Recidivism Essays Examples

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Ex-Offenders and the Re-Entry to the Society

Words: 2212 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32197410

Ex Offenders

The United States is regarded as having the world's highest incarceration rate. It has been estimated that the prisons are holding more than 2.3 million people as of now. Due to this reason, overcrowding is a significant issue in the prison system of the country. It is seen that for every hundred thousand population, there are seven hundred and forty eight inmates and this number is expected to increase. Due to the increased incarceration, the state and the federal prisons are made to release a decent number of ex-offenders every year. The trend of releasing has only been a result of the mass incarceration that the country has experienced. It was seen that during the 1972 till the 1997 period, the number of state and federal prisoners increased from 196,000 to a record of 1,159,000 (Mauer, 1999) In 2000, a total of 600,000 ex-offenders were released to the communities from where they came from initially (Lynch, 2001)

Many people believe that if the released prisoner is on parole or is assigned to a parole officer, he will stay stable and will be able to get back on track. However, this approach has also been considered impractical now. A…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Beck, A. And Shipley, J. (1989). Recidivism of Prisoners Released in 1983. Bureau of Justice Statistics special reports. [report] U.S. Department of Justice.

Burton, V., Cullen, F. And Travis III, L. (1987). Collateral Consequences of a Felony Conviction: A National Study of State Statutes, The. Fed. Probation, 51 p. 52.
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Offender Re-Entry Program Assessing Adequacy

Words: 2315 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37454013

These strategies should focus on parolees' risks and need and conducted in a way that would motivate change. Aware of these realities, States continue to innovate and evolve reentry strategies towards this end (Yahner et al.).

The BRI was a particularly ambitious correctional program in that it targeted the most difficult offenders for rehabilitation and incorporation into the community. These are young offenders with violent criminal histories, who are likeliest to be excluded from reentry assistance. The BRI develops and implements individual plans to reintegrate chosen offenders back into society. This was the Controlling Violent Offenders Program.

Efforts begin during their incarceration and continue when they are released into the community through a focused approach by a mentor. Case workers and mentors conduct varied programs to support their transition. These include social services in substance abuse and mental health disorders and vocational services for training, education and resume development for employment (Braga et al.).

Results of this study provide evidence that BRI's holistic approach can reduce repeat crimes. Gang membership poses a special challenge to these initiatives. It inhibits the ability of a released prisoner to successfully reintegrate with society. It has been observed to increase the risks of post-release…… [Read More]

Seiter, R.P. And Kadela, K.R. (2003). Prison reentry -- what works, what does not and what is promising. Vol 49 # 3 Crime & Delinquency: Sage Publications. Retrieved on March 19, 2013 from 

Yahner, J. et al. (2008). Returning home on parole. Justice Policy Center: Urban

Institute. Retrieved on March 19, 2013 from
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Correctional Methods Throughout Most of

Words: 1289 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64755367

For example, offenders without job skills can receive job training, while offenders with emotional problems can be ordered to attend the appropriate counseling. (Native American and Alaskan Technical Assistance Program, 2005). Because such a huge proportion of crimes are drug-related or committed by addicts, completion of in-patient or out-patient substance abuse programs is often an integral part of an offender's alternative sentencing program. Furthermore, alternative sentencing strives to make an offender personally responsible for their crime. Therefore, mediation and restitution play an important part in alternative sentencing, because mediation gives the victim a voice, while restitution can require an offender to repay his victim. (Native American and Alaskan Technical Assistance Program, 2005).

After one has an understanding of the different sentencing alternatives available, the logical step is to question whether alternative sentencing is effective. In order to answer that question, many criminal justice professionals look to recidivism rates. "However, limited research is available that compares recidivism rates of offenders released through traditional incarceration to offenders released through alternative sanctions." (Jones & Connelly, 2001). In addition, judges consider issues like criminal history, community ties, and the degree and type of offense when determining whether or not to divert an offender from…… [Read More]

Jones, G. & M. Connelly. (2001) Prison vs. alternative sanctions: trying to compare recidivism rates. Retrieved October 31, 2006, from Maryland State Commission on Criminal Sentencing Policy

Web site:
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Convicted Felons Return to the

Words: 2672 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20169695

Productivity-Education/Craft/Trade -- a key to being able to stop the return to the penal system is to provide training necessary to allow the individual to find work after leaving prison. Not only is it extremely tough to get a job as a convicted felon, but the skills necessary to get a job that will afford a decent living are tough to get in prison. Earning a degree either online or through continuing education; earning a trade certificate (automotive, plumbing, wood working, etc.) will provide an occupation for the felon after leaving prison, and a focus for their energy and attention while in prison.

