Use our essay title generator to get ideas and recommendations instantly
Areas that have minority groups like African America and Hispanics are known to have high incidences of gang related crimes than the other all white neighborhood (ice 1975).Gang crime is deeply rooted in such neighborhoods, making it very easy for the residents, especially the young people to fall prey to gang related crimes. People living in such areas have a high tendency of recidivism than other areas, because once they are out of jail or any other corrective facility, they still come back to the same old way of life making them prone to committing the crimes again.
Unemployment rate is also a major factor leading to high rates of recidivism in America. Once released from prison, most ex-offenders find it very difficult to secure a good job. This is partly due to the unwillingness of the employer, to give an "ex-con," a job in his firm. esultantly, this prompts…
Bailey, Kristen (2007). "The Causes of Recidivism in the Criminal Justice System and Why it Is
Worth the Cost to Address Them." Nashville Bar Journal. Retrieved May 15, 2012
Connecticut Office of Policy & Management, Criminal Justice Policy and Planning Division;
Research, Analysis and Evaluation Unit. (2009). 2009 Connecticut Recidivism Study:
This proposal is conducting a study using intervention and community orientated strategies to reduce recidivism rates. According to the Justice Department, these levels are at 43.8%. This is because the individual breaks the conditions of their parole / probation or commits new crimes within three years of their release. ("State of ecidivism," 2006) To reduce recidivism a new approach must be taken that will concentrate on dealing with the root causes. The evaluation method will be the qualitative system. This is when there is an examination of different sources and the underlying trends. (Pratt, 2006) The organization that will be studied is the Court Services and Offender Supervision Agency (CSOSA). The total costs for conducting the evaluation will be $20 thousand. Once this takes place, is when actuaries will illustrate those techniques which can reduce recidivism. This will enhance the ability of the CSOSA to achieve its primary objectives.…
Day Reporting Center. (2012), CSOSA. Retrieved from: http://www.csosa.gov/supervision/programs/day_reporting_center.aspx
Mission and Goals. (2012). CSOSA. Retrieved from: http://www.csosa.gov/about/mission.aspx
State of Recidivism. (2006). PEW Research.
Ferguson, R. (2005). Responding to Prisoner Reentry. Journal of Black Studies, 35 (5), 633 -- 649.
ecidivism of Those on Parole
Probation and ecidivism
ecidivism can be referred to as the tendency of offenders getting back to crime after charges have been pressed against them or even while still serving their probation. It is categorized as a new crime that a felony inmate or a probationer commits (Merriam Webster, 2012). The basic way of measuring recidivism rate is through the frequency of re-arrests, reincarnations as well as the reconvictions that occur.
Various studies give different categories of offenders prone to recidivism above others and at the same time other category of offenders with a greater percentage of success in their probation and lesser recidivism. The success rate is mostly predicted taking into account the personal characters of the offender. Women who have attained 30 years and above are widely noted to have high success rates, further, Cengage Learning Inc. (2009) notes that convicts who have no…
Cengage Learning Inc. (2009). Probation, Modification and Termination.
Dr. Tony Fabelo (2009). Travis County probation, three years later. Retrieved February 9, 2013 from http://www.tdcaa.com/node/5268
Merriam Webster, (2012). Definition: Recidivism. Retrieved February 9, 2013 from http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/recidivism
ecidivism in Adult Sex Offenders
The general definition of recidivism is a re-arrest, a reconviction, or a return to prison. On deciding which definition to pick one a number of factors are considered which include the particular research question, the available data resources, the resources, and the length of the follow-up period. Some studies report only sex re-offenses, whereas others include any re-offenses. Until a few years ago, predictions of recidivism amongst offenders were based on the concept of 'dangerousness' in which case predictions were used to determine the level of danger an individual presented to society. Criticisms rose against 'dangerous' since it lacked precision and it also implied that offenders who were deemed 'dangerous' could not be treated. This meant that instead of predicting recidivism it was risk that was being predicted, giving a suggestion of a more balanced assessment of factors that either increase or decrease the chance…
Firestone, P., J. Bradford, et al. (2008). "Recidivism in Convicted Rapists." Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law 26(2): 185-200.
Fitzgerald, J. (2006). "The Attrition of Sexual Offences from the New South Wales Criminal
Justice System." Crime and Justice Bulletin No. 92. Sydney: NSW Bureau of Crime Statistics and Research
McSherry, B. (2006). High-Risk Offenders: Continued Detention and Supervision Options.
ecidivism ates and Causes
The objective of this research is to examine recidivism rates and causes for recidivism. According to the work of Moak, Lawry, and Webber (2007) "The United States prison system is one of the worst prison systems in the world. In comparison to other countries, the United States has more individuals incarcerated per person than any other." (Moak, Lawry, and Webber, 2007) The incarceration rate in the United States as of 2006 is reported to be at a rate of "1 out of 136 adults." (Moak, Lawry and Webber, 2007) The 'World Prison Population List' demonstrates that while some countries have similar incarceration rates, most of the countries in the world have rates that are much lower rates. (Moak, Lawry and Webber, 2007, paraphrase) It is reported by the Bureau of Justice Statistics that researchers "…following a cohort of state prison inmates released in 1994 found that…
Smart on Crime: Recommendations for the Next administration and Congress: The 2009 Criminal justice Transition Coalition 5 Nov 2008. Retrieved from:
MOak, R., Lowry, R., and Webber, B. (2007) A Study On The Causes of Recidivism in Massachusetts (EPOCA Project) A Reach for Community Advancement. Retrieved from: http://blog.masslive.com/localbuzz/2008/04/rymoakIQPFinalDraft.pdf
New Jersey Passes Legislation to Stop the Revolving Door of Recidivism: Strengthen Families and Cut Costs to Tax Payers. (2010) The Sentencing Project. 11 Jan 2010. Retrieved from: http://www.sentencingproject.org/detail/news.cfm?news_id=842
Likewise, Gratton and Jones (2003) note that, "A literature review is the background to the research, where it is important to demonstrate a clear understanding of the relevant theories and concepts, the results of past research into the area, the types of methodologies and research designs employed in such research, and areas where the literature is deficient" (p. 51). The second component of the mixed methodology consisted of an analysis of statistical data provided by the U.S. Department of Justice Bureau of Statistics concerning the respective recidivism rates for white and minority defendants during the time period under consideration.
Human Subject Protections
Because there were no personal identifying factors involved in either the literature review or statistical analysis components of the research methodology, there was no corresponding need to provide any particular informed consent or other human subject protections for the purposes of the study.
Percent of Characteristic…
Albonetti, C.A. (1997). Sentencing under the federal sentencing guidelines: Effects of defendant characteristics, guilty pleas, and departures on sentence outcomes for drug offenses, 1991-1992. Law & Society Review, 31(4), 789.
Black's law dictionary. (1991). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co.
Kowalski, M. & Capputo, T. (1999). Recidivism in youth court: An examination of the impact of age, gender, and prior record. Canadian Journal of Criminology, 41(1), 57.
DeRosia, V.R. (1998). Living inside prison walls: Adjustment behavior. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers.
In the context of criminal justice, recidivism represents a relapse of criminal activity by a person after being convicted of some offense, punished, and corrected (seemingly) (Maltz, 2001). ecidivism emerges from a series of failures, namely, failure to meet the expectations of society or society's failure to support the person; the person's resultant failure to keep away from trouble; the individual's failure to escape capture and conviction, following committing of offense; individual's failure as a correctional-institute inmate to make the most of correctional interventions -- or the institute's failure to provide rehabilitation programs; and the person's additional failures in refraining from criminal activities following release from the institute (Maltz, 2001).
ecidivism, when taken from a correctional perspective, has a fairly explicit meaning. The term derives from Latin recidere, which implies 'falling back' (Maltz, 2001). ecidivists are individuals who are not rehabilitated following release from confinement (due…
Chaiken, Marcia R. (1982). The Chicago Area Project and the Enigma of Delinquency Prevention: Some Exploratory Findings. Draft report. The Rand Corporation. Santa Monica, California.
D.A. Andrew, James Bonta and J. Stephen Wormith. (2006). The Recent Past and Near Future of Risk and/or Need Assessment 52(1) crime and Delinquency 7, 11.
Deschenes, Elizabeth; Owen, Barbara; Crow, Jason. (2007). Recidivism among Female Prisoners: Secondary Analysis of the 1994 BJS Recidivism Data Set.
Goldstein, Paul J. (1982). "Habitual Criminal Activity and Patterns of Drug Use."Paper presented at the 34th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Criminology, Toronto.
The other brochure would be addressed to the prison counselors. These would contain research findings and the actual causes of recidivism. The third brochure would be distributed to relevant agencies like the state prison department. This brochure would contain facts on recidivism and urge the department to target the main sources of recidivism directly. We would like to draw their attention towards psychological aspect of recidivism. According to Quinsey study in which 311 inmates who had returned to prison were closely studied, the researchers found that static risk predictors are of little help to the agencies ho need accurate results to build a sound Corrections program. They brought forth some dynamic factors which include such things as choice mechanism, genetic and parental factors and in short all psychological reasons that can lead to relapse. In this way Quinsey study is the first research to discuss the psychological aspect of recidivism…
Edward Zamble and Vernon L. Quinsey, (1997) the Criminal Recidivism Process, Cambridge University Press.
