Reincarnation Essays (Examples)

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Origen Remains One of the

Words: 4907 Length: 18 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56206433

260). This cosmological discussion is one reason Origen is said to have "created, indeed embodied, the first model of a scientific theology;" his approach to the notion of metempsychosis, like nearly all of his theological work, is rooted in a steadfast determination to distinguish "between the dogmata of the church tradition and the problemata which were to be discussed" according to reason, logic, and a prototype of the scientific method (Kung 1994, pp. 48-49). As will be seen, Origen's focus on not-yet-determined points of Christianity would ultimately contribute to his condemnation as a heretic, because could be considered genuine, innocent investigation in the third century would rapidly become dangerous propaganda to the Church's ruling powers.

Origen's description of an ultimate, total reunification should not be taken to mean that he is arguing that the actions one takes within the temporal world is meaningless, since everything will ultimately be united once…… [Read More]

Reference List

Bovon, F. 2010, "The Souls Comeback: Immortality and Resurrection in Early Christianity,"

Harvard Theological Review, vol. 103, no. 4, pp. 387-406.

Bowen, F. 1881. "Christian Metempsychosis." Princeton Review, May, pp. 316-341.

Clergymen of the Church of England. 2010. Reincarnation and Christianity. Kila: Kessinger
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Unmasking the New Age the

Words: 2526 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91875201



25. How does New Age spirituality differ from that of Eastern mysticism?

Although the New Age readily embraces Eastern mysticism, it diverges from the old Eastern traditions because the New Age is more of a "hybrid spirituality," (131). The New Age combines Eastern and estern mystical beliefs. Eastern religions are not tailored for the modern world so the New Age mutates Eastern traditions to best suit the needs of the modern lifestyle.

26. How is paganism related to the New Age movement?

Paganism is integrally related to the New Age movement. Evidence of this can be found on any New Age bookstore shelf. The New Age movement is not necessarily demonic, as many modern witches do not believe in Satan, but neo-pagans assert a belief in a Goddess. Many New Agers support pre-Christian pagan beliefs and shamanism as well.

27. How does the eastern element of New Age spirituality contrast…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Groothuis, Douglas R. Unmasking the New Age. Downers Grove, IL: Intervarsity Press, 1986.
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What Does Ligeia Represent for the Reader

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Ligeia and the Theme of Reincarnation

That the narrator of "Ligeia" is one who is frequently called "unreliable" by critics is nothing new (Sweet, Blythe), as he is an admitted opium addict, often susceptible to hallucinations in which he would imagine the lost Ligeia. Like the maddened narrator of "The Raven" sorrowing for his "lost Lenore," the unreliable narrator of "Ligeia" tempts the reader to doubt the transformation of Rowena into the narrator's lost love by reason of his habit of indulgence in the opium drug. Indeed, the night of his vigil is not without his cup of mind-altering elixir; therefore, the literal minded critic would suggest that it cannot be stated with any certainty whether the Ligeia whom he sees in Rowena is real, hallucinatory, or a result of reincarnation. There is, however, plenty of evidence to suggest that a close reading of the text gives enough clues for…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Melville, Herman. Moby-Dick. NY: Barnes Nobles, 2008. Print.

Poe, Edgar Allen. "Ligeia." Virginia.edu. Web. 5 Feb 2016.

Poe, Edgar Allen. "The Raven." Bartleby. Web. 5 Feb 2016.

Sweet, Charlie; Blythe, Hal. "Teaching the Unreliable Narrator in Ligeia." Eureka
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Cracking India by Bapsi Sidhwa

Words: 2056 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1765168

Thus, these castes being born twice in Hinduism, the principles behind Karma and Reincarnation applies to them. Karma refers to the corresponding reaction to an action or deed that an individual had done to another living thing/s. This means that if the deed was bad or considered evil, the corresponding reaction or karma will also be bad or evil. A similar analogy is applied to goodness/good deeds. Reincarnation is the return of some metaphysical part of the self into a new body -- a process of rebirth for the individual, characteristic of the concept of two births exclusively only to members of the three higher castes.

Jainism is an old religion prevalent in India and other nations in the Asian region. Originally a part of the Buddhist religion, Jainism believes not in the concept of a God, but the authority of the saints or prophets. Its religious principles are simple…… [Read More]

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Buddhism Is Distinct From Most

Words: 1036 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15758920

Instead, the practice bhakti-style devotion to various Buddhas and other supramundane figures (Protehero, 2010, p. 177). These are not manifestations of one God, as might be understood by practitioners of most Western religions, but more similar to spirit guides.

Another aspect of Buddhism that might be surprising is the understanding of "karma." The word is commonly used in our current lexicon and refers to the good or bad that comes one's way based on one's own good or bad deeds. It is thought of as a reward or, conversely, payback. It helps people make sense of the world if they can conceive of such cosmic justice. However, karma is more complicated and really has to do with cause and effect. The idea is that everything one does has consequences, which must be dealt with constructively before one can move on (Martin, 2011). It is about learning and personal growth rather…… [Read More]

References

Bailey, S.P. (2010). American zenophilia. Humanities 31(2).

Martin, S. (2011). 10 things you didn't know about Buddhism. The Boomington Post. Retrieved from http://www.sharpseniors.com/blog/10-things-you-didnt-know-about-buddhism/

Prothero, S. (2010). God is not one: Eight rival religions that run the world -- and why their differences matter. New York: HarperOne.

Wilson, J. (2011). The popularity of selected elements of Buddhism in North America. Dharma World. Retrieved from http://www.rk- world.org/dharmaworld/dw_2011julysept selectedelements.aspx
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Religion Specific Comparison and Contrast

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Buddhism and Jainism

Based on Michael Molloy's three patterns for comparing and contrasting religions, there seems to be a great deal of similarity between Buddhism and Jainism and marked differences between Hinduism and aoism (Experiencing the World's Religions: radition, Challenge, & Change, 2002.)

o start with, Buddhism and Jainism both meet the definition of religion as a 'spiritual path' and Carl Jung's description of religion as meeting the need for personal fulfillment or "individuation." Buddhism and Jainism also share a common prophetic and mystical orientation: nontheistic in nature; believing in guidance from enlightened beings (the Buddhist 'bodhisattva' and the Jain 'tirthankara'). Mahavira, the founder of Jainism, was himself believed to be the twenty-fourth 'tirthankara' and according to Buddhist Cosmology, an enlightened being is born in each era (Gautama Buddha is regarded as the fourth Buddha). Both religions are similar in upholding the path of 'dharma' and 'ahimsa.' he two religions…… [Read More]

The first elemental difference between Hinduism and Taoism is the transcendental nature of the former and the immanent nature of the latter. This characteristic also leads to Hinduism's sacramental orientation and the importance lent to the use of sacred words and scriptures in areas such as music and art vs. The more mystical leanings of Taoism and the value it places on silence and wordless meditation. The second significantly different pattern of contrast is that while Hinduism advocates dualism or that nature is contaminating and exists as an opposing force to the non-material world of the spirit, Taoism believes that nature is sacred and needs no alteration (Experiencing the World's Religions: Tradition, Challenge, & Change, 2002.) third aspect of contrast is that Hinduism preaches the doctrine of karma and cyclical time, and that the 'atman' or human soul will receive 'moksha' or liberation from personal limitation, egotism and rebirth only through following a path of 'Jnana Yoga,' 'Karma Yoga' and 'Bhakti Yoga,' whereas Taoism places far less emphasis on the individual. Taoism, instead, takes the view that actions are not guided by an internalized moral system but by society, tradition and a sense of mutual obligation (Experiencing the World's Religions: Tradition, Challenge, & Change, 2002.)

The fourth point of marked difference is that while Hinduism practices 'exclusiveness,' Taoism is inclusive in nature accepting belief in many deities and regarding truth as relative in the interests of attaining social harmony.