Consequences -- Many rehabilitation programs fail because the consequences are unrealistic. Allow people to be human, while still requiring that in order to receive the gift from society of living in society, there are consequences if the rules are broken (Clear,, 2011).

How then, can Maslow's Hierarchy of needs help offenders reintegrate into society? There are at least five ways that Maslow can be incorporated into philosophies and theories when dealing with convicted offenders:

Physical Needs -- Food, water, and a bed are needs that are often taken for granted in society, but when inside prison,…… [Read More]



It is important to note, though, that the United States does report all of its prisoners, and it is likely some countries do not. Still, there is an unbelievably high incarceration rate of 748/100,000 inmates in the U.S., or .75%, causing many global organizations to remark that the United States has 1% of its population in jail, and another 3% on parole, with another half a percent as juveniles, making it the wealthiest country in the world with 5% of its population tied up in the penal system (Total U.S. Correctional Population, 2010).
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Boot Camp's Program Claim of a 0

Words: 1112 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6388164

Boot Camp's Program Claim of a 0% Recidivism Rate

Addressing a Boot Camp's Program's Claim of a 0% Recidivism Rate

The Claim: A Boot Camp Program Run by a Local Sheriff's Department Claims a Recidivism Rate of 0%

My assessment on the accuracy of the above statement and this discussion in general, will make use of a number of fundamental terms: corrective boot camp program, recidivism and shock incarceration. A corrective boot camp program, to begin with, refers to a facility that makes use of the techniques applied during military training sessions, to instill a culture of 'doing what is right' in youthful first-time offenders. Recidivism, according to the Bureau of Justice Statistics (2013), is the tendency to repeat criminal activities, leading to re-arrest, during the three-year duration following release from a correctional facility. Finally, shock incarceration, like the name suggests, is a program used on first time offenders, to 'shock' them from recidivism (Cole & Smith, 2007).

In order to assess the accuracy of the statement under evaluation, we need to examine the efficiency of boot camp programs vis-a-vis other correctional sanctions, such as prison sentences. Boot camps, like all other intermediate programs in the system of justice, are…… [Read More]

Cole, G.F., Smith, C.E. & DeJong, C. (2012). The American System of Criminal Justice (13th ed.). Belmont: Cengage Learning

Cole, G.F. & Smith, C.E. (2007). The American System of Criminal Justice (5th ed.). Belmont: Cengage Learning
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Rehabilitation Based on the Empirical

Words: 648 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71975243

The needs principle says that interventions should target the known predictors of crime and recidivism for change. There are two types of predictors for recidivism: static predictors, such as criminal history, and dynamic predictors, such as antisocial values. Those predictors that can be changed are the predictors that should be targeted by rehabilitation programs. The dynamic factors that can be changed are: antisocial/procriminal attitudes, values, beliefs, and cognitive-emotional states, procriminal associates, isolation from anticriminal others, antisocial personality factors, and dysfunctional family relationships. Those are the factors that should be targeted in rehabilitation programs. Second, is the responsivity principle. The responsivity principle provides that treatment services should be behavioral in nature, because of the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral and social-learning interventions in changing human behavior, particularly those behaviors that are linked to recidivism. "Reinforcements in the program should be largely positive, not negative. And the services should be intensive, lasting three to nine months and occupying 40% to 70% of the offenders' time while they are in the program" (Gendreau, 2011). Third is the risk principle. The risk principle suggests that treatment interventions should be used with higher-risk offenders, and target their dynamic risk factors for change. The prevailing view is that…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Gendreau, P. (2011). What works to change offenders. In F.T. Cullen and C.L. Johnson (Eds.)