Forensic Mental Health Legislation and Policies
As a probation and parole officer in Australia, one of the major issues that need to be addressed through best practice is dealing with mentally ill offenders. This is an emerging issue to be dealt with in order to provide suitable programs and support to lessen recidivism. The significance of addressing this issue is evident in the substantial attention given to offenders with mental illness in the recent past largely because of their prevalence and poor outcomes. Most of this attention has been centered on whether offenders with mental illness pose more risk of dangerousness and how to effectively evaluate and manage that risk. While the increased focus has contributed to the creation of various interventions, these services have poorly matched the policy objective of lessening recidivism (Skeem, Manchak & Peterson, 2011, p.110). In light of the increasing prevalence and poor outcomes of offenders…
Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. (2012). Mental Health Services in Australia.
Retrieved from Australian Government website: https://mhsa.aihw.gov.au/home/
Doyle, D., and Ogloff, J., (2009). Calling the Tune without the Music: A Psycho-legal Analysis
of Australia's Post-sentence Legislation. The Australian and New Zealand Journal of Criminology, 42(2), 179-203.
Since GPS tracking costs around $300 plus a monthly service fee that is similar in price to a pager or cellular phone, it would be very expensive to outfit everyone requiring electronic monitoring with a tracking device (Under, 2001).
As has been mentioned, the main problem with electronic monitoring is the fact that it can only do so much. it's really very limited in what it can tell the police. Either the offender is home, or they are not. eyond that, the monitoring device is not of much help to law enforcement. This causes a major impact on society. it's good to know that a criminal is safely behind bars where they cannot leave, even if they wanted to. It brings security and peace of mind to the community, and especially to people that may have been past victims of crime.
With electronic monitoring, there is nothing stopping the criminal…
Benner, LA. 2002. Racial Disparity in Narcotics Search Warrants, 6 J. GENDER RACE & JUST. 183, 197-98
Berk, R & Campbell, a. 1993. Preliminary Data on Race and Crack Charging Practices in Los Angeles, 6 FED. SENTENCING REP. 36, 38
Bowman, III, FO. 1996. The Quality of Mercy Must Be Restrained, and Other Lessons in Learning to Love the Federal Sentencing Guidelines, 1996 WISC. L. REV. 679, 747-49.
Carbado, DW. 2002. (E)Racing the Fourth Amendment, 100 MICH. L. REV. 946, 962.
Probation and parole have historically been used to provide someone with a second chance. It is designed to offer alternatives other than keeping them in jail or sending them directly there. At the heart of these ideas, is to allow the individual to demonstrate how they have changed and can serve as a productive member of society. In the event that they have violated these terms, there are number of actions which can be taken in the process. The most notable include:
Providing a written notice of the alleged violations.
Setting up a preliminary (probable cause hearing), where a judge will decide if there is enough evidence for the case to continue further.
Conducting a revocation hearing.
During a revocation hearing the defendant is allowed to: testify, have an attorney representing them and present witnesses on their behalf. If they cannot afford adequate legal protection, a court appointed lawyer…
Smart Probation. (2013). Grants.gov. Retrieved from:
Kates, C.L. (2007). Policy Report: An Analysis of Current NYS Parole Policy (1).
Retrieved from: http://www.cherylkatesesq.com/PolicyPaper.pdf
Arizona State Legislature
The topic of recidivism in the Criminal Justice System has actually been long researched. It has actually likewise been suggested over for numerous other aspects regarding the degree of its efficiency. Recidivism is specified as the duplicating of an unfavourable activity after experiencing unfavourable results from that activity or getting treatment for that activity. In concerns to the criminal justice system, recidivism happens when one individual is arrested again after he has completed one particular sentence. Keeping this in the framework, recidivism is normally found in the criminal justice system when a sentence and/or verdict have actually happened. For that reason the real variety of recidivism cases just covers reported cases. The concern here established in this paper is simply how does jailing crooks impact the rates of recidivism?
Since mid-2008 there was roughly a populace of 2,310,984 imprisoned within federal or state jails or prisons…
Crime statistics. Retrieved September 16, 2009, from http://www.dc.state.fl.us/pub/recidivismprog/execsum.html
Crime statistics. Retrieved October 15, 2009, from www.bop.gov
Crime statistics. Retrieved October 15, 2009, from http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/
Crime statistics. Retrieved October 1, 2009, from www.ojp.usdoj.gov/
Prison Life and ecidivism
Generally, recidivism in the justice system context entails the tendency amongst former prisoners or criminals to go back to their criminal lives mainly upon release from prison. In this case, recidivism rates are measured by having a look at the number of former prisoners re-incarcerated within a given time period. It can be noted that in basic terms, high recidivism rates are in most cases associated with increased costs of re-offender arrest and prosecution. Other related costs in this case relate to public safety. In this text, I will concern myself with prison life and the approaches/strategies to bring down the rate of recidivism upon a prisoner's release from jail.
The Purpose for Prisons in the U.S. Justice System
Prisons have an existing obligation enshrined in the constitution to avail to inmates a minimal standard of care. However, it is important to note that in relation…
Barkan, S.E. & Bryjak, G.J. (2011). Fundamentals of Criminal Justice: A Sociological View. Jones and Bartlett Learning.
Clear, T.R., Cole, G.F. & Reisig, M.D. (2010). American Corrections. Cengage Learning.
Human Rights Watch (2011). Prison and Detention Conditions. Retrieved November 22nd from: http://www.hrw.org/united-states/us-program/prison-and-detention-conditions
Osher, F.C. (2007). Short-term Strategies to Improve Re-entry of jail Populations: Expanding and Implementing the APIC Model. American Jails. 9 -- 18. Retrieved from
In the American society, prisons or correctional facilities are seen as weapons of choice in the fight against crime. They are seen as multipurpose institutions which include exaction of retribution in the event of breaking the law, this correctional facilities separate the law breakers from the rest of the community so that they do not commit more crimes. They are also meant to deter the general population from committing crimes and discouraging incarcerated offenders from breaking the law once they are released from prison.
In the U.S.A. The population in prison is increasing at a very high rate. In the last few decades the prison population has risen three fold and more. This increase places a heavy burden on the federal, state or local government finance, it's of greater concern and importance therefore to cut down the number of population in prison, in this respect to accomplish this,…
Stephen J. Steurer & Linda G. Smith, (2003). Correctional Education Association, Education Reduces Crime: Three-State Recidivism Study Executive Summary. Retrieved August 6, 2012 from http://www.ceanational.org/PDFs/EdReducesCrime.pdf .
William J. Sabol & Paige M. Harrison, (2007). Bureau of Justice Statistics Bulletin: Prison and Jail Inmates at Midyear 2006. Retrieved August 6, 2012 from
Policy ( 1250 Words) Addresses Issue
ecidivism ates: A Cry for ehabilitation
There are a number of different facets of the criminal justice system to take into account when attempting to effectively reduce the rate of offender recidivism. Several different methodologies have been enacted by various correctional facilities during different time periods to address this pertinent issue. An examination of the research of George Bridges and Sarah Steen, Daniel Mears et al., Cassia Spohn and David Holleran, and Joan Petersilia indicate that some of the most critical determinants in regards to these methodologies include differences in rates of recidivism for those incarcerated vs. paroled, difficulties incurred by correctional officers due to inmates struggling with aspects of mature coping, and attributions that relate to whom a parole board chooses to issue parole to. A synthesis of the findings of these authors demonstrates that the most effective way to prevent offender recidivism…
Bridges, G.S., Steen, S. (1998). "Racial disparities in official assessments of juvenile offenders: Attributional stereotypes as mediating mechanisms." American Sociological Review. 63: 554-570.
Huebner, B.M., Bynum, T.S. (2008). "The role of race and ethnicity in parole decisions." Criminology. 46 (4): 907-
Mears, D.P., Wang, X., Hay, C., Bales, W.D. (2008). "Social ecology and recidivism: implications for prisoner reentry." Criminology. 46(2): 301-340.
Petersilia, J. (2004). "What works in prisoner reentry? Reviewing and questioning the evidence." Federal Probation. 68 (2): 4-8.
educing ecidivism by Juvenile Offenders
educing ecidivism by Juvenile Offenders: The Power of Hope and Inclusion
It is important to begin this discussion by recognizing the fact that minority youth are disproportionately represented throughout juvenile justice systems in nearly every state in the nation. Disproportionate minority contact (DMC) in juvenile justice occurs when minority youth come into contact with the system at a higher rate than their white counterparts. African-Americans, Hispanics, Asians, Pacific Islanders and Native Americans comprise a combined one-third of the nation's youth population. Yet they account for over two-thirds of the youth in secure juvenile facilities (Armour & Hammond, 2009).
Armour and Hammond (2009) point to an assortment of explanations that have emerged for the disproportionate treatment of minorities including jurisdictional issues, certain police practices, punitive juvenile crime legislation of the 1990s, and perceived racial bias in the system. Often the outcome of criminal allegations can…
Armour, J. & Hammond, S. (2009, January). Minority youth in the juvenile justice system: Disproportionate minority contact. National Conference of State Legislatures. Retrieved May 23, 2013, from http://www.ncsl.org/print/cj/minoritiesinjj.pdf
"FPSY 6512 On the outside: Social challenges for teens reentering society." (2010, December 10). Laureate Education Inc. Retrieved May 23, 2013, from http://digital.films.com/play/664VTR
Psychological Analysis of Behavioral Consistency, ecidivism & Serial Crime
Psychological analysis of behavioral consistency, recidivism, and serial crime
The behavioral analysis unit (BAU) of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is the unit that is involved with providing criminal investigation analysis to the law enforcement agencies. Special agents trained in preparing case files for law enforcement agencies by profiling suspects staff it. It is under the National Center for the Analysis of Violent Crime (NCAVC) and has there are four units. Their work is to crosscheck suspects in various law enforcement databases to find case linkages and provide other analysis results. The first unit deals with counterterrorism, bombing issues and arson while the second deals with threats, white-collar crime, cybercrimes, and public corruption. The last two units deal with crimes against children and against adults respectively The Federal Bureau of Investigation, 2013.
