Recidivism Essays (Examples)

Filter results by:

 

View Full Essay

Federal Mandatory Minimum Drug Sentences and Their

Words: 2517 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18974474

Federal Mandatory Minimum Drug Sentences and Their Impact on Recidivism

There is much controversy regarding mandatory sentencing and its impact on the American society throughout recent times. In many ways, prisons are used as a means to control crime, to protect society from it, with criminals being deterred from continuing to commit illegalities as a direct result of the time they spend behind bars. Mandatory minimums were generally introduced with the purpose of preventing future recidivism. The authorities considered that the uncomfortable nature of prison life and the social status associated with being in prison were enough to persuade criminals to refrain from ever expressing interest in illegalities once they were set free. Other schools of thought appear to think just the opposite as some believe that prison time actually has a negative impact on convicts, while others believe that criminals experience little to no change consequent to staying in…… [Read More]

Works cited:

Book:

Goldberg, Raymond, "Drugs Across the Spectrum, 7th ed.," (Cengage Learning, 5 Oct 2012)

Kitwana, Bakari, "The Hip-Hop Generation: Young Blacks and the Crisis in African-American Culture," (Basic Civitas Books, 2008)

Lyman, Michael D., "Drugs in Society: Causes, Concepts, and Control," (Newnes, 25 Sep 2013)
View Full Essay

Ex-Offenders and the Re-Entry to the Society

Words: 2212 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32197410

Ex Offenders

The United States is regarded as having the world's highest incarceration rate. It has been estimated that the prisons are holding more than 2.3 million people as of now. Due to this reason, overcrowding is a significant issue in the prison system of the country. It is seen that for every hundred thousand population, there are seven hundred and forty eight inmates and this number is expected to increase. Due to the increased incarceration, the state and the federal prisons are made to release a decent number of ex-offenders every year. The trend of releasing has only been a result of the mass incarceration that the country has experienced. It was seen that during the 1972 till the 1997 period, the number of state and federal prisoners increased from 196,000 to a record of 1,159,000 (Mauer, 1999) In 2000, a total of 600,000 ex-offenders were released to the…… [Read More]

References

Beck, A. And Shipley, J. (1989). Recidivism of Prisoners Released in 1983. Bureau of Justice Statistics special reports. [report] U.S. Department of Justice.

Burton, V., Cullen, F. And Travis III, L. (1987). Collateral Consequences of a Felony Conviction: A National Study of State Statutes, The. Fed. Probation, 51 p. 52.

Chin, G. And Holmes Jr., R. (2001). Effective Assistance of Counsel and the Consequences of Guilty Pleas. Cornell L. Rev., 87 p. 697.

Clear, T., Rose, D. And Ryder, J. (2001). Incarceration and the community: The problem of removing and returning offenders. Crime & Delinquency, 47 (3), pp. 335 -- 351.
View Full Essay

Offender Re-Entry Program Assessing Adequacy

Words: 2315 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37454013

These strategies should focus on parolees' risks and need and conducted in a way that would motivate change. Aware of these realities, States continue to innovate and evolve reentry strategies towards this end (Yahner et al.).

The RI was a particularly ambitious correctional program in that it targeted the most difficult offenders for rehabilitation and incorporation into the community. These are young offenders with violent criminal histories, who are likeliest to be excluded from reentry assistance. The RI develops and implements individual plans to reintegrate chosen offenders back into society. This was the Controlling Violent Offenders Program.

Efforts begin during their incarceration and continue when they are released into the community through a focused approach by a mentor. Case workers and mentors conduct varied programs to support their transition. These include social services in substance abuse and mental health disorders and vocational services for training, education and resume development for…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Braga, A.A. et al. (2008). Controlling violent offenders released to the community.

Rappaport Institute for Greater Boston: Harvard Kennedy School. Retrieved on March 19, 2013 from http://www.hks.harvard.edu/var/ezp_site/storage/fckeditor/file/pdfs/centers-programs/centers/rappaport/workingpapers/braga_BRI_final.pdf

James, N. (2011). Offender reentry: correctional statistics reintegration into the community and recidivism. CRS Report for Congress: Congressional Research

Service. Retrieved on March 19, 2013 from http://www.nationalcia.org/wp-content/uploads/correctional-statistics-Reintegration-into-the-Community.pdf
View Full Essay

Correctional Methods Throughout Most of

Words: 1289 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64755367

For example, offenders without job skills can receive job training, while offenders with emotional problems can be ordered to attend the appropriate counseling. (Native American and Alaskan Technical Assistance Program, 2005). Because such a huge proportion of crimes are drug-related or committed by addicts, completion of in-patient or out-patient substance abuse programs is often an integral part of an offender's alternative sentencing program. Furthermore, alternative sentencing strives to make an offender personally responsible for their crime. Therefore, mediation and restitution play an important part in alternative sentencing, because mediation gives the victim a voice, while restitution can require an offender to repay his victim. (Native American and Alaskan Technical Assistance Program, 2005).

After one has an understanding of the different sentencing alternatives available, the logical step is to question whether alternative sentencing is effective. In order to answer that question, many criminal justice professionals look to recidivism rates. "However, limited…… [Read More]

References

Jones, G. & M. Connelly. (2001) Prison vs. alternative sanctions: trying to compare recidivism rates. Retrieved October 31, 2006, from Maryland State Commission on Criminal Sentencing Policy

Web site: http://www.msccsp.org/publications/altrecid.html

Native American and Alaskan Technical Assistance Program. (2005). Project guide:

alternatives to incarceration of offenders. Washington, D.C.: National Institute of Corrections.
View Full Essay

Convicted Felons Return to the

Words: 2672 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20169695



Productivity-Education/Craft/Trade -- a key to being able to stop the return to the penal system is to provide training necessary to allow the individual to find work after leaving prison. Not only is it extremely tough to get a job as a convicted felon, but the skills necessary to get a job that will afford a decent living are tough to get in prison. Earning a degree either online or through continuing education; earning a trade certificate (automotive, plumbing, wood working, etc.) will provide an occupation for the felon after leaving prison, and a focus for their energy and attention while in prison.

Consequences -- Many rehabilitation programs fail because the consequences are unrealistic. Allow people to be human, while still requiring that in order to receive the gift from society of living in society, there are consequences if the rules are broken (Clear, et.al., 2011).

How then, can Maslow's…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Facts About the U.S. Prison System." (October 2007). Retrieved from: http://webb.senate.gov/pdf/prisonstwopager.html.

Project Return -- Breaking the Cycle of Crime. (2009). Retrieved from: http://www.projectreturn.com/index.php?name=results_and_impacts

Total U.S. Correctional Population. (2010, December 11). Retrieved from:

Office of Justice Programs: http://bjs.ojp.usdoj.gov/index.cfm?ty=tp&tid=11
View Full Essay

Boot Camp's Program Claim of a 0

Words: 1112 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6388164

Boot Camp's Program Claim of a 0% ecidivism ate

Addressing a Boot Camp's Program's Claim of a 0% ecidivism ate

The Claim: A Boot Camp Program un by a Local Sheriff's Department Claims a ecidivism ate of 0%

My assessment on the accuracy of the above statement and this discussion in general, will make use of a number of fundamental terms: corrective boot camp program, recidivism and shock incarceration. A corrective boot camp program, to begin with, refers to a facility that makes use of the techniques applied during military training sessions, to instill a culture of 'doing what is right' in youthful first-time offenders. ecidivism, according to the Bureau of Justice Statistics (2013), is the tendency to repeat criminal activities, leading to re-arrest, during the three-year duration following release from a correctional facility. Finally, shock incarceration, like the name suggests, is a program used on first time offenders, to…… [Read More]

References

Cole, G.F., Smith, C.E. & DeJong, C. (2012). The American System of Criminal Justice (13th ed.). Belmont: Cengage Learning

Cole, G.F. & Smith, C.E. (2007). The American System of Criminal Justice (5th ed.). Belmont: Cengage Learning

Government Bureau of Justice Statistics (2013). Recidivism. Retrieved from http://www.bjs.gov/index.cfm?ty=tp&tid=17

Jones, J.A. (2012). A Multi-State Analysis of Correctional Boot Camp Outcomes: Identifying Vocational Rehabilitation as a Complement to Shock Incarceration. Student Pulse, 4(9), 1-3. Retrieved from   http://www.studentpulse.com/articles/689/a-multi-state-analysis-of-correctional-boot-camp-outcomes-identifying-vocational-rehabilitation-as-a-complement-to-shock-incarceration
View Full Essay

Boot Camps Effective Juvenile Justice

Words: 1631 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26922530

In July, 2001, a 14-year-old boy died following the brutal treatment he was subjected to at the Fountain Hills facility in Arizona. The staff had forced him to "stand in the Arizona sun" in 100-degree temperatures, wearing black sweat pants, according to an article in the Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing (Bush, 2001). When he - or any of the other inmates - asked for water or food, he was "forced to eat mud." Also, the staff "stomped on the boys' chests and arms with boots if they did not perform tasks required of them."