Correctional theory: Context and Consequences (pp.147-170). Thousand Oaks: Sage
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Probation and Its Various Forms

Words: 688 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33451243

Probation and its various forms: According to the official government website by Prince William County (PWC), Virginia, probation is a sanction ordered by courts that "…allows a person to remain in the community under the supervision of a probation officer." The probation sentence could also include time in jail, a financial penalty, community service, and other sanctions (PWC).

There are several kinds of probation, including: a) unsupervised probation (this is generally only available for very petty crimes); b) supervised probation (this requires regular contact with a probation officer and includes specific rules -- no alcohol, etc. -- that must be adhered to); c) community control (in this case the person on probation may be under house arrest and/or have ankle monitoring); and d) shock probation (the judge in this case may put the probationer in prison just to shock him, then release him on probation) (LaMance, 2012).

Probation and recidivism: A report by the Justice Strategies group shows that in 2006, nationwide, 18% of people who exited probation were "…incarcerated due to failure under supervision" (Rios, p. iv). The Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) presents data that show (in 2011) "…Two-thirds (66%) of probationers competed their terms of supervision or…… [Read More]

Bureau of Justice Statistics. (2012). One in 34 U.S. Adults Under Correctional Supervision in

2011, Lowest Rate Since 2000. Office of Justice Programs. Retrieved January 28, 2013, from
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Boot Camps Effective Juvenile Justice

Words: 1631 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26922530

In July, 2001, a 14-year-old boy died following the brutal treatment he was subjected to at the Fountain Hills facility in Arizona. The staff had forced him to "stand in the Arizona sun" in 100-degree temperatures, wearing black sweat pants, according to an article in the Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing (Bush, 2001). When he - or any of the other inmates - asked for water or food, he was "forced to eat mud." Also, the staff "stomped on the boys' chests and arms with boots if they did not perform tasks required of them."

In Prince Georges County, Maryland, on May 14 of 2001, a 17-year-old boy died of asphyxia when a teacher cut off his airway "in the act of restraining him." The article's writer, Carol Bush, asks: "Is it not time for the medical and nursing professionals to speak out on behalf of troubled youth whom we include in our populations of concern?" A better system for juveniles who are in trouble, Bush concludes, and this writer agrees, would be to establish "core values" for a new system that rejects boot camp mentality, and embraces "family centered" values; "child and adolescent-focused outcomes"; and it should…… [Read More]

Bush, Carol. (2001). Youth at risk - in facilities that are supposed to help! Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing, 14(4), 200.

Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education (2001). Juvenile Crime,
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Juvenile Behavior

Words: 721 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37124384

Criminal behavior and recidivism has been a very contentious issue over the last decade. Research continues to garner massive support related to methods to better help offenders matriculate into society. Juvenile behavior is one of the more pressing issues within society. Juvenile behavior is particularly important as habits formed in early years are directly correlated to behavior in later years. Research has also indicated that children or juveniles influenced by criminal activities at an early age, are more likely to commit crimes in their adolescent stage. Although a litany of methods have been devised to combat juvenile criminal behavior, results have been mixed. Recent incidents with school shootings, robberies, and vandalism indicate that juvenile criminal behavior is still profound. One interesting aspect regarding juvenile behavior is that violent acts committed by juveniles have actually decreased over the past decade. However, many juveniles are often sent to court and prosecuted as adults. This action ultimately creates a cycle in which juveniles serve longer prison or jail sentences. The questions arise then, with increased numbers of juveniles being sent to out-of-home placements: How long are juveniles placed in residential facilities and what impact does long-term incapacitation or placement have on subsequent recidivism?…… [Read More]

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Measuring Crime

Words: 972 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85722559

Measuring Crime

During the latter half of the twentieth century, evidence-based policing became more commonplace, partly as a means to reduce corruption, but also as a means to make crime fighting more effective. Instruments used to measure crime at the federal level include those that fall under the rubric of the Department of Justice, such as Uniform Crime Reporting and National Crime Victimization Service. The FBI also operates legal attache offices, the Combined DNA Index System, and other tools used to measure and empirically track crime (Schmalleger, 2015, p. 147). Likewise, the Department of Justice maintains several major crime reporting programs including the National Incident-Based Reporting System. These reporting programs serve several core functions. They boost the effectiveness of criminal justice policy, they ensure policing and other aspects of criminal justice are evidence-based, and they inform the judicious allocation of resources throughout the criminal justice system. As Schmalleger (2015) points out, there are also instruments used to measure crime at the state and local level, as well as state and local level crime reporting programs. Some local jurisdictions like major metropolitan areas require their own means of data gathering and analysis.