Psychologists are some of the most attractive candidates…
Fulero, S.M., & Wrightsman., L. (2009). Forensic Psychology (3rd ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
Harris, A.J.R., & Hanson, R.K. (2004). Sex Offender Recidivism: A Simple Question. http://www.publicsafety.gc.ca/cnt/rsrcs/pblctns/sx-ffndr-rcdvsm/index-eng.aspx
Holmes, R.M., & Holmes, S.T. (2008). Profiling Violent Crimes: An Investigative Tool (4th ed.). Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, Inc.
Labuschagne, G.N. (2006). The use of linkage analysis as evidence in the conviction of the Newcastle serial murder, South Africa. Journal of Investigative Psychology & Offender Profiling, 3(3), 183-191. doi: 10:1002/jip.51
An analysis of the purposes for prisons in the U.S. justice system.
The corrections system in America has historically fluctuated between being dedicated to incapacitation, rehabilitation, and to being punitive in nature. They can serve all three of these functions at the same time. Current trends in criminal justice remain focused on punitive justice that fosters prison environments lacking rehabilitative services, but recent scholarship and public policy have indicated a slight shift towards the root concept of corrections as a rehabilitative process that simultaneously protects the public.
Prisons serve multiple, and potentially convergent purposes, theoretically: to rehabilitate the prisoner, to punish the prisoner by restricting liberties, and to protect public safety. Deterrence is an indirect purpose of prisons. Ancillary purposes of prisons in the United States justice system include profitability, too, as prison privatization has proved lucrative for the companies with a vested interest. Halfway houses, which can be…
Abadinsky, A. (2008). Probation and Parole: Theory and Practice. 10th edition. Prentice Hall. Excerpts online: http://wps.prenhall.com/chet_abadinsky_probation_10/81/20953/5364166.cw/-/5364234/index.html
ACLU (2013). Prison conditions. Retrieved online: http://www.aclu.org/prisoners-rights/prison-conditions
COPS (2006). Prisoner reentry and community policing. Retrieved online: http://www.cops.usdoj.gov/Publications/e12051219.pdf
Dolnick, S. (2013). Pennsylvania Study Finds Halfway Houses Don't Reduce Recidivism. The New York Times. 24 Mar, 2013.
Specifically, that approach must offer a method of reversing, or at least substantially reducing the impact of those factors. Furthermore, since the particular variables differ among different criminal offenders, an approach that is likely to be successful must incorporate aspects of assessment of the individual for the purposes of designing treatments that address the many different paths to criminal conduct.
In that regard, Andrews (1995) offers a comprehensive set of "major" factors and "minor" factors responsible for most criminal conduct. According to Andrews, a successful approach to addressing criminal conduct primarily requires: (1) a system of understanding and addressing personal cognitive factors; (2) a method of reducing criminal associations and lifestyles; (3) treatment of personal factors of temperament and natural behavioral inclination; and (4) an understanding of the personal, family, and educational history of the offender. Unlike the traditional focus of classic theories of social behavior, Andrews discounts the relative…
Andrews, D. (1995). The Psychology of Criminal Conduct and Effective Treatment.
Cullen, F.T. (2002). Rehabilitation and Treatment Programs.
Cullen, F.T., Gendreau, P. (2000). Assessing Correctional Rehabilitation: Policy,
Practice, and Prospects.
ecidivism/e-Entry Programs for Adults
There has been a large amount of funding filtered into prison recidivism and reentry programs for adults because these programs claim to have the answer to addressing the recidivism rates of adult individuals who are in reentry programs leaving prison. Successful reintegration of prisoners into society is critically important in reducing the rate of these individuals who reoffends and returns to prison. As well that are various theories that abound that attempt to explain how and why specific program and treatment formats are more effective in addressing this problem. The truth is that no one is quite sure as to which programs are most effective.
The work of Wormith, et al. (2007) entitled "The ehabilitation and eintegration of Offenders: The Current Landscape and So e Future Directions for Correctional Psychology" reports that the national average recidivism rate in the United States reveals that approximately…
Aos, S., Phipps, P., Barnoski, E., & Leib, R. (2001). The comparative costs and benefits of programs to reduce crime. Olympia: Washington State Institute for Public Policy cited in: Wormith, J.S. (2007) The Rehabilitation and Reintegration of Offenders: The Current Landscape and Some Future Direction for Correctional Psychology. SAGE on behalf of: On behalf of: International Association for Correctional and Forensic Psychology
Wormith, J.S. (2007) The Rehabilitation and Reintegration of Offenders: The Current Landscape and Some Future Direction for Correctional Psychology. SAGE on behalf of: On behalf of: International Association for Correctional and Forensic Psychology. Retrieved from: http://www.sagepub.com/bartolstudy/articles/Wormith.pdf
California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation -- Expert Documents, Part II (2010) Retrieved from: http://www.cdcr.ca.gov/news/docs/Expert_Rpt/ExpertPanelRpt_PartII.pdf
Washington courts registered 13,127 juvenile offenses in 2005, of whom 77% were boys and 76% of them had previous offenses and imprisonments (SGC, 2008). Of the total rate of recidivists, 72% were girls. Those convicted are given dispositions rather than sentenced. Information on race and ethnicity appeared inaccurate. While only 3.94% of the Washington population was African-American, African-American accounted for 13.11% of all recorded juvenile dispositions. This was a disproportionately high rate of 78.07%. Hispanic recidivists had a higher rate of 82.29%. Asian-Pacific Islanders had the lowest rate at 65.08%. Caucasians tallied at 69.23% and had a recidivist rate of 75.14%. First-time offenders were mostly aged 15, and younger than repeat offenders. Girls tended to commit the same violations at a younger age, also around 15, than boys. Juvenile recidivism was recorded highest between 15 and 17 (SGC).
The 11 primary categories of juvenile offenses in Washington courts were assault,…
Abrams, L.S. (2006). Listening to juvenile offenders: can residential treatment prevent recidivism? Vol 23 # 1 Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal: Springer Science
Business Media, Inc. Retrieved on November 13, 2010 from http://www.springerlink.com/content/f559u2j80071808/fulltext.pdf
Goliath (2004). Juvenile recidivism: criminal propensity, social control and social learning theories. Psychiatry, Psychology and Law: the Gale Group. Retrieved on November 13, 2010 from http://goliath.ecnext.com/come2/gi_0199-2351196/Juvenile-recidivism-criminal-propensity-social.html
Huston, J.P. (2008). Juvenile crime trends down, recidivism up. Oak Leaves: Digital
Dugan: Should be on its own page.
Juvenile recidivism is a prevalent problem in the criminal justice system. Tackling reoffending remains a complex task requiring several strategies and aims. It involves research, acknowledgement of causes, factors, exploration, and evaluation of subgroups to generate long-term, positive changes in the lives of juvenile offenders. From gang violence to Interactive, Constructive, Active, and Passive (ICAP), researchers discover some of the reasons why juveniles reoffend and the kinds of intervention methods that may help or worsen the problem of juvenile recidivism. Intervention philosophies like surveillance, discipline, close monitoring may increase recidivism rates. estorative programs, counseling, skill building programs, as well as multiple coordinated services decrease recidivism rates. Comment by Max Dugan: I would put evaluation at the end of the list vs. first. Comment by Max Dugan: Need to spell out all acronyms before using in APA format.
Juvenile offenders and reoffenders are…
Aalsma, M., White, L., Lau, K., Perkins, A., Monahan, P., & Grisso, T. (2015). Behavioral Health Care Needs, Detention-Based Care, and Criminal Recidivism at Community Reentry From Juvenile Detention: A Multisite Survival Curve Analysis. American Journal Of Public Health, 105(7), 1372-1378. http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/ajph.2014.302529
Baglivio, M. & Jackowski, K. (2012). Examining the Validity of a Juvenile Offending Risk Assessment Instrument Across Gender and Race/Ethnicity. Youth Violence And Juvenile Justice, 11(1), 26-43. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1541204012440107
Baglivio, M., Wolff, K., Piquero, A., & Epps, N. (2015). The Relationship between Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) and Juvenile Offending Trajectories in a Juvenile Offender Sample. Journal Of Criminal Justice, 43(3), 229-241. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcrimjus.2015.04.012
Bates, K. & Swan, R. (2013). Juvenile delinquency in a diverse society (1st ed.). SAGE Publications.
African-Americans have experienced higher rates of recidivism in contrast with other segments of the population. Evidence of this can be seen with a study conducted by the U.S. Justice Department. They found that those individuals in this demographic and between the ages 18 to 35 have a 32% chance of being incarcerated. Once they are released from prison or placed on probation, the odds of them committing another crime are double in contrast with other population groups. (Kury, 2011) To fully understand why this is occurring requires examining the root causes of the problem. This will be accomplished by conducting a literature review on the subject. These findings will illustrate the primary causes as to why this segment has higher recidivism rates.