In Prince Georges County, Maryland, on May 14 of 2001, a 17-year-old boy died of asphyxia when a teacher cut off his airway "in the act of restraining him." The article's writer, Carol Bush, asks: "Is it not time for the medical and nursing professionals to speak out on behalf of troubled youth…… [Read More]

References

Bush, Carol. (2001). Youth at risk - in facilities that are supposed to help! Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing, 14(4), 200.

Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education (2001). Juvenile Crime,

Juvenile Justice: Executive Summary. Retrieved February 26, 2005, from the National Academies Press. Web site: http://www.nap.edu/openbook/0309068428/html/index.html.

Mackenzie, Doris Layton, Gover, Angela R, Armstrong, Gaylene Styve, & Mitchell,
View Full Essay

Juvenile Behavior

Words: 721 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37124384

Criminal behavior and recidivism has been a very contentious issue over the last decade. esearch continues to garner massive support related to methods to better help offenders matriculate into society. Juvenile behavior is one of the more pressing issues within society. Juvenile behavior is particularly important as habits formed in early years are directly correlated to behavior in later years. esearch has also indicated that children or juveniles influenced by criminal activities at an early age, are more likely to commit crimes in their adolescent stage. Although a litany of methods have been devised to combat juvenile criminal behavior, results have been mixed. ecent incidents with school shootings, robberies, and vandalism indicate that juvenile criminal behavior is still profound. One interesting aspect regarding juvenile behavior is that violent acts committed by juveniles have actually decreased over the past decade. However, many juveniles are often sent to court and prosecuted as…… [Read More]

References:

1) Bazemore, G., & Feder, L. (1997a). Rehabilitation in the new juvenile court: Do judges support the treatment ethic? American Journal of Criminal Justice, 21, 181-212.

2) Sickmund, M. (2004). Juveniles in corrections. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.

3) Snyder, H. (2005). Juvenile arrests 2003. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.
View Full Essay

Measuring Crime

Words: 972 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85722559

Measuring Crime

During the latter half of the twentieth century, evidence-based policing became more commonplace, partly as a means to reduce corruption, but also as a means to make crime fighting more effective. Instruments used to measure crime at the federal level include those that fall under the rubric of the Department of Justice, such as Uniform Crime eporting and National Crime Victimization Service. The FBI also operates legal attache offices, the Combined DNA Index System, and other tools used to measure and empirically track crime (Schmalleger, 2015, p. 147). Likewise, the Department of Justice maintains several major crime reporting programs including the National Incident-Based eporting System. These reporting programs serve several core functions. They boost the effectiveness of criminal justice policy, they ensure policing and other aspects of criminal justice are evidence-based, and they inform the judicious allocation of resources throughout the criminal justice system. As Schmalleger (2015) points…… [Read More]

References

"Myth v. Reality: Crime has been Steadily Increasing." [CJi Interactive video].

Schmalleger, F. (2015). Criminal justice today: An introductory text for the 21st century (13th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall.

Silver, S. (2014). CJ in the U.S.A.: An Introduction to Criminal Justice. San Diego, CA: Curriculum Technology.
View Full Essay

Goals of Corrections the Objective

Words: 2380 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19065395

Just as clearly no individual who is logical would consider Charles Manson or Theodore undy as eligible profiles for the restorative justice program or even for rehabilitation program or indeed of any other than imprisonment or death by execution There are however, very potentially productive, useful, and worthy individuals who are shuffled into the correction system due to their inability to hire a lawyer or lack of knowledge concerning their rights to having representation appointed to them that with education and knowledge or skills acquisition can be successfully rehabilitation or restored to society and within the community. Recently there has been documented an additional strategy in criminal justice corrections which is described as a 'transformational' process and is a cognitive-behavioral approach in treatment.

RECOMMENDATIONS for FUTURE CORRECTIONS

Cognitive behavioral approaches are being used in transforming the dysfunctional thinking of the individual. The work of Mahoney and Lyddon (1988) relate approximately…… [Read More]

Bibliography

MacKenzie, DL and Hickman, LJ (1998) What Works in Corrections? An Examination of the Effectiveness of the Type of Rehabilitation Programs Offered by Washington State Department of Corrections. Submitted to: The State of Washington Legislature joint audit and review committee. Crime Prevention effectiveness Program - Dept. Criminology and Criminal Justice. Online available at http://www.ccjs.umd.edu/corrections/What%20Works%20In%20Corrections.htm

Van Ness, DW (nd) Restorative Justice in Prisons. Session 204: The Practice of Restorative Justice in Prison Reform. PFI Centre for Justice and Reconciliation. Prison Fellowship International. Online available at http://www.restorativejustice.org/editions/2005/july05/2005-06-21.9036003387.

Complexity of the Social Contract (2001) Prisoner Life Online available at http://www.prisonerlife.com/s_writings6.cfm.

Erikson, Kai. Wayward Puritans. New York: John Wiley, 1966.
View Full Essay

Prison Nurseries There Are Few Assets as

Words: 2731 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73021498

Prison Nurseries

There are few assets as precious to a nation as it children. Especially in the developed world. Social, care, and education systems are set up in such a way as to nurture the young ones to that they can grow and develop effectively to make the most of their lives and their future. Indeed, not making sure that children's lives can progress along optimal levels can result in dire consequences for a nation and its future. It affects everything from the economy to the moral fabric of a nation to not care for its children. It is also, however, a sad fact of the world today that not all children are born to loving parents, a home and family, or in otherwise ideal circumstances. Indeed, some children are born to mothers who are in prison. While there are many programs to care for these children, there is little…… [Read More]

References

Benevolent (2013, Jul. 15). Prison Babies. Retrieved from:  http://benevolentnet.blogspot.com/2013/07/prison-babies.html 

Carlson, J.R. (2009, Spring). Prison Nurseries: A Pathway to Crime-Free Futures. Corrections Compendium 34(1). Retrieved from:  http://www.castonline.ilstu.edu/krienert/readings/Carlson_2009.pdf 

Ford, A. (2012). Bonding Behind Bars: Do Prison Nurseries Help or Hinder Parenting? Meredith Corporation. Retrieved from: http://www.divinecaroline.com/life-etc./culture-causes/bonding-behind-bars-do-prison-nurseries-help-or-hinder-parenting

Lee, O. (2012, May 29). What Happens to Babies Born in Jail? Takepart. Retrieved from:  http://www.takepart.com/article/2012/05/28/what-happens-babies-born-jail
View Full Essay

Criminal Justice Is the Coordination

Words: 2218 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 395032

Examples of offenses that are based on constitutional endowments of right contain tax evasion, possessing illegal substances and conspiring to violate civil rights. Courts have specified on the whole a wide explanation to the Commerce Clause authority, allowing Congress to create a federal offense of many widespread law crimes such as kidnapping or murder if state outline are fractious during commission of the crime and such as misappropriation and blackmail using instrumentalities of trade such as telephone lines or the U.S. post. Examples of offenses that are based on regions owned by or under the restricted power of the federal government contain crimes committed in the District of Columbia, in U.S. Territories, in U.S. National Parks, in federal courthouses and federal jails plus on board airplanes and ocean going ships. The United States armed force has its own immoral justice system applicable to its members, but civilians might be accused…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Wolfgang, Marvin (1990). Crime and Punishment in Renaissance Florence. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology. Retrieved on January 11, 2008.

Schmalleger, Frank (2001). Criminal Justice: A Brief Introduction. Prentice Hall. Retrieved on January 11, 2008.

Cornell University Law School. Bill of Rights from Cornell University Law School. Retrieved on January 11, 2008.

