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Reconstruction and Black America According to Foner
In spite of the fact that African-Americans were largely at the center of the ideals in conflict during the Civil ar, history would largely overlook their experiences in the aftermath of this sustained and bloody conflict. The era known as Reconstruction would be far more frequently described according to hite experiences in the succeeding years. Eric Foner's 2002 text Reconstruction: America's Unfinished Revolution, 1863-1877, would be designed to contribute to an increased effort at redressing this oversight. As a thesis statement, the author asserts that his goal is to provide "a coherent, comprehensive modern account of Reconstruction. This effort necessarily touches on a mulititude of issues, but certain broad themes unify the narrative. The first is the centrality of the balck experience. Rather than passive victims of the actions of others or simply a 'problem' confronting white society, blacks were active agents in…
Foner, E. (1987). Rights and the Constitution in Black Life during the Civil War and Reconstruction. The Journal of American History, 74(3).
Foner, E. (2002). Reconstruction: America's Unfinished Revolution, 1863-1877. Harper Perennial Modern Classics.
Tyack, D. & Lowe, R. (1986). The Constitutional Moment: Reconstruction and Black Education in the South. American Journal of Education, 94(2), 236-256.
African-Americans in the South were afraid that any kind of relationship they would form with their former masters would lead to something resembling their enslavement (United States. Congress. Joint Committee on Reconstruction, illiam Pitt Fessenden, Thaddeus Stevens, United States. Congress). It was clear that it would take long before African-Americans would actually come to become equal citizens.
hile the North was initially actively engaged in helping the African-American community in the South as they claimed their right, matters gradually changed and the government abandoned its passion regarding the condition. Racial segregation thrived in the South, especially because white individuals were unwilling to accept black people into politics for the supposed reason that the latter installed a corrupt system that worked against the country's well-being (America's Reconstruction -- People and Politics After the Civil ar).
The Federal government lost interest in supervising the Reconstruction process consequent to seeing that conditions would…
1. Miller, Kelly. "The Primary Needs of the Negro Race"
2. Tryon Palace Historic Sites & Gardens. "African-Americans get the vote in eastern North Carolina." Retrieved October 24, 2010, from the Learn NC Website: http://www.learnnc.org/lp/editions/nchist-civilwar/4820
3. United States. Congress. Joint Committee on Reconstruction, William Pitt Fessenden, Thaddeus Stevens, United States. Congress. (1866). "Report of the Joint Committee on Reconstruction, at the first session, Thirty-ninth Congress." Govt. Print. Off.
4. "America's Reconstruction, People and Politics After the Civil War." Retrieved October 24, 2010, from the Digital History Website: http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/reconstruction/introduction.html
There were the growth organizations like Ku Klux Klan. Their aggressions kept away the African-Americans and the white epublicans from voting and gradually the radical epublican governments were overthrown. Their disintegration was enhanced by the death of the old radical leaders in Congress like Thaddeus Stevens and Charles Summer and by the disclosure of internal corruption in the radical epublican government. The Grant government was forced to decline its support of them because of growing criticism in the North of corruption in the federal government itself. (econstruction- www.gurunet.com)
Florida, South Carolina and Louisiana only remained under the epublican domination by 1876. utherford B. Hayes the epublican presidential candidate during the year promised to ease the situations in the South. However, the sentiment there had already led to the establishment of the 'Solid South' favoring his Democratic opponent, Samuel J. Tilden. The presidential contest created the circumstances in those three states…
An Outline of the Reconstruction Era. Retrieved at http://chnm.gmu.edu/courses/122/recon/reconframe.html . Accessed on 16 November, 2004
Fairclough, Adam. The Struggle for Equality: Civil Rights in America from Reconstruction to the Depression. Retrieved at http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/society_culture/protest_reform/civil_rights_reconstruction_01.shtml . Accessed on 16 November, 2004
Reconstruction. Retrieved at http://www.gurunet.com/t1-method-4-dsid-2040-dekey-Reconstr-curtab-2040_1Accessed on 16 November, 2004
Reconstruction. Retrieved at http://www.tiscali.co.uk/reference/encyclopaedia/hutchinson/m0020044.html. Accessed on 16 November, 2004
Reconstruction After Civil ar
The liberation declaration in 1863 freed African-Americans in rebel states, and after the Civil ar, the Thirteenth Amendment liberated all U.S. slaves wherever they were. As a result, the mass of Southern blacks now faced the complicatedness which Northern blacks had confronted that of a free people bounded by many hostile whites. One freedman, Houston Hartsfield Holloway, wrote, "For we colored people did not know how to be free and the white people did not know how to have a free colored person about them."
Even after the liberation declaration proclamation, two more years of war, service by African-American troops, and the overwhelm of the confederacy, the nation was still unprepared to deal with the question of full citizenship for its newly at liberty black population. The reconstruction implemented by Congress, which lasted from 1866 to 1877, was aimed at reorganizing the Southern states after the…
Foner, Eric. Reconstruction: America's Unfinished Revolution.1863-1877, NY: Harper & Row, 1988.
Belz, Herman. A New Birth of Freedom: The Republican Party and Freedmen's Rights, 1861-6.Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, Inc., 1976.
Congressional Globe, 38th, 1st, 1438.
Hyman, Harold M. A More Perfect Union: The Impact of the Civil War and Reconstruction on the Constitution. NY: Alfred A. Knopf, 1973.
However, the U.S. Congress extended the lending power and expanded the functions of the Corporation through including the powers to buy capital stocks of financial institutions, agricultural credit corporations, insurance firms, and national mortgage associations. Consequently, the Congress gave RFC the power to make loans to business enterprises, public school authorities, mining interests, agricultural improvement districts, and disaster victims. In addition, the corporation was also given the authority to help in funding the construction of public works. The Congress was further directed the Corporation to buy the securities of, provide loans, advances, and distributions of funds to several American governmental corporations and agencies.
In 1940, the Reconstruction Finance Corporation was given new responsibilities with regards to the national defense programs that were being undertaken following the enactment of legislation in that regard. These defense programs were mainly carried out by subsidiary corporations and they were significantly extended during the Second…
Fraser - Federal Reserve Archive. "Final Report on the Reconstruction Finance Corporation,"
Fraser - Federal Reserve Archive, April 30, 2013, http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/docs/publications/rcf/rfc_19590506_finalreport.pdf
The American Presidency Project. "Statement about Signing the Reconstruction Finance
Corporation Act," University of California Santa Barbara, April 30, 2013,
Reconstruction & the 13th, 14th, 15th Amendments
The Civil War remains one the most momentous events in American history. The survival of the United States as one nation was at risk and on the outcome of the war depended the nation's ability to bring to reality the ideals of liberty, equality, justice, and human dignity.
The war put constitutional government to its severest test as a long festering debate over the power of the federal government vs. state rights reached a climax.
The Civil War and the bloodshed preserved the Union while releasing African-Americans as well as the entire nation from the oppressive weight of slavery.
Reconstruction was the period after the Civil War in which attempts were made to solve the political, social and economic problems arising from the readmission to the Union of the 11 Confederate states that had seceded at or before the outbreak of war. Reconstruction…
Douglass, Frederick. 1866. Reconstruction. Atlantic Monthly, University of Virginia, vol. 18.