The target population is focusing on African-Americans from ages 18 to 35. This study will examine how the lack of education, substance dependency and criminal history are influencing…
Andrews, D. (2010). Rehabilitating Criminal Justice Policy. Psychology, Public Policy and Law, 16 (1), pp. 39 -- 55.
Bellair, P. (2011). Low Skill Employment Opportunities. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 48 (2), pp.
176 -- 208.
Kury, H. (2011). Punitivity. Munich: Borckmeyer.
The author of this report has been asked to offer a series of answers to a questions. These questions. The questions center on the construction and testing of a theory. In the case of these questions and this report, these questions would center on the idea of testing the theory that some short-term counseling of young offenders will counteract the notion that some of these young offenders are prone to have and that would be that their incorporation into the prison and legal system is a rite of passage and "no big deal." To test this theory, there will be definitions of the theory itself, the hypotheses that will be tested via experimentation and study, how that study would be carried out, how the hypothesis would be tested and the limitations that would exist as part of the study. While testing the above material would not be an…
CCSF. (2015). The Scientific Method. Fog.ccsf.cc.ca.us. Retrieved 13 October 2015, from http://fog.ccsf.cc.ca.us/~mmalacho/ScientificMethod.html
NAACP. (2015). Criminal Justice Fact Sheet. Naacp.org. Retrieved 13 October 2015, from http://www.naacp.org/pages/criminal-justice-fact-sheet
NIJ. (2015). Recidivism -- National Institute of Justice. National Institute of Justice. Retrieved 13 October 2015, from http://www.nij.gov/topics/corrections/recidivism/pages/welcome.aspx
drug offenders before or after they are incarcerated. It is noted that many drug offenders are willing to try treatment but the options thereof are not always present or sufficient as they are only present about 20% of the time. A doctor interviewed for the report suggests that he does not see "bad people" when it comes to drug addicts. ather, he asserts that he simply sees people with a disease. It is also noted that roughly half of all of the 2.3 million inmates in the United States have some sort of substance abuse issue, either past or present. On a related note, the drug offenders or users are either in jail for actual drug offenses or they were popped for engaging in behaviors that were being done to feed their habit (e.g. robbery, burglary, etc.). Even so, it has been found that getting people treated reduces recidivism substantially.…
Carmichael, M. (2010). Newsweek.com. Retrieved 17 September 2015, from http://www.newsweek.com/case-treating-drug-addicts-prison-73561
Federal Mandatory Minimum Drug Sentences and Their Impact on Recidivism
There is much controversy regarding mandatory sentencing and its impact on the American society throughout recent times. In many ways, prisons are used as a means to control crime, to protect society from it, with criminals being deterred from continuing to commit illegalities as a direct result of the time they spend behind bars. Mandatory minimums were generally introduced with the purpose of preventing future recidivism. The authorities considered that the uncomfortable nature of prison life and the social status associated with being in prison were enough to persuade criminals to refrain from ever expressing interest in illegalities once they were set free. Other schools of thought appear to think just the opposite as some believe that prison time actually has a negative impact on convicts, while others believe that criminals experience little to no change consequent to staying in…
Goldberg, Raymond, "Drugs Across the Spectrum, 7th ed.," (Cengage Learning, 5 Oct 2012)
Kitwana, Bakari, "The Hip-Hop Generation: Young Blacks and the Crisis in African-American Culture," (Basic Civitas Books, 2008)
Lyman, Michael D., "Drugs in Society: Causes, Concepts, and Control," (Newnes, 25 Sep 2013)
The United States is regarded as having the world's highest incarceration rate. It has been estimated that the prisons are holding more than 2.3 million people as of now. Due to this reason, overcrowding is a significant issue in the prison system of the country. It is seen that for every hundred thousand population, there are seven hundred and forty eight inmates and this number is expected to increase. Due to the increased incarceration, the state and the federal prisons are made to release a decent number of ex-offenders every year. The trend of releasing has only been a result of the mass incarceration that the country has experienced. It was seen that during the 1972 till the 1997 period, the number of state and federal prisoners increased from 196,000 to a record of 1,159,000 (Mauer, 1999) In 2000, a total of 600,000 ex-offenders were released to the…
Beck, A. And Shipley, J. (1989). Recidivism of Prisoners Released in 1983. Bureau of Justice Statistics special reports. [report] U.S. Department of Justice.
Burton, V., Cullen, F. And Travis III, L. (1987). Collateral Consequences of a Felony Conviction: A National Study of State Statutes, The. Fed. Probation, 51 p. 52.
Chin, G. And Holmes Jr., R. (2001). Effective Assistance of Counsel and the Consequences of Guilty Pleas. Cornell L. Rev., 87 p. 697.
Clear, T., Rose, D. And Ryder, J. (2001). Incarceration and the community: The problem of removing and returning offenders. Crime & Delinquency, 47 (3), pp. 335 -- 351.
These strategies should focus on parolees' risks and need and conducted in a way that would motivate change. Aware of these realities, States continue to innovate and evolve reentry strategies towards this end (Yahner et al.).
The RI was a particularly ambitious correctional program in that it targeted the most difficult offenders for rehabilitation and incorporation into the community. These are young offenders with violent criminal histories, who are likeliest to be excluded from reentry assistance. The RI develops and implements individual plans to reintegrate chosen offenders back into society. This was the Controlling Violent Offenders Program.
Efforts begin during their incarceration and continue when they are released into the community through a focused approach by a mentor. Case workers and mentors conduct varied programs to support their transition. These include social services in substance abuse and mental health disorders and vocational services for training, education and resume development for…
Braga, A.A. et al. (2008). Controlling violent offenders released to the community.
Rappaport Institute for Greater Boston: Harvard Kennedy School. Retrieved on March 19, 2013 from http://www.hks.harvard.edu/var/ezp_site/storage/fckeditor/file/pdfs/centers-programs/centers/rappaport/workingpapers/braga_BRI_final.pdf
James, N. (2011). Offender reentry: correctional statistics reintegration into the community and recidivism. CRS Report for Congress: Congressional Research
Service. Retrieved on March 19, 2013 from http://www.nationalcia.org/wp-content/uploads/correctional-statistics-Reintegration-into-the-Community.pdf
For example, offenders without job skills can receive job training, while offenders with emotional problems can be ordered to attend the appropriate counseling. (Native American and Alaskan Technical Assistance Program, 2005). Because such a huge proportion of crimes are drug-related or committed by addicts, completion of in-patient or out-patient substance abuse programs is often an integral part of an offender's alternative sentencing program. Furthermore, alternative sentencing strives to make an offender personally responsible for their crime. Therefore, mediation and restitution play an important part in alternative sentencing, because mediation gives the victim a voice, while restitution can require an offender to repay his victim. (Native American and Alaskan Technical Assistance Program, 2005).
After one has an understanding of the different sentencing alternatives available, the logical step is to question whether alternative sentencing is effective. In order to answer that question, many criminal justice professionals look to recidivism rates. "However, limited…
Jones, G. & M. Connelly. (2001) Prison vs. alternative sanctions: trying to compare recidivism rates. Retrieved October 31, 2006, from Maryland State Commission on Criminal Sentencing Policy
Web site: http://www.msccsp.org/publications/altrecid.html
Native American and Alaskan Technical Assistance Program. (2005). Project guide:
alternatives to incarceration of offenders. Washington, D.C.: National Institute of Corrections.
Productivity-Education/Craft/Trade -- a key to being able to stop the return to the penal system is to provide training necessary to allow the individual to find work after leaving prison. Not only is it extremely tough to get a job as a convicted felon, but the skills necessary to get a job that will afford a decent living are tough to get in prison. Earning a degree either online or through continuing education; earning a trade certificate (automotive, plumbing, wood working, etc.) will provide an occupation for the felon after leaving prison, and a focus for their energy and attention while in prison.
Consequences -- Many rehabilitation programs fail because the consequences are unrealistic. Allow people to be human, while still requiring that in order to receive the gift from society of living in society, there are consequences if the rules are broken (Clear, et.al., 2011).
How then, can Maslow's…
Facts About the U.S. Prison System." (October 2007). Retrieved from: http://webb.senate.gov/pdf/prisonstwopager.html.