In conclusion, though there are some similarities and some differences when comparing any two religions, Buddhism and Jainism do seem to have a very common basis in their overall orientation whereas there seems to be sharp differences between Hinduism and Taoism.
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What Am I According to the Hindus

Words: 1389 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94738414

Hindus?

hat Am I? My Atman is so subtle that I am unable to perceive it. I know, therefore, that I am not in danger of experiencing the undifferentiated creative energy mentioned in verse 11 of the Katha Upanishad. That, however, does not answer the question posed. hat am I? A Hindu might see me as a seeker on one of many possible paths to salvation.

Believers in Hinduism are not condemned from birth with only one possible path to salvation. They do not have to feel guilt for their humanity, nor suffer admonishment for their shortcomings. Hindus seek truth. I am a student and therefore a seeker of knowledge. I am on a path. My life is full of riches. A Hindu would perceive that my former incarnation was, at least, reasonable. I did not come back as harijan. For this, I am grateful. Only grateful, of course, that…… [Read More]

Works Cited

http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=74484281." The Bhagavad Gita. Trans. Johnson, W.J. Oxford: Oxford University, 1994. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=98042100

Kramer, Kenneth Paul. The Sacred Art of Dying How World Religions Understand Death. New York: Paulist Press, 1988. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001759478

Vrajaprana, Pravrajika. "Contemporary Spirituality and the Thinning of the Sacred: A Hindu Perspective." Cross Currents Spring 2000: 248. Questia. 1 Apr. 2004 http://www.questia.com/.
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Bhagavad-Gita's Philosophy of Reconciliation of

Words: 1337 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40025055

Rather than being the reward for one's earthly obedience to God, and therefore a destination in and of itself then, as it is within Islam, Christianity and Judaism; arrival at nirvana and therefore the ceasing of further reincarnations comes from finally reconciling non-attachment in one's present life with personal responsibility in one's present life - as Krishna advises Arjuna to do now, on the eve of this war.

Holden further points out that during Krishna's conversation with Arjuna, Krishna, with his words from Bhagavad-Gita 2.12 "Never was there a time when I did not exist, nor you, nor all these kings; nor in the future shall any of us cease to be" (qtd. In Holden)

Krisna [sic] is telling us that death is not an end - life itself continues, and always will, as it always has. The implication here is that reality is not what it appears to be…… [Read More]

Works Cited

The Bhagavad-Gita. The Norton Anthology of World Literature, Vol. a. Sarah

Lawall et al. (Eds.). New York, Norton: 2002. 1011-1028.

The Bhagavad-Gita first century B.C." In the Norton Anthology of World

Literature, Vol. a. Sarah Lawall et al. (Eds.). New York, Norton: 2002. 1010.
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Religion of Buddhism First Just

Words: 1490 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32889621

Dharma is related to "karma," another basic Buddhist principle that governs reincarnation and rebirth. Karma is the idea that a person must perform moral deeds throughout his life to attain a higher level of reincarnation and rebirth. Karma governs these moral deeds, and a person must "pay" in the next life if they do not act morally and spiritually in this life. Thus, karma governs more than one life, and is an important concept in the religion.

Buddhism differs from many of the world's major religions in many ways. For example, monks are the holy men of the religion, but they do not act as priests or officials of the church. In fact, many rituals, such as baptism and marriage, are considered family rituals and are not presided over by monks. They do attend funerals, because Buddhists believe death is simply the gateway to another life, and the beginning of…… [Read More]

References

Keown, Damien. Buddhism a Very Short Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996.

Robinson, B.A. "Buddhism, Based on the Teachings of Siddhartha Gautama." ReligiousTolerance.org. 2007. 28 June. 2007.  http://www.religioustolerance.org/buddhism.htm 

Schmidt-Leukel, Perry. "Buddhism and the Idea of Human Rights: Resonances and Dissonances." Buddhist-Christian Studies (2006): 33+.

Seager, Richard Hughes. Buddhism in America. New York: Columbia University Press, 1999. Witham, Larry. "Buddhism Influences U.S. Thought." The Washington Times 11 Oct. 1997: 7.
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Karma Is One of the

Words: 640 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29126046

The people of scheduled castes who are given very lowly status in Hindu society are considered untouchables. This is justified by the term Karma which says that these people must have done something bad in their past lives to have earned a lowly status in their current lives. The same kind of explanation can be presented to explain why Brahmins are considered special.

Karma is one concept that has become so closely aligned to reincarnation that it is impossible to separate the two. Wadia (1965) writes: "...the Law of Karma has become attached to the idea of reincarnation, the idea that what is called death relates only to the death of the physical body, while the soul remains unaffected by it and may be reborn in another body, human or animal." (p. 145) This happens because we see that not every good person always prospers and he too goes through…… [Read More]

References

David Pocock, Mind, Body and Wealth, Oxford, 1973

Wadia, a.R. Philosophical Implications of the Doctrine of Karma. Philosophy East and West V. 15, No. 2 (1965) University of Hawaii Press. Hawaii, USA
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Death the Four Categories of

Words: 2676 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34163404

As one performs their dharma, they earn karma, which is the cause and effect aspect of Hinduism. Karma explains good actions bring good results, and by obeying this principle and dharma, one can experience rebirth into a "better" life that puts one in a stronger position to achieve moksha. The ultimate goal for any Hindu soul is to achieve moksha, which is the liberation from samsara, the cycle of life and death (Chidester: 85). The critical aspect of Hinduism is realizing when the body dies, the Self (Atman) does not die. The Self is carried from life to life, through reincarnation, and the secret to death is to realize the Supreme Self hidden in the heart through meditation and grace (Kramer: 30). Realizing Self in Hindu customs is required to achieve moksha, and be liberated from the endless round of birth, death, and rebirth of samsara. Only when the Self…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Chidester, D. Patterns of Transcendence: Religion, Death, and Dying. 2nd ed. Belmont, CA:

Wadsworth Publishing, 2001. 1-216. Print.

Kramer, K. The Sacred Art of Dying: How the world Religions Understand Death. Mahwah, NJL

Paulist Press, 1988. 27-166. Print.
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History of the Resurrection Tradition

Words: 3003 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41643718

History Resurrection

The History of Resurrection Tradition

According to Merriam-ebster dictionary, the word 'resurrection' stands for "the state of one risen from the dead." Generally, resurrection refers to restoration to life of the person who is clinically dead.

Concept of resurrection has been in existence in one form or the other since the very birth of the first human being in this planet. Over the centuries, different religions and mythological schools of thought have defined and taken the tradition of resurrection in different ways; therefore, it is always hard to find any commonly agreed fact about it.

For further clarification, it will be necessary to point out that resurrection stands apart from the concepts of 'immortality of soul' and 'resuscitation' as it involves the rebirth of both body and soul (Harrington).

It will not be wrong to say that the tradition of resurrection is closely associated with the philosophy of…… [Read More]

Work Cited

Harrington, D., J. Jesus: A Historical Portrait. Cincinnati, OH: St. Anthony Messenger Press, 2007.

Inplainsite.org. 9 October 2011

Keathley, J.H."The Resurrection of Jesus Christ."09 October 2011 <

http://bible.org/article/resurrection-jesus-christ>.
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Religious Reasons Why Purity and

Words: 1649 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34481879

Therefore, the Pentateuch plays a very important formal role in the Jewish faith.

However, the oral Torah may be as important to the Jewish people. One of the underlying components of Judaism is that the Jews are God's chosen people. As God's chosen people, even the non-religious history of the Jewish people becomes religious. This is because God informs their activities in a way that is not necessarily acknowledged in other religions. For example, a history of Christianity should include the Crusades, because they were driven by religion, but because Christianity is not envisioned as a living religion in the same way as Judaism, the history is not viewed in the same way. In contrast, the history of the Jewish people is not separable from the religious relationship that the Jewish people have with God as his chosen people.

Frankel's viewpoint of the Oral Torah, particularly the Siddur and Mahzor,…… [Read More]

References

Kinsley, D. 1982, 'Worship in the Hindu tradition' in Hinduisim: A cultural perspective, Prentice

Hall, New Jersey, pp. 105-121.