U.S. Constitution: Fifteenth Amendment. 2004. Findlaw; available from http://www.caselaw.lp.findlaw.com/data/constitution/amendment15/; Internet; accessed 12 December
U.S. Constitution: Fourteenth Amendment. 2004. Findlaw; available from http://www.caselaw.lp.findlaw.com/data/constitution/amendment14/; Internet; accessed 12 December
Unfortunately, infighting within the epublican Party prevented the adical epublicans from successfully implementing their own econstruction policies. A split within the epublican Party was most notably brought to light during the impeachment trial of President Johnson, when several epublicans voted for Johnson's acquittal.
adical epublicans' views differed from the mainstream party line, which held views similar to those held by their former figurehead Abraham Lincoln. Unlike the more moderate stream of epublicans, the adical epublicans favored equal rights for African-Americans and foresaw the potential disaster of neglecting to care for the needs of liberated slaves. The econstruction policies championed by adical epublicans included the 14th Amendment, which offered African-Americans full citizen status and subsequently granted former slaves equal protection under the law. Opposed to the 13th Amendment, most former Confederates could not stomach the 14th. Moreover, some adical epublicans suggested the confiscation of all Southern plantations, to divide land among…
Radical Republicans." Spartacus. Retrieved Sept 12, 2006 at http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/USASradical.htm
Reconstruction." Spartacus. Retrieved Sept 12, 2006 at http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/USASreconstruction.htm
While it is true that this bureau did a fair amount of work initially in improving such conditions, the effects were not long lived nor nearly as effective as they had been hoped and expected by many, former slaves and white reformers alike (Sage 2007). The idea of econstruction was far from settled when the Bureau was set up, and Lincoln's assassination shortly thereafter caused even greater upheaval in Congress, making econstruction even more "up for grabs" than it had been since the war's inception (Sage 2007). Basically, though the Bureau was set up and certain other laws were passed that attempted to create opportunities for freed slaves, such measures lacked popular support in the South and the means for enforcement from the federal government, which was already stretched thin from the war (McElrath 2009).
The measures that did carry popular support, and so unfortunately became the true defining policies…
McElrath, J. (2009). "The Reconstruction Era: An Overview." Accessed 20 April 2009. http://afroamhistory.about.com/cs/reconstruction/a/reconstruction.htm
Sage, H. (2007). "Reconstruction." Accessed 20 April 2009. http://www.sagehistory.net/reconstruction/topics/recon.html
Reconstruction Act of 1867
Early in 1867, Congress passed a series of laws called the Reconstruction Acts. These laws abolished the Southern state governments formed under Johnson's plan. They also divided all the states that had seceded from the Union, except Tennessee, into five military districts. A major general commanded each area. Federal troops stationed in each district helped enforce the Reconstruction Acts.
The Reconstruction Acts also outlined the process of readmission for the 10 Southern states that still had not rejoined the Union. Election boards in each state would register as voters all adult black males and all qualified adult white males. The voters elected a convention, which adopted a new state constitution. This constitution gave black men the right to vote. The voters then would elect a governor and state legislature. Finally, the state had to ratify the 14th Amendment.
Ku Klux Klan
The Ku Klux…
(Freeman, 2007). None of the programs was responsible, and freed slaves, especially in rural areas, were left with no property and few prospects following emancipation.
Unfortunately, slaves who did not choose to leave their plantations helped establish the precedence of sharecropping, which led to the virtual re-enslavement of a new generation of African-Americans after Reconstruction. Under the practice of sharecropping, a farmer works on someone else's land, and promises to pay the landowner with a percentage of the crop. The problem with sharecropping is that the tenant farmer often has to buy supplies from the landowner and pay all types of fees. The end result was that many tenant farmers became more indebted to the landowners with every passing year:
As Republicans in the South were driven from office or killed by terrorists, sharecroppers were left without protection and were frequently cheated by white landowners. Laws forced debtors to work…
Freeman, Gerene. (2007). What about My 40 Acres & a Mule? Retrieved October 29, 2007 from Yale New Haven Teachers Institute.
Web Site: http://www.yale.edu/ynhti/curriculum/units/1994/4/94.04.01.x.html
Library of Congress. (2002). Reconstruction and Its Aftermath: Part One. Retrieved October
29, 2007 from African-American Odyssey.
The Civil War was fought over several interrelated issues, slavery being the most important. Yet it would be overly optimistic to assume that the Civil War was fought just to end enslavement. In fact, it was fought to preserve the integrity of the nation and to solidify a strong central government based on the principles of liberty and equality. Although many northerners harbored racist beliefs, the push to eliminate slavery had grown stronger as social norms changed.
Compromise with slave owners and racist proponents of the slavery model was endemic to American political culture. As much as Lincoln was a “Great Emancipator,” he was also not a staunch abolitionist.
Lincoln’s assassination dealt a death knell to Reconstruction and reparation. The Freedman’s Bureau was designed with good intentions but its goals never reached fruition under the auspices of the Southern sympathizer Johnson Grassroots organizations like the American Missionary Association did little…
The Goals of Reconstruction
President Lincoln stated in his Second Inaugural that the U.S., now whole again, should work “to bind up the nation’s wounds”—but with his assassination, and the voice of America’s better angels now gone, Reconstruction got off to a rockier start than the deceased president would have hoped to have seen. Reconstruction was supposed to be a new dawn of brotherhood; the South was to be forgiven, and blacks were supposed to be equal. What had been razed to the ground during Sherman’s March to the Sea was now to be rebuilt so that order could be re-established. Frederick Douglass, writing in The Atlantic in 1866, stated that enfranchisement of the free black would only come if the federal government passed laws to protect the newly freed former slaves and brought the law of the North into the South. What happened, however, was something else entirely. The…
" The more the freedmen resumed the habits and postures of slaves, the better the planters were able to accept the new system.
Thus reconstruction even with all the good intentions of some people was still a major failure. It had failed to bring the kind of peace and freedom for blacks that it was intended to. Since the blacks had become more or less accustomed to being treated as chained men, it took them a long time to accept freedom in true manner. The transition was slow and highly painful. It wasn't easy to shift power to the masses and it certainly took a long time to bring an end to slave mentality. ights were not granted easily and even after equality had been established on paper; it was not completely given in practice for a very long time.
econstruction., the Columbia Encyclopedia, Fifth Edition, 01-01-1993
Reconstruction., the Columbia Encyclopedia, Fifth Edition, 01-01-1993
Eric Foner, a Short History of Reconstruction, 1863-1877, Harper & Row Publishers, December 1989
Trotter, Joe W., Reflections on the African-American experience, Vol. 29, Journal of Social History, 02-05-1996, pp 85(6)
Otto H. Olsen, Carpetbagger's Crusade: The Life of Albion Winegar Tourgee (John Hopkins Press, 1965). http://www.history.umd.edu/Freedmen/procamn.htm
Southerners did not flock to become Republicans as the North desired, but when they were allowed to be Democrats, they worked hard to restore legitimate legislation and patriotism.
Meanwhile the attitude of Southerners toward the Blacks remained the same as before the war. Declaring a people free did not erase the subordinate and inferior image that the hites had of the Blacks. Even those blacks who had served in the military faced persecution and prejudice. A Colonel hittlesey testified before the Joint Committee on Reconstruction in 1866 and described several acts of violence he had witnessed:
Another case is that of Charles Everett, late 2d sergeant in the United States colored troops. Mr. Everett, since his discharge, has lived in this town, a quiet, peaceful citizen, has taken to himself a wife, and attended to his own business. He has had no quarrel nor unpleasant controversy with anyone, white or…
McPhearson, James M. Ordeal by Fire: The Civil War and Reconstruction. 3rd ed. 2001
Mintz, S. "Testimony of Colonel Whittlesey before The Joint Committee on Reconstruction." 2006. (Online) http://chnm.gmu.edu/courses/122/recon/whittlesey.html
One of the policies that black leaders fought for was the granting of land to blacks following the Civil War. Freedman saw "land represented as their chance to farm for themselves, to have an independent life. It represented compensation for generation of travail and bondage" (438). Although this demand has strong logical backing in that once freed, black farmers should have equal legal status as white, the reality of the situation did not support such a reformation. The general feeling of race within the northern landscape was very mixed, despite the fight for emancipation; Northerners still saw themselves as the superiors of the black population. Therefore, black leaders were not able to gain strong land-rights for African-American throughout the west. However, the government did relent to giving out equitable land rights to African-Americans during the mass-migration to the West; this was one of the impetus that spawned the greater push…
Reconstruction of Iraq: UN or U.S. Responsibility?
Three years ago, the world had witnessed two significant events that determined the fate of two of the most powerful nations in the world: the World Trade Center bombing in United States, and, consequently, the U.S. offensive against Iraq in March 2002 (Gulf War II). These events have eventually led to the oust of Saddam Hussein, incumbent dictator/leader of Iraq and the temporary take-over of the United States government in the country. A clearinghouse had been conducted, where the U.S. military, along with its allies, arrested all of Hussein's Royal Army and government members.
