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A Key to Understanding Hindu eincarnation
When one thinks of the concept of a divine trinity, the first thing that most Americans would think of would be the Christian trinity of Father, Son, and Holy Ghost. However, there are other equally important trinities within other religions, for the number three has had religious relevance since ancient times. The sanctity of the number three might arise from the fact that it can be seen to represent the essential triad of life: Families and the species itself continue from past to future as each pair of parents gives rise to a child, who in turn joins with another to produce another child, and so humans step their way three by three into the future.
Hinduism also has a central trinity that in important ways parallels the Christian trinity -- or that is paralleled in important ways by the Christian trinity, depending…
Flood, G. (Ed.) (2003). The Blackwell companion to Hinduism. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Jansen, E.R. (2003). The book of Hindu imagery. Havelte, Holland: Binkey Kok Publications BV.
Zimmer, H. (1972). Myths and symbols in Indian art and civilization. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
In a world that is concerned with only the here and coupled along with instant gratification, it should not be a surprise that reincarnation is understood by few. What many fail to see is that reincarnation is actually makes more sense than many other teachings. For instance, with reincarnation, we can see how thing corresponds with one another. In this way, we can see how one generation is connected with another.
One aspect of reincarnation relies upon human recognition. It is clear that we cannot rely upon recognition or imagination when it comes to this concept because human recognition is limited to experience and that in and of itself is limited. When the mind is opened to the Baha" religion, other aspects other than the here and now are examined and considered. One of those aspects is reincarnation. When it is considered in its spiritual context rather than the physical…
At the end of the arduous cycle is the ultimate reward. Full enlightenment comes with the end of the cycle of birth and death -- Nirvana, where the individual soul can rest. It allows for the filtering of souls which have not earned the right to relax and enjoy the spiritual realm. It also allows those individuals who have earned their spiritual freedom to enjoy an existence not plagued by the limitations of a physical body.
Thus, reincarnation solely depends on the level of morality exhibited by a particular individual during a particular life. If one chooses to act immorally, and therefore not learn the lessons presented within the context of that life, that individual is punished with being forced to live a future life at a lower level than previously attained. And so it becomes imperative that each souls lives a moral life, as to fully take advantage of…
e can easily see how this belief would not just set the Druze apart from fundamentalist Muslims, but could possibly be interpreted as a heresy by the more strict fundamentalists.
All of these things considered, the religious definitions and boundaries of the world begin to be obscured, because there is a message of good, sharing, shedding the flesh of earthly wants and desires that is reflected in the Hindu message of reincarnation. It is not so different than the message that is at the heart of the other religions, including Christianity, Judaism, and Islam. In Judaism, Hasidic Jews believe in reincarnation, they hold, like Hinduism, that individuals are reincarnated into their family lines to complete the work that they had begun, or continued doing in their past lives. Recently, a case was featured on a television program, where a man in his thirties began having dreams of having experienced the…
Bennett, Anne. "Reincarnation, Sect Unity and Identity among the Druze." Ethnology 45.2 (2006): 87+. Questia. 18 Feb. 2009 http://www.questia.com/ PM.qst?a=o&d=5019968112' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
260). This cosmological discussion is one reason Origen is said to have "created, indeed embodied, the first model of a scientific theology;" his approach to the notion of metempsychosis, like nearly all of his theological work, is rooted in a steadfast determination to distinguish "between the dogmata of the church tradition and the problemata which were to be discussed" according to reason, logic, and a prototype of the scientific method (Kung 1994, pp. 48-49). As will be seen, Origen's focus on not-yet-determined points of Christianity would ultimately contribute to his condemnation as a heretic, because could be considered genuine, innocent investigation in the third century would rapidly become dangerous propaganda to the Church's ruling powers.
Origen's description of an ultimate, total reunification should not be taken to mean that he is arguing that the actions one takes within the temporal world is meaningless, since everything will ultimately be united once…
Bovon, F. 2010, "The Souls Comeback: Immortality and Resurrection in Early Christianity,"
Harvard Theological Review, vol. 103, no. 4, pp. 387-406.
Bowen, F. 1881. "Christian Metempsychosis." Princeton Review, May, pp. 316-341.
Clergymen of the Church of England. 2010. Reincarnation and Christianity. Kila: Kessinger
25. How does New Age spirituality differ from that of Eastern mysticism?
Although the New Age readily embraces Eastern mysticism, it diverges from the old Eastern traditions because the New Age is more of a "hybrid spirituality," (131). The New Age combines Eastern and estern mystical beliefs. Eastern religions are not tailored for the modern world so the New Age mutates Eastern traditions to best suit the needs of the modern lifestyle.
26. How is paganism related to the New Age movement?
Paganism is integrally related to the New Age movement. Evidence of this can be found on any New Age bookstore shelf. The New Age movement is not necessarily demonic, as many modern witches do not believe in Satan, but neo-pagans assert a belief in a Goddess. Many New Agers support pre-Christian pagan beliefs and shamanism as well.
27. How does the eastern element of New Age spirituality contrast…
Groothuis, Douglas R. Unmasking the New Age. Downers Grove, IL: Intervarsity Press, 1986.
Ligeia and the Theme of Reincarnation
That the narrator of "Ligeia" is one who is frequently called "unreliable" by critics is nothing new (Sweet, Blythe), as he is an admitted opium addict, often susceptible to hallucinations in which he would imagine the lost Ligeia. Like the maddened narrator of "The Raven" sorrowing for his "lost Lenore," the unreliable narrator of "Ligeia" tempts the reader to doubt the transformation of Rowena into the narrator's lost love by reason of his habit of indulgence in the opium drug. Indeed, the night of his vigil is not without his cup of mind-altering elixir; therefore, the literal minded critic would suggest that it cannot be stated with any certainty whether the Ligeia whom he sees in Rowena is real, hallucinatory, or a result of reincarnation. There is, however, plenty of evidence to suggest that a close reading of the text gives enough clues for…
Melville, Herman. Moby-Dick. NY: Barnes Nobles, 2008. Print.
Poe, Edgar Allen. "Ligeia." Virginia.edu. Web. 5 Feb 2016.
Poe, Edgar Allen. "The Raven." Bartleby. Web. 5 Feb 2016.
Sweet, Charlie; Blythe, Hal. "Teaching the Unreliable Narrator in Ligeia." Eureka
Thus, these castes being born twice in Hinduism, the principles behind Karma and Reincarnation applies to them. Karma refers to the corresponding reaction to an action or deed that an individual had done to another living thing/s. This means that if the deed was bad or considered evil, the corresponding reaction or karma will also be bad or evil. A similar analogy is applied to goodness/good deeds. Reincarnation is the return of some metaphysical part of the self into a new body -- a process of rebirth for the individual, characteristic of the concept of two births exclusively only to members of the three higher castes.
Jainism is an old religion prevalent in India and other nations in the Asian region. Originally a part of the Buddhist religion, Jainism believes not in the concept of a God, but the authority of the saints or prophets. Its religious principles are simple…
Instead, the practice bhakti-style devotion to various Buddhas and other supramundane figures (Protehero, 2010, p. 177). These are not manifestations of one God, as might be understood by practitioners of most Western religions, but more similar to spirit guides.
Another aspect of Buddhism that might be surprising is the understanding of "karma." The word is commonly used in our current lexicon and refers to the good or bad that comes one's way based on one's own good or bad deeds. It is thought of as a reward or, conversely, payback. It helps people make sense of the world if they can conceive of such cosmic justice. However, karma is more complicated and really has to do with cause and effect. The idea is that everything one does has consequences, which must be dealt with constructively before one can move on (Martin, 2011). It is about learning and personal growth rather…
Bailey, S.P. (2010). American zenophilia. Humanities 31(2).