Nicholas J. Szabo. (2006). Jurisdiction as Property: Franchise Jurisdiction from Henry III to James I. Retrieved on January 11, 2008 at http://szabo.best.vwh.net/JurisdictionAsProperty.pdf
View Full Essay

Corrections in Community-Based Settings

Words: 906 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2982626

Juvenile Community Corrections

Corrections in Community-Based Settings

Community-based corrections: Factors to consider when dealing with juvenile offenders

One seemingly self-evident truth regarding juvenile offenders might seem to be that socio-economic status will have a significant impact upon the individual's ability to find adequate treatment. The research does support the idea that individuals of higher socioeconomic status (SES) are less likely commit juvenile crimes. Also, it would seem that a wealthy, well-connected suburban family who is able to offer private counseling to their child is more likely to see the teen transition out of juvenile corrections than one who does not. An overall literature review suggests that lower SES is linked with the likelihood of perpetuating juvenile crimes. In another study of 420 urban youth comparing those from high SES neighborhoods vs. low SES neighborhoods, the high SES youth were half as likely to engage in serious delinquency (Atkins et al.…… [Read More]

References

Atkins, T., Bullis, M., & Yovanoff, P. (2007). Wealthy and wise? influence of socioeconomic status on the community adjustment of previously incarcerated youth. Behavioral Disorders, 32(4), 254-266. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/219677853?accountid=14872

Mincey, Barrett, Maldonado, Nancy, Lacey, Candace H. & Thompson, Steve D. (2008).

Perceptions of successful graduates of juvenile residential programs: Reflections and suggestions for success The Journal of Correctional Education 59(1).

Woolard, Jennifer L., Harvell, Samantha, Graham, Sandra. (2008). Anticipatory injustice among adolescents: Age and racial/ethnic differences in perceived unfairness of the justice system. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 26: 207 -- 226. Retrieved:
View Full Essay

Juvenile Corrections

Words: 1407 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10711731

Juvenile Corrections

Juvenile delinquency is a common phenomenon in the globe today. Owing to the severe crimes, committed, different states handle the matter differently. On one hand, some states utilize the "punitive approach" that prioritizes crime control, punishment, and incarceration; on another, the restorative model, which stresses human rights, youth development research, and restoring the community. In the United States, the law does not tolerate juvenile delinquency; this explains the utilization of the "punitive approach" when handling juveniles. In addition, policies in the U.S. are becoming more punitive; therefore, juveniles have found themselves tried in the adult legal system. However, in the recent past, the U.S. has re-considered the death and life without parole sentences for juveniles, which it has termed as unconstitutional. Apparently, the state is gradually applying some human rights principles in relation to juvenile justice policy, a positive move, indeed (Caldwell, 2011).

Background

During the 19th century,…… [Read More]

References

Abrams, L.S., Kim, K., & Anderson-Nathe, B. (2005). Paradoxes of treatment in the juvenile corrections. Child and youth car form, 34(1), 7-25.

Caldwell, B. (2011). Punishment vs. restoration: A comparative analysis of juvenile delinquency law in the United States and Mexico.

Hirth, D. (2001). Early intensive help for high-risk juveniles. Corrections today, 80-83.

Perlin, M. (2013). Collaborative justice. Criminology and Law Enforcement, 1-3.
View Full Essay

Personalizing Punishment-Based on Brain Psychology

Words: 1884 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2325030

Psychopathology Criminal Behavior Part

What might be some of the implications for the forensic field of the differences between the "low-fear hypothesis" and the "high-impulsive" subtypes of psychopathy? In other words, how might the differences in the models help inform us about best practices for such activities as police work on the streets, interrogation methods, trial and sentencing practices, providing treatment, or evaluating recidivism risks?

In retrospect, theorists view Lykken's conceptual framework as a first step toward distinguishing between primary and secondary psychopathy (Baskins-Sommers, 2010). As theory building continues in this decade, the typology is supported by the notion of trait-like sensitivities and trait-like cognitive capacities that suggest the following implications for criminal justice procedures. Primary psychopathy is characterized by disinhibition, which is an inability to abort a dominant response, integrate socialization, or adopt alternative objectives. An individual who is considered to have primary psychopathy will fail to consider emotional…… [Read More]

References

Baskin-Sommers, A.R., Wallace, J.F., MacCoon, D.G., Curtin, J.J., and Newman, J.P. (2010, October 1). Clarifying the Factors that Undermine Behavioral Inhibition System Functioning in Psychopathy. Personal Disorders, 1(4), 203 -- 217. doi: 10.1037/a0018950. PMCID: PMC2992384. NIHMSID: NIHMS211679. Retrieved  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2992384/#!po=74.5614 

Baskin-Sommers, A.R., Curtin, J.J. And Newman, J.P. (2013, May). Emotion-modulated startle in psychopathy: clarifying familiar effects. Journal of Abnormal Pychology, 122(2), 458-468. 10.1037/a0030958. Epub 2013 Jan 28. Retrieved  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23356218 

Blonigen, D.M., Hicks, B.M., Krueger, R.F., Patrick, C.J. & Iacono, W.G. (2005, May). Psychopathic personality traits: heritability and genetic overlap with internalizing and externalizing psychopathology. Psychological Medicine, 35(5): 637 -- 648. doi: 10.1017/S0033291704004180. PMCID: PMC2242349. NIHMSID: NIHMS38985. Retreived  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2242349/#__ffn_sectitle 

Franklin, K. (2010, May 30). Psychopathy guru blocks critical article. Will case affect credibility of PCL-R test in court? In the News: Forensic psychology, criminology, and psychology-law. Retrieved  http://forensicpsychologist.blogspot.com/2010/05/psychopath-guru-blocks-critical-article.html
View Full Essay

Politics Trumps Policy How Would You Respond

Words: 1035 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99086110

Politics Trumps Policy

How would you respond? Would you just capitulate and end some or all of these programs?

Explain your answer.

A written response would be provided to the new governor that would include an outline of all current programs supplemented with reasoning and statistical effectiveness of each. A break even analysis for each program will also be provided where the actual program outcome statistics with the inclusion of the 30% reduction in recidivism over two years and the cost savings of such a rate reduction in both the short- and long-term to the state and the community. The programs themselves were thoroughly researched and required significant defense for development and implementation, some of the material used to allow support for implementation will clearly need to be used to demonstrate to the new governor the importance and potential of these programs. To respond to the concerns associated with the…… [Read More]

Resources

Azzolino, S., Johnson, C., Thornton, T., & Turley, A. (2004, December). Jail drug and alcohol treatment program reduces recidivism in nonviolent offenders: A longitudinal study of Monroe County, New York's, jail treatment drug and alcohol program. International Journal of Offender Therapy & Comparative Criminology, 48(6), 721-728.

Carter, F.C. (2008). Offender employment is the key. Corrections Today, 70(4), 108.

Jensen, E.L., & Reed, G.E. (2006). Adult correctional education programs: an update on current status based on recent studies. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, 44(1), 81-89.

Rion, J. (2009)Professional development: the key to retention. Corrections Today 71 (2), 8-12.
View Full Essay

Traffic Violation Systems The United

Words: 6323 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9988894

The mechanisms that have been put forth to handle issues of day amercement are rudimentary to the knowledge of many people in the U.S. For instance, day Fines is subject to the capabilities of the offenders. It is not a subject imposed to all offenders no with no consideration of their financial stabilities. Nonetheless, offenders who are judged to be within the bracket of paying day charge make it an obligation. The U.S. has state and federal strategies on imprisonment of offenders have received an enormous boost with involvement of the day Fines services.

The federal government of the U.S. has found a more equitable and distributive way of punishing offenders with day fines. Traffic offenders are rampant and active most of the day times. Since they are individuals who operate most of their activities during the daytime, the federal state perceives day fines as a more eloquent way of…… [Read More]

References

Alarid, L.F., & Del, C.R.V. (2011). Community-based corrections. Belmont, CA:

Wadsworth.

Born, G. (1996). International civil litigation in United States courts: Commentary and materials. The Hague: Kluwer Law International.

Cole, G.F., & Smith, C.E. (2006). The American system of criminal justice. Belmont, CA:
View Full Essay

Gender and Crime

Words: 881 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31654235

Gender and Crime

How would each of the three critical feminist perspectives -- adical, Marxist, and Socialist -- explain this phenomenon? Do different life experiences by men and women impact the overrepresentation of men in the criminal justice system? How do gender differences impact sentencing? Provide examples to support your answer. How does allowing citizens to carry guns prevent crimes? Give relevant examples.

The radical feminist would look at the attacks on women based upon the fact that they have been ignored throughout history. This makes them an easier target for men to overpower them and conduct these activities. Marxists believe that crime occurs because of social inequalities. This is from them being pushed into the lower classes of society. To lash out, they will directly target and attack women in order to take advantage of those who have the perceptions of power and influence. Socialists believe that the ultimate…… [Read More]

References

Feminist Perspective on Work and Class. (2010). Stanford University. Retrieved from:  http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/feminism-class/ 

Ellwood, C. (2004). Sociology and Modern Social Problems. Whitefish, MT: Kessinger Publishing.