Project Return -- Breaking the Cycle of Crime. (2009). Retrieved from: http://www.projectreturn.com/index.php?name=results_and_impacts
Total U.S. Correctional Population. (2010, December 11). Retrieved from:
Office of Justice Programs: http://bjs.ojp.usdoj.gov/index.cfm?ty=tp&tid=11
Boot Camp's Program Claim of a 0% ecidivism ate
Addressing a Boot Camp's Program's Claim of a 0% ecidivism ate
The Claim: A Boot Camp Program un by a Local Sheriff's Department Claims a ecidivism ate of 0%
My assessment on the accuracy of the above statement and this discussion in general, will make use of a number of fundamental terms: corrective boot camp program, recidivism and shock incarceration. A corrective boot camp program, to begin with, refers to a facility that makes use of the techniques applied during military training sessions, to instill a culture of 'doing what is right' in youthful first-time offenders. ecidivism, according to the Bureau of Justice Statistics (2013), is the tendency to repeat criminal activities, leading to re-arrest, during the three-year duration following release from a correctional facility. Finally, shock incarceration, like the name suggests, is a program used on first time offenders, to…
Cole, G.F., Smith, C.E. & DeJong, C. (2012). The American System of Criminal Justice (13th ed.). Belmont: Cengage Learning
Cole, G.F. & Smith, C.E. (2007). The American System of Criminal Justice (5th ed.). Belmont: Cengage Learning
Government Bureau of Justice Statistics (2013). Recidivism. Retrieved from http://www.bjs.gov/index.cfm?ty=tp&tid=17
Jones, J.A. (2012). A Multi-State Analysis of Correctional Boot Camp Outcomes: Identifying Vocational Rehabilitation as a Complement to Shock Incarceration. Student Pulse, 4(9), 1-3. Retrieved from http://www.studentpulse.com/articles/689/a-multi-state-analysis-of-correctional-boot-camp-outcomes-identifying-vocational-rehabilitation-as-a-complement-to-shock-incarceration
In the United States, recidivism has been identified as one of the most critical concepts in criminal justice. The concept refers to an ability of an individual relapsing into criminal behavior. Typically, the recidivism has been measured by a criminal act, which led to reconviction, re-arrest, or return to prison. According to data released by the National Institution of Justice (2015), approximately 67.8%, which is about two-third of the released prisoners are rearrested within three years of their released. Within five years, 76.6%, three- quarter of the released prisoners are rearrested. Moreover, property offenders and those sentenced for drug crimes are in the top lists of the released prisoners likely to be rearrested. The SCA (Second Chance Act) is the federal government program designed in reducing recidivism as well as improving outcomes of individual returning from jails.
The report carries out the evaluability assessment of the Second Chance Act to…
In July, 2001, a 14-year-old boy died following the brutal treatment he was subjected to at the Fountain Hills facility in Arizona. The staff had forced him to "stand in the Arizona sun" in 100-degree temperatures, wearing black sweat pants, according to an article in the Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing (Bush, 2001). When he - or any of the other inmates - asked for water or food, he was "forced to eat mud." Also, the staff "stomped on the boys' chests and arms with boots if they did not perform tasks required of them."
In Prince Georges County, Maryland, on May 14 of 2001, a 17-year-old boy died of asphyxia when a teacher cut off his airway "in the act of restraining him." The article's writer, Carol Bush, asks: "Is it not time for the medical and nursing professionals to speak out on behalf of troubled youth…
Bush, Carol. (2001). Youth at risk - in facilities that are supposed to help! Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing, 14(4), 200.
Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education (2001). Juvenile Crime,
Juvenile Justice: Executive Summary. Retrieved February 26, 2005, from the National Academies Press. Web site: http://www.nap.edu/openbook/0309068428/html/index.html .
Mackenzie, Doris Layton, Gover, Angela R, Armstrong, Gaylene Styve, & Mitchell,
Criminal behavior and recidivism has been a very contentious issue over the last decade. esearch continues to garner massive support related to methods to better help offenders matriculate into society. Juvenile behavior is one of the more pressing issues within society. Juvenile behavior is particularly important as habits formed in early years are directly correlated to behavior in later years. esearch has also indicated that children or juveniles influenced by criminal activities at an early age, are more likely to commit crimes in their adolescent stage. Although a litany of methods have been devised to combat juvenile criminal behavior, results have been mixed. ecent incidents with school shootings, robberies, and vandalism indicate that juvenile criminal behavior is still profound. One interesting aspect regarding juvenile behavior is that violent acts committed by juveniles have actually decreased over the past decade. However, many juveniles are often sent to court and prosecuted as…
1) Bazemore, G., & Feder, L. (1997a). Rehabilitation in the new juvenile court: Do judges support the treatment ethic? American Journal of Criminal Justice, 21, 181-212.
2) Sickmund, M. (2004). Juveniles in corrections. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.
3) Snyder, H. (2005). Juvenile arrests 2003. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.
During the latter half of the twentieth century, evidence-based policing became more commonplace, partly as a means to reduce corruption, but also as a means to make crime fighting more effective. Instruments used to measure crime at the federal level include those that fall under the rubric of the Department of Justice, such as Uniform Crime eporting and National Crime Victimization Service. The FBI also operates legal attache offices, the Combined DNA Index System, and other tools used to measure and empirically track crime (Schmalleger, 2015, p. 147). Likewise, the Department of Justice maintains several major crime reporting programs including the National Incident-Based eporting System. These reporting programs serve several core functions. They boost the effectiveness of criminal justice policy, they ensure policing and other aspects of criminal justice are evidence-based, and they inform the judicious allocation of resources throughout the criminal justice system. As Schmalleger (2015) points…
"Myth v. Reality: Crime has been Steadily Increasing." [CJi Interactive video].
Schmalleger, F. (2015). Criminal justice today: An introductory text for the 21st century (13th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall.
Silver, S. (2014). CJ in the U.S.A.: An Introduction to Criminal Justice. San Diego, CA: Curriculum Technology.
Just as clearly no individual who is logical would consider Charles Manson or Theodore undy as eligible profiles for the restorative justice program or even for rehabilitation program or indeed of any other than imprisonment or death by execution There are however, very potentially productive, useful, and worthy individuals who are shuffled into the correction system due to their inability to hire a lawyer or lack of knowledge concerning their rights to having representation appointed to them that with education and knowledge or skills acquisition can be successfully rehabilitation or restored to society and within the community. Recently there has been documented an additional strategy in criminal justice corrections which is described as a 'transformational' process and is a cognitive-behavioral approach in treatment.
RECOMMENDATIONS for FUTURE CORRECTIONS
Cognitive behavioral approaches are being used in transforming the dysfunctional thinking of the individual. The work of Mahoney and Lyddon (1988) relate approximately…
MacKenzie, DL and Hickman, LJ (1998) What Works in Corrections? An Examination of the Effectiveness of the Type of Rehabilitation Programs Offered by Washington State Department of Corrections. Submitted to: The State of Washington Legislature joint audit and review committee. Crime Prevention effectiveness Program - Dept. Criminology and Criminal Justice. Online available at http://www.ccjs.umd.edu/corrections/What%20Works%20In%20Corrections.htm
Van Ness, DW (nd) Restorative Justice in Prisons. Session 204: The Practice of Restorative Justice in Prison Reform. PFI Centre for Justice and Reconciliation. Prison Fellowship International. Online available at http://www.restorativejustice.org/editions/2005/july05/2005-06-21.9036003387 .
Complexity of the Social Contract (2001) Prisoner Life Online available at http://www.prisonerlife.com/s_writings6.cfm .
Erikson, Kai. Wayward Puritans. New York: John Wiley, 1966.
Sentencing in the US versus in Germany and the Netherlands
There is one major difference between the sentencing and corrections policies of the US and the sentencing and corrections policies of Germany and the Netherlands. The former bases its policy on the ideas of retribution and incapacitation, whereas the latter base their policies on the ideas of rehabilitation and socialization (Vera Institute of Justice, 2013). This basic philosophical orientation towards the corrections is what distinguishes the two policies. The US views corrections as a punitive measure while Germany and the Netherlands view corrections in a positive light -- a measure that is designed to return the inmate to society. Indeed, recidivism rate in the US is 40% -- meaning that 4 out of every 10 inmates released will return to prison within the first three years (Vera Institute of Justice, 2013). In Germany and the Netherlands, such a rate is…
Examples of offenses that are based on constitutional endowments of right contain tax evasion, possessing illegal substances and conspiring to violate civil rights. Courts have specified on the whole a wide explanation to the Commerce Clause authority, allowing Congress to create a federal offense of many widespread law crimes such as kidnapping or murder if state outline are fractious during commission of the crime and such as misappropriation and blackmail using instrumentalities of trade such as telephone lines or the U.S. post. Examples of offenses that are based on regions owned by or under the restricted power of the federal government contain crimes committed in the District of Columbia, in U.S. Territories, in U.S. National Parks, in federal courthouses and federal jails plus on board airplanes and ocean going ships. The United States armed force has its own immoral justice system applicable to its members, but civilians might be accused…
Wolfgang, Marvin (1990). Crime and Punishment in Renaissance Florence. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology. Retrieved on January 11, 2008.
Schmalleger, Frank (2001). Criminal Justice: A Brief Introduction. Prentice Hall. Retrieved on January 11, 2008.
Cornell University Law School. Bill of Rights from Cornell University Law School. Retrieved on January 11, 2008.
Nicholas J. Szabo. (2006). Jurisdiction as Property: Franchise Jurisdiction from Henry III to James I. Retrieved on January 11, 2008 at http://szabo.best.vwh.net/JurisdictionAsProperty.pdf
Juvenile Community Corrections
Corrections in Community-Based Settings
Community-based corrections: Factors to consider when dealing with juvenile offenders
One seemingly self-evident truth regarding juvenile offenders might seem to be that socio-economic status will have a significant impact upon the individual's ability to find adequate treatment. The research does support the idea that individuals of higher socioeconomic status (SES) are less likely commit juvenile crimes. Also, it would seem that a wealthy, well-connected suburban family who is able to offer private counseling to their child is more likely to see the teen transition out of juvenile corrections than one who does not. An overall literature review suggests that lower SES is linked with the likelihood of perpetuating juvenile crimes. In another study of 420 urban youth comparing those from high SES neighborhoods vs. low SES neighborhoods, the high SES youth were half as likely to engage in serious delinquency (Atkins et al.…
Atkins, T., Bullis, M., & Yovanoff, P. (2007). Wealthy and wise? influence of socioeconomic status on the community adjustment of previously incarcerated youth. Behavioral Disorders, 32(4), 254-266. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/219677853?accountid=14872
Mincey, Barrett, Maldonado, Nancy, Lacey, Candace H. & Thompson, Steve D. (2008).