Furthermore, a 'rehabilitation' project was formulated, where the U.S. government tried to maintain peace and security in the country while providing Iraqis with their basic needs -- food, clothing, shelter, and a secure job for everyone.
It is evident that these programs made by the U.S. government…
Bennett, B. & M. Ware. (December 2003). "Life behind enemy lines." TIME Magazine, Vol. 162, No. 23. pp. 20-8.
Brown, M.M. (November 2003). "After Iraq: Why the UN matters." United Nations Development Programme Web site. Accessed: 23 May 2004. Available at http://www.undp.org/dpa/statements/administ/2003/november/12nov03.html .
Ensor, D. & M. Mount. (May 4, 2004). "Row rages on over 'abuse' in Iraq. Cable News Network (CNN) Web site. Accessed: 23 May 2004. Available at http://www.cnn.com/2004/WORLD/meast/05/04/iraq.international.main/index.html.
A: The handover in Iraq." (May 24, 2004). British Broadcasting Company (BBC) Web site. Accessed: 24 May 2004. Available at http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/americas/3742383.stm .
This "education" convinces the white person to give up their sons for wars that oppress the dark peoples, votes money for the wars, makes him believe he should make up the lynch mobs and to oppress blacks with Jim Crow. The fact that his philosophy was realistic was because it was the activism of his NAACP exposing the reality of lynching in the South in the 1920s It was very realistic, because the in their face activism was what was reversing the trends in the South. Other African-Americans such as ashington saw him as a radical, but he know how to get what he wanted from the white through activism in the NAACP (DuBois, 2010).
Booker T. ashington had a very strange view of education for blacks. He had to apologize to the hites of the South in the Atlanta speech for blacks sought out political careers and teaching assignments…
DuBois, W.E.B. (2010). The negro mind reaches. Retrieved from http://www.yale.edu/glc/archive/1114.htm .
The meaning of freedom: the failure of reconstruction. In (2010). D. Hine, W. Hine & S. Harold (Eds.), The African-American Odyssey (pp. New York, NY). New York, NY: Prentice Hall.
The meaning of freedom: the promise of reconstruction. In (2010). D. Hine, W. Hine & S. Harold (Eds.), The African-American Odyssey (pp. New York, NY). New York, NY: Prentice Hall.
U.s. public health service syphilis study at tuskegee. (2009). Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/tuskegee/timeline.htm
Regarding the report of the joint committee on reconstruction -- can it be considered the first major event after reconstruction? The answer is yes, this report was the first major event and in fact it led to the reentry of the Confederate States back into the Union of the United States with certain requirements prior to that reentry. Even though the Emancipation Proclamation is thought of in terms of what happened first, in fact the Emancipation Proclamation was delivered by President Lincoln before the war had officially ended. Hence, it would seem fair to contend that this committee report the first major event in the era of reconstruction.
hat does this report ask the nation to do in terms of the task of reconstruction of the former confederacy? The report from the fifteen elected officials (nine members from the House of Representatives and six United States Senators) asked that…
From Revolution to Reconstruction. (2010). Report of the Joint Committee on Reconstruction
June 20, 1866. Retrieved September 11, 2011, from http://odur.let.rug.nl/~usa/D/1851-1875/reconstruction/repojc.htm.
One of the most dramatic consequences of the Civil ar and Reconstruction was that the South was effectively driven from national power for roughly six decades. Southerners no longer claimed the presidency, wielded much power on the Supreme Court, or made their influence strongly felt in Congress But beginning in the 1930s, the South was able to flex more and more political muscle, and by the 1970s some began to think that American politics and political culture were becoming 'southernized'.u How did this happen and what difference did it make to the development of the South and the United States?
Under segregation most blacks in the U.S. still lived in the South and were employed as sharecroppers, laborers and domestic servants, but the system of segregation and discrimination was also found everywhere in other sections of the country. Certainly virtually nothing was done for civil rights during the…
Brinkley, Allen. American History: A Survey, 14th Edition. McGraw-Hill, 2012.
Foner, Eric. Free Soil, Free Labor, Free Men: The Ideology of the Republican Party before the Civil War. Oxford University Press, 1995.
Foner, Eric. Forever Free: The Story of Emancipation and Reconstruction. NY: Knopf, 2005.
Gold, S.D. The Civil Rights Act of 1964. Marshall Cavendish, 2010.
Lincoln's econstructions Plans
Lincoln's econstruction Plans
In 1863, Abraham Lincoln was in a very difficult position. What was happening is the Union was not able to secure total victory against the South. Instead, everything hinged on: a series of miscalculations or the inability of the generals to effectively lead their forces into battle. This caused the war to drag on and the opposition to increase surrounding the policies that Lincoln had enacted in order to keep the nation united.
Then, after the victories at Vicksburg and Gettysburg, is when Lincoln felt confident that the South's days were numbered. This is because several situations occurred that created a fundamental shift in the momentum of the war. In the case of Vicksburg, the Union victory allowed Grant's forces to seize control of the entire Mississippi iver (effectively cutting the South in two).
To relieve pressure on the Western Confederacy, Lee believed that…
Lincoln's Ten Percent Plan. Spark Notes. http://www.sparknotes.com/history/american/reconstruction/section1.html (accessed March 5, 2012)
Campbell, James. Reconstruction. New York, NY: ABC CLIO, 2008.
Foner, Eric. Reconstruction. New York, NY: Peter Smith Publication, 2001.
Haltway, Herman. How the North Won. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 2001.
Reconstruction a splendid failure?
The Reconstruction period after the Civil ar was a time when America attempted to rebuild the structures and things that had been lost during the war. However, the reconstruction was not only about building the building again, but was about rebuilding and redefining I American values. The entire economic structure and socioeconomic culture was to be re-defined. America had to rediscover itself and many of the institutions that it had held dear had to be reexamined. Some consider the Reconstruction Period to be one of the most splendid failures in American History. They content that the Civil ar did nothing to raise the economic or political status of the black person or other minorities. It also contends that the Reconstruction was a miserable failure on the part of industry as well.
One of the key issues surrounding the Civil ar was the issue of slavery. There…
Foner, Eric. "Rights and the Constitution in Black Life during the Civil War and Reconstruction," Journal of American History (December 1987), 74:3. Pp. 863-83.
Foner, Eric. ed., The New American History. rev. ed., Temple, 1997.
Foner, Eric. "Slavery, the Civil War, and Reconstruction," in Foner, The New American History.
A rev. ed., Temple, 1997.
America Moves West
econstruction is the name for the period in United States history that covers the post-Civil War era, roughly 1865-1877. Technically, it refers to the policies that focused on the aftermath of the war; abolishing slavery, defeating the Confederacy, and putting legislation in effect to restore the nation -- per the Constitution. Most contemporary historians view econstruction as a failure with ramifications that lasted at least 100 years later: issues surrounding the Civil ights were still being debated in the 1970s, corrupt northern businessmen "carpetbaggers" brought scandal and economic corruption, monetary and tariff policies were retributive and had legal results in the north as well. Despite the failure of this period as an equalizer or integrator of races in the Old South, there was an equally robust push westward that not only encouraged individuals of all ethnicities to move, but changed the political and economic texture of the…
Immigration and Labor. (2009). Encarta.MSN. Retrieved from: http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761552683_11/new_york.html.
Railroads Following the Panic. (2001). U.S. History.com. 2001. Retrieved from:
Teaching With Documents: The Homestead Act of 1862. (2007). National Archives.
Military-Led econstruction and Fiedler's Contingency Theory
In light of the unfolding instability, violence and difficulty that characterized the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, the United States military must reexamine its approach to the strategic invasion, occupation, reconstruction and power-handover that have evolved into a war-making template for the nation. Accordingly, the research conducted hereafter considers the need for a change in leadership orientation, using Fiedler's Contingency Theory as the lens for the literature review thereafter. The Findings drawn from the review of literature are presented in this account and, generally, provided confirmation of the pertinence of Fiedler's contingency theory to modern military strategy as well as the pertinence of Fiedler's Least-Preferred Coworker checklist to defining ideal military leadership. The reported findings connecting Fiedler's ideas with strategic and empirical documentation on applied military policy contribute to a number of policy recommendations. In particular, these policy recommendations revolve around two…
Conner, Maj. W.D. (2005). Understanding First in the Contemporary Operational
Environment. School of Advanced Military Studies; For Leavenworth Kansas.