Ryder, E. (2011). Financial Crime in the 21st Century. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing.
View Full Essay

Substance Abuse Continued Use of Research Continued

Words: 939 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18191151

Substance Abuse

Continued use of research

Continued use of research in professional life:

Stable housing for substance abusers

Substance abuse is strongly correlated with a wide array of risky behaviors, including a failure to live in some form of stable housing, as well as high-risk sexual behaviors. This is significant, because stable housing situations in the form of rehabilitation centers or 'halfway' homes are often used as bases of treatment for addicts. However, a review of the existing literature indicates that simply providing housing for addicts should not be regarded as a panacea or as an automatic form of treatment for addiction. In fact, the results are mixed regarding a correlation between substance abuse and the ability to obtain stable housing. For the purposes of this review, a definition of 'stable housing' will be defined as "not having lived on the street" versus "living in a shelter or single room…… [Read More]

References

Des Jarlais, D., C., Braine, N., & Friedmann, P. (2007). Unstable housing as a factor for increased injection risk behavior at U.S. syringe exchange programs. AIDS and Behavior, 11, 78-84.

Elifson, K.W., Sterk, C.E., & Theall, K.P. (2007). Safe living: The impact of unstable housing conditions on HIV risk reduction among female drug users. AIDS and Behavior, 11, 45-55. Retrieved: doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10461-007-9306-8

Palepu A, Marshall BD, Lai C, Wood E, Kerr T. (2010). Addiction treatment and stable housing among a cohort of injection drug users. PLoS One. 5(7):e11697. Retrieved:

http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0011697
View Full Essay

Domestic Violence

Words: 1180 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85995013

theories listed, the relative deprivation theory and the general strain theory best explain domestic violence, as well as the high rate of recidivism, despite punishment. However, we should mention in the very beginning that each theory listed best explains a certain category of people, generally divided by income and level of education. The two I have selected are a match for the highest percentage of women batterers.

The relative deprivation theory believes that domestic violence occurs when there is a significant difference in the achievements of each of the members of the couple. In general, in my opinion, these tend to be professional achievements and the theory is best exemplified by those couples where the husband is unemployed or having a job that is not satisfying, while the wife is earning much more than him and is the one contributing most to the family budget.

The relative deprivation theory was…… [Read More]

Bibliography

1. Harmon, Patricia Anne. Why do men batter women? Assessing empathy, self-regard and narcissism levels, and attitudes toward women, men's roles and family of origin experiences among middle to upper class male batterers. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences & Engineering, Vol 62(12-B), 2002. pp. 6023. U.S.: Univ Microfilms International

2. Chapter 5: Social Structure Theory: Because they are poor

Chapter 5: Social Structure Theory: Because they are poor. Page 143

Ibid.
View Full Essay

Record Medical Administration Service for File Rationale

Words: 773 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32324816

ecord

Medical Administration Service for File

ationale in Support of Selection of Heart Transplant ecipient

Because time was of the essence in formulating this decision, this memorandum for the record sets forth the decision-making process and that was used to select the most appropriate candidate for a heart transplantation procedure. It was my responsibility as lead surgeon to select the most appropriate heart transplant recipient from a pool of three candidates, each of whom had suffered from several health-related issues that adversely affected their suitability for the transplant procedure. Therefore, in order to formulate as subjective an analysis as possible in a timely fashion, a utilitarian ethical analytical approach was used to identify the candidate that held the most promise of using the gift of additional life from the heart donor to its maximum advantage. The utilitarian ethical analysis showed that of the three potential heart transplant candidates, the 12-year-old…… [Read More]

References

Andre, C. & Velasquez, M. (1989, Winter). Calculating consequences: The utilitarian approach to ethics. Issues in Ethics, 2(1), 37.

Hollingsworth, J.A., Hall, E.H. & Trinkaus, R.J. (1991). Utilitarianism: An ethical framework for compensation decision making. Review of Business, 13(3), 17-19.

Rosen, F. (2003). Classical utilitarianism from Hume to Mill. London: Routledge.
View Full Essay

Juvenile Offenders and Reoffending

Words: 11154 Length: 37 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46175369

elevance

Juvenile offenders and reoffenders are an important problem facing the United States criminal justice system. For more than one hundred years, states held the belief that the juvenile justice system acted as a vehicle to safeguard the public via offering a structure that enables the rehabilitation of children growing into adulthood. States identified the difference of children committing crimes versus adult offenders (Loeber & Farrington, 2012). For example, the states saw them as less blameworthy with a higher capacity for longstanding, true change. Therefore, states have founded a distinct court system especially for the handling and rehabilitation of juvenile offenders along with a separate and different youth-based service delivery system that offers additional aid not found in the adult justice system.

The juvenile justice system offers the study of criminal justice an important area to develop proper rehabilitation techniques that will help juvenile offenders and reoffenders find a means…… [Read More]

References

Baglivio, M. & Jackowski, K. (2012). Examining the Validity of a Juvenile Offending Risk Assessment Instrument Across Gender and Race/Ethnicity. Youth Violence And Juvenile Justice, 11(1), 26-43. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1541204012440107

Baglivio, M., Wolff, K., Piquero, A., & Epps, N. (2015). The Relationship between Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) and Juvenile Offending Trajectories in a Juvenile Offender Sample. Journal Of Criminal Justice, 43(3), 229-241. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcrimjus.2015.04.012

Burfeind, J. & Bartusch, D. (2015). Juvenile delinquency (p. 158). Routledge.

Cale, J., Smallbone, S., Rayment-Mchugh, S., & Dowling, C. (2015). Offense Trajectories, the Unfolding of Sexual and Non-Sexual Criminal Activity, and Sex Offense Characteristics of Adolescent Sex Offenders. Sexual Abuse: A Journal Of Research And Treatment. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1079063215580968
View Full Essay

Pedophilia

Words: 10745 Length: 30 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90713233

It will focus discovering the treatment option, or combination of options that results in the lowest incidence of recidivism for the longest period following the treatment. It is difficult to predict future events, therefore the research will take a historical perspective on the problem.

This study will compare recidivism rates for the four most common treatments used for pedophile offenders. It will only consider treatment for those that were convicted of their crimes. It will compare those that received group therapy only, cognitive behavioral therapy only, treatment with SSIs only, and chemical castration only. Many treatment plans include a combination of treatments. Therefore, a comparison of the most common treatment combinations found during the course of the research will be compared as well. The most common treatment combinations include Group therapy and cognitive therapy, SSIs and cognitive therapy, chemical castration and cognitive therapy. The most common combination treatment involves use…… [Read More]

References

American Psychiatric Association (2000). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (fourth edition), 302.2.

Barbaree, H.E., & Seto, M.C. (1997). Pedophilia: Assessment and Treatment. Sexual Deviance: Theory, Assessment, and Treatment. 175-193.

Berlin, F. (2000). Treatments to Change Sexual Orientation. Am J. Psychiatry 157: 838.

Bradford, J.M.W. (2000). The Treatment of Sexual Deviation Using a Pharmacological Approach.
View Full Essay

Criminal Justice Bootcamp Programs for

Words: 5841 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21697054

The sources provided background and reviews of published literature: Holmstrom (1996); Marcus-Mendoza (1995); and Osler (1991). Finally, three reports took on a narrower focus in investigating boot camps: Clark and Kellam (2001); Mueller (1996); and Souryal, Layton & MacKenzie (1994).

Burns and Vito (1995) examined the effectiveness of Alabama boot camps. In Alabama, overcrowded prisons brought on interest at the state level for prison boot camps. State prison boot camps incorporated marching, discipline, physical training, work, classes, and drug and alcohol abuse treatment in three phases. In the first phase, inmates confront their crime and take responsibility for it, ridding themselves of excuses. In the second phase, inmates focus on "self-discovery" by learning about themselves, goal planning, and improving themselves for future release. In the third phase, pre-release, inmates focus on problem solving as the key to their own future success as a lawful citizen upon release. Entry and participation…… [Read More]

References

Ashcroft, J., Daniels, D.J., & Hart, S.V. (2003, June). Correctional boot camps: Lessons from a decade of research. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Justice: National Institute of Justice, Office of Justice Programs.

Burns, J.C., & Vito, G.F. (1995, March). An impact analysis of the Alabama boot camp program. Federal Probation, 59(1), 63-67.

Burton Jr., V.S., & Marquart, J.W. (1993, September). A study of attitudinal change among boot camp participants. Federal Probation, 57(3), 46-52.

Christenberry, N.J., Burns, J.L., & Dickinson, G.B. (1994, September). Gains in educational achievement by inmates during the Arkansas Prison Boot Camp program. Journal of Correvtional Education, 45(3), 128-132.
View Full Essay

Reform and Rehabilitation Program to

Words: 6267 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71084368

These facts do not even address the personal bias that may exist among employers who are more likely to hire welfare recipients than ex-offenders (Western, 2003).