Martin, B. 1974. 'New interpretations of Judaism' in a History of Judaism, Basic Books, New

York, pp. 232-262.
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Sacred Texts of the Hindu

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If there was a weakness, it was the repetitiveness of the many different hymns and chants. Many of them seemed to repeat themselves throughout the book, such as the many different chants and hymns to heaven and dawn, and to the various gods. I understand that some conveyed different messages, but it seemed to bog the book down, and just add weight. Cutting some of these redundant messages would have made it an even more appealing text.

These texts are effective too because they explain the religion in relatively simple language, so even foreign readers can get the feeling and spirit of the religion, and take away a more intimate understanding of Hindu belief systems. It is meant as a guidebook for Hindus, but it opens up new ideas about religious thought in other readers, and shows, although we are different, many world religions are remarkably similar, as well.

In…… [Read More]

References

Unknown. "The Vedas." SacredTexts.com. 2010. 2 June 2010.

.
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Sharing the Gospel This Is

Words: 396 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67686125

If, in witnessing to a Hindu, such efforts can be directed towards them and their people, then their own personal love can be brought out and they may be led to follow Christ. ecause of the diversity and complexity of their beliefs, sometimes, the simple promises of the truth of Christ and of salvation through him will assist in helping them to understand that Christianity has only these simple beliefs to follow instead of the complexity of Hinduism.

egin with the ook of John in the New Testament and in a simple version such as the New International Version (NIV). Start with Chapter 1 and emphasize mostly the passages concerning Salvation. Remember Hindus don't know Christ. You must introduce Him to them on a personal basis. Also, use 1 John 5:13 to explain that salvation is based on God's grace and not on works.

Make your spirit humble in your…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Caner, E.M. "PHILOSOPHY 104: Supplemental notes to lecture and reading: The worldview of Hinduism." n.d. 28 November 2009 <

ot available>.

Halverson, D. "Hinduism." 2004. International Students Inc. 28 November 2009 .
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Buddhism and Christianity Complementary Worldviews According to

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uddhism and Christianity: Complementary Worldviews

According to the Gospel of Matthew, when a wealthy young man came to Jesus, and asked him how he might be made perfect, Jesus advised the eager young man to keep the commandments and essentially adhere to the Golden Rule to be good. ut when the young man persisted and asked the Savior for more advice, Jesus said that the man should sell all he owned and follow Him. Jesus said that the man should sell all he owned and seek to be rewarded in heaven, not on earth. ut the young man turned away, saddened that he would give up his great wealth to achieve spiritual perfection. Jesus commented to his disciples that it was easier for a camel to go through the eye of a needle than for a rich man to enter the kingdom of heaven (Matthew 19:28). However, in the uddhist…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Boeree, George C. "The Basics of Buddhist Wisdom." Published by Shippensburg University.

1999. 7 Feb 2009.  http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/buddhawise.html 

Boeree, George C. "The Life of Siddhartha Gautama." Published by Shippensburg University.

1999. 7 Feb 2009.  http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/siddhartha.html
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Ancient History of India the Purpose of

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Ancient History Of India

he purpose of this work is to compare and contrast the cultural and societal differences and likenesses in the areas of Northern and Southern India specifically during the period of c.100-1100 C.E. Further, this work will research and state why their cultures were differential in their development and in what ways they remain different from one another today. he historical and ideological relationship between Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism will be discussed.

he culture in India is ancient with it's roots in the beginnings of civilization along the Indus River in farming communities in southern India. he history of the sub-continent is stated to be one that is "punctuated by constant integration with migrating peoples and with the diverse cultures that surround India." (Indialife.com Online, 2005) India is located in the center of Asia at what is called the "crossroads of culture from China to Europe."

he…… [Read More]

Timeline of India (2005) [Online available at http://www. .askasia.org/imag e/maps/timeind.htm]

Gelber, Ethan (2004) Divine India History Online available at:

http://gorp.away.com/gorp/location/asia/india/empires2.htm
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Familiar With the Religions of Buddhism and

Words: 684 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29043338

familiar with the religions of Buddhism and Hinduism but the religion of Jainism, although enjoying nearly as many members, is not as well-known. Similarly, most know something about the practices and beliefs of Hinduism and Buddhism but very individuals know anything about Jainism.

Jainism is a well-established religion that is largely based on the concept of non-violence which is one of the five great vows of the religion (Long, 2009). The other four vows are non-attachment to material things, no lying, no stealing, and promotion of sexual restraint. As to sexual restraint, celibacy is considered to be the ideal.

Followers of Jainism view the world as a highly integrated unit. They believe that all living things, including animals and plants, possess a living soul and that humans, animals, and plants all operate on an equal level. This belief places a strict duty on the part of its followers to treat…… [Read More]

References

Cush, D. (1999). 'Learning from' the Concept and Concepts of a Religious Tradition: Jainism in the RE Curriculum. Journal of Beliefs & Values: Studies in Religion and Education, 60-74.

Jamison, D. (2003). Janism and Buddhism. In D. Jamison, A Companion to Environmental Philosophy (pp. 52-66). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell.

Long, J.D. (2009). Jainism: An Introduction . London: I.B. Tarius.

Jainism, Buddhism, Hinduism
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Studies in Film

Words: 1142 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76581848

ALFRED HITCHCOCK: A Master of Duality

For many, the name Alfred Hitchcock conjures hazy and disconnected memories of Cary Grant and Ingrid Bergman in Rio, Tippi Hedren being chased by killer birds, or Jimmy Stewart in a wheelchair; but for others -- those that are somewhat more experienced with the work of Hitchcock -- the utterance of his moniker means much more. Indeed, many consider Hitchcock to be not only one of the most prolific and entertaining filmmakers, but also one of the most profound. A recurring -- and certainly intriguing -- motif that holds together his body of work is his incessant interest and portrayal of duality: the conflicting, yet in some ways similar, nature of life. That is to say, Hitchcock (and no other, on as prestigious a level) was able to brilliantly compare, reduce, and then reevaluate polar opposites that every human encounters. Love or hate, man…… [Read More]

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Jim Jones Jonestown Massacre

Words: 1184 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42916576

Jim Jones and the Jonestown Massacre

Book: Suicide Cult by Marshall Kilduff

In 1978 the suicide-massacre of 900 people in South America shocked the world as Reverend Jim Jones' cult, named the Peoples Temple. In his book "Suicide Cult," Marshall Kilduff steps into Jim Jones' past and reflects on the man who brainwashed hundreds of people into donating their Social Security checks to his church, and eventually committing suicide in the Guyana jungle.

Jim Jones was born to a Ku Klux Klansman and as a young boy was practicing mind-control. He was a student minister in 1952, but left his Methodist church because they refused African-Americans into their congregation. Jones created his own mixed congregation church in Indiana in the 1960s. This was something unheard of for the time, and within his church Jones preached love and understanding. It's hard to believe this social harmony preacher would become the leader…… [Read More]

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Ancient India the Bhavagad-Gita in the Beginning

Words: 1835 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53161579

Ancient India

The havagad-Gita

In the beginning of "The hagavad-Gita," two groups of opponents prepare for battle. On one side, the one hundred sons of Dhritarashtra stand and on the other side, and the Pandava brothers stand. These soldiers are in the middle of a family feud over the right to govern the land of Kurukshetra.

A soldier named Arjuna, who is the leader of the Pandava armies, prepares to battle as Lord Krishna heads toward the opposition. Just before the battle, Arjuna asks Lord Krishna for advice.

Arjuna is ridden with hesitation and guilt as he faces his family and knows he will have to kill many loved ones to win the battle. Arjuna has set down his weapon and is ready to sacrifice his life. Arjuna approaches Krishna to tell him about his emotions regarding the battle. "Krishna, I seek no victory, or kingship or pleasures" (Miller, 25).…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Miller, Barbara Stoler, translator. The Bhagavad-Gita: Krishna's Counsel in Time of War. New York NY, Bantam Books, 1986.
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Beliefs in Sikhism and Jainism

Words: 1066 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82149970

Jainism Beliefs

Three tier universe

According to Jainism, the universe assumes three levels: lower, middle and upper. Jains regard the universe to be imperishable, unending, and with no Creator. However, certain elements of the universe may alter in due course. The upper level, or 'siddhasila', comprises pure, free souls residing in a permanent state of sheer peace and bliss. The middle level of the universe comprises embodied creatures like humans, animals, plants, and inanimate beings (things), bound by the Law of Karma. The third level (lower world) comprises beings undergoing different phases of punishments, on account of the sins committed by them in their earthly life. After completion of punishment, they go back to the middle world (Jain, 2015).