Crime rates refer to the number of reported offences…… [Read More]

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Goals of Corrections the Objective

Words: 2380 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19065395

Just as clearly no individual who is logical would consider Charles Manson or Theodore Bundy as eligible profiles for the restorative justice program or even for rehabilitation program or indeed of any other than imprisonment or death by execution There are however, very potentially productive, useful, and worthy individuals who are shuffled into the correction system due to their inability to hire a lawyer or lack of knowledge concerning their rights to having representation appointed to them that with education and knowledge or skills acquisition can be successfully rehabilitation or restored to society and within the community. Recently there has been documented an additional strategy in criminal justice corrections which is described as a 'transformational' process and is a cognitive-behavioral approach in treatment.


Cognitive behavioral approaches are being used in transforming the dysfunctional thinking of the individual. The work of Mahoney and Lyddon (1988) relate approximately 20 various types of cognitive behavioral therapies, which generally are either:

1) Moral reasoning theories; or 2) Information processing theories.

MacKenzie and Hickman (1998) state:

In terms of criminal behavior, the cognitive-behavioral tradition suggests that criminals think differently than noncriminals, either because of a lack of moral reasoning or through…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
MacKenzie, DL and Hickman, LJ (1998) What Works in Corrections? An Examination of the Effectiveness of the Type of Rehabilitation Programs Offered by Washington State Department of Corrections. Submitted to: The State of Washington Legislature joint audit and review committee. Crime Prevention effectiveness Program - Dept. Criminology and Criminal Justice. Online available at

Van Ness, DW (nd) Restorative Justice in Prisons. Session 204: The Practice of Restorative Justice in Prison Reform. PFI Centre for Justice and Reconciliation. Prison Fellowship International. Online available at
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Prison Nurseries There Are Few Assets as

Words: 2731 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73021498

Prison Nurseries

There are few assets as precious to a nation as it children. Especially in the developed world. Social, care, and education systems are set up in such a way as to nurture the young ones to that they can grow and develop effectively to make the most of their lives and their future. Indeed, not making sure that children's lives can progress along optimal levels can result in dire consequences for a nation and its future. It affects everything from the economy to the moral fabric of a nation to not care for its children. It is also, however, a sad fact of the world today that not all children are born to loving parents, a home and family, or in otherwise ideal circumstances. Indeed, some children are born to mothers who are in prison. While there are many programs to care for these children, there is little consistency among the nature and number of these. In the United States, for example, some states include programs via which mothers can care for their children from 12 to 24 months via prison nurseries. In others, children are taken away from their mothers and entered into foster care or given…… [Read More]

Benevolent (2013, Jul. 15). Prison Babies. Retrieved from: 

Carlson, J.R. (2009, Spring). Prison Nurseries: A Pathway to Crime-Free Futures. Corrections Compendium 34(1). Retrieved from:
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Sentencing Determinate Sentencing Impacts and Recent Trends

Words: 985 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57816235


Determinate Sentencing, Impacts, and Recent Trends

Determinate Sentencing

Impact on Probationary Terms

Reasons for choosing mandatory minimum jail and prison sentences

Role of Mandatory Sentences in Reducing Recidivism

The legal system is reliant on two different approaches for sentencing the offenders. The determinate and indeterminate sentencing is discussed in detail. The recent trend towards determinate sentencing and their impacts are also elaborated. The reasons for choosing determinate sentencing and its role in reducing recidivism are also discussed in the following sections. The political influence on these changes has also brought it in public domain and several opinions in favor and against prevail in the ordinary public as well as the legal practitioners.