The problems ex-offenders face do not stop with employment. Male ex-offenders unable to hold steady or appealing jobs are often less appealing to potential partners as they are perceived as unable to "Contribute economically" and many carry a stigma associated with a past conviction (Western, 54).

All of these facts support the need for better rehabilitation programs to prevent increased recidivism among ex-offenders (Western, 2003). May have likened parole to law enforcement processes than social work, suggesting that parole officers are more surveillance oriented than supportive in their roles toward ex-offenders (Western, 2003).

Many groups that do support the needs of ex-offenders including nonprofit agencies often lack the resources necessary to help ex-offenders (Western, 2003).

Significance of the Study

Every year more than 600,000…… [Read More]

References

Etters, K. (2002 - Dec). "Job-readiness training program at the Wayne County Jail prepares offenders for success." Corrections Today, 64(7): 112.

Fischer, M., Geiger, B. & Toch, H. (1991). "Reform through community: Resocializing offenders in the Kibbutz." New York: Greenwood Press.

Lattimore, P. & Witte, A.D. (1985). "Programs to aid ex-offenders: We don't know nothing works." Monthly Labor Review, 108(4): 46.

Lemieux, C.M. (2002). "Social support among offenders with substance abuse problems:
View Full Essay

Alternative Punishment for a Population of Inmates

Words: 2417 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36944639

Alternate Corrections Proposal

Alternative Punishment for a Population of Inmates

Alternate Corrections Program Proposal

The need for a major overhaul of the U.S. prison system, and its purpose, is becoming increasingly recognized by human rights organizations around the world (for example, see Bewley-Taylor, Hallam, and Allen, 2009; Pew Center on the States [Pew Center], 2010). Prior to 1972, the size of the prison population in the United States predictably tracked the growth rate in the general population, but during the past 38 years has grown by 705% (ibid., p. 1). In contrast, the U.S. population grew by less than 44% during the same period (U.S. Census Bureau, 2011, p. 1). If we include the number of Americans currently under community supervision, then about 1 in 31 Americans is under some form of correctional control today (Pew Charitable Trusts, 2009, p. 1; U.S. Department of Justice [U.S. DOJ], 2010, p. 2).…… [Read More]

References

Bewley-Taylor, Dave, Hallam, Chris, and Allen, Rob. (2009). The incarceration of drug offenders: An Overview, Report Sixteen. The Beckley Foundation Drug Policy Programme, International Centre for Prison Studies, Kings College of London, University of London. Retrieved June 12, 2011 from http://www.idpc.net/php-bin/documents/Beckley_Report_16_2_FINAL_EN.pdf

Blumstein, Alfred and Wallman, Joel (Eds.). (2002). The crime drop in America. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Boxer, Paul, Middlemass, Keesha, and Delorenzo, Tahlia. (2009). Effects on psychological adjustment following release. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 36(8), 793-807.

Cusac, Anne-Marie (2009). Cruel and Unusual: The Culture of Punishment in America. New Haven: Yale University Press.
View Full Essay

Juvenile Offenders and Recividism

Words: 1280 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45219755

Juvenile delinquency has been an ever-evolving issue in the United States. From aims focused on prevention and rehabilitation that resulted in the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act of 1974; to a reverse trend beginning in the mid-1970's, the present has brought on a more prevalent tendency to try juveniles as adults. No more have courts taken to giving juveniles delinquents a second chance through rehabilitation (Schmalleger, 2016). In recent years, juveniles have faced life sentences without parole like an adult would. If the trend continues, will the number of juveniles tried as adults grow? Is it the responsibility of the juvenile justice system to prevent crime by enacting harsh penalties on the troubled youth of the country? From a Judeo-Christian perspective, everyone in one way or another, sins. It is up to the government and the community to help sinners see their wrongs and allow them a chance for…… [Read More]

References

Casey, S., & Day, A. (2015). Accountability in Juvenile Justice: A Framework to Assess Client Outcomes. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 60(14), 1645-1668. doi:10.1177/0306624x15586767

Kretschmar, J. M., Butcher, F., Flannery, D. J., & Singer, M. I. (2016). Diverting Juvenile Justice-Involved Youth With Behavioral Health Issues From Detention. Criminal Justice Policy Review, 27(3), 302-325. doi:10.1177/0887403414560885

Mody, S. (2008). Juvenile Justice. Childhood Education, 1-3.

Schmalleger, F. (2016). Criminal justice today: An introductory text for the twenty-first century (14th ed.). NJ: Pearson Education.
View Full Essay

Juvenile Delinquency Drug Crimes

Words: 9197 Length: 33 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69293543

Intervening With Juvenile Drug Crimes

Researchers are now focused on developing and evaluating programs designed to break the drug-crime cycle that is common in juvenile delinquents. This paper will summarize existing literature about programs designed to prevent the juvenile drug-crime cycle and, based on that literature, identify interventions that offer the best chances for success. This paper will also provide guidelines and recommendations for developing a comprehensive juvenile justice system that can best address the needs of juvenile offenders involved with drug crimes.

This thesis is expected to make a contribution to the selection of successful interventions and the development of collaborative partnerships in the juvenile justice system, drug treatment programs, and other agencies as they attempt to break the cycle of drugs and crime afflicting U.S. juveniles.

Introduction

With the prevalence of drug crimes among juveniles and the complexity involved in their treatment, which must involve both the child…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Abuse and Dependence. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America 5 (1): 201-211.

Allison, M., and Hubbard, R.L. (1985). Drug abuse treatment process: A review of the literature. International Journal of the Addictions 20:13211345.

Anglin, M.D., and Hser, Y. (1990). Treatment of drug abuse. In Drugs and Crime, vol. 13, edited by M. Tonry and J.Q. Wilson. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Ball, J.C., Rosen, J.A., Flueck, J.A., and Nurco, D.N. (1981). The criminality of heroin addicts: When addicted and when off opiates. In The Drugs-Crime Connection, edited by J.A. Inciardi. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.
View Full Essay

Educational Programs for Adult Offenders

Words: 1227 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80818531

Among the study subjects, those who were under 21 at the time of release and did not have GED programmes, receidivism rate at 3 years post release was 54% compared to those who had GED while at prison. (40%). This study proved that educational programs are a more effective deterrent for young adults keeping them from falling back into criminal ways. [John et.al, 2003]

Studies have also focussed on other programs besides education that could aid in reducing recidivism rates. A recent study by Marylin and Cindy (2007) found that the Prison Industry Enhancement Certification Program (PIECP) which allows a prisoner to work for a private employer and earn real wages is also very effective in reducing recidivism rates. It was found that the PIECP program was better than both employment in TI (traditional industries paying modest wages) and OTW (other than work) activities in reducing recidivism rates and in…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Released and Restored, 'Released and Restored: Statistics', Accessed Dec 14th available at  http://releasedandrestored.org/statistics.html 

Marylin C.Mosses & Cindy J.Smith (June 2007), 'Factories Behind Fences: Do Prison 'Real Work' Programs Work?, NIJ journal No 257

Nuttall, John et.al (Sep 2003), 'The effect of earning a GED on recidivism rates'

Journal of Correctional Education
View Full Essay

Treatment of Sex Offenders the

Words: 1625 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9504329

When one looks at the occurrence of recidivism in offenders who have partaken in treatment programs varying from organic programs to those geared to more social and emotional support programs, it becomes clear that recidivism of sexual re-offense is relatively low, compared to those who undergo no treatment program. However, there is still an issue with non-sexual re-offense. In addition, there is evidence that the contributing factors for adult and juvenile offenders are different.

As such, it is suggested that not all offenders should receive the same treatment. Correctional literature indicates that high-risk offender require the greatest use of resource, while lower risk offenders require the lowest level of resources (Andrews & Bonta, 2003).

As such, blanket policies that deem all offenders as 'high risk' are neither effective nor efficient. In addition, it may take away resources from those who truly need it, such as juvenile offenders who require longterm…… [Read More]

References

Abracen, J., Looman, J., DiFazio, R., Kelly, T., & Stirpe, T. (Mar 2006). Patterns of attachment and alcohol abuse in sexual and violent non-sexual offenders. Journal of Sexual Aggression, 12(1). Retrieved December 17, 2007, from Academic Search Premier database.

Andrews, D. & Bonta, J. (2003). The psychology of criminal conduct. Cincinnati, OH: Anderson Publishing.

Bates, a., Saunders, R., & Wilson, C. (Spring 2007). Doing something about it: A follow-up study of sex offenders participating in Thames Valley Circles of Support and Accountability. British Journal of Community Justice, 5(1). Retrieved December 17, 2007, from SocINDEX database.