Jiva and Ajiva

According to Jainism, the entire universe has two independent, unending, imperishable and coexisting parts, namely, Ajiva and Jiva; these are, in some ways, similar to the Samakhya School's…… [Read More]

References

Jain, S. (2015).Major Beliefs of Jainism. Retrieved October 16, 2015 from http://www.hinduwebsite.com/jainism/jainbeliefs.asp

Library.(n.d.). Retrieved October 16, 2015 from http://www.patheos.com/Library/Lenses/Side

By-Side?path1=x1357&path2=x1357&path3=

Robinson, B. (2010). Sikhism: Its beliefs, practices, symbol, & names. Retrieved October 16,
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Jainism Began in the 7th

Words: 1101 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73940351

According to Aiken, this liberation is only achieved after twelve years as a monk and eight rebirths. Souls who do not achieve liberation are either reborn as another life on earth or suffer punishment in one of the eight levels of hell.

Once a householder undertakes the path to liberation of the soul, according to the Jain Center of America, he must take and follow the five vows:

Ahimsa -- nonviolence

Satya -- truthfulness

Asteya -- not stealing

Brahmacarya -- celibacy or monogamy

Aparigraha -- detachment from material possessions 'All the venerable ones (arhats) of the past, present and future discourse, counsel, proclaim, propound and prescribe thus in unison: do not injure, abuse, oppress, enslave, insult, torment, torture or kill any creature or living being' (Uttaraadhyayan Sutra)

Hibbets explains that ahimsa (nonviolence) is the most fundamental value to the Jains. Because they believe that all living things (animals, plants, insects,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Aiken, Charles Francis. "Jainism." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 8. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1910. Web. 5 May 2011.

Anonymous. "Jainism." ReligionFacts. N.p. 18 January 2008. Web. 5 May 2011.

Hibbets, Maria. Extremists for Love: The Jain Perspective on Nonviolence. Beliefnet. N.p. Web. 5 May 2011.

"Jainism." Jain Center of America. Web. 5 May 2011.
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Religions Religion Has Always Been

Words: 3762 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51717899



The Japanese myth partly resembles that of Adam and Eve present in the Bible and in the Quran. However, the first beings in Japan are considered to hold much more power than their equivalents in the west. Another resemblance between the Japanese legends and those in the west is the fact that the kami are considered to live in the high planes of Takamagahara, somewhat resembling mount Olympus, from Greek mythology. Japanese mythology is different from other mythologies through the fact that all of the deities involved in it are good in their character.

In the sixteenth century, when Buddhism entered Japan, the locals had a hard time keeping Shinto as their main religion, since it had not been an organized religion. Even with the fact that Buddhism had been spreading quickly around the country, the presence of Shinto could be felt everywhere, in people's lifestyles and in their culture.…… [Read More]

Works cited:

1. Amudsen, Christan. (1999). "Insights from the Secret Teachings of Jesus: The Gospel of Thomas." 1st World Publishing.

2. Herman A.L. (1991). "A Brief Introduction to Hinduism: Religion, Philosophy, and Ways of Liberation." Westview Press.

3. Kato, Etsuko. (2004). "The Tea Ceremony and Women's Empowerment in Modern Japan." Routledge.

4. Kumagai Fumie, Keyser Donna J. (1996). "Unmasking Japan Today: The Impact of Traditional Values on Modern Japanese Society." Praeger.
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Eternal Recurrence in the Unbearable

Words: 5087 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78328469



Despite Kundera's own assertion that Nietzsche's eternal recurrence can only be interpreted metaphorically, he manifests four different forms of this philosophy by means of the lives he describes. These indeed include the literal interpretation, where actions and events literally repeat throughout a lifetime; the collective, where similar events occur in different lives but in similar relationships; the symbolic, where symbols recur within lifetimes, and the metaphorical, which Kundera describes in the beginning of the novel, where the same events occur in different forms. These forms of recurrence deserve some more detailed discussion, as follows.

Literal Recurrence

Tereza and Tomas's relationship is somewhat problematic from the beginning, but no less inevitable for it. It is as if the decision to stay together despite the fact that their needs and goals are incompatible is made on their behalf by a power similar to fate. Hence the various fateful events that resulted in…… [Read More]

Sources

Corbett, Bob. Comments on The Unbearable Lightness of Being. Oct 2001. http://www.webster.edu/~corbetre/personal/reading/kundera-unbearable.html

Fraser, Giles. Meet Dr. Nietzsche: Response to comments. 2 Nov 2008 http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/2008/nov/02/religion-nietzsche-responses.

Gorfu, G.E. Nietzsche's Eternal Recurrence. 2000.  http://www.meskot.com/recurrence.htm 

Kundera, Milan. The Unbearable Lightness of Being. 1984 Available online: http://www.truly-free.org/#fK
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Religion Comparison Religions in Ancient

Words: 2389 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75013626

According to Bass, "Hinduism is the only major religion lacking an adequate explanation as to its origin," as no definitive Hindu text exist that that date before 1000 B.C. Indeed, because Hinduism is one of the religions that views time as cyclical rather than linear, what information is available about Hinduism does not give a very accurate picture of its history (Bass 5). hat can be gleaned from this history is the fact that Hinduism is one of the oldest religions with one of the oldest societies in the world. Just as their origins are difficult to define, the beliefs of Hinduism are varied depending on one's personal interpretation of the religion. However, one of the more important aspects of Hinduism is its social caste system. This belief states that there are four casts, and each "has its rules and obligation for living." The three castes are Brahman, priests, hatriyas,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

"A Concise History of Islam and the Arabs." Mid East Web. n.d. 11 June 2009.



Abdullah, Mohd Habibullah Bin. "The Story of Creation in the Quar'an and Old

Testament." Bismika Allahuma. 15 October 2005. 11 June 2009.
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Religions Similarities and Differences Among

Words: 1427 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93043400

While the similarities in ethical and theological concepts are great, some differences emerge. For instance, Islam seems to be the more fundamental or faith-based of the two religions, as obinson (2008-1) points often to a liberal branch of Christianity that questions even the very fundamentals of the faith. For instance, while Muslims believe that Jesus was born of a Virgin, even though they do not accept him as the Son of God, liberal Christians do not accept the idea of the virgin birth (obinson, 2008-1). While Christianity has gained its share of criticism, many critics have targeted Islam in the wake of the September 11, 2009 attacks. Many criticize Islam for the concept of Jihad, a term that obinson (2008A) argues is one of the most misunderstood in the religion. Some interpret this term as war against non-believers. Ellian (2008) also criticizes Islam for its inability to accept criticism and…… [Read More]

References

Ellian, A. (2009). "Criticism and Islam." Retrieved June 10, 2009, from The Wall Street

Journal. Web Site: http://online.wsj.com/article/SB120692614173175795.html

Robinson, B.A. (2007). "Comparison of Buddhism and Christianity." Retrieved June 10,

2009, from Religious Tolerance.org. Web Site: http://www.religioustolerance.org/buddhism4.htm
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Islam Christianity the Distinctions Between

Words: 1692 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51932975

" (Koran, 2:36)

A punishment dealt herein concerns man's occupation of earth as a home, with God endowing it only a finite capacity to host mortal life. Again, the contrast between the implications to man's punishment for Original Sin in the two texts can be traced to the contrast in man's assumed composition. In the Hebrew Bible, God punished Eve and her offspring to a perpetuity of painful childbearing "and unto Adam He said: 'Because thou hast hearkened unto the voice of thy wife, and hast eaten of the tree, of which I commanded thee, saying: Thou shalt not eat of it; cursed is the ground for thy sake; in toil shalt thou eat of it all the days of thy life." (Gen. 3:17)

The intricacies that differentiate the two texts offer a useful set of variations on a creation story that is highly associated with the evolution of monotheism…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Achtemeier, P. (1980). Inspiration and Authority. Hendrickson Publishing.