Ellyson, L.M.; Gibson, J.H.; Nichols, M. & Doerr, A. (2012). A Study of Fiedler's
Contingency Theory Among Military Leaders. Allied Academies International
Black Reconstruction in America by .E.B. Du Bois
The Perpetuation of the "Color Caste" and Socio-economic Stratification in "Black Reconstruction in America" by .E.B. Du Bois
illiam E.B. Du Bois, American writer and historian, is known for his active participation in promoting Black Power movements in American society during the early 20th century, a period wherein society is dominated and controlled by the white American race. During this period also, there is a strong sentiment of racism and prejudice against black Americans, then called Negro slaves, wherein, Du Bois himself experienced the struggles and challenges his fellow black Americans had to go through in order to achieve emancipation from the bondage of slavery and racism.
Du Bois had written numerous discourses about black American prejudice throughout his lifetime. However, the essay "Black Reconstruction in America," written in 1935, provides an insightful and fresh perspective in looking at the socio-economic factors…
Du Bois, W.E.B. (1935). E-text of "Black Reconstruction in America." Available at: http://edweb.tusd.k12.az.us/uhs/APUSH/1st%20Sem/Articles%20Semester%201/Artiles%20Semester%201/Dubois.htm.
They other group that faced quiet a bit of resistance was that of the colored women. In a work by Watkins Harper, Colored Women of America, the plight of colored women during this era was discussed in detail. The white and black women during this time period were constantly aggravated by the lack of backing for reprieve, land transformation, and compensations that they believed as just. This radical position was thwarted by a male biased society that dishonored female restructuring and tried to stop black reliance on the federal government. The women's visualization of liberty, turned out to be very different from that of the men's.
Black women played a vital role in econstruction. In numerous manners these militant women had further in common with their white equals than the freed women whose agony they wanted to alleviate. All through the Civil War, abolitionist and ex- slave Harriet Jacobs toiled…
Comrie, Reconstruction, typology and reality
Describe what grammaticalisation means, as this term is used by Comrie.
The best I can make of this -- since this writer never actually defines the term as he uses it -- is a concept that languages have a tendency to become more complex. This complexity in the way words are pronounced or the rules used to understand pronunciation seems to be what the author means by grammaticalisation.
What does Comrie mean by the "realization of the human language potential," as opposed to the development of this potential? (page 250)
It seems that the author is talking about the difference between coming to realize there is the potential to do or learn something and the actual development of whatever that something is. A friend of mine tells the story of first being shown how to knit at the age of 12. She went home…
By enacting the Black Codes, starting in 1865, following the 13th Amendment, however, and by giving birth, in 1866, to the Ku Klux Klan and its reign of terror over the freedmen, the southern states successfully circumvented the actual enjoyment by blacks of most of the freedoms granted them by the 13th Amendment.
The Constitution of the United tates of America [Article II]. A History of the American People.
Ed. Harry J. Carman et al. 2nd ed. Vol. 1. New York: Knopf, 1960. 776.
Hill, Elias. "Testimony before Congressional Committee Investigating the Ku Klux Klan, 1871." Reading the American Past: elected Historical Documents. Ed. Michael
Johnson. 2nd ed. Vol. 2. New York: Bedford, 2002. 9-13.
Jefferson, Thomas. The Declaration of Independence. A History of the American People.
Ed. Harry J. Carman et al. 2nd ed. Vol. 1. New York: Knopf, 1960. 759.
Mississippi Black Code, November 1865." Reading…
Black Codes in the Former Confederate States." December 15, 2004. http://www.civilwar home.com/blackcodes.htm>. 5 pages.
Brinkley, Douglas. History of the United States. New York: Viking, 2002. 237-8.
Carman, Harry J. et al., Ed. A History of the American People. 2nd ed. Vol. 1. New York:
Knopf, 1960. 738.
The basic premise is that the misfortunes of the South are more complex than simple assumptions would hold. The racial differences are clearly factor, but there is also significant reference to the fact that the South was delayed in absorbing the positive economic implications of this period in world history. hile urban centers throughout the world began a meteoric rise in terms of technological, infrastructural and social development, the isolation which the South had achieved by relying upon slave labor for so long had prevented it from gaining these flourishing urban landscapes. Rural decay would instead become an identifying trait of the South.
right's article is prompted by a positive transition in Southern economic momentum however, contending that only as recently as the last two decades (from the perspective of 1987) has the South come to realize the long-term plan of Reconstruction. ith the major initiatives of the New Deal,…
Wright, G. (1987). The Economic Revolution in the American South. The Journal of Economic Perspecties, 1(1), 161-178,
America was finding its footing, Americans were finding their identity. The spark of revolution trickled down the vine where three men decided to take arms. One took arms by defending the country against the British and securing the role of president of a new country. A second took pen and wrote to inspire the reluctant to declare independence from an unfair Britain. A third took brush and art to establish a painted history of the American revolution along with the first museums to showcase them in.Three notable figures, George Washington, Charles Willson Peale, and Thomas Paine became some of the most influential men of their time.
George Washington was born on February 22, 1732 or February 11, 1731 and died December 14, 1799. He was alive during the time of the American evolution and played a pivotal role in America's victory over Great Britain.He became the first President of the…
Burns, J.M., & Dunn, S. (2004). George Washington. New York: Times Books.
This source discusses the life anf career of George Washington.
Greene, J.P., & Bailyn, B. (1967). The Ideological Origins of the American Revolution. American Historical Review, 11(3), 588-90. doi:10.2307/1849163
This is a journal source that discusses the reasons behind the American Revolution.
witchcraft trials of Salem, and those that occurred on the other side of the Atlantic as well, have long been framed and understood as misogyny made visible in law. On that level, Karlen's The Devil in the Shape of a oman adds little to scholarly analysis on the subject. However, Karlen's research presents evidence related to core Puritan beliefs that predicated the witchcraft trials, and discusses some of the economic and demographic contexts within which the trials occurred. The book relies heavily on primary source evidence, but the author's biases and points-of-view are also plainly evident throughout the text. Karlsen does accomplish the primary goal of elucidating the intersections between gender, class, and social power. In so doing, the author substantiates related research on the subject.
Fundamental to an understanding of the witchcraft trials that took place in the 17th century is an understanding of how, why, and when they…
Jackson, Louise. "Witches, Wives, and Mothers." Women's History Review. Vol. 4, No. 1, 1995.
Karlsen, Carol F. The Devil in the Shape of a Woman. Norton, 1998.
Madden, Matthew. "The Devil in the Shape of a Woman." [Review]. Retrieved online: http://salem.lib.virginia.edu/karlsenrev.html
Norton, Mary Beth. In the Devil's Snare.
He writes, "In Louisiana, South Carolina, and Virginia - the home of large free black populations - men who had never known slavery dominated among econstruction officeholders. For the South as a whole, however, the black political leadership arose out of local slave communities" (Foner 136). He shows the struggles, victories, and defeats the blacks faced, and helps the reader see why econstruction was so important to our history. He also believes that there is still a type of econstruction going on today, in other ways, which is another reason he feels it is so important.
Foner's book belongs on the shelves of any reader interested in Civil War history, because he explains his ideas effectively and writes so anyone can understand his ideas and conclusions. It effectively uses illustrations to help make some of the key points, (such as how blacks were viewed historically during econstruction and beyond), and…
Foner, Eric. Forever Free: The Story of Emancipation and Reconstruction. New York: Knopf, 2005.
Johnson rebuked generals and Congress continued to pass into legislation laws Johnson had vetoed. Johnson's antics caused more and more supporters to abandon him, and impeachment became a very real concern.
Congress voted to impeach Johnson in 1868 after he violated the Tenure of Office Act and tried to remove Secretary of War Stanton, but the Senate did not convict him. During this time, a struggle between the court system and Congress also developed, which in effect allowed the court to send a message that econstruction was not a constitutional problem but a political one. Ultimately, the power struggle showed the viability of the Constitution and American federalism. While the struggles were great, the Supreme Court, Congress, and the President all survived the crisis and supported the separation of power that separate the three branches of government.