Determinate Sentencing:

The term of imprisonment is applicable for the convicted criminals in consideration with the legal requirements. The judges are entitled to impose a term for imprisonment applicable according to the legal findings and committed crime under the law. The number of years imposed by the judge is referred to determine sentence. Since 20th century the legal system incorporated the jurisdiction of judges to impose particular number of years for imprisonment. The determine sentencing was fully enacted in four U.S. states since 1977 (Neubauer & Fradella,…… [Read More]

Alarid, L.F., & Del Carmen, R.V. (2012). Community-based corrections. USA: Wadsworth Publishing Company.

Bowman, A.O.M., & Kearney, R.C. (2010). State and local government. USA: Wadsworth Publishing Company.
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Criminal Justice Is the Coordination

Words: 2218 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 395032

Examples of offenses that are based on constitutional endowments of right contain tax evasion, possessing illegal substances and conspiring to violate civil rights. Courts have specified on the whole a wide explanation to the Commerce Clause authority, allowing Congress to create a federal offense of many widespread law crimes such as kidnapping or murder if state outline are fractious during commission of the crime and such as misappropriation and blackmail using instrumentalities of trade such as telephone lines or the U.S. post. Examples of offenses that are based on regions owned by or under the restricted power of the federal government contain crimes committed in the District of Columbia, in U.S. Territories, in U.S. National Parks, in federal courthouses and federal jails plus on board airplanes and ocean going ships. The United States armed force has its own immoral justice system applicable to its members, but civilians might be accused with a federal offense for acts committed on martial bases. Federal courts can also declare jurisdiction to listen to cases brought in opposition to U.S. people based on their unlawful activities in different countries. (Fletcher, George P., 1998).

The recidivism rates for unconstrained hostages in the United States of America…… [Read More]

Wolfgang, Marvin (1990). Crime and Punishment in Renaissance Florence. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology. Retrieved on January 11, 2008.

Schmalleger, Frank (2001). Criminal Justice: A Brief Introduction. Prentice Hall. Retrieved on January 11, 2008.
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Domestic Violence

Words: 1432 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3214133

Domestic violence is an insidious problem that affects communities large and small within the entire nation. It is a problem that affects young and old, affluent and underprivileged alike. There are many ways to view domestic violence. Though domestic violence may be defined in many ways, for purposes of this evaluation will be defined as violence that occurs between two individuals living together (Davis, 1998). Typically these individuals will be partners but this is not always the case. Domestic violence may include any type of violence whether verbal or physical, including hitting, verbal abuse, neglect, or any other type of violent act that leads to harm or injury in the battered victim.

Though several legislative measures have been enacted to curb domestic violence, there is still little uniformity of practice among community policing agencies and other support services. At present legislators and community members are considering working together to determine whether a combination of punitive and non-punitive punishment might best reduce the number of domestic violence cases reported each year. These ideas and more are discussed below.

Analysis of Violence

There have been several studies conducted of domestic violence, some that have examined the frequency with which domestic violence occurs…… [Read More]

Bureau of Justice Statistics. (2000). Criminal victimization 2000: Changes 1999-2000

with trends 1993-2000 (NCJ Publication No. 187007). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. In Baker, et. al, "Moving beyond the individual: Examining the effects of domestic violence policies on social norms."
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Corrections in Community-Based Settings

Words: 906 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2982626

Juvenile Community Corrections

Corrections in Community-Based Settings

Community-based corrections: Factors to consider when dealing with juvenile offenders

One seemingly self-evident truth regarding juvenile offenders might seem to be that socio-economic status will have a significant impact upon the individual's ability to find adequate treatment. The research does support the idea that individuals of higher socioeconomic status (SES) are less likely commit juvenile crimes. Also, it would seem that a wealthy, well-connected suburban family who is able to offer private counseling to their child is more likely to see the teen transition out of juvenile corrections than one who does not. An overall literature review suggests that lower SES is linked with the likelihood of perpetuating juvenile crimes. In another study of 420 urban youth comparing those from high SES neighborhoods vs. low SES neighborhoods, the high SES youth were half as likely to engage in serious delinquency (Atkins et al. 2007).