Barrett, D.B. (2001). World Christian Encyclopedia. Oxford University Press.

Katz, J. (2001). The Prophet Mohammed. Eretz Yisroel.

Koran Text. (1997 edition). The Holy Qur'an. University of Virginia: Online Book
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Religion Is One of the

Words: 960 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55045800

Tradition says that a dying person should be put on the floor in order for them to be closer to the earth. After the ailing person dies, the body is washed and prepared for funeral practices. Most Hindu people would rather have a Hindu priest pray and bless their recently departed relative.

4.In Hinduism, people that don't believe are not threatened to perish in hell as they are given another chance to recognize the religion as having great importance in one's life. From the Hindu point-of-view, hell is something experienced by people that have a bad Karma.

Hindu people believe that they've attained a level of happiness when they reach a perfect Karma and their mind and body are pure. Hinduism regards life as being complex process in which the soul undergoes several phases of reincarnation in order to reach a final phase where it is saved and reincarnation no…… [Read More]

Works cited:

1. Chopra, Anita. Alagiakrishnan, Kannayiram. "HEALTH and HEALTH CARE of ASIAN INDIAN-American ELDERS." Retrieved April 8, 2009, from Stanford University Web site: http://www.stanford.edu/group/ethnoger/asianindian.html

2. Wendell, Thomas. "Wendell Thomas." Kessinger Publishing, 2003.

3. "Hindu American Foundation Denounces Temple Entry Ban on Harijans (Dalits) in Orissa." Retrieved April 8, 2009, from the Hindu American Foundation Web site: http://www.hinduamericanfoundation.org/media_press_release_jagannath_harijan.htm

4. "Hinduism." Retrieved April 8, 2009, from diehardindian Web site: http://www.diehardindian.com/demogrph/moredemo/hindu.htm
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Christianity to Hinduism Dear Hindu

Words: 1765 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24627724

Salvation will come based on one's deeds rather than on his capacity to achieve a high spiritual level, as in the Hindu faith and others.

Christianity does not necessarily provide all the answers. Christian believers will still have doubts about their existence, about their role on Earth and about their lives, as well as about their capacity of attaining salvation. However, Christianity provides the means by which one can integrate successfully into his or her life, enjoy the life here, while committing to a life within the Church and doing the good deeds that can help an individual attain eternal salvation. The idea of salvation puts things into perspective, but with a direct impact on the present, because it is the acts of the individual here that will get the salvation or not.

Christianity can be considered, from all these perspectives, the most complete religion in existence and a way…… [Read More]

Bibliography

1. Barrow, Martin. The Four Gospels. 1995. On the Internet at http://www.domini.org/tabern/martyn.htm.Last retrieved on February 3, 2009

2. Salvation. 2008. The Catholic Encyclopedia. On the Internet at http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/13407a.htm.Last retrieved on February 3, 2009

Barrow, Martin. The Four Gospels. 1995. On the Internet at http://www.domini.org/tabern/martyn.htm.Last retrieved on February 3, 2009

Salvation. 2008. The Catholic Encyclopedia. On the Internet at http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/13407a.htm.Last retrieved on February 3, 2009
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Philosophy in Defense of Free

Words: 1355 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77883963

Buddhists, who similarly believe in the concept of Karma, also have a strong commitment to the belief that their actions have consequences. hile Buddhists have a much different value system than Hindus or especially estern religions that tend to see good and bad as black and white, while Buddhists see it as wholesome or unwholesome (Sach 80), they still have a code of morality, such as valuing peace over harm. Karma represents this moral dichotomy. Thus, both the Eastern religions of Hinduism and Buddhism support the theory that one creates one's own destiny. If they did not, they could not have their system of moral rights and wrongs. ithout the chance to make positive or negative decisions, a belief system cannot coherently state that one cannot make one's own decisions, creating one's own destiny. How could a belief system maintain that one would be punished for his or her actions…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Mannion, James. Essential Philosophy. Avon: F+W, 2006.

Rice, Hugh. "Fatalism." 2006, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 8 October 2008.

Stanford University.  http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/fatalism/ 

Sach, Jacky. Essential Buddhism. Avon: F+W, 2006.
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Ahimsa in Buddhism Though the Buddhist Concept

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75291489

Ahimsa in Buddhism

Though the Buddhist concept of ahimsa may often be misinterpreted as being purely concerned with physical pacification, in reality the ideal encompasses both a peaceful attitude towards others as well as an attention to one's own positive and non-violent mental state. In short, ahimsa incorporates non-injury towards others as well as non-injury towards the self through negative mental ideations (tying in, of course, with the Buddhist tenets of reincarnation and karma). It is important to stress the inclusion of harmful "thought[s], word[s], or deed[s]" in what ahimsa opposes in order to form a dichotomy between this concept and that of himsa (Sivananda, 2009). The latter incorporates any form of "harshness," be it through direct means or through the "sin of omission" (Sinvananda, 2009).

It's curious, with this in mind, to consider how ahimsa relates to the concepts of strength; after all, the two seem diametrically opposed at…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Molloy, M. (2006). Experiencing the world's religions: tradition, challenge, and change.

McGraw-Hill Humanities Social Sciences Languages.

O'Sullivan, T. (2010). Ahimsa. Encyclopedia of Psychology and Religion, doi:

10.1007/978-0-387-71802-6_16
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Nation of Islam

Words: 1136 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90878259

Nation of Islam was originally a group known as the Black Muslims (Nation pp). This splinter group is faithful to the Black Muslims' original principles led by Louis Farrakhan (Nation pp). Members strive to improve their social and religious position in society, and the group has won praise for its work in deprived areas (Nation pp). However, its reputation has been tarnished by Farrakhan's anti-Semitic and anti-white beliefs (Nation pp). The group demonstrated its political strength by organizing the 'Million Man March' in October 1995, a march that consisted of approximately 400,000 black men in ashington, D.C. (Nation pp).

Although allace Fard is officially credited with founding the Nation of Islam, much of the doctrine and beliefs of the NOI are rooted in the teachings of Noble Drew Ali and his Moorish Holy Temple of Science (Religious pp). The basis of Drew's teachings held that African-Americans were of Islamic heritage…… [Read More]

Work Cited

"Nation of Islam." The Hutchinson Encyclopedia. 9/22/2003

"Religious Movements: Nation of Islam."

http://religiousmovements.lib.virginia.edu/nrms/Nofislam.html

"The birth of the Nation of Islam." July 11, 2001.
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Aesthetic and Religious Significance of

Words: 1057 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 359250

"Over the course of time, there will be a new world era entailing that one day there will a dawn after destruction. This system for the earth continues throughout eternity and is managed by three gods: Brahma, Shiva and Vishnu or the divine trinity." (Eck, 1996) of these, Shiva was or is the destroyer. The Hindu divinities are worshipped through art on temples and in the majority of homes. By viewing different examples Shiva, we can see the iconography to the mythology association with the figure. (Indian Heritage, 2005)

In other words, the views of Hinduism hold many opposing theories that describe aspects of an eternal truth. For example, one underlying focus is that a desire for liberation from earthly evils is and should be a life ambition. These notions and concepts can be clearly witnessed in the region's art as Hinduism plays a major role in what is and…… [Read More]

References

Eck, Diane L. (1996). Darsan. New York: Columbia University Press.

Indian Heritage. (n.d.). Siva. Retrieved on May 28, 2005, at http://www.indian-heritage.org/gods/godimages/siva2s.jpg

Singh Brothers. (n.d.). Shivnetra - Eye of Shiva. Retrieved on May 28, 2005, at http://www.thesinghbrothers.com/S_015.jpg

Hindu
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Various Culture Belief About Dying

Words: 760 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90620651

Nursing

Death and Dying in Other Cultures

Death and dying are never easy for family, friends, loved ones, and the ill persons themselves. These issues are further complicated by the fact that so many different cultures are now blended in the United States, and many of them have far differing views on death and dying.

For example, in the United States, most Christians believe in burying their dead quickly, holding a ritual funeral or "celebration of life," and mourning for a certain period of time. Most Christians believe the dead will rise to Heaven and live the remainder of their "life" as an angel in the clouds above. However, this is not the only way to celebrate death and face dying.