Martin, S. (2011). 10 things you didn't know about Buddhism. The Boomington Post. Retrieved from http://www.sharpseniors.com/blog/10-things-you-didnt-know-about-buddhism/
Prothero, S. (2010). God is not one: Eight rival religions that run the world -- and why their differences matter. New York: HarperOne.
Wilson, J. (2011). The popularity of selected elements of Buddhism in North America. Dharma World. Retrieved from http://www.rk- world.org/dharmaworld/dw_2011julysept selectedelements.aspx
Buddhism and Jainism
Based on Michael Molloy's three patterns for comparing and contrasting religions, there seems to be a great deal of similarity between Buddhism and Jainism and marked differences between Hinduism and aoism (Experiencing the World's Religions: radition, Challenge, & Change, 2002.)
o start with, Buddhism and Jainism both meet the definition of religion as a 'spiritual path' and Carl Jung's description of religion as meeting the need for personal fulfillment or "individuation." Buddhism and Jainism also share a common prophetic and mystical orientation: nontheistic in nature; believing in guidance from enlightened beings (the Buddhist 'bodhisattva' and the Jain 'tirthankara'). Mahavira, the founder of Jainism, was himself believed to be the twenty-fourth 'tirthankara' and according to Buddhist Cosmology, an enlightened being is born in each era (Gautama Buddha is regarded as the fourth Buddha). Both religions are similar in upholding the path of 'dharma' and 'ahimsa.' he two religions…
The first elemental difference between Hinduism and Taoism is the transcendental nature of the former and the immanent nature of the latter. This characteristic also leads to Hinduism's sacramental orientation and the importance lent to the use of sacred words and scriptures in areas such as music and art vs. The more mystical leanings of Taoism and the value it places on silence and wordless meditation. The second significantly different pattern of contrast is that while Hinduism advocates dualism or that nature is contaminating and exists as an opposing force to the non-material world of the spirit, Taoism believes that nature is sacred and needs no alteration (Experiencing the World's Religions: Tradition, Challenge, & Change, 2002.) third aspect of contrast is that Hinduism preaches the doctrine of karma and cyclical time, and that the 'atman' or human soul will receive 'moksha' or liberation from personal limitation, egotism and rebirth only through following a path of 'Jnana Yoga,' 'Karma Yoga' and 'Bhakti Yoga,' whereas Taoism places far less emphasis on the individual. Taoism, instead, takes the view that actions are not guided by an internalized moral system but by society, tradition and a sense of mutual obligation (Experiencing the World's Religions: Tradition, Challenge, & Change, 2002.)
The fourth point of marked difference is that while Hinduism practices 'exclusiveness,' Taoism is inclusive in nature accepting belief in many deities and regarding truth as relative in the interests of attaining social harmony.
In conclusion, though there are some similarities and some differences when comparing any two religions, Buddhism and Jainism do seem to have a very common basis in their overall orientation whereas there seems to be sharp differences between Hinduism and Taoism.
hat Am I? My Atman is so subtle that I am unable to perceive it. I know, therefore, that I am not in danger of experiencing the undifferentiated creative energy mentioned in verse 11 of the Katha Upanishad. That, however, does not answer the question posed. hat am I? A Hindu might see me as a seeker on one of many possible paths to salvation.
Believers in Hinduism are not condemned from birth with only one possible path to salvation. They do not have to feel guilt for their humanity, nor suffer admonishment for their shortcomings. Hindus seek truth. I am a student and therefore a seeker of knowledge. I am on a path. My life is full of riches. A Hindu would perceive that my former incarnation was, at least, reasonable. I did not come back as harijan. For this, I am grateful. Only grateful, of course, that…
http://www.questia.com/ PM.qst?a=o&d=74484281' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
In the reading, Maya has been given different meanings by the Upanishads. From my understanding, the world contains both magic and matter. Therefore, the world is real because it takes many different forms and accommodates diversity. Therefore, God is our creator who directs us to the concept of Maya when dealing with nature. For the Shvetasvatara this implies that God is the one who rules over Maya and this includes human beings and all other things found on earth. The world can be looked at as something stable and permanent, but some disparity can be drawn from the aspect that makes movements. This move has enabled it to shift and change all the time and is similar to the world of one’s thoughts and dreams where changes also take place. Time is also seen by people to be something that is real and the distinct divisions in this element…
Dharma is related to "karma," another basic Buddhist principle that governs reincarnation and rebirth. Karma is the idea that a person must perform moral deeds throughout his life to attain a higher level of reincarnation and rebirth. Karma governs these moral deeds, and a person must "pay" in the next life if they do not act morally and spiritually in this life. Thus, karma governs more than one life, and is an important concept in the religion.
Buddhism differs from many of the world's major religions in many ways. For example, monks are the holy men of the religion, but they do not act as priests or officials of the church. In fact, many rituals, such as baptism and marriage, are considered family rituals and are not presided over by monks. They do attend funerals, because Buddhists believe death is simply the gateway to another life, and the beginning of…
Keown, Damien. Buddhism a Very Short Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996.
Robinson, B.A. "Buddhism, Based on the Teachings of Siddhartha Gautama." ReligiousTolerance.org. 2007. 28 June. 2007. http://www.religioustolerance.org/buddhism.htm
Schmidt-Leukel, Perry. "Buddhism and the Idea of Human Rights: Resonances and Dissonances." Buddhist-Christian Studies (2006): 33+.
Seager, Richard Hughes. Buddhism in America. New York: Columbia University Press, 1999. Witham, Larry. "Buddhism Influences U.S. Thought." The Washington Times 11 Oct. 1997: 7.
The people of scheduled castes who are given very lowly status in Hindu society are considered untouchables. This is justified by the term Karma which says that these people must have done something bad in their past lives to have earned a lowly status in their current lives. The same kind of explanation can be presented to explain why Brahmins are considered special.
Karma is one concept that has become so closely aligned to reincarnation that it is impossible to separate the two. Wadia (1965) writes: "...the Law of Karma has become attached to the idea of reincarnation, the idea that what is called death relates only to the death of the physical body, while the soul remains unaffected by it and may be reborn in another body, human or animal." (p. 145) This happens because we see that not every good person always prospers and he too goes through…
David Pocock, Mind, Body and Wealth, Oxford, 1973
Wadia, a.R. Philosophical Implications of the Doctrine of Karma. Philosophy East and West V. 15, No. 2 (1965) University of Hawaii Press. Hawaii, USA
As one performs their dharma, they earn karma, which is the cause and effect aspect of Hinduism. Karma explains good actions bring good results, and by obeying this principle and dharma, one can experience rebirth into a "better" life that puts one in a stronger position to achieve moksha. The ultimate goal for any Hindu soul is to achieve moksha, which is the liberation from samsara, the cycle of life and death (Chidester: 85). The critical aspect of Hinduism is realizing when the body dies, the Self (Atman) does not die. The Self is carried from life to life, through reincarnation, and the secret to death is to realize the Supreme Self hidden in the heart through meditation and grace (Kramer: 30). Realizing Self in Hindu customs is required to achieve moksha, and be liberated from the endless round of birth, death, and rebirth of samsara. Only when the Self…
Chidester, D. Patterns of Transcendence: Religion, Death, and Dying. 2nd ed. Belmont, CA:
Wadsworth Publishing, 2001. 1-216. Print.