Calley, N. (Spring 2007). Integrating theory and research: The development of a research-based treatment program for juvenile male sex offenders. Counseling & Development, 85(2). Retrieved December 17, 2007, from Academic Search Premier database.
View Full Essay

Mental Health Court Study the

Words: 2549 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1040849



Nonetheless, people who received some level of ACRP intervention had a lower rate of criminal recidivism than people who received no intervention at all.

System Flow

The study found that the case flow through the ACRP was a little slow. The amount of time between the Initial Opt-In Hearing and the Formal Opt-In Hearing averaged 74 days. While there are no hard and fast rules governing how long this process should take, the study found that that "the ACRP is performing rather well on the front-end of the admissions process (up to the initial opt-in stage) but that more could be done to work on the back end (time between the Initial Opt-In Hearing and the Formal Opt-In Hearing)."

Status Hearings

The study found that the incentives and sanctions used by ACRP judges to promote compliance at status hearings, though standardized, were not tailored to correspond to participant progress.

Also,…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Outcomes from the Last Frontier: An Evaluation of the Anchorage Mental Health Court (Alaska Mental Health Trust Authority, Ferguson-Hornby-Zeller, 2008).

Improving Responses to People with Mental Illnesses: The Essential Elements of a Mental Health Court (Thompson, Osher, Tomasini-Joshi, 2008).

Mental Health Courts: Decriminalizing the Mentally Ill. (Irwin Law, Schneider-Hyman-Bloom, 2007).

Mental Health Courts. (Wiley Encyclopedia of Forensic Science, Schneider, 2009).
View Full Essay

Felons and the Community Analysis

Words: 2941 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70941405

, et al., 2012).

Systems approaches look towards the functional integration of different stakeholders and their goals towards a specific issue or path. What implications might a proposed solution have and to what groups? What is the functional relationship between groups of stakeholders and how can that be maximized. For returning felons, this approach looks at ways to construct programs that are utilitarian in context (the greatest good for the greatest number) (Teaskey, 1976).

Ecological PA supports a more holistic viewpoint and focuses on the nature of the internal and external environments. In other words, PA must interact with the political executive, social political interest groups, commercial and economic organizations, and the citizenry. This approach takes the approach that solutions may only be found by looking at the issue as a sub-set of a larger set of societal issues. Ecological PA cannot solve the incarceration problem, but can look toward…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Project Return - Breaking the Cycle of Crime. (2009, April). Retrieved from projectreturn.com: http://www.projectreturn.com/index.php?name=results_and_impacts

Public Administration. (2012, July 31). Retrieved from publicadministrationtheone.blogspot.com:  http://publicadministrationtheone.blogspot.com/2012/07/organisations-theories-systems.html 

Beck, a., & Shipley, B. (1989). Recidivism of Prisoners Released. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice.

Benincasa, R. (2012, May 29). 6 Leadership Styles and When You Should Use Them. Retrieved from Fast Company:  http://www.fastcompany.com/1838481/6-leadership-styles-and-when-you-should-use-them
View Full Essay

Experimental Design Feasible Why or Why Not

Words: 1740 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4205256

experimental design feasible? Why or why not?

• What suggestions can you make for future studies of the DARE program?

The aims of DARE are long-term in nature, namely to encourage students to not abuse drugs over the course of their lifetimes. The only way to test this aim is to conduct a longitudinal study of a representative body of DARE graduates over at least a twenty-year period, to see if the intervention had a lasting effect upon their drug use habits. The control groups would be a group of students from similar demographics and geographical locations who did not have DARE or any other anti-drug program in their schools and a group of students who experienced an anti-drug education intervention substantially different than DARE. The selection of students would have to be balanced in terms of factors such as race, gender, and neighborhood, given that graduates of DARE programs…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Nation Is One With Finite

Words: 3640 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55689337

However, with this mandatory sentence comes seemingly excessive punishments for being afflicted with a real disease. hese types of solutions to the drug problem in the United States fail entirely to grasp drug problems as a real medical issue and therefore throw out medical treatment over punitive punishment, (Nadelmann 2007). Not to mention many of these programs go only so far, failing to provide the support and structure many drug addicts need in order to get themselves clean. Much research has shown that more intensive inpatient programs prove more successful than less regulation programs (McKay et al. 1997). herefore, ineffective drug treatment programs within prison walls are failing to truly encapsulate the addict as a means of supporting their efforts to get clean.

One other major solution that is currently being used in many states is the enactment of a drug court to handle specific drug cases. his court can…… [Read More]

This piece shows both favoritism and opposition for mandatory minimum jail sentencing for drug offenders, however does so not from the viewpoint of looking at addiction as a disease, but rather as a limitation on judicial discretion. While many are supportive of minimum sentencing requirements based on the idea that it is the most powerful weapon against the current war on drugs, others believe it to be restricting when looking at individual cases. Overall, many believe that it should be up to the individual judge and the individual case circumstance which determines the nature of punitive punishment in U.S. courts.

Washington Post. (1994). Low-level drug offenders fill one-fifth of prison space. Washington Post. February 5, 1994.

Astounding numbers of drug offenders fill our nation's prisons. This article uses statistics from the 1990s, an era of a crack epidemic, to show exactly how filled the prison system is with low-level and nonviolent addicts who essentially need medical treatment and not prison time.
View Full Essay

The Affect Rehabilitation Programs to Help Inmates Upon Release

Words: 3558 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80786205

Gangs in Prisons in the United States and the Affect Rehabilitation Programs to Help Inmates Upon Release

Prison Gangs are one of the most challenging entities that have to be tackled by the authorities. Their growing influence in the prison setting concerns not just the inside of the prisons, but also the outside world, as when they are released, the members continue causing problems for the society. A lot of rehabilitation programs have been formed in order to provide guidance and a fresh start to the inmates who are released, which helps them overcome their criminal life and lead a normal one. This paper discusses the phenomenon and existence of criminal gangs and how the rehabilitation programs affect them after their release.

Introduction

According to Lyman (1989), a prison gang is a criminal entity made up of special group of chosen prisoners that is governed with some sort of code…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Fleisher, M., & Decker, S. (2001). An Overview of the Challenge of Prison Gangs. Corrections Management Quarterly, 1-9.

Gilligan, J. (2012, December 10). Punishment Fails. Rehabilitation Works. Retrieved from New York Times: http://www.nytimes.com/roomfordebate/2012/12/18/prison-could-be-productive/punishment-fails-rehabilitation-works

Lyman, M.D. (1989). Gangland. Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas.

Miceli, V. (2009). Analyzing the Effectiveness of Rehabilitation Programs. Senior Honors Project, 1.
View Full Essay

Effectiveness of Restorative Justice Practices

Words: 3001 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43130748

Restorative Justice Approaches Reduce Youth Offending

Restorative justice is a new paradigm within the criminal justice, particularly in the context of youth offenders. The philosophy behind restorative justice is to consider the juvenile's interests to develop them into beneficial citizens, and it augments the principle behind juvenile justice and corrections. Restorative justice approaches provide the juvenile justice system with leniency when approaching youth offenders while at the same time holding the offenders accountable through rehabilitative approaches. The core elements of restorative justice include rehabilitating and restoring the youth offender, restoring and making restitution to the victim, and restoring the entire society. Programs employed in the restorative approaches can apply in both community correction centers and institutional treatment programs. Juvenile court and statutes aim to protect the child and not to punish them (Latimer, Dowden, & Muise, 2005).

However, juvenile justice has evolved over the centuries, and this has seen to…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Bell, J. (1993). Doing Your Research Project. Buckingham: Open University Press.

Bynum, J.E., & Thompson, W.E. (2005). Juvenile Delinquency: A Sociological Approach (6th

ed.). New York: Pearson.