In the Hindu culture, people believe their loved one will return to earth to live another life, depending on the quality of life they lived during this current life.…… [Read More]

References

Aiken, L.R. (2001). Dying, death, and bereavement (4th ed.). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Kramer, K.P. (1988). The sacred art of dying: How world religions understand death. New York: Paulist Press.
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River - By Shusaku Endo

Words: 1086 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87456728

For example, readers know Isobe's wife believed in reincarnation and that Isobe is looking for her reincarnated soul; and there he is in a gift shop, believing that he was pushed there by some "invisible power" (his dead wife?) and he sees Out on a Limb by Shirley MacLaine, and Children Who Remember Previous Lives by Professor Stevenson, both reincarnation books of course, and he buys them without thinking twice.

In this novel, the strivers are confronted not only with their own weaknesses and their own burdensome flaws and foibles, they are confronted with the Ganges River realities - loveliness and ugliness; hope and despair; death and life; bloated bodies floating along in darkness and living persons bobbing along happily. The contrasts are metaphors, it would seem, for the price one has to pay to gain that coveted redemption and reconciliation with the past.

For the Kiguchi character, his striving…… [Read More]

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Buddhist Concept of Nirvana

Words: 4368 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75708612

Nirvana

Religious doctrine usually includes some form of salvation as a reward for good behavior and for keeping to the tenets of the religion. Each religion treats this general idea in its own way. For the Christian, right behavior lead to salvation from permanent death and promises an afterlife in heaven. In uddhism, the promise is not of an afterlife but of a reward in this world, a reward in the form of perfect peace through a mind free of craving and unwanted emotion. Nirvana is a state of mind and an achievement in itself, for nirvana is that state of mind to which the adherent aspires. It is considered the highest form of happiness and is achieved only by the most dedicated follower of the uddha.

The conception of salvation usually relates to the idea of some ultimate value or being, and it can be thought of as an…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Ames, Van Meter. "Zen." In Japan and Zen, Betty Ames and Van Meter Ames (Cincinnati: University of Cincinnati, 1961.

Corless, Roger J. The Vision of Buddhism: The Space under the Tree. St. Paul, Minnesota: Paragon House, 1989.

Gowans, Christopher W. Philosophy of the Buddha. New York: Routledge, 2003.

Griffiths, Paul J. On Being Buddha: The Classical Doctrine of Buddhahood. Albany, New York: State University of New York Press, 1994.
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Buddhism and Christianity Buddhism Religion

Words: 1868 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40233223

They both emphasize on the teaching of doing good and following rules to live right and happily. They both have vigorous missionary programs, in which they convert people to their religion. In the two religions, the people can worship in groups or individually. The religions have a leader of worship that is a monk in Buddhism and a Priest in Christianity. The two principles in the religion used parables to teach, and they are egalitarians. The teachings on respecting others and treating them as oneself are acceptable in both religions. They both emphasize on charity towards the poor and aspire for greater spiritual perfection.

Differences

The differences are irrefutable, as Buddhism does not talk of a Creator, God while Christianity believes in a divine creator of Universe (allace 26). In Buddhism, the emphasis is on mediation and mindfulness, whereas that of Christianity places stress on prayer. Additionally, Buddhism emphasizes on…… [Read More]

Works cited

Netland, Harold a, and Keith E. Yandell. Buddhism: A Christian Exploration and Appraisal.

Downers Grove, Ill: IVP Academic, 2009. Print.

Wallace, BA. Mind in the Balance: Meditation in Science, Buddhism, and Christianity. New York: Columbia University Press, 2009. Print.

King, Sallie B. Socially Engaged Buddhism. Honolulu: University of Hawai-i Press, 2009. Print.
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Judaism and Islam

Words: 512 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1739813

Eastern Religion Elements Matrix

Buddhism

Confucianism

Daoism

Countries of origin

In Historical figures and events

Origin: India

Founded: 1500 BC

Origin": India

Founded 2,500 years ago by Indian Prince Siddharta Gautama

Origin: China; founded between the 6th and 5th centuries B.C.; Confucius developed cultural values and taught that learning above all should be the goal

Daoism also spelled Taoism was founded in China in 550 B.C.

Central beliefs

In the afterlife, if Karma is not resolved, the soul is born into a new body; life's purpose is to be liberated from reincarnation

Like Hinduism, a goal is to be liberated from the cycle of reincarnation;

"benevolence" and optimism and being loyal to one's own nature; being unselfish, giving back (reciprocity) and seeking a virtuous life

This spiritual Taoism and philosophical Taoism; Taoism focuses on social duty and adheres to the principles of Confucianism; death is simply from being to non-being,…… [Read More]

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Pilgrimages in India

Words: 2948 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37564140

Pilgrimages in India

Pilgrimage:

A Quest for Finding Oneself in India: Introduction

Humans are born with an incredible amount of mental capacity to learn and grow, yet we are not born with a pre-determined set of rules guiding our thoughts. Religious practice around the world is thus the result of a collaboration of ideas between humans within a society in order to bring a framework of understanding into everyday life. Yet even with justifications of existence provided by religion, some individuals choose to pursue unanswered questions, in order to find a deeper meaning to life, and existence. Pilgrimage is such a quest, and is the pursuit of knowledge, as well as a journey of the mind and body, in search of answers to the unknowable questions of the universe. Pilgrimage also serves to prove one's own devotion to his or her faith, and can be qualified as a measure of…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

"Essay on Bhakti Movement of India." PreserveArticles.com: Preserving Your Articles for Eternity. Web. 14 Dec. 2011. .

"Foot Pilgrimage to Murugan Shrines." Murugan Bhakti: Skanda-Kumara Website. Web. 14 Dec. 2011. .

Haberman, David L. Journey through the Twelve Forests: an Encounter with Krishna. New York: Oxford UP, 1994. Print.

"History of Pilgrimage." HOME. Web. 14 Dec. 2011. .
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Buddhism vs Quine vs Crowley

Words: 3208 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93097659

Buddhism vs. Quine vs. Crowley

The research intends to compare Buddhism, vs. Quine vs. Crowley by examining some of the philosophy put across by the two Buddhist and other two contemporary philosophers. The research will spell out each philosophy one by one giving each a critical analysis and interpretation. The research intends to start by looking at Vasubandhu's Indian Buddhist Theory to be followed by the other Buddhism philosophy of Nagarjuna known as the philosophy of the middle way of Persons. The third and the fourth section will look at Quine's relativism, and Crowley's idea of crossing the abyss respectively. Lastly after a thorough look at each of the four philosophies the conclusion will give the comparison between each of the philosophy so as to satisfy the objective of the research.

Vasubandhu's Indian Buddhist Theory of Persons

Vasubandhu own contribution is the refutation or proving of the theory of self…… [Read More]

Work cited

Bechert, Heinz & Richard Gombrich the World of Buddhism: Thames & Hudson, 1984.

David Kalupahana, (Ed) Nagarjuna, and Nagarjuna: Albany: State University Press 1986.

Davidson, Ronald M. Indian Esoteric Buddhism: A Social History of the Tantric Movement. New York: Columbia University Press, 2003.