Kramer, K. The Sacred Art of Dying: How the world Religions Understand Death. Mahwah, NJL
Paulist Press, 1988. 27-166. Print.
The History of Resurrection Tradition
According to Merriam-ebster dictionary, the word 'resurrection' stands for "the state of one risen from the dead." Generally, resurrection refers to restoration to life of the person who is clinically dead.
Concept of resurrection has been in existence in one form or the other since the very birth of the first human being in this planet. Over the centuries, different religions and mythological schools of thought have defined and taken the tradition of resurrection in different ways; therefore, it is always hard to find any commonly agreed fact about it.
For further clarification, it will be necessary to point out that resurrection stands apart from the concepts of 'immortality of soul' and 'resuscitation' as it involves the rebirth of both body and soul (Harrington).
It will not be wrong to say that the tradition of resurrection is closely associated with the philosophy of…
Harrington, D., J. Jesus: A Historical Portrait. Cincinnati, OH: St. Anthony Messenger Press, 2007.
Inplainsite.org. 9 October 2011
Keathley, J.H."The Resurrection of Jesus Christ."09 October 2011 <
Therefore, the Pentateuch plays a very important formal role in the Jewish faith.
However, the oral Torah may be as important to the Jewish people. One of the underlying components of Judaism is that the Jews are God's chosen people. As God's chosen people, even the non-religious history of the Jewish people becomes religious. This is because God informs their activities in a way that is not necessarily acknowledged in other religions. For example, a history of Christianity should include the Crusades, because they were driven by religion, but because Christianity is not envisioned as a living religion in the same way as Judaism, the history is not viewed in the same way. In contrast, the history of the Jewish people is not separable from the religious relationship that the Jewish people have with God as his chosen people.
Frankel's viewpoint of the Oral Torah, particularly the Siddur and Mahzor,…
Kinsley, D. 1982, 'Worship in the Hindu tradition' in Hinduisim: A cultural perspective, Prentice
Hall, New Jersey, pp. 105-121.
Martin, B. 1974. 'New interpretations of Judaism' in a History of Judaism, Basic Books, New
York, pp. 232-262.
Buddhist vs. Hindu Religious Ideals in Art and Architecture
Although Buddhist and Hindu art may appear to be the same to the eyes of an untrained observer, they are products of entirely different religious traditions. While Buddhism has its origins in India, it quickly spread outside of the birthplace of its founder, Siddhartha Gautama and gained greater traction elsewhere, including China and Japan. Buddhism also split into two distinct traditions, that of Theravada and Mahayana, the former of which emphasized the monastic tradition of strictly adhering to the teachings and life of the Buddha while the latter placed greater emphasis on the ability of laypersons as well as monks to obtain Enlightenment. In contrast, Hinduism is a distinctly Indian religion. Both religions embrace the concept of reincarnation, although it is Hinduism who uses this idea to justify a caste system, or the notion that the social class into which someone…
The definition of resistance is “he critical objections which the patient raised in order to avoid communicating the ideas which occurred to him, and against which the fundamental rule of psycho-analysis was directed, had themselves already been manifestations of this resistance” (Freud, 2017). Transference is when a patient during therapy feels emotions, expectations, and desires because of the journey through experiences and then redirects and applies it to another person. For example, a woman discussing having an affair with a man, could then want to have an affair with her therapist because of the feelings that arose discussing why she became promiscuous in the first place.
Related to resistance, transference could end up being the best way to allow someone who is resisting to come to the realization that he or she is experiencing something that is blocking their recovery. For example, if that person’s anger over his father is…
If there was a weakness, it was the repetitiveness of the many different hymns and chants. Many of them seemed to repeat themselves throughout the book, such as the many different chants and hymns to heaven and dawn, and to the various gods. I understand that some conveyed different messages, but it seemed to bog the book down, and just add weight. Cutting some of these redundant messages would have made it an even more appealing text.
These texts are effective too because they explain the religion in relatively simple language, so even foreign readers can get the feeling and spirit of the religion, and take away a more intimate understanding of Hindu belief systems. It is meant as a guidebook for Hindus, but it opens up new ideas about religious thought in other readers, and shows, although we are different, many world religions are remarkably similar, as well.
Unknown. "The Vedas." SacredTexts.com. 2010. 2 June 2010.
If, in witnessing to a Hindu, such efforts can be directed towards them and their people, then their own personal love can be brought out and they may be led to follow Christ. ecause of the diversity and complexity of their beliefs, sometimes, the simple promises of the truth of Christ and of salvation through him will assist in helping them to understand that Christianity has only these simple beliefs to follow instead of the complexity of Hinduism.
egin with the ook of John in the New Testament and in a simple version such as the New International Version (NIV). Start with Chapter 1 and emphasize mostly the passages concerning Salvation. Remember Hindus don't know Christ. You must introduce Him to them on a personal basis. Also, use 1 John 5:13 to explain that salvation is based on God's grace and not on works.
Make your spirit humble in your…
Caner, E.M. "PHILOSOPHY 104: Supplemental notes to lecture and reading: The worldview of Hinduism." n.d. 28 November 2009 <
Halverson, D. "Hinduism." 2004. International Students Inc. 28 November 2009 .
uddhism and Christianity: Complementary Worldviews
According to the Gospel of Matthew, when a wealthy young man came to Jesus, and asked him how he might be made perfect, Jesus advised the eager young man to keep the commandments and essentially adhere to the Golden Rule to be good. ut when the young man persisted and asked the Savior for more advice, Jesus said that the man should sell all he owned and follow Him. Jesus said that the man should sell all he owned and seek to be rewarded in heaven, not on earth. ut the young man turned away, saddened that he would give up his great wealth to achieve spiritual perfection. Jesus commented to his disciples that it was easier for a camel to go through the eye of a needle than for a rich man to enter the kingdom of heaven (Matthew 19:28). However, in the uddhist…
Boeree, George C. "The Basics of Buddhist Wisdom." Published by Shippensburg University.
1999. 7 Feb 2009. http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/buddhawise.html
Boeree, George C. "The Life of Siddhartha Gautama." Published by Shippensburg University.
1999. 7 Feb 2009. http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/siddhartha.html
familiar with the religions of Buddhism and Hinduism but the religion of Jainism, although enjoying nearly as many members, is not as well-known. Similarly, most know something about the practices and beliefs of Hinduism and Buddhism but very individuals know anything about Jainism.
Jainism is a well-established religion that is largely based on the concept of non-violence which is one of the five great vows of the religion (Long, 2009). The other four vows are non-attachment to material things, no lying, no stealing, and promotion of sexual restraint. As to sexual restraint, celibacy is considered to be the ideal.
Followers of Jainism view the world as a highly integrated unit. They believe that all living things, including animals and plants, possess a living soul and that humans, animals, and plants all operate on an equal level. This belief places a strict duty on the part of its followers to treat…
Cush, D. (1999). 'Learning from' the Concept and Concepts of a Religious Tradition: Jainism in the RE Curriculum. Journal of Beliefs & Values: Studies in Religion and Education, 60-74.
Jamison, D. (2003). Janism and Buddhism. In D. Jamison, A Companion to Environmental Philosophy (pp. 52-66). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell.
Long, J.D. (2009). Jainism: An Introduction . London: I.B. Tarius.