However, one longitudinal study of 531 youths in Oregon's juvenile justice system which characterized the participants as being of low or high socioeconomic status found no statistically significant difference between low and high SES youths in terms of recidivism. However, it did find that receiving community support services was…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Atkins, T., Bullis, M., & Yovanoff, P. (2007). Wealthy and wise? influence of socioeconomic status on the community adjustment of previously incarcerated youth. Behavioral Disorders, 32(4), 254-266. Retrieved from

Mincey, Barrett, Maldonado, Nancy, Lacey, Candace H. & Thompson, Steve D. (2008).
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Juvenile Corrections

Words: 1407 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10711731

Juvenile Corrections

Juvenile delinquency is a common phenomenon in the globe today. Owing to the severe crimes, committed, different states handle the matter differently. On one hand, some states utilize the "punitive approach" that prioritizes crime control, punishment, and incarceration; on another, the restorative model, which stresses human rights, youth development research, and restoring the community. In the United States, the law does not tolerate juvenile delinquency; this explains the utilization of the "punitive approach" when handling juveniles. In addition, policies in the U.S. are becoming more punitive; therefore, juveniles have found themselves tried in the adult legal system. However, in the recent past, the U.S. has re-considered the death and life without parole sentences for juveniles, which it has termed as unconstitutional. Apparently, the state is gradually applying some human rights principles in relation to juvenile justice policy, a positive move, indeed (Caldwell, 2011).


During the 19th century, juveniles received similar sentences to those of adults, a case that applies to date. However, the case is different across states and continents, but some people feel that juveniles are mature, and they are conscious of their criminal activities; therefore, the law should not treat them differently, either way. Numerous…… [Read More]

Abrams, L.S., Kim, K., & Anderson-Nathe, B. (2005). Paradoxes of treatment in the juvenile corrections. Child and youth car form, 34(1), 7-25.

Caldwell, B. (2011). Punishment vs. restoration: A comparative analysis of juvenile delinquency law in the United States and Mexico.
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Personalizing Punishment-Based on Brain Psychology

Words: 1884 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2325030

Psychopathology Criminal Behavior Part

What might be some of the implications for the forensic field of the differences between the "low-fear hypothesis" and the "high-impulsive" subtypes of psychopathy? In other words, how might the differences in the models help inform us about best practices for such activities as police work on the streets, interrogation methods, trial and sentencing practices, providing treatment, or evaluating recidivism risks?

In retrospect, theorists view Lykken's conceptual framework as a first step toward distinguishing between primary and secondary psychopathy (Baskins-Sommers, 2010). As theory building continues in this decade, the typology is supported by the notion of trait-like sensitivities and trait-like cognitive capacities that suggest the following implications for criminal justice procedures. Primary psychopathy is characterized by disinhibition, which is an inability to abort a dominant response, integrate socialization, or adopt alternative objectives. An individual who is considered to have primary psychopathy will fail to consider emotional cues or effectively delay gratification (MacCoon, et al., 2004). Underlying these behaviors is a bias sensitivity to stimuli that influence adaptive self-regulation vs. maladaptive disinhibition (MacCoon, et al., 2004). Notably, those individuals with secondary psychopathy are likely to exhibit a bias that focuses attention on behavioral activation system (BAS) rather…… [Read More]

Baskin-Sommers, A.R., Wallace, J.F., MacCoon, D.G., Curtin, J.J., and Newman, J.P. (2010, October 1). Clarifying the Factors that Undermine Behavioral Inhibition System Functioning in Psychopathy. Personal Disorders, 1(4), 203 -- 217. doi: 10.1037/a0018950. PMCID: PMC2992384. NIHMSID: NIHMS211679. Retrieved!po=74.5614 

Baskin-Sommers, A.R., Curtin, J.J. And Newman, J.P. (2013, May). Emotion-modulated startle in psychopathy: clarifying familiar effects. Journal of Abnormal Pychology, 122(2), 458-468. 10.1037/a0030958. Epub 2013 Jan 28. Retrieved
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Criminal Justice Race Class Gender

Words: 671 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23821761

Foucault called prisons "complete and austere" institutions because of the way they function in society. A prison is complete because it completely strips from the inmate basic rights and liberties, freedoms, and also humanity. One of the central features of a prison is surveillance, to monitor the activities of the individuals at all time. As such, the prison functions as a complete and total observer and controller. The prison is also austere because of the inherent restrictions on the lives of the inmates. Especially when the prison aims to reform the "criminal," the activities imposed as summarily austere. A prison reflects the punitive nature of the criminal justice system.