Donath, Dorothy C. Buddhism for the West: Theravada, Mahayana and Vajray-na; a comprehensive review of Buddhist history, philosophy, and teachings from the time of the Buddha to the present day. Julian Press, 1971.
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Theosophy New Age

Words: 653 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32655219

New Age

Crystals, witchcraft, ESP, tarot cards, tai chi, yoga, and the I Ching, which are seemingly disparate tools, practices, and beliefs, come under one spiritual rubric: the New Age movement. The New Age amalgamates ancient philosophies and religious practices ranging from shamanism to Sufism and including everything in between. The New Age is almost an anything-goes spiritual path, as it has no one set of beliefs, no central text, no concrete origin, and a malleable theology. In fact, technically atheists can participate in New Age religion, for the New Age also embraces straight science and often espouses an impersonal universe devoid of an overarching anthropomorphic deity. However, the New Age can be isolated and analyzed as a distinct, albeit modern religious movement that began loosely around the turn of the twentieth century when Theosophy delivered fresh ideas from Eastern religions to the Western world and as the Western world…… [Read More]

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Salinger Is an American Literary Treasure Best

Words: 1680 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3900264

Salinger is an American literary treasure, best known for his novella Catcher in the ye. However, Catcher in the ye is but one of many in the canon of Salinger works. Salinger's short stories have recently garnered renewed attention because several unpublished Salinger stories were leaked online in November of 2013, three years after the author's death (uncie, 2013). Salinger died a recluse, and a man of mystery who was as much an American antihero as Holden Caulfield of Catcher in the ye. There have been numerous cultural allusions of Salinger's iconic novel and its quintessentially postmodern protagonist. Although no film has ever been made directly from the story of Catcher in the ye, Morgan (2010) points out that there have been allusions to Salinger stories in films like The Collector (1965) and Six Degrees of Separation (1993). Additionally, a 2013 documentary film about J.D. Salinger promises to reveal the…… [Read More]

References

Gopnik, A. (2010). Postscript: J.D. Salinger. The New Yorker. Retrieved online: http://www.newyorker.com/talk/2010/02/08/100208ta_talk_gopnik

McGrath, C. (2010). J.D. Salinger, literary recluse, dies at 91. International New York Times. Retrieved online: http://www.nytimes.com/2010/01/29/books/29salinger.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0

Morgan, K. (2010). Six stories: Salinger inspired cinema. The Huffington Post. Retrieved online:  http://www.huffingtonpost.com/kim-morgan/six-stories-salinger-insp_b_443099.html 

Runcie, C. (2013). JD Salinger unpublished stories 'leaked online'. 28 Nov 2013. The Telegraph. Retrieved online:  http://www.telegraph.co.uk/culture/books/booknews/10480275/JD-Salinger-unpublished-stories-leaked-online.html
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Endospores Evolution Has Gifted Some

Words: 543 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42703147

This protein protective coating known as the spore coat provides the bacteria with greater strength and durability.

Depending on the bacterial species, the bacterial endospore diameter can either be smaller, the same or even larger than the innovative vegetative cell. The endospore can either be located at one end (terminally), near one end (sub terminally) or inside (centrally) the vegetative cell. In order to hold back metabolism, the bacterial endospore almost lacks water completely. The germination process and new vegetative cells are later created by the presence of water or moisture. The endospore houses DNA, ribosome, enzymes, little RNA and necessary small molecules. It also houses colonic acid in the cytoplasm and large amount of calcium ions. These materials are utilized by the bacterium while germinating at good conditions.

Endospores display resistance to all vegetative cells' killing processes such as freezing, heating, use of chemicals, radiation and desiccation. Controlling endospores…… [Read More]

Work Cited:

Sace, J. "What Are Bacterial Endospores?" Bright Hub: The Hub for Bright Minds. Ed. Daniella Nicole. Bright Hub Inc., 1 Feb. 2010. Web. 4 Mar. 2010. .
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Haught Empty Spirits in the

Words: 1640 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75607030

Rather than preaching or even attempting to define what the righteous path is, simply living the righteous path is better and more righteous. Silence, in other words, is a major source of righteousness itself, and the calmness of silence is its own reward.

Perhaps the most direct, simple and yet profound way in which the various elements of Dhammapada's statement can be approached is through Haught's concept of action. Especially prevalent in Western religions, according to Haught, this is the concept that direct action must be used in accordance with and to bring about religious principles and beliefs. Good action, according to Dhammapada's statement, leads to good living, with joy the natural result of righteousness. This has not always been seen as a cycle that reaches completion in this world in the Judeo-Christian religions or in many Eastern traditions, but through re-birth, ascension to heaven in the afterlife, or even…… [Read More]

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Longstanding Tradition of Hindu and

Words: 3703 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50414113

Maharshtrian cuisine comprises of hot, aromatic meat and fish curries and subtle flavoring of vegetarian cuisine. Peanuts and cashew nuts are widely used in vegetables and the main cooking medium is peanut oil. Another feature is the use of a deep purple berry with a sweet and sour taste, otherwise called kokum, in sol kadhi, an appetizer-digestive, which is served chilled. Non-vegetarian and vegetarian dishes are served with boiled rice or rotis made from rice flour. Dessert is commonly comprises rotis (a type of bread) stuffed with a sweet mixture of jaggery and gram flour.

Goan cuisine boasts of delicacies like tangy pork 'vindaloo', spicy 'sorpotel' and the popular fish curry with rice. Most of their meals are accompanied with local wine or local liqueur, 'Feni'. Meals are simple but most are also chili hot, spicy and pungent. The basic components include rice, fish and coconut and delicacies made from…… [Read More]

Works cited

Audretsch, D.B. And Meyer, N.S. " Religion, Culture and Entrepreneurship in India." Indiana

University Public Affairs Conference. 2009. 17 Apr.2010.



"Cuisine." Cuisine Tours of India, Culinary Tour India, Indian Cuisines information,
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Ben Jonson Intertextualities The Influence

Words: 22973 Length: 80 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70168505

" James a.S. McPeek

further blames Jonson for this corruption: "No one can read this dainty song to Celia without feeling that Jonson is indecorous in putting it in the mouth of such a thoroughgoing scoundrel as Volpone."

Shelburne

asserts that the usual view of Jonson's use of the Catullan poem is distorted by an insufficient understanding of Catullus' carmina, which comes from critics' willingness to adhere to a conventional -- yet incorrect and incomplete -- reading of the love poem. hen Jonson created his adaptation of carmina 5, there was only one other complete translation in English of a poem by Catullus. That translation is believed to have been Sir Philip Sidney's rendering of poem 70 in Certain Sonnets, however, it was not published until 1598.

This means that Jonson's knowledge of the poem must have come from the Latin text printed in C. Val. Catulli, Albii, Tibulli, Sex.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Alghieri, Dante Inferno. 1982. Trans. Allen Mandelbaum. New York: Bantam Dell, 2004.

Print.

Allen, Graham. Intertextuality. Routledge; First Edition, 2000. Print.

Baker, Christopher. & Harp, Richard. "Jonson' Volpone and Dante." Comparative
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Roots and Principles Socrates Was

Words: 902 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27372743

Euthyphro then offers the third definition, derived from the second one:

I should say that what all the gods love is pious and holy, and the opposite which they all hate, impious.

Socrates then replies with the creation of a dilemma -- would the things and people be considered pious because they are loved by gods, or would the gods all love them because they are pious. After a deeper process of thought, Socrates himself defines piety as a species of the genus 'justice, but Euthyphro insists on defining piety based on what the gods like. Piety is eventually described as knowledge and prayer, to the benefit of the gods (Plato).

It is often argued that ethics has its origins in religion, which means that whenever an individual is facing a moral dilemma, they would be able to find the answer in invoking the Divinity. Nevertheless, religion is often conflicting…… [Read More]

References:

Cooper, J.G., 2010, the life of Socrates: collected from the Memorabilia of Xenophon and the Dialogues of Plato and illustrated farther by Aristotle, Diodorus Siculus, BiblioBazaar, 2010

Plato, the last days of Socrates, http://socrates.clarke.edu / last accessed on March 4, 2011

Euthanasia and suicide, BBC, 2009,  http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/buddhism/buddhistethics/euthanasiasuicide.shtml  last accessed on March 4, 2011
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Sikh and Christianity Faith Is

Words: 641 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18088973

hile it is commanded to do good, this is not a requirement for salvation.

Essentially, the Sikh religion believes that after death, the soul returns to God. This God is universal and salvation is acquired through good works, states Raj. (Raj 177). This does not happen with just one life, Raj explains. Salvation is attained after several reincarnations. Mansukhani asserts, "some people are busy in good works, while others are busy in crime and sin" (Mansukhani 116). On the other hand, Christian salvation does not require the seeker to be cleansed. In fact, the seeker's life can be as "dirty" and evil as it can be but as long as the seeker accepts Jesus Christ as his Lord and Savior, salvation is his. Jesus is perhaps the biggest and most problematic difference between the religions. Christians believe that salvation comes through believing in Christ -- there is nothing to take…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Vensus, George. Paths to The Divine: Ancient and Indian. Washington: The Council for Research in Values and Philosophy. 2008. Print.