Jainism, Buddhism, Hinduism
ALFRED HITCHCOCK: A Master of Duality
For many, the name Alfred Hitchcock conjures hazy and disconnected memories of Cary Grant and Ingrid Bergman in Rio, Tippi Hedren being chased by killer birds, or Jimmy Stewart in a wheelchair; but for others -- those that are somewhat more experienced with the work of Hitchcock -- the utterance of his moniker means much more. Indeed, many consider Hitchcock to be not only one of the most prolific and entertaining filmmakers, but also one of the most profound. A recurring -- and certainly intriguing -- motif that holds together his body of work is his incessant interest and portrayal of duality: the conflicting, yet in some ways similar, nature of life. That is to say, Hitchcock (and no other, on as prestigious a level) was able to brilliantly compare, reduce, and then reevaluate polar opposites that every human encounters. Love or hate, man…
Jim Jones and the Jonestown Massacre
Book: Suicide Cult by Marshall Kilduff
In 1978 the suicide-massacre of 900 people in South America shocked the world as Reverend Jim Jones' cult, named the Peoples Temple. In his book "Suicide Cult," Marshall Kilduff steps into Jim Jones' past and reflects on the man who brainwashed hundreds of people into donating their Social Security checks to his church, and eventually committing suicide in the Guyana jungle.
Jim Jones was born to a Ku Klux Klansman and as a young boy was practicing mind-control. He was a student minister in 1952, but left his Methodist church because they refused African-Americans into their congregation. Jones created his own mixed congregation church in Indiana in the 1960s. This was something unheard of for the time, and within his church Jones preached love and understanding. It's hard to believe this social harmony preacher would become the leader…
In the beginning of "The hagavad-Gita," two groups of opponents prepare for battle. On one side, the one hundred sons of Dhritarashtra stand and on the other side, and the Pandava brothers stand. These soldiers are in the middle of a family feud over the right to govern the land of Kurukshetra.
A soldier named Arjuna, who is the leader of the Pandava armies, prepares to battle as Lord Krishna heads toward the opposition. Just before the battle, Arjuna asks Lord Krishna for advice.
Arjuna is ridden with hesitation and guilt as he faces his family and knows he will have to kill many loved ones to win the battle. Arjuna has set down his weapon and is ready to sacrifice his life. Arjuna approaches Krishna to tell him about his emotions regarding the battle. "Krishna, I seek no victory, or kingship or pleasures" (Miller, 25).…
Miller, Barbara Stoler, translator. The Bhagavad-Gita: Krishna's Counsel in Time of War. New York NY, Bantam Books, 1986.
Three tier universe
According to Jainism, the universe assumes three levels: lower, middle and upper. Jains regard the universe to be imperishable, unending, and with no Creator. However, certain elements of the universe may alter in due course. The upper level, or 'siddhasila', comprises pure, free souls residing in a permanent state of sheer peace and bliss. The middle level of the universe comprises embodied creatures like humans, animals, plants, and inanimate beings (things), bound by the Law of Karma. The third level (lower world) comprises beings undergoing different phases of punishments, on account of the sins committed by them in their earthly life. After completion of punishment, they go back to the middle world (Jain, 2015).
Jiva and Ajiva
According to Jainism, the entire universe has two independent, unending, imperishable and coexisting parts, namely, Ajiva and Jiva; these are, in some ways, similar to the Samakhya School's…
Jain, S. (2015).Major Beliefs of Jainism. Retrieved October 16, 2015 from http://www.hinduwebsite.com/jainism/jainbeliefs.asp
Library.(n.d.). Retrieved October 16, 2015 from http://www.patheos.com/Library/Lenses/Side
Robinson, B. (2010). Sikhism: Its beliefs, practices, symbol, & names. Retrieved October 16,
According to Aiken, this liberation is only achieved after twelve years as a monk and eight rebirths. Souls who do not achieve liberation are either reborn as another life on earth or suffer punishment in one of the eight levels of hell.
Once a householder undertakes the path to liberation of the soul, according to the Jain Center of America, he must take and follow the five vows:
Ahimsa -- nonviolence
Satya -- truthfulness
Asteya -- not stealing
Brahmacarya -- celibacy or monogamy
Aparigraha -- detachment from material possessions 'All the venerable ones (arhats) of the past, present and future discourse, counsel, proclaim, propound and prescribe thus in unison: do not injure, abuse, oppress, enslave, insult, torment, torture or kill any creature or living being' (Uttaraadhyayan Sutra)
Hibbets explains that ahimsa (nonviolence) is the most fundamental value to the Jains. Because they believe that all living things (animals, plants, insects,…
Aiken, Charles Francis. "Jainism." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 8. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1910. Web. 5 May 2011.
Anonymous. "Jainism." ReligionFacts. N.p. 18 January 2008. Web. 5 May 2011.
Hibbets, Maria. Extremists for Love: The Jain Perspective on Nonviolence. Beliefnet. N.p. Web. 5 May 2011.
"Jainism." Jain Center of America. Web. 5 May 2011.
The Japanese myth partly resembles that of Adam and Eve present in the Bible and in the Quran. However, the first beings in Japan are considered to hold much more power than their equivalents in the west. Another resemblance between the Japanese legends and those in the west is the fact that the kami are considered to live in the high planes of Takamagahara, somewhat resembling mount Olympus, from Greek mythology. Japanese mythology is different from other mythologies through the fact that all of the deities involved in it are good in their character.
In the sixteenth century, when Buddhism entered Japan, the locals had a hard time keeping Shinto as their main religion, since it had not been an organized religion. Even with the fact that Buddhism had been spreading quickly around the country, the presence of Shinto could be felt everywhere, in people's lifestyles and in their culture.…
1. Amudsen, Christan. (1999). "Insights from the Secret Teachings of Jesus: The Gospel of Thomas." 1st World Publishing.
2. Herman A.L. (1991). "A Brief Introduction to Hinduism: Religion, Philosophy, and Ways of Liberation." Westview Press.
3. Kato, Etsuko. (2004). "The Tea Ceremony and Women's Empowerment in Modern Japan." Routledge.
4. Kumagai Fumie, Keyser Donna J. (1996). "Unmasking Japan Today: The Impact of Traditional Values on Modern Japanese Society." Praeger.
Despite Kundera's own assertion that Nietzsche's eternal recurrence can only be interpreted metaphorically, he manifests four different forms of this philosophy by means of the lives he describes. These indeed include the literal interpretation, where actions and events literally repeat throughout a lifetime; the collective, where similar events occur in different lives but in similar relationships; the symbolic, where symbols recur within lifetimes, and the metaphorical, which Kundera describes in the beginning of the novel, where the same events occur in different forms. These forms of recurrence deserve some more detailed discussion, as follows.
Tereza and Tomas's relationship is somewhat problematic from the beginning, but no less inevitable for it. It is as if the decision to stay together despite the fact that their needs and goals are incompatible is made on their behalf by a power similar to fate. Hence the various fateful events that resulted in…
Corbett, Bob. Comments on The Unbearable Lightness of Being. Oct 2001. http://www.webster.edu/~corbetre/personal/reading/kundera-unbearable.html
Fraser, Giles. Meet Dr. Nietzsche: Response to comments. 2 Nov 2008 http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/2008/nov/02/religion-nietzsche-responses .
Gorfu, G.E. Nietzsche's Eternal Recurrence. 2000. http://www.meskot.com/recurrence.htm
Kundera, Milan. The Unbearable Lightness of Being. 1984 Available online: http://www.truly-free.org/#fK
According to Bass, "Hinduism is the only major religion lacking an adequate explanation as to its origin," as no definitive Hindu text exist that that date before 1000 B.C. Indeed, because Hinduism is one of the religions that views time as cyclical rather than linear, what information is available about Hinduism does not give a very accurate picture of its history (Bass 5). hat can be gleaned from this history is the fact that Hinduism is one of the oldest religions with one of the oldest societies in the world. Just as their origins are difficult to define, the beliefs of Hinduism are varied depending on one's personal interpretation of the religion. However, one of the more important aspects of Hinduism is its social caste system. This belief states that there are four casts, and each "has its rules and obligation for living." The three castes are Brahman, priests, hatriyas,…
"A Concise History of Islam and the Arabs." Mid East Web. n.d. 11 June 2009.