Perceptions of successful graduates of juvenile residential programs: Reflections and suggestions for success The Journal of Correctional Education 59(1).
Woolard, Jennifer L., Harvell, Samantha, Graham, Sandra. (2008). Anticipatory injustice among adolescents: Age and racial/ethnic differences in perceived unfairness of the justice system. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 26: 207 -- 226. Retrieved:
Juvenile delinquency is a common phenomenon in the globe today. Owing to the severe crimes, committed, different states handle the matter differently. On one hand, some states utilize the "punitive approach" that prioritizes crime control, punishment, and incarceration; on another, the restorative model, which stresses human rights, youth development research, and restoring the community. In the United States, the law does not tolerate juvenile delinquency; this explains the utilization of the "punitive approach" when handling juveniles. In addition, policies in the U.S. are becoming more punitive; therefore, juveniles have found themselves tried in the adult legal system. However, in the recent past, the U.S. has re-considered the death and life without parole sentences for juveniles, which it has termed as unconstitutional. Apparently, the state is gradually applying some human rights principles in relation to juvenile justice policy, a positive move, indeed (Caldwell, 2011).
During the 19th century,…
Abrams, L.S., Kim, K., & Anderson-Nathe, B. (2005). Paradoxes of treatment in the juvenile corrections. Child and youth car form, 34(1), 7-25.
Caldwell, B. (2011). Punishment vs. restoration: A comparative analysis of juvenile delinquency law in the United States and Mexico.
Hirth, D. (2001). Early intensive help for high-risk juveniles. Corrections today, 80-83.
Perlin, M. (2013). Collaborative justice. Criminology and Law Enforcement, 1-3.
Psychopathology Criminal Behavior Part
What might be some of the implications for the forensic field of the differences between the "low-fear hypothesis" and the "high-impulsive" subtypes of psychopathy? In other words, how might the differences in the models help inform us about best practices for such activities as police work on the streets, interrogation methods, trial and sentencing practices, providing treatment, or evaluating recidivism risks?
In retrospect, theorists view Lykken's conceptual framework as a first step toward distinguishing between primary and secondary psychopathy (Baskins-Sommers, 2010). As theory building continues in this decade, the typology is supported by the notion of trait-like sensitivities and trait-like cognitive capacities that suggest the following implications for criminal justice procedures. Primary psychopathy is characterized by disinhibition, which is an inability to abort a dominant response, integrate socialization, or adopt alternative objectives. An individual who is considered to have primary psychopathy will fail to consider emotional…
Baskin-Sommers, A.R., Wallace, J.F., MacCoon, D.G., Curtin, J.J., and Newman, J.P. (2010, October 1). Clarifying the Factors that Undermine Behavioral Inhibition System Functioning in Psychopathy. Personal Disorders, 1(4), 203 -- 217. doi: 10.1037/a0018950. PMCID: PMC2992384. NIHMSID: NIHMS211679. Retrieved http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2992384/#!po=74.5614
Baskin-Sommers, A.R., Curtin, J.J. And Newman, J.P. (2013, May). Emotion-modulated startle in psychopathy: clarifying familiar effects. Journal of Abnormal Pychology, 122(2), 458-468. 10.1037/a0030958. Epub 2013 Jan 28. Retrieved http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23356218
Blonigen, D.M., Hicks, B.M., Krueger, R.F., Patrick, C.J. & Iacono, W.G. (2005, May). Psychopathic personality traits: heritability and genetic overlap with internalizing and externalizing psychopathology. Psychological Medicine, 35(5): 637 -- 648. doi: 10.1017/S0033291704004180. PMCID: PMC2242349. NIHMSID: NIHMS38985. Retreived http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2242349/#__ffn_sectitle
Franklin, K. (2010, May 30). Psychopathy guru blocks critical article. Will case affect credibility of PCL-R test in court? In the News: Forensic psychology, criminology, and psychology-law. Retrieved http://forensicpsychologist.blogspot.com/2010/05/psychopath-guru-blocks-critical-article.html
Politics Trumps Policy
How would you respond? Would you just capitulate and end some or all of these programs?
Explain your answer.
A written response would be provided to the new governor that would include an outline of all current programs supplemented with reasoning and statistical effectiveness of each. A break even analysis for each program will also be provided where the actual program outcome statistics with the inclusion of the 30% reduction in recidivism over two years and the cost savings of such a rate reduction in both the short- and long-term to the state and the community. The programs themselves were thoroughly researched and required significant defense for development and implementation, some of the material used to allow support for implementation will clearly need to be used to demonstrate to the new governor the importance and potential of these programs. To respond to the concerns associated with the…
Azzolino, S., Johnson, C., Thornton, T., & Turley, A. (2004, December). Jail drug and alcohol treatment program reduces recidivism in nonviolent offenders: A longitudinal study of Monroe County, New York's, jail treatment drug and alcohol program. International Journal of Offender Therapy & Comparative Criminology, 48(6), 721-728.
Carter, F.C. (2008). Offender employment is the key. Corrections Today, 70(4), 108.
Jensen, E.L., & Reed, G.E. (2006). Adult correctional education programs: an update on current status based on recent studies. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, 44(1), 81-89.
Rion, J. (2009)Professional development: the key to retention. Corrections Today 71 (2), 8-12.
The mechanisms that have been put forth to handle issues of day amercement are rudimentary to the knowledge of many people in the U.S. For instance, day Fines is subject to the capabilities of the offenders. It is not a subject imposed to all offenders no with no consideration of their financial stabilities. Nonetheless, offenders who are judged to be within the bracket of paying day charge make it an obligation. The U.S. has state and federal strategies on imprisonment of offenders have received an enormous boost with involvement of the day Fines services.
The federal government of the U.S. has found a more equitable and distributive way of punishing offenders with day fines. Traffic offenders are rampant and active most of the day times. Since they are individuals who operate most of their activities during the daytime, the federal state perceives day fines as a more eloquent way of…
Alarid, L.F., & Del, C.R.V. (2011). Community-based corrections. Belmont, CA:
Born, G. (1996). International civil litigation in United States courts: Commentary and materials. The Hague: Kluwer Law International.
Cole, G.F., & Smith, C.E. (2006). The American system of criminal justice. Belmont, CA:
Gender and Crime
How would each of the three critical feminist perspectives -- adical, Marxist, and Socialist -- explain this phenomenon? Do different life experiences by men and women impact the overrepresentation of men in the criminal justice system? How do gender differences impact sentencing? Provide examples to support your answer. How does allowing citizens to carry guns prevent crimes? Give relevant examples.
The radical feminist would look at the attacks on women based upon the fact that they have been ignored throughout history. This makes them an easier target for men to overpower them and conduct these activities. Marxists believe that crime occurs because of social inequalities. This is from them being pushed into the lower classes of society. To lash out, they will directly target and attack women in order to take advantage of those who have the perceptions of power and influence. Socialists believe that the ultimate…
Feminist Perspective on Work and Class. (2010). Stanford University. Retrieved from: http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/feminism-class/
Ellwood, C. (2004). Sociology and Modern Social Problems. Whitefish, MT: Kessinger Publishing.
Ryder, E. (2011). Financial Crime in the 21st Century. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing.
Continued use of research
Continued use of research in professional life:
Stable housing for substance abusers
Substance abuse is strongly correlated with a wide array of risky behaviors, including a failure to live in some form of stable housing, as well as high-risk sexual behaviors. This is significant, because stable housing situations in the form of rehabilitation centers or 'halfway' homes are often used as bases of treatment for addicts. However, a review of the existing literature indicates that simply providing housing for addicts should not be regarded as a panacea or as an automatic form of treatment for addiction. In fact, the results are mixed regarding a correlation between substance abuse and the ability to obtain stable housing. For the purposes of this review, a definition of 'stable housing' will be defined as "not having lived on the street" versus "living in a shelter or single room…
Des Jarlais, D., C., Braine, N., & Friedmann, P. (2007). Unstable housing as a factor for increased injection risk behavior at U.S. syringe exchange programs. AIDS and Behavior, 11, 78-84.
Elifson, K.W., Sterk, C.E., & Theall, K.P. (2007). Safe living: The impact of unstable housing conditions on HIV risk reduction among female drug users. AIDS and Behavior, 11, 45-55. Retrieved: doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10461-007-9306-8
Palepu A, Marshall BD, Lai C, Wood E, Kerr T. (2010). Addiction treatment and stable housing among a cohort of injection drug users. PLoS One. 5(7):e11697. Retrieved:
theories listed, the relative deprivation theory and the general strain theory best explain domestic violence, as well as the high rate of recidivism, despite punishment. However, we should mention in the very beginning that each theory listed best explains a certain category of people, generally divided by income and level of education. The two I have selected are a match for the highest percentage of women batterers.
The relative deprivation theory believes that domestic violence occurs when there is a significant difference in the achievements of each of the members of the couple. In general, in my opinion, these tend to be professional achievements and the theory is best exemplified by those couples where the husband is unemployed or having a job that is not satisfying, while the wife is earning much more than him and is the one contributing most to the family budget.