Raj, Joshua. A Biblical Approach to Indian Traditions and Beliefs

Singapore: Genesis Books. 2008. Print.

Mansukhani, Gobind Singh Introduction to Sikhism. New Delhi: Hemkunt Publishers. 1975.
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Superior Man Both Confucianism and

Words: 1536 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92815303

From this point-of-view, it could be stated that the reward for his attempt is to be found in this life. The adept of Taoism, in his attempt to become a superior man will dedicate himself, ore to actions which can have a strong social impact. Instead he will focus upon actions such contemplation of himself and the universal energy. The reward of the Taoist superior man is to be achieved in another life (this implies the belief in reincarnation). It must be underlined that despite these differences, the final result includes both the development of the individual and that of society (and from this all the other individual benefit as well).

All in all, it can be stated that the conceptual differences regarding the idea of the superior man in the Confucian and Taoist philosophies have more to do with form and less with substance. The ultimate goal is that…… [Read More]

Bibliography:

Mason, Bill. Taoist Principles. Retrieved July 30, 2010 from  http://chippit.tripod.com/taoist_principles.html 

Pay, Rex (2000). Confucius- The Superior Man, Retrieved July 30, 200 from  http://www.humanistictexts.org/confucius.htm#_Toc483366191 

The eight pillars of Tao, Retrieved July 30, 2010 from http://www.compassionatedragon.com/eightpillars.html
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Howard Zinn 1922-2010 Was One

Words: 870 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80532324

A new "revisionist" movement, sometimes epitomized by historians like Howard Zinn, seeks to correct these historical errors and treat the Amerindian cultures in a more balanced, less Eurocentric, fashion (See, for example: Troura; Restall).

The crux of this piece, Zinn's Chapter 1 of a People's History of the United States, focuses on the great civilizations which populated Meso and South America long before the Spanish arrived. The Toltec, Maya, Aztec, and Inca were the predominant cultures who had reigned in the area at least 3500 BCE, with most of the advanced and classical periods of their civilizations from 200-1200, and experiencing a decline from 1200 to the Spanish Conquest. While our understanding of the nature of the Amerindian classical civilizations is skewed due to so much material being destroyed by the Spanish, we do know that for several hundred years before Cortes landed there had been a great deal of…… [Read More]

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Beliefs and Tenets That Comprise

Words: 1039 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19164158

It is likely that in order to achieve this "release" from the tedium of one's worldly conception of one's self will only be achieved with the guidance of a Guru (or siddha) who provides inspiration but does not intervene on one's behalf.

The key scriptures in Hinduism are referred to as "Shastras" (a collection of spiritual guides and laws revealed by "saints and sages" along the historical route through which Hinduism traveled (Das, p. 1). The deities (gods and goddesses) that are associated with Hinduism number into the "thousands or even millions," Das explains (p. 2). These many deities all represent particular aspects of "Brahman," which is the supreme Absolute, Das goes on. Notwithstanding all those deities, the most powerful and visible of the deities is the "Trinity of Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva -- creator, preserver and destroyer, respectively" (Das, p. 2). It is also known that Hindus worship trees,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Das, Subhamoy. (2010). How Do You Define Hinduism? Hinduism for Beginners. The Uniqueness of Hinduism. About.com. Retrieved Dec. 14, 2010, from http://hinduism.about.com.

Lorentz, Melissa. (2008). Basic Beliefs of Hinduism. Minnesota State University. Retrieved Dec.

14, 2010, from http://mnsu.edu/emuseum/cultural/religion/hinduism/beliefs.html.

Mysorekar, Uma. (2006). Eye on religion: clinicians and Hinduism. Southern Medical Journal.
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Death Somebody Should Tell Us

Words: 781 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69175710

Grieving over lost loved ones wouldn't be as intense, it would be more like saying good bye to a loved one that you know you'll be seeing each other soon, rather than the thought that you may never be able to see them again.

Instead, with the uncertainty, each moment of life, for me, is precious. The self-inventory really brought this point home to me. This was especially true with the question regarding the 82-year-old, Alzheimer's patient who was internally bleeding, potentially fatally, and the level of care I would hope they received. I selected "An all-out attempt at rescue." Life, at any age, and no matter what disease the individual has, is a gift. ho should have the right to cut a person's life short, to judge its quality lacking? If there were no life after death, how cruel is it to snuff out a person's existence.

In the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

"Quotes: Death - science-in-society." New Scientist. N.p., 5 Oct. 2006. Web. 21 Nov. 2010. .

"White Light When You Die Actually Cascade of Brain Activity Dvorak Uncensored: General interest observations and true web-log.." Home Page of Columnist John C. Dvorak. N.p., 30 May 2010. Web. 21 Nov. 2010. .
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Buddhism and Hinduism Both the

Words: 1820 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81701935

Emptiness, as we also find in some Hindu philosophies like Advaita, is the eternal emptiness that is beyond dualism and which is rich with possibilities that far exceed the dualities of the ordinary world. In most Buddhist schools of thought we understand the search for Nirvana as the personal search for enlightenment and understanding of existence beyond ordinary duality. This is also reflected in Advaita Hinduism.

Another important area of comparison is the rejection of a personal God or the concept of God as part of the realization of Nirvana. This is evident in all forms of Buddhism and in Advaita Hinduism. However, the Dvaita school of thought and other forms of Hinduism tend to place emphasis on God or Gods as essential for enlighten.

There are many other similarities and differences between these two faiths, which would take as few books to discuss. In the final analysis we could…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Advaita. February 6, 2010.



Dasa, Shukavak N. A Hindu Primer. February 3, 2010.

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Buddhism in the Films Little

Words: 1172 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66405919



Similar to how Keanu Reaves's character in Little Buddha is determined to achieve his goal, so are all Buddhists devoted to achieving enlightenment through intense meditation. Buddhists are constantly reminding themselves that life is but a small element in a much longer process, and, that life passes uncontrollably.

Both in Little Buddha and in heel of Time, the audiences are presented with the world of Buddhism shown from an outsider's point-of-view. To them, Buddhist monks appear to be mysterious and intriguing in the same time. Furthermore, most people are likely to feel an attraction to Buddhism consequent to viewing both movies. hile the general public considers Buddhist monks to be exceptional people, with an incredible dedication for their religion, Buddhists think of themselves as being nothing more than simple people, with goals that are different than the normal ones in society.

hile both movies succeed in promoting Buddhism, they also…… [Read More]

Works cited:

1. Little Buddha. Dir. Bernardo Bertolucci. Miramax Films, 1994.

2. Wheels of Time. Dir. Werner Herzog. 2003.
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Human Potential Movement

Words: 1703 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92769000

New Age Movement with an emphasis on the Human Potential Movement. The New Age Movement really blossomed in the 1970s, when followers began attempting to take charge of their lives and grow to their full potential. However, the actual New Age Movement began in the early 1800s, with several writers discussing various spiritual and holistic beliefs that would grow into the New Age Movement. The term gained widespread use in the early 1970s, and the Movement spread from there. Followers of the New Age Movement may participate in meditation, simple living, holistic living, channeling, and they may believe in extraterrestrial life, and other alternative beliefs. Two authors state, "The ultimate ideal of the New Age vision is for the human being to be completely in unison with the cosmos, and through reincarnation, to develop his soul to perfect divinity" (Lewis and Melton 1992, 257). The Human Potential Movement is an…… [Read More]

References

Borutta, Rick. 2009. Esalen and the Human Potential Movement. CBS News.

http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2009/03/03/travel/main4841784.shtml. 1-2.

Capra, Fritjof. 1993. Turning of the Tide. Re-vision 16, no. 2: 59-71.

Editors. 2009. Human Potential Movement. The Lutheran Church-Missouri Synod. http://www.lcms.org/graphics/assets/media/CTCR/Web%20Site%20Evaluation%20Human%20Potential%20Movement%20091807.pdf. 1-4.