By driving a wedge between the Congress, the judiciary, and the presidency, Andrew…
McPhearson, J.M. (2001). Ordeal by fire: The Civil War and reconstruction. New York: McGraw Hill.
. he American Journal of Sports Medicine, 35(3), 384-394.
2 groups of 70 patients with patellar tendon and hamstring tendon autografts were assessed 2 years following surgery. No significant differences were noted in terms of activity, although more patients in the P group experienced pain and loss of motion for a longer span of time than did patients in the hamstring tendon group. On the whole, patients with hamstring tendon grafts performed similarly to patients with patellar tendon grafts although more beneficial results seemed to incline towards the groups that had experienced hamstring tendon graft replacements.
Monaco, E., Labianca, L., Conteduca, F., De Carli, a., & Ferretti, a. (2007). Double bundle or single bundle plus extraarticular tenodesis in acl reconstruction?: a caos study. Knee Surgery, Sports raumatology, Arthroscopy, 15(10), 1168-1174.
he goal of this study was to evaluate the effect on the internal rotation of the tibia of lateral reconstruction…
This technical study was intended to measure the in situ force applied to the ACL during load and injury. The medial collateral ligament (MCL), anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), posterolateral structures (PLS), and posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) were measured in response to 110 N. anterior tibial loading. Changes in knee kinematics associated with ACL deficiency and combined MCL and ACL deficiency were also evaluated. Findings demonstrated that impact is equally shared between the various bone ligaments and anterior bones during tibial loading of the knee leading researchers to conclude that the MCL and osteochondral surfaces may also be at significant risk during ACL injury.
Smith, F., Rosenlund, E., Aune, a., MacLean, J., & Hillis, S. (2004). Subjective functional assessments and the return to competitive sport after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. . British Journal of Sports Medicine, 38(3), 279-284.
The objective was to examine return to competitive sport and general recuperation of ligaments within 12 months of ACL reconstruction. A postal questionnaire 43 months after surgery was mailed to 109 selected athlete patients, 77 of whom responded. The Cincinnati sports activity scale (CSAS) and Cincinnati sports function scales were used as instruments. 62 patients had returned to activity 12 months following treatment, whilst 55 patients had regained their former level of ability. 12 patients admitted to major problems, whilst 38 patients were actively involved in sports at least four times a week. Competitive and male patients had higher scores at restoration than did non-athletic and female patients respectively. Results supported the researchers' hypothesis.
Because they lived in constant fear that they would fall victim to white aggression, African-Americans in the South were virtually powerless and had little to no chances to get involved in restructuring the Southern community. In spite of the fact that Republicans were initially devoted to helping black people in the South as they struggled to take advantage of the rights they were granted, matters slowly but surely changed and Northerners became less interested in fighting for the African-American cause, since they believed that black people could not assist the Republican Party in any way.
During the Second Reconstruction period, numerous politicians seized the opportunity of getting voters from the South and thus realized that it was essential for them to support African-American enfranchisement. The Kennedy Administration in particular decided that black people played a very important role in assisting the country's local and international dealings. The international context regarding…
Valelly, Richard M. (2004). "The two reconstructions: the struggle for Black enfranchisement." University of Chicago Press.
esearchers believe that incorporating evidence-based prevention methods can decrease the incidence of ACL ruptures, but an understanding of the etiology and mechanisms of sports injury are a necessary to do this (Posthumus, 2009).
The highest prevalence of extrinsic ACL injuries tends to occur in organized sports especially adolescents participating in pivoting type sports such as football, basketball, and team handball (Bahr & Krosshaug, 2005). In addition to any intrinsic factors and adolescent may have, or predisposing factors, environmental factors surrounding organized sports can also play a role in injury. For example, weather conditions (slippery surface), type of surface sport is played on (grass vs. pavement), proper footwear, and protective bracing (Posthumus, 2009).
A growing concern regarding these injuries and the populations that incur them is that these injuries increase the risk of osteoarthritis (Bahr & Krosshaug, 2005). In fact, after ten years, around half of all people that have suffered…
Ageberg, E., Thombe, R., Neeter, C., Gravare Silbernagel, K., Roos, EM. Patients With Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury Treated With Training and Surgical Reconstruction or Training Only: A Two to Five-Year Followup. Arthritis Care & Research. 2008; 59(12):1773-79.
Bahr, R., Krosshaug, T. Understanding injury mechanisms: a key component of preventing injuries in sport. Br J. Sports Med. 2005; 39:324 -- 329.
Grindstaff, TL., Hammill, RR., Tuzson, AE., Hertel, J. Neuromuscular Control Training Programs and Noncontact Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury Rates in Female Athletes: A Numbers-Needed-to-Treat Analysis. Journal of Athletic Training. 2006; 41(4):450 -- 456.
Health Information Publications (2011). What is the anterior cruciate ligament? eHealthMD retrieved from http://ehealthmd.com
By 1967, Black Power had become the dominant ideology of black youth as well as many individuals in the working and middle classes. King's assassination confirmed the growing nationalistic belief against nonviolence. The greatest challenge came from the Black Panther Party and its ten-point program of radical reform. The U.S. government were alarmed by these demands, and agencies such as the FB stepped up their targeting of radical black groups.
n Chapter 6, Marable analyzes the political status and labor movements of this time. He emphasizes the lack of support for the full incorporation of black laborers -- the American Federation of Teachers, for example, opposed the establishment of affirmative action programs to regulate fairness in the labor market. The Longshoresman's Association nixed equal status of black members, and the Operating Engineers Union imposed physical violence on black graduates of their apprenticeship program and therefore blocked participation of blacks…
In his epilogue, Marable concludes: "American history has repeated itself, in regard to its interpretation of the pursuit of biracial democracy: the fist time as tragedy, the second time as catastrophe. In the aftermath of the First Reconstruction, white American historians attempted to portray the democratic experiment of 1965-77 as a complete disaster." After the Second Reconstruction, a similar process of historical revisionism took place -- led by President Reagan, who attempted to undermine the last vestiges of institutional equality.
Does this mean that the Second Reconstruction was a failure? "Our judgment," he says, "would be a resounding and unconditional 'no.'" Jim Crow is dead, the American State is committed to equal opportunity under law, the black consumer market has grown considerably. However, as an Afro-American and a socialist, Marable admits he cannot write his book without some political comment concerning those in poverty and many of the crimes against blacks still being committed. "The story of the Second Reconstruction has no moral, other than the simple truth that an oppressed people will not remain oppressed forever." Several basic ideals have sustained black courage: democracy, equality and freedom.
However, "given the evolution of capitalism, racism and democracy in America, a truly anti-racist democratic state must of necessity also be a socialist democracy....The demand for racial parity within a state apparatus and economy, which is based on institutional racism and capital accumulation at the expense of blacks and labor is flawed from the outset." A small group of black elites has formed, a small amount of blacks have been appointed in the government, but the now the passage of power must be given to those who create all wealth -- the working class. This will only be realized with the rise of the Third Reconstruction that seeks the empowerment of the laboring classes and all oppressed.
African-Americans in Major Historical Events
Although African-Americans have been seen as being the catalysts of major historical conflicts such as the Sectional Crisis, the Civil ar, and Reconstruction, they actually impacted these events. For example during the Sectional Crisis, African-American presence in the U.S. Courts, as they sued for their freedom, brought the injustice that African-Americans faced to the national spotlight. In addition, during the Civil ar, African-Americans' presence was widespread as they fought on the field and worked behind the scenes. Finally, African-Americans shaped the period of Reconstruction as they continued their fight for equality through their presence in government politics. This essay will discuss these specific contributions of African-Americans during each of these eras.
The Dred Scott Decision
The Sectional Crisis was the period preceding the Civil ar that began in the 1840s and peaked during the 1850s. During the period of the Sectional divide contributions of African-Americans…
Murphy, Heather K. "African-Americans in the Civil War." Web. 14, Dec. 2010.
United States v. Dred Scott, 60 U.S. 393 (1856). Web.
Worth, Richard and Schwarz, Philip. African-Americans During Reconstruction. New York,
New York: Infobase Publishing, 2006. Print.