The relative deprivation theory was…
1. Harmon, Patricia Anne. Why do men batter women? Assessing empathy, self-regard and narcissism levels, and attitudes toward women, men's roles and family of origin experiences among middle to upper class male batterers. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences & Engineering, Vol 62(12-B), 2002. pp. 6023. U.S.: Univ Microfilms International
2. Chapter 5: Social Structure Theory: Because they are poor
Chapter 5: Social Structure Theory: Because they are poor. Page 143
Medical Administration Service for File
ationale in Support of Selection of Heart Transplant ecipient
Because time was of the essence in formulating this decision, this memorandum for the record sets forth the decision-making process and that was used to select the most appropriate candidate for a heart transplantation procedure. It was my responsibility as lead surgeon to select the most appropriate heart transplant recipient from a pool of three candidates, each of whom had suffered from several health-related issues that adversely affected their suitability for the transplant procedure. Therefore, in order to formulate as subjective an analysis as possible in a timely fashion, a utilitarian ethical analytical approach was used to identify the candidate that held the most promise of using the gift of additional life from the heart donor to its maximum advantage. The utilitarian ethical analysis showed that of the three potential heart transplant candidates, the 12-year-old…
Andre, C. & Velasquez, M. (1989, Winter). Calculating consequences: The utilitarian approach to ethics. Issues in Ethics, 2(1), 37.
Hollingsworth, J.A., Hall, E.H. & Trinkaus, R.J. (1991). Utilitarianism: An ethical framework for compensation decision making. Review of Business, 13(3), 17-19.
Rosen, F. (2003). Classical utilitarianism from Hume to Mill. London: Routledge.
The sources provided background and reviews of published literature: Holmstrom (1996); Marcus-Mendoza (1995); and Osler (1991). Finally, three reports took on a narrower focus in investigating boot camps: Clark and Kellam (2001); Mueller (1996); and Souryal, Layton & MacKenzie (1994).
Burns and Vito (1995) examined the effectiveness of Alabama boot camps. In Alabama, overcrowded prisons brought on interest at the state level for prison boot camps. State prison boot camps incorporated marching, discipline, physical training, work, classes, and drug and alcohol abuse treatment in three phases. In the first phase, inmates confront their crime and take responsibility for it, ridding themselves of excuses. In the second phase, inmates focus on "self-discovery" by learning about themselves, goal planning, and improving themselves for future release. In the third phase, pre-release, inmates focus on problem solving as the key to their own future success as a lawful citizen upon release. Entry and participation…
Ashcroft, J., Daniels, D.J., & Hart, S.V. (2003, June). Correctional boot camps: Lessons from a decade of research. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Justice: National Institute of Justice, Office of Justice Programs.
Burns, J.C., & Vito, G.F. (1995, March). An impact analysis of the Alabama boot camp program. Federal Probation, 59(1), 63-67.
Burton Jr., V.S., & Marquart, J.W. (1993, September). A study of attitudinal change among boot camp participants. Federal Probation, 57(3), 46-52.
Christenberry, N.J., Burns, J.L., & Dickinson, G.B. (1994, September). Gains in educational achievement by inmates during the Arkansas Prison Boot Camp program. Journal of Correvtional Education, 45(3), 128-132.
These facts do not even address the personal bias that may exist among employers who are more likely to hire welfare recipients than ex-offenders (Western, 2003).
The problems ex-offenders face do not stop with employment. Male ex-offenders unable to hold steady or appealing jobs are often less appealing to potential partners as they are perceived as unable to "Contribute economically" and many carry a stigma associated with a past conviction (Western, 54).
All of these facts support the need for better rehabilitation programs to prevent increased recidivism among ex-offenders (Western, 2003). May have likened parole to law enforcement processes than social work, suggesting that parole officers are more surveillance oriented than supportive in their roles toward ex-offenders (Western, 2003).
Many groups that do support the needs of ex-offenders including nonprofit agencies often lack the resources necessary to help ex-offenders (Western, 2003).
Significance of the Study
Every year more than 600,000…
Etters, K. (2002 - Dec). "Job-readiness training program at the Wayne County Jail prepares offenders for success." Corrections Today, 64(7): 112.
Fischer, M., Geiger, B. & Toch, H. (1991). "Reform through community: Resocializing offenders in the Kibbutz." New York: Greenwood Press.
Lattimore, P. & Witte, A.D. (1985). "Programs to aid ex-offenders: We don't know nothing works." Monthly Labor Review, 108(4): 46.
Lemieux, C.M. (2002). "Social support among offenders with substance abuse problems:
Alternate Corrections Proposal
Alternative Punishment for a Population of Inmates
Alternate Corrections Program Proposal
The need for a major overhaul of the U.S. prison system, and its purpose, is becoming increasingly recognized by human rights organizations around the world (for example, see Bewley-Taylor, Hallam, and Allen, 2009; Pew Center on the States [Pew Center], 2010). Prior to 1972, the size of the prison population in the United States predictably tracked the growth rate in the general population, but during the past 38 years has grown by 705% (ibid., p. 1). In contrast, the U.S. population grew by less than 44% during the same period (U.S. Census Bureau, 2011, p. 1). If we include the number of Americans currently under community supervision, then about 1 in 31 Americans is under some form of correctional control today (Pew Charitable Trusts, 2009, p. 1; U.S. Department of Justice [U.S. DOJ], 2010, p. 2).…
Bewley-Taylor, Dave, Hallam, Chris, and Allen, Rob. (2009). The incarceration of drug offenders: An Overview, Report Sixteen. The Beckley Foundation Drug Policy Programme, International Centre for Prison Studies, Kings College of London, University of London. Retrieved June 12, 2011 from http://www.idpc.net/php-bin/documents/Beckley_Report_16_2_FINAL_EN.pdf
Blumstein, Alfred and Wallman, Joel (Eds.). (2002). The crime drop in America. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Boxer, Paul, Middlemass, Keesha, and Delorenzo, Tahlia. (2009). Effects on psychological adjustment following release. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 36(8), 793-807.
Cusac, Anne-Marie (2009). Cruel and Unusual: The Culture of Punishment in America. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Does Restorative Justice Reduce Recidivism?
Though restorative justice has become an increasingly popular practice in the criminal justice field, there is still no concise, universally acceptable definition of the concept. There is often confusion over what actually constitutes restorative justice, with the concept usually being used interchangeably with terms such as relational justice, peacemaking criminology, transformative justice, and community justice (Latimer, Dowden & Muise, 2005). Even so, restorative justice is essentially an approach to offender rehabilitation where the offender is reconciled with victim(s) and/or the larger community (Wenzel et al., 2008). In other words, all stakeholders in a certain offense jointly resolve how to deal with the consequences of the offense.
The fundamental idea behind restorative justice is that an offense constitutes a violation of not only the law, but also individuals and relationships (Stamatakis & Vandeviver, 2013). Restorative justice, therefore, seeks to mend this violation. It provides an opportunity…
Intervening With Juvenile Drug Crimes
Researchers are now focused on developing and evaluating programs designed to break the drug-crime cycle that is common in juvenile delinquents. This paper will summarize existing literature about programs designed to prevent the juvenile drug-crime cycle and, based on that literature, identify interventions that offer the best chances for success. This paper will also provide guidelines and recommendations for developing a comprehensive juvenile justice system that can best address the needs of juvenile offenders involved with drug crimes.
This thesis is expected to make a contribution to the selection of successful interventions and the development of collaborative partnerships in the juvenile justice system, drug treatment programs, and other agencies as they attempt to break the cycle of drugs and crime afflicting U.S. juveniles.
With the prevalence of drug crimes among juveniles and the complexity involved in their treatment, which must involve both the child…
Abuse and Dependence. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America 5 (1): 201-211.
Allison, M., and Hubbard, R.L. (1985). Drug abuse treatment process: A review of the literature. International Journal of the Addictions 20:13211345.
Anglin, M.D., and Hser, Y. (1990). Treatment of drug abuse. In Drugs and Crime, vol. 13, edited by M. Tonry and J.Q. Wilson. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Ball, J.C., Rosen, J.A., Flueck, J.A., and Nurco, D.N. (1981). The criminality of heroin addicts: When addicted and when off opiates. In The Drugs-Crime Connection, edited by J.A. Inciardi. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.
When one looks at the occurrence of recidivism in offenders who have partaken in treatment programs varying from organic programs to those geared to more social and emotional support programs, it becomes clear that recidivism of sexual re-offense is relatively low, compared to those who undergo no treatment program. However, there is still an issue with non-sexual re-offense. In addition, there is evidence that the contributing factors for adult and juvenile offenders are different.
As such, it is suggested that not all offenders should receive the same treatment. Correctional literature indicates that high-risk offender require the greatest use of resource, while lower risk offenders require the lowest level of resources (Andrews & Bonta, 2003).
As such, blanket policies that deem all offenders as 'high risk' are neither effective nor efficient. In addition, it may take away resources from those who truly need it, such as juvenile offenders who require longterm…
Abracen, J., Looman, J., DiFazio, R., Kelly, T., & Stirpe, T. (Mar 2006). Patterns of attachment and alcohol abuse in sexual and violent non-sexual offenders. Journal of Sexual Aggression, 12(1). Retrieved December 17, 2007, from Academic Search Premier database.