A complete and austere institution is also systematically exploitative. For instance, the prisoner may be found performing labor to serve the state (or the private entity in charge of the institution). Moreover, a complete and austere institution is one that uses the inmates as if in a grand social experiment to study criminality and criminal justice. Prisons have become so entrenched in society that they can be called "self-evident," viewed as irreplaceable and inevitable and therefore proposed politically as being beyond reform. Once a person is placed into a prison, his…… [Read More]

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Politics Trumps Policy How Would You Respond

Words: 1035 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99086110

Politics Trumps Policy

How would you respond? Would you just capitulate and end some or all of these programs?

Explain your answer.

A written response would be provided to the new governor that would include an outline of all current programs supplemented with reasoning and statistical effectiveness of each. A break even analysis for each program will also be provided where the actual program outcome statistics with the inclusion of the 30% reduction in recidivism over two years and the cost savings of such a rate reduction in both the short- and long-term to the state and the community. The programs themselves were thoroughly researched and required significant defense for development and implementation, some of the material used to allow support for implementation will clearly need to be used to demonstrate to the new governor the importance and potential of these programs. To respond to the concerns associated with the tough on crime, "take back the streets" campaign the governor should be made aware that these programs hold inmates to high standards and demonstrate significant reductions in internal strife and external community reorientation saving the taxpayers untold dollars and reducing the numbers of victims of crime (Carter, 2008, p. 108)…… [Read More]

Jensen, E.L., & Reed, G.E. (2006). Adult correctional education programs: an update on current status based on recent studies. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, 44(1), 81-89.

Rion, J. (2009)Professional development: the key to retention. Corrections Today 71 (2), 8-12.

Shaffer, J.S. (2003) Vulnerability analysis in the correctional environment. Corrections Today 65 (7), 114-120.
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Traffic Violation Systems The United

Words: 6323 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9988894

The mechanisms that have been put forth to handle issues of day amercement are rudimentary to the knowledge of many people in the U.S. For instance, day Fines is subject to the capabilities of the offenders. It is not a subject imposed to all offenders no with no consideration of their financial stabilities. Nonetheless, offenders who are judged to be within the bracket of paying day charge make it an obligation. The U.S. has state and federal strategies on imprisonment of offenders have received an enormous boost with involvement of the day Fines services.

The federal government of the U.S. has found a more equitable and distributive way of punishing offenders with day fines. Traffic offenders are rampant and active most of the day times. Since they are individuals who operate most of their activities during the daytime, the federal state perceives day fines as a more eloquent way of ending their difficulties when they face prosecutions due to minor and serious offenses. Through day fines, the courts have found a better way of dealing with rich offenders who find it legible when they are made to face the common courses of offenses in the society. At the end of…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Alarid, L.F., & Del, C.R.V. (2011). Community-based corrections. Belmont, CA:

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Gender and Crime

Words: 881 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31654235

Gender and Crime

How would each of the three critical feminist perspectives -- Radical, Marxist, and Socialist -- explain this phenomenon? Do different life experiences by men and women impact the overrepresentation of men in the criminal justice system? How do gender differences impact sentencing? Provide examples to support your answer. How does allowing citizens to carry guns prevent crimes? Give relevant examples.

The radical feminist would look at the attacks on women based upon the fact that they have been ignored throughout history. This makes them an easier target for men to overpower them and conduct these activities. Marxists believe that crime occurs because of social inequalities. This is from them being pushed into the lower classes of society. To lash out, they will directly target and attack women in order to take advantage of those who have the perceptions of power and influence. Socialists believe that the ultimate causes of crime are the law. This is from them feeling that they are restricting the actions of everyone and how they favoring one group in society over everyone else. ("Feminist Perspective on Work and Class," 2010) (Elwood, 2004)

As a result, the life experiences of women will impact how…… [Read More]

Feminist Perspective on Work and Class. (2010). Stanford University. Retrieved from: 

Ellwood, C. (2004). Sociology and Modern Social Problems. Whitefish, MT: Kessinger Publishing.
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Substance Abuse Continued Use of Research Continued