African-Americans and Western Expansion
Prior to the 1960s and 1970s, very little was written about black participation in Western expansion from the colonial period to the 19th Century, much less about black and Native American cooperation against slavery. This history was not so much forbidden or censored as never written at all, or simply ignored when it was written. In reality, blacks participated in all facets of Western expansion, from the fur trade and cattle ranching to mining and agriculture. There were black cowboys and black participants in the Indian Wars -- on both sides, in fact. Indeed, the argument over slavery in the Western territories was one of the key factors in breaking up the Union in the 1850s and leading to the election of Abraham Lincoln in 1860. In the past thirty years, much of the previously unwritten and unrecorded history of the Americas since 1492 has been…
Foner, Eric. Free Soil, Free Labor, Free Men: The Ideology of the Republican Party before the Civil War. Oxford University Press, 1970, 1995.
Foner, Philip S. History of Black Americans. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1983.
Katz, William Loren. The Black West: A Documentary and Pictorial History of the African-American Role in the Westward Experience of the United States. NY: Random House, Inc., 2005.
Katz, William Loren. Black Indians: A Hidden Heritage. NY: Simon & Schuster, 1986.
States like Bangladesh, Egypt, and Indonesia have severe challenges due to the risks of flooding, drought, and deforestation. Recently Bangladesh was hit by a powerful Typhoon (same as a hurricane), which caused thousands of deaths and was so severe it was beyond the capability of its weak government to deal with the disaster.
The U.S. Department of State (DOS) has been working for many years to try and help with a solution for the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict. The violence between these two states has been going on for many years, and numerous previous attempts to find a lasting peaceful solution have failed. In a document called "A Performance-Based roadmap to a Permanent Two-State Solution to the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict," the DOS plan includes three phases. The first is the most crucial and pivotal - an end to the "terror and violence" and an attempt to normalize Palestinian life - in conjunction with…
Textbook Chapter 8 "Post-War Reconstruction."
Dixon, Robyn. (2007, Dec. 15). Zimbabwe may shatter, but Mugabe holds firm. The Los
Angeles Times, p. a-1 - a-5.
Foreign Policy. (2007). Failed States Index 2007. The Fund for Peace and Carnegie
It might be said that, had Lincoln not been elected, the war might have been put off by a few years, and then a solution might perhaps have been reached. However, as has been demonstrated, the country was moving inexorably toward war and no other solution would work. If the war had been put off by a few years, the result would more than likely have been even more terrible and bloody than it was. General Grant was of the opinion that the war was inevitable. "The Southern rebellion was largely the outgrowth of the Mexican war," he wrote in his Personal Memoirs, in accord with his belief that the Mexican-American War was the result of the South's attempts to extend slavery into Mexican-controlled Texas, "Nations, like individuals, are punished for their transgressions. We got our punishment in the most sanguinary and expensive war in modern times." Grant would then…
By 1861 the political and economic disagreement concerning the issue of slavery came to a head and the civil war began. During the civil war slaves fought in both the confederate and union armies.
In 1862 and 1863 respectively President Lincoln issued executive orders referred to as the emancipation proclamation. These proclamations basically set slaves in the southern states free.
By 1865 the civil war came to an end and by July of 1865 most slaves were freed.
As it relates to economics, it is important to understand that the establishment and perpetuation of slavery was always about monetary benefit. Slaves provided land owners with access to abundant and free labor. Not having to pay people for labor results in increased profitability. During the 1600's colonist first began to understand the economic benefits associated with slavery and slaves became more valuable than indentured servants (Boskin). The value of slaves increased…
Boskin J. Into Slavery: Racial Decisions in the Virginia Colony J.B. Lippincott Company Philadelphia: 1976.
Reconstruction and its Aftermath. 9 Dec. 2007. http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/aaohtml/exhibit/aopart5.html
Voice of Freedom
In chapter 15 it deals a lot with resistance to slavery and of course one of these was the best known of all slave rebellions which involved was Nat Turner, who happened to be a slave preacher. This chapter was also devoted in describing the conspiracies that went into the uprisings and the rebellions that actually changed the face of slavery. This chapter gave a very vivid detail in exploring what went on behind the scenes in regards to these revolts coming together. ith that said, this essay will explore this chapter and talk about the significance of the voice of freedom.
After the Civil ar, the definitions of freedom surely changed for nation, for the freedmen, and for southern whites in a lot of ways. Southern white were fearful. It was apparent that they never wanted slavery to end because it had a huge effect on…
Arts, Martin. "The Liberty Haggadah: From Slavery to Freedom. From Exile to Independence." 1-90. Chicago: Matan Arts; Hebrew - English edition, 2011.
Chambers, Glenn A. "From slavery to servitude: The African and Asian struggle for freedom in Latin America and the Caribbean." History 21, no. 9 (2008): 23-45.
de, la Fuente. "From slaves to citizens? Tannenbaum and the debates on slavery, emancipation, and race relations in Latin America." International Labor and Working Class History 77, no. 1 (2010): 154-173.
Foner, Eric. "Give Me Liberty!: An American History." 1-584. New York City W.W. Norton & Company; Seagull Third Edition, 2009.
In the North, however, abolitionists groups began to see slavery another way. Finally, when Lincoln -- who was perceived as anti-slavery -- was elected, the South fought to exercise what it believed were its states rights by seceding.
After the war concluded, these cultural and economic differences were not gone with the wind. Instead, they were prominent during reconstruction and continue to characterize the culture of the North and South today. McElrath's timeline of reconstruction shows several attempts at making the South racially equal, which can be defined as one of the goals of reconstruction. The Civil Rights Bill and 14th amendment were methods by which this was accomplished. However, Civil ar era culture has left such an impact on the region as to make race relations in the American South still stereotypically tenacious.
Kelly, Martin. "Top Five Causes of the Civil ar." About.com 2009. 26 July 2009.…
Kelly, Martin. "Top Five Causes of the Civil War." About.com 2009. 26 July 2009.
McElrath, Jessica. "Timeline of the Reconstruction Era." About.com. 2009. 26 July 2009.
In some ways, the Civil War was the analogue of the Terror for Americans: It was the bloodthirsty incestuous violence that allowed the nation to move onward to a full embrace of democracy, joining itself to Europe as the world began to tip toward democratic ideas and ideals.
Stephen Kantrowitz's biography of Benjamin Tillman demonstrates how he can be seen as a symbol for an entire cohort of Southerners of his generation, people (mostly but not exclusively men) who could neither understand nor tolerate the new order that had formally instituted itself after Emancipation. They could not understand a world in which black men were suddenly their legal equals. Tillman, and others like him, lived in a world that told them that blacks had to be treated like equals even though many white Southerners did not see their black compatriots as even being fully human.
This set up…
International Disasters and Humanitarian Law
Great infrastructure damage and social dislocation have been common consequence of natural disasters and social disasters for example wars. The aims of relief and post-disaster reconstruction comprises of:
Instant physical relief of victims
eduction of social dislocation
estoration of a function of social organization and reparation of physical infrastructure
The major disaster or wars international actors are United Nations agencies and ed Cross Movement.
International policies and laws have played a greater impact in helping shift disaster relief and post-disaster reconstruction in that, whenever there is major disaster there is immediate establishment of a rescue and recovery command center under the body of the United Nations, ed Cross and affected governments; this aid in supervision of relief efforts participating foreign military such as U.S. forces being part of it. For example for the case where there was establishment of U.S. dominated command centre set at…
Jonathan Winters, (2009) combating Corruption in the Multilateral Development Banks'
Paul Wodlfowitz, (2006) press conference, U.S.Pacific command, Indonesia 16 January
Slavery, The Civil ar and the Preservation of the Union
In the face of oppression and harsh treatment, slaves formed communities as a coping mechanism and to resist the belief that they were simply property. Members of these slave communities came together often to sing, talk, and even plan covert plots to runaway or sabotage the system in which they were living. Slaves married, had children and worked to keep their families together. Families were often broken up as members were sold off to different masters, but when a family was kept together, nuclear families of two parents and their children working for the same master were common. It was in these communities that countless elements of African-American slave culture were passed on for generations, including skills such as medical care, hunting, and fishing as well as how to act in front of whites, hiding their feelings and escaping punishment.…
Buchanan, James." Columbia Encyclopedia. 6th ed. 2000. Encyclopedia.com. 14 December 2002. http://www.encyclopedia.com/html/B/BuchannJ1.asp .