Dawson, C. (2009). Introduction to research methods: A practical guide for anyone undertaking a research project. Oxford, UK: How to Books, Spring Hill
View Full Essay

The reforming of young offenders

Words: 3171 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36662551

estorative justice is something that has become more and more prominent within the criminal justice sphere. The use of the concept and practice has emerged in its own right within the juvenile justice realm. The efficacy of restorative justice when it comes to juvenile offenders is a very important topic because being able to top the patterns of crime, addition and deviance in general is something that should absolutely be stopped and regulated early on in an offender's life due to how hard it becomes to do the same as an offender enters and reenters the justice system over the course of their life. It is important to create and retain a connection between these young offenders and the victims that suffer at their hands so that the connection is not lost and the offender becomes ambivalent or even hostile about the feelings, suffering and toil that their crimes take…… [Read More]

References

Bergseth, K. J., & Bouffard, J. A. (2007). The long-term impact of restorative justice programming for juvenile offenders. Journal of Criminal Justice, 35(4), 433-451.

doi:10.1016/j.jcrimjus.2007.05.006

Davis, K. L. (2010, January 1). Restorative Justice Experiences of Juvenile Female Offenders:

School, Community, and Home. ProQuest LLC,
View Full Essay

Prisoner Re-Entry Into Society

Words: 2466 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37544202

Prisoner Reentry

Recommendations to Hillary Clinton Regarding Prisoner Re-Entry into Society

Prisoner re-entry is a vitally important issue today which has yet to reach its full impact on the minds and lives of voters. However, with every passing year the importance of this topic becomes more evident. Since the eighties, every passing year has brought more pressure for harsher and longer imprisonment and more streamlined mandatory sentencing rules. This has not only resulted in an exploding prison population, but also in a drastic increase in the number of prisoners re-released into communities. Additionally, the push towards more punitive measures has decreased educational opportunities in prisons and the availability of rehabilitation programs. This means that released prisoners are increasingly unable to reintegrate into their communities, increasingly prone to recidivism, and increasingly violent in each release and re-capture cycle. Even the conservative ush administration has recognized the threat posed by unprepared prisoner…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Banks, Gabrielle. "Learning Under Lockdown." Colorlines, NCM 2004 Award Winner, Nov 28, 2004.

Center on Crime, Communities and Culture. Research Brief: Education as Crime Prevention, Sept, 1997.

Human Rights Watch. "No Escape: Male Rape in U.S. Prisons." Archived at: http://www.hrw.org/reports/2001/prison/

Petersilia, Joan. "CHALLENGES OF PRISONER REENTRY AND PAROLE IN CALIFORNIA" California Policy Research Center Brief Series, June 2000. Archived at: http://www.ucop.edu/cprc/parole.html
View Full Essay

Jail Time and Death Penalty Finding New

Words: 2882 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55231289

Jail Time and Death Penalty: Finding New Ways to Deter Criminal Behavior

Jail Time and Death Penalty: A Deterrent?

For years many law enforcement agencies have relied on the assumption that jail time or the death penalty serve as adequate deterrents to crime or criminal activity. However multiple studies confirm that jail time and the death penalty are not effective methods alone for deterring criminals. Because of this it is important that law enforcement agents, government officials and community members work together to uncover effective tools for deterring crime and discouraging criminals from repeating crimes after release.

Jail time and the death penalty do not deter crime. Early Gallup Polls conducted in the 1980s and 1990s show that while roughly two thirds of Americans and law enforcement agents support the death penalty, there is inadequate evidence supporting its use as an effective deterrent to crime (Akers & adelet, 1996). Many…… [Read More]

References:

Abraham, E., Boyle, J., Mullen, R. & ratelle, J. (1996). "California program reduces recidivism and saves tax dollars." Corrections Today, 58(5): 118.

Akers, R.L. & Radelet, M.L. (1996). "Deterrence and the death penalty: The views of the experts." Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 87(1): 15.

Clayton, S.L. (2005 -- Apri). "Jail inmates bake their way to successful reentry."

Corrections Today, 67(2):78.
View Full Essay

Quantitative Proposal on Three Strike California Law

Words: 3610 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1510424

Three Strikes

High crime rates are a societal problem that has changed the manner in which society functions. ecognizing the adverse effects that crime has on communities the state of California has implemented a three strikes law designed to deter crime particularly as it pertains to repeat offenders. The propose research will examine the effectiveness of California's three strike law as it pertains to deterring recidivism. Statistical data concerning crime rates and rates of recidivism following the enactment of the law will be analyzed and compared to the same statistic prior to the passage of the law. The results will examine the extent to which the deterrence effect has been effective as it pertains to the three strikes law.

Background

Crime is a major social problem throughout the country. More specifically criminals who are repeat offenders make up a substantial number of the individuals that commit crime. With this understood…… [Read More]

References

Chen, Elsa Y (2008) .Impacts of "Three Strikes and You're Out" on Crime Trends in California and Throughout the United States. Journal of contemporary criminal justice. 24(4), 345

Goodno, N.H. (2007) Career Criminals Targeted: The Verdict is in, California's Three Strikes Law Proves Effective. Golden Gate University law review. 37(2), 461

Refine or alter search

Helland E., Tabarrok, A. (2007) Does Three Strikes Deter? A Non-Parametric Estimation. Journal of Human Resources, 42 (2) p309-330
View Full Essay

Assembly Bill 1914 Introduced by Assembly Member Montanez

Words: 3055 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74076984

Assembly ill 1914 Introduced by Assembly Member Montanez

This bill is trying to address the problem of reintegration into society of former inmates, by establishing ways and methods to properly educate them and increase their chances of successfully fulfilling the requirements of life outside prison. The author of the bill (Cindy Montanez) declares that the current structure of California's prison education system undervalues education and is hostile to rehabilitation. Focusing on custodial functions will ensure prison growth, while, by implementing short- and long-term educational and vocational services and strategies, recidivism will reduce significantly, as shown by the reduction of the crime phenomenon in more 20 states that have adopted such measures. The California prison system is based solely on punishment, while rehabilitation and education play an insignificant role. The purpose of a judicial system should be the active correction and reintegration into society of the inmates, and not the simple,…… [Read More]

Bibliography

National Education Association - analysis on the "Education and Incarceration" report issued as a policy brief by the Justice Policy Institute. http://www.nea.org/presscenter/jpistudy.html

Gail Spangenberg, Council for Advancement in Adult Literacy (CAAL) - "Current issues in Correctional Education" (February 2004, Rev 2/25)

 http://www.caalusa.org/correct_ed_paper.pdf 

Audrey Bazos and Jessica Hasuman, UCLA School of Public Policy and Social Research, Department of Policy Studies, - "Correctional Education as a Crime Control Program http://www.sppsr.ucla.edu/ps/research/correctional.pdf
View Full Essay

Cit Can Increase Performance With

Words: 2326 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8267129

d., p. 3). Interestingly, lower-conflict incidents where mental illness is indicated in the presence of a weapon generates higher referral than without (Watson, Ottati, Morabito, Draine, Kerr & Angell, 2010, p.305), although the status of these events as less-serious implies the weapon was not used in resistance or the crime would be serious and result in arrest.

Other situational factors outside particular incidents also affect the rate of arrest for all officers. Officer workload itself pushes down on the rate of arrest, where busier districts report higher rates of 'no action' on minor crimes, and referral where mental health is a factor, which allows more officer time on the street pursuing serious crime and regular duties (Morabito, 2007, p. 1584). Finally, officer characteristics generate different responses in similar scenarios, where officer comfort with or stigma against mental illness affects rates of arrest or diversion to mental health intervention (Watson, Ottati,…… [Read More]

References

Colins, O., Vermeiren, R., Vahl, P., Markus, M., Broekaert, E. & Doreleijers, T. (2011).

Psychiatric disorder in detained male adolescents as risk factor for serious recidivism. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 56 (1):44 -- 50. Retrieved from findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_7486/is_20110101/ai_n56982687

Fisher, W.H., Banks, S.M., Roy-Bujnowski, K., Grudzinskas, Jr., A.J., Simon, L.J., & Wolff, N. (2010, October). Categorizing temporal patterns of arrest in a cohort of adults with serious mental illness. Journal of Behavioral Health Services & Research, 37(4), 477-490.

Hanafi, S., Bahora, M., Demir, B.N. & Compton, M.T. (2008). Incorporating crisis intervention team (CIT) knowledge and skills into the daily work of police officers: a focus group study. Community Mental Health Journal 44: 427 -- 432. doi 10.1007/s10597-008-9145-8
View Full Essay

Child Abuse and Neglect Is an Ongoing Problem

Words: 753 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80775386

Non-Traditional Parenting

The main point of the article, "Moms at ork and Dads at Home: Children's Evaluations of Parental Roles," is that when children are given a chance to express their opinions on traditional vs. non-traditional roles, they speak up. In this case, the children used in the survey (67 second-graders and 54 fifth-graders) saw it as "acceptable for both mothers and fathers to work full-time" (Sinno, et al., 2009). However, children found it not as acceptable for fathers to be stay-at-home parents as it is for mothers to be stay-at-home parents. Clearly, 2nd graders were "more likely to rely on ... stereotype knowledge of appropriate roles" (mom home, dad at work), and when dad was the key child-rearing parent it became a non-traditional family. http://abcnews.go.com/NT/story?id=130760&page=1. (This is an ABC News report on the growing trend of fathers raising children.)