Abdullah, Mohd Habibullah Bin. "The Story of Creation in the Quar'an and Old
Testament." Bismika Allahuma. 15 October 2005. 11 June 2009.
While the similarities in ethical and theological concepts are great, some differences emerge. For instance, Islam seems to be the more fundamental or faith-based of the two religions, as obinson (2008-1) points often to a liberal branch of Christianity that questions even the very fundamentals of the faith. For instance, while Muslims believe that Jesus was born of a Virgin, even though they do not accept him as the Son of God, liberal Christians do not accept the idea of the virgin birth (obinson, 2008-1). While Christianity has gained its share of criticism, many critics have targeted Islam in the wake of the September 11, 2009 attacks. Many criticize Islam for the concept of Jihad, a term that obinson (2008A) argues is one of the most misunderstood in the religion. Some interpret this term as war against non-believers. Ellian (2008) also criticizes Islam for its inability to accept criticism and…
Ellian, A. (2009). "Criticism and Islam." Retrieved June 10, 2009, from The Wall Street
Journal. Web Site: http://online.wsj.com/article/SB120692614173175795.html
Robinson, B.A. (2007). "Comparison of Buddhism and Christianity." Retrieved June 10,
2009, from Religious Tolerance.org. Web Site: http://www.religioustolerance.org/buddhism4.htm
" (Koran, 2:36)
A punishment dealt herein concerns man's occupation of earth as a home, with God endowing it only a finite capacity to host mortal life. Again, the contrast between the implications to man's punishment for Original Sin in the two texts can be traced to the contrast in man's assumed composition. In the Hebrew Bible, God punished Eve and her offspring to a perpetuity of painful childbearing "and unto Adam He said: 'Because thou hast hearkened unto the voice of thy wife, and hast eaten of the tree, of which I commanded thee, saying: Thou shalt not eat of it; cursed is the ground for thy sake; in toil shalt thou eat of it all the days of thy life." (Gen. 3:17)
The intricacies that differentiate the two texts offer a useful set of variations on a creation story that is highly associated with the evolution of monotheism…
Achtemeier, P. (1980). Inspiration and Authority. Hendrickson Publishing.
Barrett, D.B. (2001). World Christian Encyclopedia. Oxford University Press.
Katz, J. (2001). The Prophet Mohammed. Eretz Yisroel.
Koran Text. (1997 edition). The Holy Qur'an. University of Virginia: Online Book
Tradition says that a dying person should be put on the floor in order for them to be closer to the earth. After the ailing person dies, the body is washed and prepared for funeral practices. Most Hindu people would rather have a Hindu priest pray and bless their recently departed relative.
4.In Hinduism, people that don't believe are not threatened to perish in hell as they are given another chance to recognize the religion as having great importance in one's life. From the Hindu point-of-view, hell is something experienced by people that have a bad Karma.
Hindu people believe that they've attained a level of happiness when they reach a perfect Karma and their mind and body are pure. Hinduism regards life as being complex process in which the soul undergoes several phases of reincarnation in order to reach a final phase where it is saved and reincarnation no…
1. Chopra, Anita. Alagiakrishnan, Kannayiram. "HEALTH and HEALTH CARE of ASIAN INDIAN-American ELDERS." Retrieved April 8, 2009, from Stanford University Web site: http://www.stanford.edu/group/ethnoger/asianindian.html
2. Wendell, Thomas. "Wendell Thomas." Kessinger Publishing, 2003.
3. "Hindu American Foundation Denounces Temple Entry Ban on Harijans (Dalits) in Orissa." Retrieved April 8, 2009, from the Hindu American Foundation Web site: http://www.hinduamericanfoundation.org/media_press_release_jagannath_harijan.htm
4. "Hinduism." Retrieved April 8, 2009, from diehardindian Web site: http://www.diehardindian.com/demogrph/moredemo/hindu.htm
Salvation will come based on one's deeds rather than on his capacity to achieve a high spiritual level, as in the Hindu faith and others.
Christianity does not necessarily provide all the answers. Christian believers will still have doubts about their existence, about their role on Earth and about their lives, as well as about their capacity of attaining salvation. However, Christianity provides the means by which one can integrate successfully into his or her life, enjoy the life here, while committing to a life within the Church and doing the good deeds that can help an individual attain eternal salvation. The idea of salvation puts things into perspective, but with a direct impact on the present, because it is the acts of the individual here that will get the salvation or not.
Christianity can be considered, from all these perspectives, the most complete religion in existence and a way…
1. Barrow, Martin. The Four Gospels. 1995. On the Internet at http://www.domini.org/tabern/martyn.htm.Last retrieved on February 3, 2009
2. Salvation. 2008. The Catholic Encyclopedia. On the Internet at http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/13407a.htm.Last retrieved on February 3, 2009
Barrow, Martin. The Four Gospels. 1995. On the Internet at http://www.domini.org/tabern/martyn.htm.Last retrieved on February 3, 2009
Salvation. 2008. The Catholic Encyclopedia. On the Internet at
Buddhists, who similarly believe in the concept of Karma, also have a strong commitment to the belief that their actions have consequences. hile Buddhists have a much different value system than Hindus or especially estern religions that tend to see good and bad as black and white, while Buddhists see it as wholesome or unwholesome (Sach 80), they still have a code of morality, such as valuing peace over harm. Karma represents this moral dichotomy. Thus, both the Eastern religions of Hinduism and Buddhism support the theory that one creates one's own destiny. If they did not, they could not have their system of moral rights and wrongs. ithout the chance to make positive or negative decisions, a belief system cannot coherently state that one cannot make one's own decisions, creating one's own destiny. How could a belief system maintain that one would be punished for his or her actions…
Mannion, James. Essential Philosophy. Avon: F+W, 2006.
Rice, Hugh. "Fatalism." 2006, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 8 October 2008.
Stanford University. http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/fatalism/
Sach, Jacky. Essential Buddhism. Avon: F+W, 2006.
Ahimsa in Buddhism
Though the Buddhist concept of ahimsa may often be misinterpreted as being purely concerned with physical pacification, in reality the ideal encompasses both a peaceful attitude towards others as well as an attention to one's own positive and non-violent mental state. In short, ahimsa incorporates non-injury towards others as well as non-injury towards the self through negative mental ideations (tying in, of course, with the Buddhist tenets of reincarnation and karma). It is important to stress the inclusion of harmful "thought[s], word[s], or deed[s]" in what ahimsa opposes in order to form a dichotomy between this concept and that of himsa (Sivananda, 2009). The latter incorporates any form of "harshness," be it through direct means or through the "sin of omission" (Sinvananda, 2009).
It's curious, with this in mind, to consider how ahimsa relates to the concepts of strength; after all, the two seem diametrically opposed at…
Molloy, M. (2006). Experiencing the world's religions: tradition, challenge, and change.
McGraw-Hill Humanities Social Sciences Languages.
