proposed solution have and to what groups? What is the functional relationship between groups of stakeholders and how can that be maximized. For returning felons, this approach looks at ways to construct programs that are utilitarian in context (the greatest good for the greatest number) (Teaskey, 1976).

Ecological PA supports a more holistic viewpoint and focuses on the nature of the internal and external environments. In other words, PA must interact with the political executive, social political interest groups, commercial and economic organizations, and the citizenry. This approach takes the approach that solutions may only be found by looking at the issue as a sub-set of a larger set of societal issues. Ecological PA cannot solve the incarceration problem, but can look toward…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Project Return - Breaking the Cycle of Crime. (2009, April). Retrieved from projectreturn.com: http://www.projectreturn.com/index.php?name=results_and_impacts

Public Administration. (2012, July 31). Retrieved from publicadministrationtheone.blogspot.com:  http://publicadministrationtheone.blogspot.com/2012/07/organisations-theories-systems.html 

Beck, a., & Shipley, B. (1989). Recidivism of Prisoners Released. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice.

Benincasa, R. (2012, May 29). 6 Leadership Styles and When You Should Use Them. Retrieved from Fast Company:  http://www.fastcompany.com/1838481/6-leadership-styles-and-when-you-should-use-them
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Experimental Design Feasible Why or Why Not

Words: 1740 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4205256

experimental design feasible? Why or why not?

• What suggestions can you make for future studies of the DARE program?

The aims of DARE are long-term in nature, namely to encourage students to not abuse drugs over the course of their lifetimes. The only way to test this aim is to conduct a longitudinal study of a representative body of DARE graduates over at least a twenty-year period, to see if the intervention had a lasting effect upon their drug use habits. The control groups would be a group of students from similar demographics and geographical locations who did not have DARE or any other anti-drug program in their schools and a group of students who experienced an anti-drug education intervention substantially different than DARE. The selection of students would have to be balanced in terms of factors such as race, gender, and neighborhood, given that graduates of DARE programs…… [Read More]