Andrews, D. & Bonta, J. (2003). The psychology of criminal conduct. Cincinnati, OH: Anderson Publishing.
Bates, a., Saunders, R., & Wilson, C. (Spring 2007). Doing something about it: A follow-up study of sex offenders participating in Thames Valley Circles of Support and Accountability. British Journal of Community Justice, 5(1). Retrieved December 17, 2007, from SocINDEX database.
Calley, N. (Spring 2007). Integrating theory and research: The development of a research-based treatment program for juvenile male sex offenders. Counseling & Development, 85(2). Retrieved December 17, 2007, from Academic Search Premier database.
Nonetheless, people who received some level of ACRP intervention had a lower rate of criminal recidivism than people who received no intervention at all.
The study found that the case flow through the ACRP was a little slow. The amount of time between the Initial Opt-In Hearing and the Formal Opt-In Hearing averaged 74 days. While there are no hard and fast rules governing how long this process should take, the study found that that "the ACRP is performing rather well on the front-end of the admissions process (up to the initial opt-in stage) but that more could be done to work on the back end (time between the Initial Opt-In Hearing and the Formal Opt-In Hearing)."
The study found that the incentives and sanctions used by ACRP judges to promote compliance at status hearings, though standardized, were not tailored to correspond to participant progress.
Outcomes from the Last Frontier: An Evaluation of the Anchorage Mental Health Court (Alaska Mental Health Trust Authority, Ferguson-Hornby-Zeller, 2008).
Improving Responses to People with Mental Illnesses: The Essential Elements of a Mental Health Court (Thompson, Osher, Tomasini-Joshi, 2008).
Mental Health Courts: Decriminalizing the Mentally Ill. (Irwin Law, Schneider-Hyman-Bloom, 2007).
Mental Health Courts. (Wiley Encyclopedia of Forensic Science, Schneider, 2009).
, et al., 2012).
Systems approaches look towards the functional integration of different stakeholders and their goals towards a specific issue or path. What implications might a proposed solution have and to what groups? What is the functional relationship between groups of stakeholders and how can that be maximized. For returning felons, this approach looks at ways to construct programs that are utilitarian in context (the greatest good for the greatest number) (Teaskey, 1976).
Ecological PA supports a more holistic viewpoint and focuses on the nature of the internal and external environments. In other words, PA must interact with the political executive, social political interest groups, commercial and economic organizations, and the citizenry. This approach takes the approach that solutions may only be found by looking at the issue as a sub-set of a larger set of societal issues. Ecological PA cannot solve the incarceration problem, but can look toward…
Project Return - Breaking the Cycle of Crime. (2009, April). Retrieved from projectreturn.com: http://www.projectreturn.com/index.php?name=results_and_impacts
Public Administration. (2012, July 31). Retrieved from publicadministrationtheone.blogspot.com: http://publicadministrationtheone.blogspot.com/2012/07/organisations-theories-systems.html
Beck, a., & Shipley, B. (1989). Recidivism of Prisoners Released. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice.
Benincasa, R. (2012, May 29). 6 Leadership Styles and When You Should Use Them. Retrieved from Fast Company: http://www.fastcompany.com/1838481/6-leadership-styles-and-when-you-should-use-them
However, with this mandatory sentence comes seemingly excessive punishments for being afflicted with a real disease. hese types of solutions to the drug problem in the United States fail entirely to grasp drug problems as a real medical issue and therefore throw out medical treatment over punitive punishment, (Nadelmann 2007). Not to mention many of these programs go only so far, failing to provide the support and structure many drug addicts need in order to get themselves clean. Much research has shown that more intensive inpatient programs prove more successful than less regulation programs (McKay et al. 1997). herefore, ineffective drug treatment programs within prison walls are failing to truly encapsulate the addict as a means of supporting their efforts to get clean.
One other major solution that is currently being used in many states is the enactment of a drug court to handle specific drug cases. his court can…
This piece shows both favoritism and opposition for mandatory minimum jail sentencing for drug offenders, however does so not from the viewpoint of looking at addiction as a disease, but rather as a limitation on judicial discretion. While many are supportive of minimum sentencing requirements based on the idea that it is the most powerful weapon against the current war on drugs, others believe it to be restricting when looking at individual cases. Overall, many believe that it should be up to the individual judge and the individual case circumstance which determines the nature of punitive punishment in U.S. courts.
Washington Post. (1994). Low-level drug offenders fill one-fifth of prison space. Washington Post. February 5, 1994.
Astounding numbers of drug offenders fill our nation's prisons. This article uses statistics from the 1990s, an era of a crack epidemic, to show exactly how filled the prison system is with low-level and nonviolent addicts who essentially need medical treatment and not prison time.
Gangs in Prisons in the United States and the Affect Rehabilitation Programs to Help Inmates Upon Release
Prison Gangs are one of the most challenging entities that have to be tackled by the authorities. Their growing influence in the prison setting concerns not just the inside of the prisons, but also the outside world, as when they are released, the members continue causing problems for the society. A lot of rehabilitation programs have been formed in order to provide guidance and a fresh start to the inmates who are released, which helps them overcome their criminal life and lead a normal one. This paper discusses the phenomenon and existence of criminal gangs and how the rehabilitation programs affect them after their release.
According to Lyman (1989), a prison gang is a criminal entity made up of special group of chosen prisoners that is governed with some sort of code…
Fleisher, M., & Decker, S. (2001). An Overview of the Challenge of Prison Gangs. Corrections Management Quarterly, 1-9.
Gilligan, J. (2012, December 10). Punishment Fails. Rehabilitation Works. Retrieved from New York Times: http://www.nytimes.com/roomfordebate/2012/12/18/prison-could-be-productive/punishment-fails-rehabilitation-works
Lyman, M.D. (1989). Gangland. Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas.
Miceli, V. (2009). Analyzing the Effectiveness of Rehabilitation Programs. Senior Honors Project, 1.
Restorative Justice Approaches Reduce Youth Offending
Restorative justice is a new paradigm within the criminal justice, particularly in the context of youth offenders. The philosophy behind restorative justice is to consider the juvenile's interests to develop them into beneficial citizens, and it augments the principle behind juvenile justice and corrections. Restorative justice approaches provide the juvenile justice system with leniency when approaching youth offenders while at the same time holding the offenders accountable through rehabilitative approaches. The core elements of restorative justice include rehabilitating and restoring the youth offender, restoring and making restitution to the victim, and restoring the entire society. Programs employed in the restorative approaches can apply in both community correction centers and institutional treatment programs. Juvenile court and statutes aim to protect the child and not to punish them (Latimer, Dowden, & Muise, 2005).
However, juvenile justice has evolved over the centuries, and this has seen to…
Bell, J. (1993). Doing Your Research Project. Buckingham: Open University Press.
Bynum, J.E., & Thompson, W.E. (2005). Juvenile Delinquency: A Sociological Approach (6th
ed.). New York: Pearson.
Dawson, C. (2009). Introduction to research methods: A practical guide for anyone undertaking a research project. Oxford, UK: How to Books, Spring Hill
estorative justice is something that has become more and more prominent within the criminal justice sphere. The use of the concept and practice has emerged in its own right within the juvenile justice realm. The efficacy of restorative justice when it comes to juvenile offenders is a very important topic because being able to top the patterns of crime, addition and deviance in general is something that should absolutely be stopped and regulated early on in an offender's life due to how hard it becomes to do the same as an offender enters and reenters the justice system over the course of their life. It is important to create and retain a connection between these young offenders and the victims that suffer at their hands so that the connection is not lost and the offender becomes ambivalent or even hostile about the feelings, suffering and toil that their crimes take…
Bergseth, K. J., & Bouffard, J. A. (2007). The long-term impact of restorative justice programming for juvenile offenders. Journal of Criminal Justice, 35(4), 433-451.
Davis, K. L. (2010, January 1). Restorative Justice Experiences of Juvenile Female Offenders:
School, Community, and Home. ProQuest LLC,
Recommendations to Hillary Clinton Regarding Prisoner Re-Entry into Society
Prisoner re-entry is a vitally important issue today which has yet to reach its full impact on the minds and lives of voters. However, with every passing year the importance of this topic becomes more evident. Since the eighties, every passing year has brought more pressure for harsher and longer imprisonment and more streamlined mandatory sentencing rules. This has not only resulted in an exploding prison population, but also in a drastic increase in the number of prisoners re-released into communities. Additionally, the push towards more punitive measures has decreased educational opportunities in prisons and the availability of rehabilitation programs. This means that released prisoners are increasingly unable to reintegrate into their communities, increasingly prone to recidivism, and increasingly violent in each release and re-capture cycle. Even the conservative ush administration has recognized the threat posed by unprepared prisoner…
Banks, Gabrielle. "Learning Under Lockdown." Colorlines, NCM 2004 Award Winner, Nov 28, 2004.
Center on Crime, Communities and Culture. Research Brief: Education as Crime Prevention, Sept, 1997.
Human Rights Watch. "No Escape: Male Rape in U.S. Prisons." Archived at: http://www.hrw.org/reports/2001/prison/
Petersilia, Joan. "CHALLENGES OF PRISONER REENTRY AND PAROLE IN CALIFORNIA" California Policy Research Center Brief Series, June 2000. Archived at: http://www.ucop.edu/cprc/parole.html