O'Sullivan, T. (2010). Ahimsa. Encyclopedia of Psychology and Religion, doi:
Nation of Islam was originally a group known as the Black Muslims (Nation pp). This splinter group is faithful to the Black Muslims' original principles led by Louis Farrakhan (Nation pp). Members strive to improve their social and religious position in society, and the group has won praise for its work in deprived areas (Nation pp). However, its reputation has been tarnished by Farrakhan's anti-Semitic and anti-white beliefs (Nation pp). The group demonstrated its political strength by organizing the 'Million Man March' in October 1995, a march that consisted of approximately 400,000 black men in ashington, D.C. (Nation pp).
Although allace Fard is officially credited with founding the Nation of Islam, much of the doctrine and beliefs of the NOI are rooted in the teachings of Noble Drew Ali and his Moorish Holy Temple of Science (Religious pp). The basis of Drew's teachings held that African-Americans were of Islamic heritage…
"Nation of Islam." The Hutchinson Encyclopedia. 9/22/2003
"Religious Movements: Nation of Islam."
"The birth of the Nation of Islam." July 11, 2001.
Death and Dying in Other Cultures
Death and dying are never easy for family, friends, loved ones, and the ill persons themselves. These issues are further complicated by the fact that so many different cultures are now blended in the United States, and many of them have far differing views on death and dying.
For example, in the United States, most Christians believe in burying their dead quickly, holding a ritual funeral or "celebration of life," and mourning for a certain period of time. Most Christians believe the dead will rise to Heaven and live the remainder of their "life" as an angel in the clouds above. However, this is not the only way to celebrate death and face dying.
In the Hindu culture, people believe their loved one will return to earth to live another life, depending on the quality of life they lived during this current life.…
Aiken, L.R. (2001). Dying, death, and bereavement (4th ed.). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Kramer, K.P. (1988). The sacred art of dying: How world religions understand death. New York: Paulist Press.
For example, readers know Isobe's wife believed in reincarnation and that Isobe is looking for her reincarnated soul; and there he is in a gift shop, believing that he was pushed there by some "invisible power" (his dead wife?) and he sees Out on a Limb by Shirley MacLaine, and Children Who Remember Previous Lives by Professor Stevenson, both reincarnation books of course, and he buys them without thinking twice.
In this novel, the strivers are confronted not only with their own weaknesses and their own burdensome flaws and foibles, they are confronted with the Ganges River realities - loveliness and ugliness; hope and despair; death and life; bloated bodies floating along in darkness and living persons bobbing along happily. The contrasts are metaphors, it would seem, for the price one has to pay to gain that coveted redemption and reconciliation with the past.
For the Kiguchi character, his striving…
Religious doctrine usually includes some form of salvation as a reward for good behavior and for keeping to the tenets of the religion. Each religion treats this general idea in its own way. For the Christian, right behavior lead to salvation from permanent death and promises an afterlife in heaven. In uddhism, the promise is not of an afterlife but of a reward in this world, a reward in the form of perfect peace through a mind free of craving and unwanted emotion. Nirvana is a state of mind and an achievement in itself, for nirvana is that state of mind to which the adherent aspires. It is considered the highest form of happiness and is achieved only by the most dedicated follower of the uddha.
The conception of salvation usually relates to the idea of some ultimate value or being, and it can be thought of as an…
Ames, Van Meter. "Zen." In Japan and Zen, Betty Ames and Van Meter Ames (Cincinnati: University of Cincinnati, 1961.
Corless, Roger J. The Vision of Buddhism: The Space under the Tree. St. Paul, Minnesota: Paragon House, 1989.
Gowans, Christopher W. Philosophy of the Buddha. New York: Routledge, 2003.
Griffiths, Paul J. On Being Buddha: The Classical Doctrine of Buddhahood. Albany, New York: State University of New York Press, 1994.
They both emphasize on the teaching of doing good and following rules to live right and happily. They both have vigorous missionary programs, in which they convert people to their religion. In the two religions, the people can worship in groups or individually. The religions have a leader of worship that is a monk in Buddhism and a Priest in Christianity. The two principles in the religion used parables to teach, and they are egalitarians. The teachings on respecting others and treating them as oneself are acceptable in both religions. They both emphasize on charity towards the poor and aspire for greater spiritual perfection.
The differences are irrefutable, as Buddhism does not talk of a Creator, God while Christianity believes in a divine creator of Universe (allace 26). In Buddhism, the emphasis is on mediation and mindfulness, whereas that of Christianity places stress on prayer. Additionally, Buddhism emphasizes on…
Netland, Harold a, and Keith E. Yandell. Buddhism: A Christian Exploration and Appraisal.
Downers Grove, Ill: IVP Academic, 2009. Print.
Wallace, BA. Mind in the Balance: Meditation in Science, Buddhism, and Christianity. New York: Columbia University Press, 2009. Print.
King, Sallie B. Socially Engaged Buddhism. Honolulu: University of Hawai-i Press, 2009. Print.
Eastern Religion Elements Matrix
Countries of origin
In Historical figures and events
Founded: 1500 BC
Founded 2,500 years ago by Indian Prince Siddharta Gautama
Origin: China; founded between the 6th and 5th centuries B.C.; Confucius developed cultural values and taught that learning above all should be the goal
Daoism also spelled Taoism was founded in China in 550 B.C.
In the afterlife, if Karma is not resolved, the soul is born into a new body; life's purpose is to be liberated from reincarnation
Like Hinduism, a goal is to be liberated from the cycle of reincarnation;
"benevolence" and optimism and being loyal to one's own nature; being unselfish, giving back (reciprocity) and seeking a virtuous life
This spiritual Taoism and philosophical Taoism; Taoism focuses on social duty and adheres to the principles of Confucianism; death is simply from being to non-being,…
Pilgrimages in India
A Quest for Finding Oneself in India: Introduction
Humans are born with an incredible amount of mental capacity to learn and grow, yet we are not born with a pre-determined set of rules guiding our thoughts. Religious practice around the world is thus the result of a collaboration of ideas between humans within a society in order to bring a framework of understanding into everyday life. Yet even with justifications of existence provided by religion, some individuals choose to pursue unanswered questions, in order to find a deeper meaning to life, and existence. Pilgrimage is such a quest, and is the pursuit of knowledge, as well as a journey of the mind and body, in search of answers to the unknowable questions of the universe. Pilgrimage also serves to prove one's own devotion to his or her faith, and can be qualified as a measure of…
"Essay on Bhakti Movement of India." PreserveArticles.com: Preserving Your Articles for Eternity. Web. 14 Dec. 2011. .
"Foot Pilgrimage to Murugan Shrines." Murugan Bhakti: Skanda-Kumara Website. Web. 14 Dec. 2011. .
Haberman, David L. Journey through the Twelve Forests: an Encounter with Krishna. New York: Oxford UP, 1994. Print.
"History of Pilgrimage." HOME. Web. 14 Dec. 2011. .
Buddhism vs. Quine vs. Crowley
The research intends to compare Buddhism, vs. Quine vs. Crowley by examining some of the philosophy put across by the two Buddhist and other two contemporary philosophers. The research will spell out each philosophy one by one giving each a critical analysis and interpretation. The research intends to start by looking at Vasubandhu's Indian Buddhist Theory to be followed by the other Buddhism philosophy of Nagarjuna known as the philosophy of the middle way of Persons. The third and the fourth section will look at Quine's relativism, and Crowley's idea of crossing the abyss respectively. Lastly after a thorough look at each of the four philosophies the conclusion will give the comparison between each of the philosophy so as to satisfy the objective of the research.
Vasubandhu's Indian Buddhist Theory of Persons
Vasubandhu own contribution is the refutation or proving of the theory of self…
Bechert, Heinz & Richard Gombrich the World of Buddhism: Thames & Hudson, 1984.
David Kalupahana, (Ed) Nagarjuna, and Nagarjuna: Albany: State University Press 1986.