Lincoln, Abraham," Columbia Encyclopedia. 6th ed. 2000. Encyclopedia.com. 14 December 2002. http://www.encyclopedia.com/html/L/LincolnA1.asp .
Missouri Compromise." Columbia Encyclopedia. 6th ed. 2000. Encyclopedia.com. 14 December 2002. http://www.encyclopedia.com/html/m/missrc1omp.asp .
The Terrible Transformation." Africans in America. PBS Online. 14 December 2002. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part1/title.html .
Race After the Civil War
lack or white, which is the color of your skin?
Some time in history, the color of a person's skin had been an essential element in his life's journey. To be socially accepted, people sees to it that you have the right skin color. ut which is the right color? Does there exist a right color of skin? This issue seems to be a very narrow and senseless matter that our ancestors were implicated centuries and years ago. Especially after the Civil War, the element of race became an issue in every aspect of their daily lives.
Unfortunate to the discrimination of race in the society of man in America after the Civil War are the black colored people. They were considered and grouped among the minorities who were prohibited with equal rights, not by law, but by human nature of men. lack colored people…
Douglass, Frederick. The Color Line.
African-American History. 26 July 2003.
Fitzhugh, George. Sociology for the South or The Failure of Free Society.
Native Americans also experienced significant changes to their way of life during this era. The railroads brought more settlers to their land, and cities began to arise in the West. The result was increasing conflict -- and many massacres orchestrated by government forces, as Western Native Americans, who had limited contact with settlers to this point, saw their lands inundated and their way of life threatened, so say nothing of the disease. The conflict, disease and loss of this way of life permanently gutted Native American societies -- they might have been the biggest losers of the industrialization age their way of life all but wiped out.
Working Americans were more likely to work in a factory under dangerous conditions. They lost the dignity in their work -- they were not longer artisans but merely cogs in somebody else's machine. They were more likely to live in tenements…
Schultz. (no date). Chapters 16-18.
Many Americans insisted on moralizing poverty and housing conditions.
One of the responses to the revelations was to build company towns, like Pullman, Illinois which provided decent housing and amenities to workers in the Pullman train car factory. This project appears to have been successful initially, but a debilitating strike caused by high rent and low wages destroyed the town and other companies were no longer willing to follow this model (Ibid. At 134). Still a bigger obstacle to widespread reform was the ubiquitous American reverence for private property rights. Notwithstanding the early New York measures, Americans were loath to deny the landlords unfettered control over their private property (Ibid. At 135).
Although the progressive era as a whole saw great advancement in public health and safety requirements, there was only marginal success regarding housing reform. Many reforms that affected how people lived were undertaken in the name of public…
Buhle, Paul. The Legacy of the IWW. Monthly Review, Vol. 57, Issue 2 (06/2005), pp.: 13 -- 27.
Chudacoff, Howard P. And Judith E. Smith. The Evolution of American Urban Society. Prentice Hall, Inc.: Upper Saddle River, NJ (2000).
Hoffman, Alexander von. The Origins of American Housing Reform. Joint Center for Housing Studies, Harvard University (August 1998).
ar and Occupation: The Effects of the U.S. Occupation on Japan's Government and Politics
The recent change in the American foreign policy direction which has seen the replacement of its traditional anti-colonialist tilt by the neo-conservative belief of guided nation building evokes a lot of interest in the history of United State's occupation of post world war II Japan. Although each such occupation is different -- the political, social and cultural environment as well as the historical context of every war and country being different-- it is interesting to study how the Americans handled the re-building of Japan in the post-orld ar II period.
There is no doubt that the United State government's influence in shaping the future of Japan was overwhelming. In fact it would not be wrong to state that Japan's current political and economic status as a first world power is a direct result of the guiding…
Bell, P.M.H. "The World Since 1945: An International History.": New York: Oxford University Press, 2001
Dower, John W. "Embracing Defeat: Japan in the Wake of World War II." New York: Norton/Free Press:, 1999
Dower, John W. "Why Iraq is not Japan." Mercury News. Apr. 27, 2003. July 2, 2003. http://www.bayarea.com/mld/mercurynews/news/editorial/5728557.htm?template=contentModules/printstory.jsp
Gordon, Bill. "The Allied Occupation of Japan." May 2000. July 2, 2003 http://wgordon.web.wesleyan.edu/papers/alliedoc.htm
The education sector with all its capacities for delivering knowledge and training has an important role to play in the rebuilding process. Finally, because education intersects with almost every sector and theme in peace-building, it warrants its own examination of the competencies, skills and resources needed to make the kinds of contributions demanded of it." (Ibid)
Further stated is that "Formal education covers the knowledge, skills and training obtained through primary, secondary and tertiary institutions such as schools, colleges and universities. Non-formal education is generally of a short-term duration and is geared towards upgrading of skills and introducing new knowledge."(Ibid)
In the work entitled: "Overview of Post-Conflict Recovery and Reconstruction: Experiences and Lessons Learnt" it is related that in the early 1980', "Somalia could boast 'the lowest GNP, the lowest physical quality of life index, the lowest per capital public education expenditure, the higher infant mortality per;1,000 births, and the…
Rose, P. & Greeley, M. (2006) Education in Fragile States: Capturing Lessons and Identifying Good Practice. Online available at http:///www.ineesite.org/core_references/Education_in_Fragile_States.pdf
Bekalo, S.; Brophy, M.; & Welford, G (2006) Post-Conflict Education development in Somaliland. Togdheer Online available at http://www.togdheer.com/education/education.shtml
Restoration of Hope and Peace: The Amoud Initiative. Medicine and Surgery. Amoud University. Online available at:
Boyden, J. And Ryder, P. (1996) Implementing the Right to Education in Areas of Armed Conflict. Oxford Journal Jun 1996, Online available at http://www.essex.ac.uk/armedcon/story_id/000021.htm
Here we have an account of the definitive formation of the twelve-tribe league incorporating people who may well have had ancient ties with Israelite tribes but who only now pledge their undivided allegiance to the God of Israel."
Thus, Shechem is, according to Hillers, one of the most important place for the Covenant renewal, since it was the first that was witnessed by the united Israelite tribes.
John Van Seters, on the other hand, offers a different explanation for the origins of the text in Joshua 24. He concludes that the resemblances in form between the Covenant at Shechem and the Deuteronomy Covenant makes it plausible that the Joshua 24 has to be just an addition to the Deuteronomy work:
There is only one solution to this dilemma and that is that Joshua 24.1-27 was composed as an addition to the Dtr. work. It is post-Dtr. And was inserted before…
Boling, Robert G., and G. Ernest Wright. Joshua. AB 6. Garden City, New York.:Doubleday, 1982.
Harris, J. Gordon, Cheryl a. Brown and Michael S. Moore. Joshua, Judges, Ruth. NIBC. Peabody, Mass.: Hendrickson, 2000.
Nelson, Richard J. Joshua: A Commentary.Louisville: Westminster John Knox, 1997.
Nicholson, Ernest God and His People: Covenant and Theology in the Old Testament. Clarendon Press. Oxford. 1986.
Macroevolutionary Transition of Cetaceans Back to the Sea
Today, one of the best known examples of macroevolution is that which can be speculated upon and observed in relation to marine mammals. ales, porpoises and dolphins, members of the Catacean order, share a number of distinctions in the marine ecosystem, not the least of which is their high intelligence. Additionally, that these species are mammals that must ascend to the surface for respiration has underscored long-standing zoological speculation as to their origins. As the question of macroevolution suggests, these origins may well denote that the species in question originated on land.
According to the research by Bajpai et al. (2009), the speculative nature of the macroevolutionary theory was given some of its strongest evidence to date by fossil finds in the Indian and Pakistan region. These have suggested that whales in particular can be shown to have evolved into aquatic creatures…
Bajpai, S.; Thewissen, J.G. & Sahni, A. (2009). The origin and early evolution of whales: macroevolution documented on the Indian subcontinent. Journal of Bioscience, 34(5), 673-685.