Words: 939 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18191151

Substance Abuse

Continued use of research

Continued use of research in professional life:

Stable housing for substance abusers

Substance abuse is strongly correlated with a wide array of risky behaviors, including a failure to live in some form of stable housing, as well as high-risk sexual behaviors. This is significant, because stable housing situations in the form of rehabilitation centers or 'halfway' homes are often used as bases of treatment for addicts. However, a review of the existing literature indicates that simply providing housing for addicts should not be regarded as a panacea or as an automatic form of treatment for addiction. In fact, the results are mixed regarding a correlation between substance abuse and the ability to obtain stable housing. For the purposes of this review, a definition of 'stable housing' will be defined as "not having lived on the street" versus "living in a shelter or single room occupancy hotel (SRO)" at any time in the past 6 months (Des Jarlais 2007).

Literature review

According to Palepu (et al. 2010), "unstable housing and homelessness is prevalent among injection drug users (IDU)" and finding a stable housing situation is often a critical component of drug treatment for substance abusers.…… [Read More]

Des Jarlais, D., C., Braine, N., & Friedmann, P. (2007). Unstable housing as a factor for increased injection risk behavior at U.S. syringe exchange programs. AIDS and Behavior, 11, 78-84.

Elifson, K.W., Sterk, C.E., & Theall, K.P. (2007). Safe living: The impact of unstable housing conditions on HIV risk reduction among female drug users. AIDS and Behavior, 11, 45-55. Retrieved: doi:
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Domestic Violence

Words: 1180 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85995013

theories listed, the relative deprivation theory and the general strain theory best explain domestic violence, as well as the high rate of recidivism, despite punishment. However, we should mention in the very beginning that each theory listed best explains a certain category of people, generally divided by income and level of education. The two I have selected are a match for the highest percentage of women batterers.

The relative deprivation theory believes that domestic violence occurs when there is a significant difference in the achievements of each of the members of the couple. In general, in my opinion, these tend to be professional achievements and the theory is best exemplified by those couples where the husband is unemployed or having a job that is not satisfying, while the wife is earning much more than him and is the one contributing most to the family budget.

The relative deprivation theory was actually discussed when referring to the differences between the poor and rich classes and was created as an explanation for rising crime rates in different urban areas. When apply to such a level, the theory includes not only income differences, but also issues such as racial discrimination, inequality of chances,…… [Read More]

1. Harmon, Patricia Anne. Why do men batter women? Assessing empathy, self-regard and narcissism levels, and attitudes toward women, men's roles and family of origin experiences among middle to upper class male batterers. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences & Engineering, Vol 62(12-B), 2002. pp. 6023. U.S.: Univ Microfilms International

2. Chapter 5: Social Structure Theory: Because they are poor
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Record Medical Administration Service for File Rationale

Words: 773 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32324816


Medical Administration Service for File

Rationale in Support of Selection of Heart Transplant Recipient

Because time was of the essence in formulating this decision, this memorandum for the record sets forth the decision-making process and that was used to select the most appropriate candidate for a heart transplantation procedure. It was my responsibility as lead surgeon to select the most appropriate heart transplant recipient from a pool of three candidates, each of whom had suffered from several health-related issues that adversely affected their suitability for the transplant procedure. Therefore, in order to formulate as subjective an analysis as possible in a timely fashion, a utilitarian ethical analytical approach was used to identify the candidate that held the most promise of using the gift of additional life from the heart donor to its maximum advantage. The utilitarian ethical analysis showed that of the three potential heart transplant candidates, the 12-year-old patient, Lisa, was the most appropriate for the reasons discussed further below.

UTILITARIAN ETHICAL ANALYSIS OF HEART TRANSPLANT CANDIDATES: In sum, as propounded by John Stuart Mill and John Locke, a utilitarian ethical analysis of the three potential candidates for the heart transplant can be used to weigh the respective…… [Read More]

Andre, C. & Velasquez, M. (1989, Winter). Calculating consequences: The utilitarian approach to ethics. Issues in Ethics, 2(1), 37.

Hollingsworth, J.A., Hall, E.H. & Trinkaus, R.J. (1991). Utilitarianism: An ethical framework for compensation decision making. Review of Business, 13(3), 17-19.