Davidson, Ronald M. Indian Esoteric Buddhism: A Social History of the Tantric Movement. New York: Columbia University Press, 2003.
Donath, Dorothy C. Buddhism for the West: Theravada, Mahayana and Vajray-na; a comprehensive review of Buddhist history, philosophy, and teachings from the time of the Buddha to the present day. Julian Press, 1971.
Crystals, witchcraft, ESP, tarot cards, tai chi, yoga, and the I Ching, which are seemingly disparate tools, practices, and beliefs, come under one spiritual rubric: the New Age movement. The New Age amalgamates ancient philosophies and religious practices ranging from shamanism to Sufism and including everything in between. The New Age is almost an anything-goes spiritual path, as it has no one set of beliefs, no central text, no concrete origin, and a malleable theology. In fact, technically atheists can participate in New Age religion, for the New Age also embraces straight science and often espouses an impersonal universe devoid of an overarching anthropomorphic deity. However, the New Age can be isolated and analyzed as a distinct, albeit modern religious movement that began loosely around the turn of the twentieth century when Theosophy delivered fresh ideas from Eastern religions to the Western world and as the Western world…
Salinger is an American literary treasure, best known for his novella Catcher in the ye. However, Catcher in the ye is but one of many in the canon of Salinger works. Salinger's short stories have recently garnered renewed attention because several unpublished Salinger stories were leaked online in November of 2013, three years after the author's death (uncie, 2013). Salinger died a recluse, and a man of mystery who was as much an American antihero as Holden Caulfield of Catcher in the ye. There have been numerous cultural allusions of Salinger's iconic novel and its quintessentially postmodern protagonist. Although no film has ever been made directly from the story of Catcher in the ye, Morgan (2010) points out that there have been allusions to Salinger stories in films like The Collector (1965) and Six Degrees of Separation (1993). Additionally, a 2013 documentary film about J.D. Salinger promises to reveal the…
Gopnik, A. (2010). Postscript: J.D. Salinger. The New Yorker. Retrieved online: http://www.newyorker.com/talk/2010/02/08/100208ta_talk_gopnik
McGrath, C. (2010). J.D. Salinger, literary recluse, dies at 91. International New York Times. Retrieved online: http://www.nytimes.com/2010/01/29/books/29salinger.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0
Morgan, K. (2010). Six stories: Salinger inspired cinema. The Huffington Post. Retrieved online: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/kim-morgan/six-stories-salinger-insp_b_443099.html
Runcie, C. (2013). JD Salinger unpublished stories 'leaked online'. 28 Nov 2013. The Telegraph. Retrieved online: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/culture/books/booknews/10480275/JD-Salinger-unpublished-stories-leaked-online.html
Sociocultural Differences in Perspectives on Aging
The Hindu Indian cultural perspective on aging is that life is part of a great cycle in which life, death and rebirth are norms. The Hindu culture believes that if a person is good in his or her life, he or she will be reborn as something better in the next life and that if he or she is not so good, the outcome will be the opposite -- the next life will be something worse (Metcalfe, Metcalfe, 2012). This is the idea of reincarnation that is a major belief in the Hindu culture. Because believers want a better life after they die, they are mindful to be respectful to others in this life -- and this applies to the way in which the treat their elders. Aging is not really viewed as a lamentable process, but rather as a natural step towards the…
The individual’s experience and the personal construction of meaning are central to humanistic psychology. Theorists like Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow initially promoted this humanistic view of psychology, which was contrary to the prevailing tenets of behaviorism and psychoanalysis. Instead of focusing on past experiences and environmental variables, Rogers and Maslow focused on the person’s perceptions and intrinsic motivations (“What is Humanistic Psychology?” n.d.). Moreover, early theorists also negated the importance of experimental studies and other applications of the scientific method to psychological inquiry because these methods have a way of dehumanizing and devaluing personal experience (McLeod, 2015). Theorists like Rogers and Maslow found was more useful to apply qualitative methods that would allow the person to open up and share their thoughts, beliefs, experiences, and perceptions. Thus, the therapist and the client work together to discover ways of finding meaning in life experiences.
Carl Rogers promoted the…
This protein protective coating known as the spore coat provides the bacteria with greater strength and durability.
Depending on the bacterial species, the bacterial endospore diameter can either be smaller, the same or even larger than the innovative vegetative cell. The endospore can either be located at one end (terminally), near one end (sub terminally) or inside (centrally) the vegetative cell. In order to hold back metabolism, the bacterial endospore almost lacks water completely. The germination process and new vegetative cells are later created by the presence of water or moisture. The endospore houses DNA, ribosome, enzymes, little RNA and necessary small molecules. It also houses colonic acid in the cytoplasm and large amount of calcium ions. These materials are utilized by the bacterium while germinating at good conditions.
Endospores display resistance to all vegetative cells' killing processes such as freezing, heating, use of chemicals, radiation and desiccation. Controlling endospores…
Sace, J. "What Are Bacterial Endospores?" Bright Hub: The Hub for Bright Minds. Ed. Daniella Nicole. Bright Hub Inc., 1 Feb. 2010. Web. 4 Mar. 2010. .
Rather than preaching or even attempting to define what the righteous path is, simply living the righteous path is better and more righteous. Silence, in other words, is a major source of righteousness itself, and the calmness of silence is its own reward.
Perhaps the most direct, simple and yet profound way in which the various elements of Dhammapada's statement can be approached is through Haught's concept of action. Especially prevalent in Western religions, according to Haught, this is the concept that direct action must be used in accordance with and to bring about religious principles and beliefs. Good action, according to Dhammapada's statement, leads to good living, with joy the natural result of righteousness. This has not always been seen as a cycle that reaches completion in this world in the Judeo-Christian religions or in many Eastern traditions, but through re-birth, ascension to heaven in the afterlife, or even…
Maharshtrian cuisine comprises of hot, aromatic meat and fish curries and subtle flavoring of vegetarian cuisine. Peanuts and cashew nuts are widely used in vegetables and the main cooking medium is peanut oil. Another feature is the use of a deep purple berry with a sweet and sour taste, otherwise called kokum, in sol kadhi, an appetizer-digestive, which is served chilled. Non-vegetarian and vegetarian dishes are served with boiled rice or rotis made from rice flour. Dessert is commonly comprises rotis (a type of bread) stuffed with a sweet mixture of jaggery and gram flour.
Goan cuisine boasts of delicacies like tangy pork 'vindaloo', spicy 'sorpotel' and the popular fish curry with rice. Most of their meals are accompanied with local wine or local liqueur, 'Feni'. Meals are simple but most are also chili hot, spicy and pungent. The basic components include rice, fish and coconut and delicacies made from…
Audretsch, D.B. And Meyer, N.S. " Religion, Culture and Entrepreneurship in India." Indiana
University Public Affairs Conference. 2009. 17 Apr.2010.
"Cuisine." Cuisine Tours of India, Culinary Tour India, Indian Cuisines information,
" James a.S. McPeek
further blames Jonson for this corruption: "No one can read this dainty song to Celia without feeling that Jonson is indecorous in putting it in the mouth of such a thoroughgoing scoundrel as Volpone."
asserts that the usual view of Jonson's use of the Catullan poem is distorted by an insufficient understanding of Catullus' carmina, which comes from critics' willingness to adhere to a conventional -- yet incorrect and incomplete -- reading of the love poem. hen Jonson created his adaptation of carmina 5, there was only one other complete translation in English of a poem by Catullus. That translation is believed to have been Sir Philip Sidney's rendering of poem 70 in Certain Sonnets, however, it was not published until 1598.