Barton, N.H.; Briggs, D.E.G.; Eisen, J.A.; Goldstein, D.B. & Patel, N.H. (2007). Evolution. Cold Springs Harbor Press.
Meek, P. (1996). Natural Selection. University of Michigan.
Moran, L. (1993). Random Genetic Drift. The Talk Origins Archive.
Constraints of Blacks
Discussion the geographic spaces and constraints of Blacks in the United States between 1865 and 2010.
Throughout the reconstruction period several acts were passed that were intended to integrate African-Americans or freedmen as they were referred to in the period in society. Despite the initial goals of the legislative acts, African-Americans faced a significant antagonism from many whites in the south who did not agree to the new freedoms for the former slaves. The first and arguably most significant step move towards a more equal and free society was the 13th amendment to the Constitution.
This amendment was passed in 1865 and was shortly after was followed by the passage of the civil rights act in 1866 and the 14th amendment. The underlying purpose of 13th and 14th amendments as well as the civil rights act of 1866 was to officially designate African-Americans citizens by…
Late Twentieth Century through the Present
Martin Luther King was a Baptist minister who became an icon for civil rights across America. He raised public awareness of the civil rights cause but this had a negative effect on his personal life as during the boycott King's house was bombed and during the campaign he was arrested. The importance of Martin Luther King's role in achieving civil rights could not be understated. However, it is less well-known that E.D Nixon, a African-American civil rights leader and union organizer who played a crucial role in organizing the famous Montgomery Bus Boycott and furthering the movement. However, it is MLK's eloquence and conviction of speech that served as a rallying point for millions of sympathetic individuals to protest racial injustices.
While the present circumstances for an African-American in the United States is still fraught with hardships, there is still much progress that is continually being made. In 2008 the United States elected their first African-American president; a feat that many predicted would not be possible until well into the future. However, at the same time there are a plethora of challenges that still face the African-American communities. In many of the urban centers, such as Chicago for example, there is still a significant amount of segregation. Furthermore, African-Americans generally have less employment opportunities, lower pay rates, higher incarnation rates, and fewer opportunities for education than their racial counterparts. Therefore, even though an enormous amount of progress has been made, there is still much more work to be done.
Cross-Cutting Issues egarding Slum Upgrading
Property ights and Security of Tenure
Secure of tenure, according to Cities Alliance (2014), "is at the very center of slum upgrading." As Cities Alliance further points out, lack of some kind of legal tenure security makes the circumstances of those who reside in slums highly uncertain. This is particularly the case given that evictions could be instituted at any moment. It is important to note that people are not likely to invest in permanent structures if they fear eviction -- meaning that the structures they put up will be largely shoddy and meant to serve temporary shelter needs. However, once people are assured of the right to keep their homes, they develop "a sense of permanence and realize that they can sell their house and recoup their investment" (Cities Alliance, 2014). Property rights also protect slum dwellers from extortion and exploitation (Cities Alliance, 2014).…
Cities Alliance. (2014). About Slum Upgrading. Retrieved from http://www.citiesalliance.org/About-slum-upgrading#Why_do_slums_develop
Moser, C.O. & Dani, A.A. (Eds.). (2008). Assets. Livelihoods and Social Policy. Washington, DC: World Bank Publications.
1. Housing finance and financial inclusion
2. Housing microfinance the state of the practice
The term "hockey stick" was given to this controversy by Jerry Mahlman, a climatologist who described a patter that is relatively flat to 1900 (the shaft) and then a sharp increase after 1900 that corresponds to the blade (see above) (Climate Legacy, 2004). This graph has been the key piece of evidence in views supported by the United Nations and IPCC regarding greenhouse gas emissions and environmental change.
Arguments against using the Hockey Stick as the only answer to climate claim that it is taken out of context when it comes to global climatic time. In addition, graphing the last 150 years causes, what some scientists say, is noisy data in which relatively minor changes appear to be over exaggerated because of the template of the graph. This, called small-amplitude variations, may be true from an empirical sense, but have little meaning statistically when dealing with macro-science like climate (Von…
REFERENCES & WORKS CONSULTED
Climate Change 2007: Synthesis Report. (2007). IPCC. Cited in:
Climate Legacy of 'Hockey Stick..' (2004). BBC News. Cited in:
Representations of omen
The concept of slavery in America has engendered a great deal of scholarship. During the four decades following reconstruction, despite the hopes of the liberals in the North, the position of the Negro in America declined. After President Lincoln's assassination and the resulting malaise and economic awakening of war costs, much of the political and social control in the South was returned to the white supremacists. Blacks were left at the mercy of ex-slaveholders and former Confederates, as the United States government adopted a laissez-faire policy regarding the "Negro problem" in the South. The era of Jim Crow brought to the American Negro disfranchisement, social, educational and occupational discrimination, mass mob violence, murder, and lynching. Under a sort of peonage, black people were deprived of their civil and human rights and reduced to a status of quasi-slavery or "second-class" citizenship (Foner). Strict legal segregation of public facilities…
Douglass, F. The Anti-Slavery Movement. Rochester, NH: Lee, Man and Company, 1855. Print.
Douglass, F. Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave. Boston, MA:
Harvard University Press, 2005. Print.
Elliott, M. Color Blind Justice. New York: Oxford University Press, 2006. Print.
The passing of time does not necessarily denote progress: women made little noticeable social and economic advancement and almost no political or legal advancements between the European settlements of Jamestown in 1607 until the end of the Reconstruction era in 1877. In fact, most Native American women lost a considerable degree of power and status due to the imposition of European social values on their traditional cultures. African women, brought to the New World against their will and in bondage, likewise did not enjoy the fruits of social progress. White women of European descent, however, did make some progress over the course of more than two centuries of early American history. Divorce laws became more favorable toward women, who over the course of these few centuries were increasingly able to extricate themselves from violent, abusive, or unsatisfying unions. However, divorce laws were one of the only legal progress…
Modern-Day Corruption and Graft
The Watergate incident that occurred in President Nixon's Administration is exemplary of modern day corruption. Here, the government under Nixon's presidency was recognized to have sanctioned a sequence of confidential monitoring operations conducted by highly-trained agents that was financed by illegal campaign contributions. The seriousness of the incident was such that ichard Nixon had to resign his presidency.
Booker T. Washington and W.E.B. Dubois offered differing philosophies, strategies, and tactics for African-Americans following econstruction. In your opinion, which of these leaders gave the best advice for their times? Why do you feel this way?
Booker T. Washington primarily believed that the approach to deal with the African-Americans after the econstruction was tolerance, adaptation, and self-assistance with maximum attention on the provision of job opportunities for possible advancement of the community W.E.B. Dubois, on the other hand, asserted that the best methodology was the use of campaigning…
Brunner, B. (2011a). Civil Rights Timeline. Accessed 29-12-11 from: http://www.infoplease.com/spot/civilrightstimeline1.html
Brunner, B. (2011b). Heroes of Civil Rights Movement. Accessed 29-12-11 from: http://www.infoplease.com/spot/bhmheroes1.html
Digital History. (2011). Hypertext History: Our Online American History Textbook -- Interactive Timelines. Accessed 25-12-11 from: http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/database/hyper_titles.cfm
Digital History. (2011b). Guided Readings: America in Ferment: The Tumultuous 1960s. Accessed 29-12-11 from: http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/database/subtitles.cfm?titleID=65
Civil War and Reconstruction Question 2: What does the Civil War show that failed in the United States in this period?
The Civil War and its aftermath showed that the United States failed to create a cohesive national character and ethical identity. The nation was truly divided, symbolized by the fact that Abraham Lincoln received not a single Southern electoral vote, and less than half of the popular vote, but still became President (Slide 5). The majority of Southerners allied themselves with the Southern Democrat platform, and failed to align their outdated beliefs about race and economic exploitation with the more progressive norms evident in the North.
Yet slavery was only one of the meaningful points of divergence between different geographic and cultural segments of the nation. The economies of North and South were completely different from one another, with the North cornering the market on manufactured goods and the…