Another non-traditional family is the Foster Care family. According to…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Sinno, S.M., and Killen, M. (2009) Moms at Work and Dads at Home: Children's

Evaluations of Parental Roles. Applied Developmental Science, 13(1), 16-29.

Tyler, K.A., and Melander, L.A. (2010). Foster Care Placement, Poor Parenting, and Negative Outcomes Among Homeless Young Adults. Journal of Child and Family

Studies, volume 19, 787-794.
View Full Essay

Global Criminology and Criminal Justice

Words: 1990 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72819348

Scandinavian prison models are considered to be amongst the most effective in the world. The penal system here, unlike is the case in other parts of the world -- including the U.S. -- is regarded humane and is designed in such a way that prisoners live more or less like regular citizens. With sunbathing facilities, vocational courses, and other amenities being a standard in most settings (unlike is the case in most Western prison settings), some prison systems like those in Norway could be mistaken for plush retirement community centers. How effective such incarceration facilities are in the control of crime is a valid topic for examination and analysis. This is more so the case given that from a "common sense" perspective, prisons conditions should be harsh enough to discourage inmates from committing the same crimes that landed them there in the first place. This seems to be the basic…… [Read More]

References

Delgado, B. (2007). Gangs, Prisons, Parole, and the Politics Behind them. New York, NY: Xulon Press

Grant, S. M. (2012). A Concise History of the United States of America. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

Lappi-Seppala, T. (2012). Penal Policies in the Nordic countries 1960-2010. Scandinavian Studies in Criminology and Crime Prevention, 13, sup.1,

Mauer, M. (2003). Comparative international rates of incarceration: An examination of causes and trends: Presented to the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights. Washington, DC: The Sentencing Project.
View Full Essay

Discrimination Against High Risk Sex

Words: 7425 Length: 27 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49318296

If police, along with others in society, perceive high risk sex offenders as humans who possess the potential to be rehabilitated, then incidences of possible discrimination against these individuals might decrease. This in turn, the researcher contends, could contribute to incidences of sexual offences being prevented and/or reduced. Even though the researcher never generally cared about how high risk sex offenders felt, the conviction that discrimination is wrong over-rode the researcher's non-committal, and in turn, spurred the determination to expose the problem of discrimination in this area. Not only does the researcher hope to expose the problem of discrimination shrouding a population the majority in society would prefer not to deal with, the researcher also hopes to perhaps offer a possible solution; a tinge of hope for a brighter future of fewer incidents of sexual offences against young ones in society.

esearch Design and Methodology

The following five chapters constitute…… [Read More]

References

Auston, Ione, MLS, Cahn, Marjorie a., MA, & Selden, Catherine R., MLS. (2004). United States National Library of Medicine. National Institutes of Health. Retrieved November 29, 2008, at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/nichsr/litsrch.html www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5009817744

Brown, a.H., & Benson, B. (2005). Making sense of the capstone process: Reflections from the front line. Education, 125(4), 674+. Retrieved December 3, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5009817744

Capstone projects. (n.d). Brigham Young University. Retrieved December 3, 2008, at http://www.physics.byu.edu/Undergraduate/Capstone.aspx

California high risk sex offender and sexually violent predator task force. (2006).2 Retrieved December 6, 2008, at http://www.chhs.ca.gov/Documents/HRSO%20Layout%20Final%20for%20Print.pdf www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5022392399
View Full Essay

Electronic Monitoring Devices in Corrections

Words: 7168 Length: 18 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47648941

("Home Confinement / Electronic Monitoring," n. d.)

House arrest or home confinement started as a program to handle particularly as a sentencing substitute meant for drunk drivers, but rapidly spread over to a number of other offender populations in a lot of jurisdictions. Depending on the nature of crime committed by the offenders, home confinement has been designed with various degrees of stages of restrictions. These can vary from ordinary curfews to complete confinement. For instance, the home confinement program of the Federal courts extends three separate levels of restrictions under the U.S. Probation and Pretrial Services, 2000. Under the first level ie., curfew, it requires the program participants to stay at home daily during certain time periods. Under the second level house arrest it requires on the part of the participants to stay at home round the clock save for attending to work, school, treatment etc. which must be…… [Read More]

References

Black, Matt; Smith, Russell G. (n. d.) "Electronic Monitoring in the Criminal Justice System"

No. 254. Retrieved 28 March, 2008 at  http://www.aic.gov.au/publications/tandi2/tandi254.pdf 

Caputo, Gail. (2004) "Intermediate Sanctions in corrections"

Clear, Todd R; Cole, George F. (2005) "American Corrections"
View Full Essay

Individuals Unfamiliar With How the

Words: 2421 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66982485



In examining sentencing options, judges are free to look at mitigating circumstances that might limit the term of the sentence but they are also free to look at factors surrounding the case that might serve to enhance the sentence. Once such enhancing factor is the degree to which the defendant's behavior served to indicate some measure of viciousness or abuse. Such factor is usually seen in cases involving crimes of violence as crimes such as assault, rape, kidnapping, or murder as all involve some form of physical violence and lend themselves to the potential for further violence but the factor can be considered in any type of criminal action. In criminal cases where the defendant exhibits such depravity and callousness judges are prone to extend the period of incarceration. Mitigation factors can, and often are, still considered by the judge but such factors must be compelling in order to override…… [Read More]

References

Almendarez-Torres v. United States, 523 U.S. 224 (U.S. Supreme Court 1998).

Brown, B. (2005). Three Strikes -- the Impact after more than a Decade. Sacramento, CA: Legislative Analyst's Office.

Frankel, M.E. (1993). A Conversation about Sentencing Commissions and Guidelines. University of Colorado Law Review, 655-659.

Mustard, D.B. (2001). Racial, Ethniic, and Gender Disparities in Sentencing: Evidence from the U.S. Federal Courts. Journal of Law and Economics, 285-314.
View Full Essay

Major Legal Issues Concerning Female Inmates

Words: 7415 Length: 23 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92508545

Women in Prison

Major Legal Issues Concerning Female Inmates

Problems in corrections:

Dealing with the unique needs of women in the prison system

The number of female prison inmates in America and internationally is growing. Although men still outnumber women in the prison population, the rates of female incarceration, once considered relatively nominal, have skyrocketed. "In the U.S., where the prison and jail population reached two million in the year 2000, women's incarceration is also spiralling upwards at a greater pace than that of men. While the number of men in U.S. prisons and jails doubled between 1985 and 1995, women's imprisonment during the same period tripled" (Sudbury 2002). These escalating rates are surprising, given that women are far more likely to be the victims rather than the perpetrators of violent crimes. "While their relative proportions are small, the growing numbers of women being sent to prison is disproportionate to…… [Read More]

References

Blitz, C.L., Wolff, N., Ko-Yu, P., & Pogorzelski, W. (2005). Gender-specific behavioral health and community release patterns among New Jersey prison inmates: Implications for treatment and community reentry. American Journal of Public Health, 95(10), 1741-6.

Brewer-Smyth, K., Bucurescu, G., Shults, J., Metzger, D., Sacktor, N., Gorp, W. v., & Kolson,

D. (2007). Neurological function and HIV risk behaviors of female prison inmates. Journal of Neuroscience Nursing, 39(6), 361-72.

Case, P., Fasenfest, D., Sarri, R., & Phillips, A. (2005). Providing educational support for female ex-inmates: Project PROVE as a model for social reintegration. Journal of Correctional Education, 56(2), 146-157
View Full Essay

Prison Reform the United States

Words: 3176 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7254901

The average felony sentence imposed upon federal and state offenders in 1996 was 62 months, or just over 5 years. On average these prisoners actually serve 45% of a state sentence for a mean prison stint of 2 years and 4 months, and 85% of a federal sentence for a stint of 4 years and 5 months. Once they are released, the recidivism rates are high. According to Lin (2000), "incarceration, as it stands, does not prevent recidivism" (p. 4). In addition, even if the released prisoners do not commit another crime, it does not mean that they become self-supporting and contribute to their community as much as possible.

.Lin (2000) argues that it is not clear that prisons, as institutions, have the capacity to provide the type of environment required for preparation of returning to the outside world. Prisons are not presently designed to be schools or factories, most…… [Read More]

References

Alexander, M. (2010) Is Mass Incarceration the New Jim Crow? NY: New Press

Durham, a.M. (1994) Crisis and reform: current issues in American punishment. Canada: Little Brown and Co.

Johnson, R. Hard Time: Understanding and Reforming the Prison

Katz, L., Levitt, S.D., & Shustorovich, E. (2003) Prison conditions, capital punishment and deterrence. American Law and Economics Review, 5(2):318-343,