This means that Jonson's knowledge of the poem must have come from the Latin text printed in C. Val. Catulli, Albii, Tibulli, Sex.…
Alghieri, Dante Inferno. 1982. Trans. Allen Mandelbaum. New York: Bantam Dell, 2004.
Allen, Graham. Intertextuality. Routledge; First Edition, 2000. Print.
Baker, Christopher. & Harp, Richard. "Jonson' Volpone and Dante." Comparative
Euthyphro then offers the third definition, derived from the second one:
I should say that what all the gods love is pious and holy, and the opposite which they all hate, impious.
Socrates then replies with the creation of a dilemma -- would the things and people be considered pious because they are loved by gods, or would the gods all love them because they are pious. After a deeper process of thought, Socrates himself defines piety as a species of the genus 'justice, but Euthyphro insists on defining piety based on what the gods like. Piety is eventually described as knowledge and prayer, to the benefit of the gods (Plato).
It is often argued that ethics has its origins in religion, which means that whenever an individual is facing a moral dilemma, they would be able to find the answer in invoking the Divinity. Nevertheless, religion is often conflicting…
Cooper, J.G., 2010, the life of Socrates: collected from the Memorabilia of Xenophon and the Dialogues of Plato and illustrated farther by Aristotle, Diodorus Siculus, BiblioBazaar, 2010
Plato, the last days of Socrates, http://socrates.clarke.edu / last accessed on March 4, 2011
Euthanasia and suicide, BBC, 2009, http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/buddhism/buddhistethics/euthanasiasuicide.shtml last accessed on March 4, 2011
hile it is commanded to do good, this is not a requirement for salvation.
Essentially, the Sikh religion believes that after death, the soul returns to God. This God is universal and salvation is acquired through good works, states Raj. (Raj 177). This does not happen with just one life, Raj explains. Salvation is attained after several reincarnations. Mansukhani asserts, "some people are busy in good works, while others are busy in crime and sin" (Mansukhani 116). On the other hand, Christian salvation does not require the seeker to be cleansed. In fact, the seeker's life can be as "dirty" and evil as it can be but as long as the seeker accepts Jesus Christ as his Lord and Savior, salvation is his. Jesus is perhaps the biggest and most problematic difference between the religions. Christians believe that salvation comes through believing in Christ -- there is nothing to take…
Vensus, George. Paths to The Divine: Ancient and Indian. Washington: The Council for Research in Values and Philosophy. 2008. Print.
Raj, Joshua. A Biblical Approach to Indian Traditions and Beliefs
Singapore: Genesis Books. 2008. Print.
Mansukhani, Gobind Singh Introduction to Sikhism. New Delhi: Hemkunt Publishers. 1975.
From this point-of-view, it could be stated that the reward for his attempt is to be found in this life. The adept of Taoism, in his attempt to become a superior man will dedicate himself, ore to actions which can have a strong social impact. Instead he will focus upon actions such contemplation of himself and the universal energy. The reward of the Taoist superior man is to be achieved in another life (this implies the belief in reincarnation). It must be underlined that despite these differences, the final result includes both the development of the individual and that of society (and from this all the other individual benefit as well).
All in all, it can be stated that the conceptual differences regarding the idea of the superior man in the Confucian and Taoist philosophies have more to do with form and less with substance. The ultimate goal is that…
Mason, Bill. Taoist Principles. Retrieved July 30, 2010 from http://chippit.tripod.com/taoist_principles.html
Pay, Rex (2000). Confucius- The Superior Man, Retrieved July 30, 200 from http://www.humanistictexts.org/confucius.htm#_Toc483366191
The eight pillars of Tao, Retrieved July 30, 2010 from http://www.compassionatedragon.com/eightpillars.html
A new "revisionist" movement, sometimes epitomized by historians like Howard Zinn, seeks to correct these historical errors and treat the Amerindian cultures in a more balanced, less Eurocentric, fashion (See, for example: Troura; Restall).
The crux of this piece, Zinn's Chapter 1 of a People's History of the United States, focuses on the great civilizations which populated Meso and South America long before the Spanish arrived. The Toltec, Maya, Aztec, and Inca were the predominant cultures who had reigned in the area at least 3500 BCE, with most of the advanced and classical periods of their civilizations from 200-1200, and experiencing a decline from 1200 to the Spanish Conquest. While our understanding of the nature of the Amerindian classical civilizations is skewed due to so much material being destroyed by the Spanish, we do know that for several hundred years before Cortes landed there had been a great deal of…
It is likely that in order to achieve this "release" from the tedium of one's worldly conception of one's self will only be achieved with the guidance of a Guru (or siddha) who provides inspiration but does not intervene on one's behalf.
The key scriptures in Hinduism are referred to as "Shastras" (a collection of spiritual guides and laws revealed by "saints and sages" along the historical route through which Hinduism traveled (Das, p. 1). The deities (gods and goddesses) that are associated with Hinduism number into the "thousands or even millions," Das explains (p. 2). These many deities all represent particular aspects of "Brahman," which is the supreme Absolute, Das goes on. Notwithstanding all those deities, the most powerful and visible of the deities is the "Trinity of Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva -- creator, preserver and destroyer, respectively" (Das, p. 2). It is also known that Hindus worship trees,…
Das, Subhamoy. (2010). How Do You Define Hinduism? Hinduism for Beginners. The Uniqueness of Hinduism. About.com. Retrieved Dec. 14, 2010, from http://hinduism.about.com .
Lorentz, Melissa. (2008). Basic Beliefs of Hinduism. Minnesota State University. Retrieved Dec.
14, 2010, from http://mnsu.edu/emuseum/cultural/religion/hinduism/beliefs.html .
Mysorekar, Uma. (2006). Eye on religion: clinicians and Hinduism. Southern Medical Journal.
Emptiness, as we also find in some Hindu philosophies like Advaita, is the eternal emptiness that is beyond dualism and which is rich with possibilities that far exceed the dualities of the ordinary world. In most Buddhist schools of thought we understand the search for Nirvana as the personal search for enlightenment and understanding of existence beyond ordinary duality. This is also reflected in Advaita Hinduism.
Another important area of comparison is the rejection of a personal God or the concept of God as part of the realization of Nirvana. This is evident in all forms of Buddhism and in Advaita Hinduism. However, the Dvaita school of thought and other forms of Hinduism tend to place emphasis on God or Gods as essential for enlighten.
There are many other similarities and differences between these two faiths, which would take as few books to discuss. In the final analysis we could…
Advaita. February 6, 2010.
Dasa, Shukavak N. A Hindu Primer. February 3, 2010.
Similar to how Keanu Reaves's character in Little Buddha is determined to achieve his goal, so are all Buddhists devoted to achieving enlightenment through intense meditation. Buddhists are constantly reminding themselves that life is but a small element in a much longer process, and, that life passes uncontrollably.
Both in Little Buddha and in heel of Time, the audiences are presented with the world of Buddhism shown from an outsider's point-of-view. To them, Buddhist monks appear to be mysterious and intriguing in the same time. Furthermore, most people are likely to feel an attraction to Buddhism consequent to viewing both movies. hile the general public considers Buddhist monks to be exceptional people, with an incredible dedication for their religion, Buddhists think of themselves as being nothing more than simple people, with goals that are different than the normal ones in society.
hile both movies succeed in promoting Buddhism, they also…
1. Little Buddha. Dir. Bernardo Bertolucci. Miramax Films, 1994.
2. Wheels of Time. Dir. Werner Herzog. 2003.